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For this RFC, original HTML is available from the RFC-Editor: RFC8894



Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        P. Gutmann
Request for Comments: 8894                        University of Auckland
Category: Informational                                   September 2020
ISSN: 2070-1721


                 Simple Certificate Enrolment Protocol

Abstract

   This document specifies the Simple Certificate Enrolment Protocol
   (SCEP), a PKI protocol that leverages existing technology by using
   Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS, formerly known as PKCS #7) and
   PKCS #10 over HTTP.  SCEP is the evolution of the enrolment protocol
   sponsored by Cisco Systems, which enjoys wide support in both client
   and server implementations, as well as being relied upon by numerous
   other industry standards that work with certificates.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8894.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document
   2.  SCEP Overview
     2.1.  SCEP Entities
       2.1.1.  Client
       2.1.2.  Certificate Authority
     2.2.  CA Certificate Distribution
     2.3.  Client Authentication
     2.4.  Enrolment Authorisation
     2.5.  Certificate Enrolment/Renewal
       2.5.1.  Client State Transitions
     2.6.  Certificate Access
     2.7.  CRL Access
     2.8.  Certificate Revocation
     2.9.  Mandatory-to-Implement Functionality
   3.  SCEP Secure Message Objects
     3.1.  SCEP Message Object Processing
     3.2.  SCEP pkiMessage
       3.2.1.  Signed Transaction Attributes
         3.2.1.1.  transactionID
         3.2.1.2.  messageType
         3.2.1.3.  pkiStatus
         3.2.1.4.  failInfo and failInfoText
         3.2.1.5.  senderNonce and recipientNonce
       3.2.2.  SCEP pkcsPKIEnvelope
     3.3.  SCEP pkiMessage types
       3.3.1.  PKCSReq/RenewalReq
       3.3.2.  CertRep
         3.3.2.1.  CertRep SUCCESS
         3.3.2.2.  CertRep FAILURE
         3.3.2.3.  CertRep PENDING
       3.3.3.  CertPoll (GetCertInitial)
       3.3.4.  GetCert and GetCRL
     3.4.  Degenerate certificates-only CMS SignedData
     3.5.  CA Capabilities
       3.5.1.  GetCACaps HTTP Message Format
       3.5.2.  CA Capabilities Response Format
   4.  SCEP Transactions
     4.1.  HTTP POST and GET Message Formats
     4.2.  Get CA Certificate
       4.2.1.  Get CA Certificate Response Message Format
         4.2.1.1.  CA Certificate Response Message Format
         4.2.1.2.  CA Certificate Chain Response Message Format
     4.3.  Certificate Enrolment/Renewal
       4.3.1.  Certificate Enrolment/Renewal Response Message
     4.4.  Poll for Client Initial Certificate
       4.4.1.  Polling Response Message Format
     4.5.  Certificate Access
       4.5.1.  Certificate Access Response Message Format
     4.6.  CRL Access
       4.6.1.  CRL Access Response Message Format
     4.7.  Get Next Certificate Authority Certificate
       4.7.1.  Get Next CA Response Message Format
   5.  SCEP Transaction Examples
     5.1.  Successful Transactions
     5.2.  Transactions with Errors
   6.  IANA Considerations
     6.1.  Registration of the application/x-x509-ca-cert Media Type
     6.2.  Registration of the application/x-x509-ca-ra-cert Media
           Type
     6.3.  Registration of the application/x-x509-next-ca-cert Media
           Type
     6.4.  Registration of the application/x-pki-message Media Type
   7.  Security Considerations
     7.1.  General Security
     7.2.  Use of the CA Private Key
     7.3.  ChallengePassword Shared Secret Value
     7.4.  Lack of Certificate Issue Confirmation
     7.5.  GetCACaps Issues
     7.6.  Lack of PoP in Renewal Requests
     7.7.  Traffic Monitoring
     7.8.  Unnecessary Cryptography
     7.9.  Use of SHA-1
     7.10. Use of HTTP
   8.  References
     8.1.  Normative References
     8.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Background Notes
   Acknowledgements
   Author's Address

1.  Introduction

   X.509 certificates serve as the basis for several standardised
   security protocols such as TLS [RFC8446], S/MIME [RFC8551], and IKE/
   IPsec [RFC7296].  When an X.509 certificate is issued, there
   typically is a need for a certificate management protocol to enable a
   PKI client to request or renew a certificate from a Certificate
   Authority (CA).  This specification defines a protocol, the Simple
   Certificate Enrolment Protocol (SCEP), for certificate management and
   certificate and CRL queries.

   The SCEP protocol supports the following general operations:

   *  CA public key distribution
   *  Certificate enrolment and issue
   *  Certificate renewal
   *  Certificate query
   *  CRL query

   SCEP makes extensive use of CMS [RFC5652] and PKCS #10 [RFC2986].

1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   This document uses the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) notation as
   specified in [RFC5234] for defining formal syntax of commands.  Non-
   terminals not defined in [RFC5234] are defined in Section 4.1.

2.  SCEP Overview

   This section provides an overview of the functionality of SCEP.

2.1.  SCEP Entities

   The entity types defined in SCEP are a client requesting a
   certificate and a Certificate Authority (CA) that issues the
   certificate.  These are described in the following sections.

2.1.1.  Client

   A client MUST have the following information locally configured:

   1.  The CA's fully qualified domain name or IP address.

   2.  Any identification and/or authorisation information required by
       the CA before a certificate will be issued, as described in
       Section 3.3.1.

   3.  The identifying information that is used for authentication of
       the CA in Section 4.2.1, typically a certificate fingerprint.

2.1.2.  Certificate Authority

   A SCEP CA is the entity that signs client certificates.  A CA may
   enforce policies and apply them to certificate requests, and it may
   reject a request for any reason.

   Since the client is expected to perform signature verification and
   optionally encryption using the CA certificate, the keyUsage
   extension in the CA certificate MUST indicate that it is valid for
   digitalSignature and keyEncipherment (if the key is to be used for
   en/decryption) alongside the usual CA usages of keyCertSign and/or
   cRLSign.

2.2.  CA Certificate Distribution

   If the CA certificate(s) have not previously been acquired by the
   client through some other means, the client MUST retrieve them before
   any PKI operation (Section 3) can be started.  Since no public key
   has yet been exchanged between the client and the CA, the messages
   cannot be secured using CMS, and the CA certificate request and
   response data is instead transferred in the clear.

   If an intermediate CA is in use, a certificates-only CMS SignedData
   message with a certificate chain consisting of all CA certificates is
   returned.  Otherwise, the CA certificate itself is returned.

   The CA certificate MAY be provided out of band to the client.
   Alternatively, the CA certificate fingerprint MAY be used to
   authenticate a CA certificate distributed by the GetCACert response
   (Section 4.2) or via HTTP certificate-store access [RFC4387].  The
   fingerprint is created by calculating a SHA-256 hash over the whole
   CA certificate.  (For legacy reasons, a SHA-1 hash may be used by
   some implementations.)

   After the client gets the CA certificate, it SHOULD authenticate it
   in some manner unless this is deemed unnecessary, for example,
   because the device is being provisioned inside a trusted environment.
   For example, the client could compare the certificate's fingerprint
   with locally configured, out-of-band distributed, identifying
   information, or by some equivalent means such as a direct comparison
   with a locally stored copy of the certificate.

   Intermediate CA certificates, if any, are signed by a higher-level
   CA, so there is no need to authenticate them against the out-of-band
   data.  Since intermediate CA certificates are rolled over more
   frequently than long-lived top-level CA certificates, clients MUST
   verify intermediate-level CA certificates before use during protocol
   exchanges in case the intermediate CA certificate has expired or
   otherwise been invalidated.

   When a CA certificate expires, certificates that have been signed by
   it may no longer be regarded as valid.  CA key rollover provides a
   mechanism by which the CA can distribute a new CA certificate that
   will be valid in the future once the current certificate has expired.
   This is done via the GetNextCACert message (Section 4.7).

2.3.  Client Authentication

   As with every protocol that uses public-key cryptography, the
   association between the public keys used in the protocol and the
   identities with which they are associated must be authenticated in a
   cryptographically secure manner.  Communications between the client
   and the CA are secured using SCEP Secure Message Objects as explained
   in Section 3, which specifies how CMS is used to encrypt and sign the
   data.  In order to perform the signing operation, the client uses an
   appropriate local certificate:

   1.  If the client does not have an appropriate existing certificate,
       then a locally generated self-signed certificate MUST be used.
       The keyUsage extension in the certificate MUST indicate that it
       is valid for digitalSignature and keyEncipherment (if available).
       The self-signed certificate SHOULD use the same subject name and
       key as in the PKCS #10 request.  In this case, the messageType is
       PKCSReq (see Section 3.2.1.2).

   2.  If the client already has a certificate issued by the SCEP CA,
       and the CA supports renewal (see Section 2.5), that certificate
       SHOULD be used.  In this case, the messageType is RenewalReq (see
       Section 3.2.1.2).

   3.  Alternatively, if the client has no certificate issued by the
       SCEP CA but has credentials from an alternate CA, then the
       certificate issued by the alternate CA MAY be used in a renewal
       request as described above.  The SCEP CA's policy will determine
       whether the request can be accepted or not.

   Note that although the above text describes several different types
   of operations, for historical reasons, most implementations always
   apply the first one, even if an existing certificate already exists.
   For this reason, support for the first case is mandatory while
   support for the latter ones are optional (see Section 2.9).

   During the certificate-enrolment process, the client MUST use the
   selected certificate's key when signing the CMS envelope (see
   Section 3).  This certificate will be either the self-signed one
   matching the PKCS #10 request or the CA-issued one used to authorise
   a renewal, and it MUST be included in the signedData certificates
   field (possibly as part of a full certificate chain).  If the key
   being certified allows encryption, then the CA's CertResp will use
   the same certificate's public key when encrypting the response.

   Note that, in the case of renewal operations, this means that the
   request will be signed and authenticated with the key in the
   previously issued certificate rather than the key in the PKCS #10
   request, and the response may similarly be returned encrypted with
   the key in the previously issued certificate.  This has security
   implications; see Section 7.6.

2.4.  Enrolment Authorisation

   PKCS #10 [RFC2986] specifies a PKCS #9 [RFC2985] challengePassword
   attribute to be sent as part of the enrolment request.  When
   utilising the challengePassword, the CA distributes a shared secret
   to the client, which will be used to authenticate the request from
   the client.  It is RECOMMENDED that the challengePassword be a one-
   time authenticator value to limit the ability of an attacker who can
   capture the authenticator from the client or CA and reuse it to
   request further certificates.

   Inclusion of the challengePassword by the SCEP client is RECOMMENDED;
   however, its omission allows for unauthenticated authorisation of
   enrolment requests (which may, however, require manual approval of
   each certificate issue if other security measures to control issue
   aren't in place; see below).  Inclusion is OPTIONAL for renewal
   requests that are authenticated by being signed with an existing
   certificate.  The CMS envelope protects the privacy of the
   challengePassword.

   A client that is performing certificate renewal as per Section 2.5
   SHOULD omit the challengePassword but MAY send the originally
   distributed shared secret in the challengePassword attribute.  The
   SCEP CA MAY authenticate the request using the challengePassword in
   addition to the previously issued certificate that signs the request.
   The SCEP CA MUST NOT attempt to authenticate a client based on a
   self-signed certificate unless it has been verified through out-of-
   band means such as a certificate fingerprint.

   To perform the authorisation in manual mode, the client's request is
   placed in the PENDING state until the CA operator authorises or
   rejects it.  Manual authorisation is used when the client has only a
   self-signed certificate that hasn't been previously authenticated by
   the CA and/or a challengePassword is not available.  The SCEP CA MAY
   either reject unauthorised requests or mark them for manual
   authorisation according to CA policy.

2.5.  Certificate Enrolment/Renewal

   A client starts an enrolment transaction (Section 3.3.1) by creating
   a certificate request using PKCS #10 and sends the request to the CA
   enveloped using CMS (Section 3).

   If the CA supports certificate renewal and the CA policy permits,
   then a new certificate with new validity dates can be issued, even
   though the old one is still valid.  To renew an existing certificate,
   the client uses the RenewalReq message (see Section 3.3) and signs it
   with the existing client certificate.  The client SHOULD use a new
   keypair when requesting a new certificate but MAY request a new
   certificate using the old keypair.

   If the CA returns a CertRep message (Section 3.3.2) with status set
   to PENDING, the client enters into polling mode by periodically
   sending a CertPoll message (Section 3.3.3) to the CA until the CA
   operator completes the manual authentication (approving or denying
   the request).  The frequency of the polling operation is a CA/client
   configuration issue and may range from seconds or minutes when the
   issue process is automatic but not instantaneous, through to hours or
   days if the certificate-issue operation requires manual approval.

   If polling mode is being used, then the client will send a single
   PKCSReq/RenewalReq message (Section 3.3.1), followed by 0 or more
   CertPoll messages (Section 3.3.3).  The CA will, in return, send 0 or
   more CertRep messages (Section 3.3.2) with status set to PENDING in
   response to CertPolls, followed by a single CertRep message
   (Section 3.3.2) with status set to either SUCCESS or FAILURE.

2.5.1.  Client State Transitions

   The client state transitions during the SCEP process are indicated in
   Figure 1.

                                   CertPoll
                                 +-----<----+
                                 |          |
                                 |          | CertRep(PENDING)
                                 |          |
   [CERT-NONEXISTENT] ------> [CERT-REQ-PENDING] --------> [CERT-ISSUED]
         ^            PKCSReq    |           CertRep(SUCCESS)
         |          RenewalReq   |
         |                       |
         +-----------------------+
         CertRep(FAILURE) or
         Max-time/max-polls exceeded

                     Figure 1: State Transition Diagram

   The certificate-issue process starts at state CERT-NONEXISTENT.
   Sending a PKCSReq/RenewalReq message changes the state to CERT-REQ-
   PENDING.

   If the CA returns a CertRep message with pkiStatus set to SUCCESS,
   then the state changes to CERT-ISSUED.

   If the CA returns a CertRep message with pkiStatus set to FAILURE or
   there is no response, then the state reverts back to CERT-
   NONEXISTENT.

   If the CA returns a CertRep message with pkiStatus set to PENDING,
   then the client will keep polling by sending a CertPoll message until
   either a CertRep message with status set to SUCCESS or FAILURE is
   received, a timeout occurs, or the maximum number of polls has been
   exceeded.

   Figure 2 shows a successful transaction in automatic mode

       CLIENT                              CA SERVER

   PKCSReq: PKI cert. enrolment message
   --------------------------------> CertRep: pkiStatus = SUCCESS
                                     Certificate attached
                                     <------------------------------
   Receive issued certificate.

                          Figure 2: Automatic Mode

   Figure 3 shows a successful transaction in manual mode:

       CLIENT                              CA SERVER

   PKCSReq: PKI cert. enrolment message
   --------------------------------> CertRep: pkiStatus = PENDING
                                     <------------------------------
   CertPoll: Polling message
   --------------------------------> CertRep: pkiStatus = PENDING
                                     <------------------------------
   ................ <Manual identity authentication> ...............

   CertPoll: Polling message
   --------------------------------> CertRep: pkiStatus = SUCCESS
                                     Certificate attached
                                     <------------------------------
   Receive issued certificate.

                           Figure 3: Manual Mode

2.6.  Certificate Access

   A certificate query message is defined for clients to retrieve a copy
   of their own certificate from the CA.  It allows clients that do not
   store their certificates locally to obtain a copy when needed.  This
   functionality is not intended to provide a general-purpose
   certificate-access service, which may be achieved instead via HTTP
   certificate-store access [RFC4387] or Lightweight Directory Access
   Protocol (LDAP).

   To retrieve a certificate from the CA, a client sends a request
   consisting of the certificate's issuer name and serial number.  This
   assumes that the client has saved the issuer name and the serial
   number of the issued certificate from the previous enrolment
   transaction.  The transaction to retrieve a certificate consists of
   one GetCert (Section 3.3.4) message and one CertRep (Section 3.3.2)
   message, as shown in Figure 4.

      CLIENT                               CA SERVER

   GetCert: PKI certificate query message
   -------------------------------> CertRep: pkiStatus = SUCCESS
                                    Certificate attached
                                    <-----------------------------
   Receive the certificate.

                     Figure 4: Retrieving a Certificate

2.7.  CRL Access

   SCEP clients MAY request a CRL via one of three methods:

   1.  If the CA supports the CRL Distribution Points (CRLDPs) extension
       [RFC5280] in issued certificates, then the CRL MAY be retrieved
       via the mechanism specified in the CRLDP.

   2.  If the CA supports HTTP certificate-store access [RFC4387], then
       the CRL MAY be retrieved via the AuthorityInfoAcces [RFC5280]
       location specified in the certificate.

   3.  Only if the CA does not support CRLDPs or HTTP access should a
       CRL query be composed by creating a GetCRL message consisting of
       the issuer name and serial number from the certificate whose
       revocation status is being queried.

   The message is sent to the SCEP CA in the same way as the other SCEP
   requests.  The transaction to retrieve a CRL consists of one GetCRL
   PKI message and one CertRep PKI message, which contains only the CRL
   (no certificates) in a degenerate certificates-only CMS SignedData
   message (Section 3.4), as shown in Figure 5.

          CLIENT                           CA SERVER

      GetCRL: PKI CRL query message
   ---------------------------------->
                                     CertRep: CRL attached
                                     <-----------------------------
   Receive the CRL

                         Figure 5: Retrieving a CRL

2.8.  Certificate Revocation

   SCEP does not specify a method to request certificate revocation.  In
   order to revoke a certificate, the client must contact the CA using a
   non-SCEP-defined mechanism.

2.9.  Mandatory-to-Implement Functionality

   At a minimum, all SCEP implementations compliant with this
   specification MUST support GetCACaps (Section 3.5.1), GetCACert
   (Section 4.2), PKCSReq (Section 3.3.1) (and its associated response
   messages), communication of binary data via HTTP POST (Section 4.1),
   and the AES128-CBC [AES] and SHA-256 [SHA2] algorithms to secure
   pkiMessages (Section 3.2).

   For historical reasons, implementations MAY support communications of
   binary data via HTTP GET (Section 4.1), and the triple DES-CBC and
   SHA-1 algorithms to secure pkiMessages (Section 3.2).
   Implementations MUST NOT support the obsolete and/or insecure single
   DES and MD5 algorithms used in earlier versions of this
   specification, since the unsecured nature of GetCACaps means that an
   in-path attacker can trivially roll back the encryption used to these
   insecure algorithms; see Section 7.5.

3.  SCEP Secure Message Objects

   CMS is a general enveloping mechanism that enables both signed and
   encrypted transmission of arbitrary data.  SCEP messages that require
   confidentiality use two layers of CMS, as shown using ASN.1-like
   pseudocode in Figure 6.  By applying both enveloping and signing
   transformations, the SCEP message is protected both for the integrity
   of its end-to-end transaction information and the confidentiality of
   its information portion.

   pkiMessage {
     contentType = signedData { pkcs-7 2 },
     content {
       digestAlgorithms,
       encapsulatedContentInfo {
         eContentType = data { pkcs-7 1 },
         eContent {           -- pkcsPKIEnvelope, optional
           contentType = envelopedData { pkcs-7 3 },
           content {
             recipientInfo,
             encryptedContentInfo {
               contentType = data { pkcs-7 1 },
               contentEncrAlgorithm,
               encryptedContent {
                 messageData  -- Typically PKCS #10 request
                 }
               }
             }
           }
         },
       certificates,          -- Optional
       crls,                  -- Optional
       signerInfo {
         signedAttrs {
           transactionID,
           messageType,
           pkiStatus,
           failInfo,          -- Optional
           senderNonce / recipientNonce,
           },
         signature
         }
       }
     }

                           Figure 6: CMS Layering

   When a particular SCEP message carries data, this data is carried in
   the messageData.  CertRep messages will lack any signed content and
   consist only of a pkcsPKIEnvelope (Section 3.2.2).

   The remainder of this document will refer only to "messageData", but
   it is understood to always be encapsulated in the pkcsPKIEnvelope
   (Section 3.2.2).  The format of the data in the messageData is
   defined by the messageType attribute (see Section 3.2) of the
   SignedData.  If there is no messageData to be transmitted, the entire
   pkcsPKIEnvelope MUST be omitted.

   Samples of SCEP messages are available through the JSCEP project
   [JSCEP] in the src/samples directory.

3.1.  SCEP Message Object Processing

   Creating a SCEP message consists of several stages.  The content to
   be conveyed (in other words, the messageData) is first encrypted, and
   the encrypted content is then signed.

   The form of encryption to be applied depends on the capabilities of
   the recipient's public key.  If the key is encryption capable (for
   example, RSA), then the messageData is encrypted using the
   recipient's public key with the CMS KeyTransRecipientInfo mechanism.
   If the key is not encryption capable (for example, DSA or ECDSA),
   then the messageData is encrypted using the challengePassword with
   the CMS PasswordRecipientInfo mechanism.

   Once the messageData has been encrypted, it is signed with the
   sender's public key.  This completes the SCEP message, which is then
   sent to the recipient.

   Note that some early implementations of this specification dealt with
   keys that were not encryption capable by omitting the encryption
   stage, based on the text in Section 3 that indicated that "the
   EnvelopedData is omitted".  This alternative processing mechanism
   SHOULD NOT be used since it exposes in cleartext the
   challengePassword used to authorise the certificate issue.


3.2.  SCEP pkiMessage

   The basic building block of all secured SCEP messages is the SCEP
   pkiMessage.  It consists of a CMS SignedData content type.  The
   following restrictions apply:

   *  The eContentType in encapsulatedContentInfo MUST be data ({pkcs-7
      1}).
   *  The signed content, if present (FAILURE and PENDING CertRep
      messages will lack any signed content), MUST be a pkcsPKIEnvelope
      (Section 3.2.2) and MUST match the messageType attribute.
   *  The SignerInfo MUST contain a set of authenticatedAttributes
      (Section 3.2.1).

3.2.1.  Signed Transaction Attributes

   At a minimum, all messages MUST contain the following
   authenticatedAttributes:

   *  A transactionID attribute (see Section 3.2.1.1).
   *  A messageType attribute (see Section 3.2.1.2).
   *  A fresh senderNonce attribute (see Section 3.2.1.5).  However,
      note the comment about senderNonces and polling in Section 3.3.2
   *  Any attributes required by CMS.

   If the message is a CertRep, it MUST also include the following
   authenticatedAttributes:

   *  A pkiStatus attribute (see Section 3.2.1.3).
   *  failInfo and optional failInfoText attributes (see
      Section 3.2.1.4) if pkiStatus = FAILURE.
   *  A recipientNonce attribute (see Section 3.2.1.5) copied from the
      senderNonce in the request that this is a response to.

   The following transaction attributes are encoded as authenticated
   attributes and carried in the SignerInfo for this SignedData.

   +================+=================+==============================+
   | Attribute      | Encoding        | Comment                      |
   +================+=================+==============================+
   | transactionID  | PrintableString | Unique ID for this           |
   |                |                 | transaction as a text string |
   +----------------+-----------------+------------------------------+
   | messageType    | PrintableString | Decimal value as a numeric   |
   |                |                 | text string                  |
   +----------------+-----------------+------------------------------+
   | pkiStatus      | PrintableString | Decimal value as a numeric   |
   |                |                 | text string                  |
   +----------------+-----------------+------------------------------+
   | failInfo       | PrintableString | Decimal value as a numeric   |
   |                |                 | text string                  |
   +----------------+-----------------+------------------------------+
   | failInfoText   | UTF8String      | Descriptive text for the     |
   |                |                 | failInfo value               |
   +----------------+-----------------+------------------------------+
   | senderNonce    | OCTET STRING    | Random nonce as a 16-byte    |
   |                |                 | binary data string           |
   +----------------+-----------------+------------------------------+
   | recipientNonce | OCTET STRING    | Random nonce as a 16-byte    |
   |                |                 | binary data string           |
   +----------------+-----------------+------------------------------+

                         Table 1: SCEP Attributes

   The OIDs used for these attributes are as follows:

   +======================+===============================+
   | Name                 | ASN.1 Definition              |
   +======================+===============================+
   | id-VeriSign          | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {2 16   |
   |                      | US(840) 1 VeriSign(113733)}   |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-pki               | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | VeriSign pki(1)}              |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-attributes        | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-pki |
   |                      | attributes(9)}                |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-transactionID     | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | attributes transactionID(7)}  |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-messageType       | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | attributes messageType(2)}    |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-pkiStatus         | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | attributes pkiStatus(3)}      |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-failInfo          | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | attributes failInfo(4)}       |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-senderNonce       | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | attributes senderNonce(5)}    |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-recipientNonce    | OBJECT_IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | attributes recipientNonce(6)} |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-scep              | OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | pkix 24}                      |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+
   | id-scep-failInfoText | OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {id-    |
   |                      | scep 1}                       |
   +----------------------+-------------------------------+

                 Table 2: SCEP Attribute OIDs

   The attributes are detailed in the following sections.

3.2.1.1.  transactionID

   A PKI operation is a transaction consisting of the messages exchanged
   between a client and the CA.  The transactionID is a text string
   provided by the client when starting a transaction.  The client MUST
   use a unique string as the transaction identifier, encoded as a
   PrintableString, which MUST be used for all PKI messages exchanged
   for a given operation, such as a certificate issue.

   Note that the transactionID must be unique, but not necessarily
   randomly generated.  For example, it may be a value assigned by the
   CA to allow the client to be identified by their transactionID, using
   a value such as the client device's Extended Unique Identifier (EUI),
   Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) ID, or a similar unique identifier.  This
   can be useful when the client doesn't have a preassigned
   Distinguished Name through which the CA can identify their request --
   for example, when enrolling Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
   (SCADA) devices.

3.2.1.2.  messageType

   The messageType attribute specifies the type of operation performed
   by the transaction.  This attribute MUST be included in all PKI
   messages.  The following message types are defined:

    +=======+============+============================================+
    | Value | Name       | Description                                |
    +=======+============+============================================+
    | 0     | Reserved   |                                            |
    +-------+------------+--------------------------------------------+
    | 3     | CertRep    | Response to certificate or CRL request.    |
    +-------+------------+--------------------------------------------+
    | 17    | RenewalReq | PKCS #10 certificate request authenticated |
    |       |            | with an existing certificate.              |
    +-------+------------+--------------------------------------------+
    | 19    | PKCSReq    | PKCS #10 certificate request authenticated |
    |       |            | with a shared secret.                      |
    +-------+------------+--------------------------------------------+
    | 20    | CertPoll   | Certificate polling in manual enrolment.   |
    +-------+------------+--------------------------------------------+
    | 21    | GetCert    | Retrieve a certificate.                    |
    +-------+------------+--------------------------------------------+
    | 22    | GetCRL     | Retrieve a CRL.                            |
    +-------+------------+--------------------------------------------+

                        Table 3: SCEP Message Types

   Message types not defined above MUST be treated as errors unless
   their use has been negotiated through GetCACaps (Section 3.5.1).

3.2.1.3.  pkiStatus

   All response messages MUST include transaction status information,
   which is defined as a pkiStatus attribute:

       +=======+=========+========================================+
       | Value | Name    | Description                            |
       +=======+=========+========================================+
       | 0     | SUCCESS | Request granted.                       |
       +-------+---------+----------------------------------------+
       | 2     | FAILURE | Request rejected.  In this case, the   |
       |       |         | failInfo attribute, as defined in      |
       |       |         | Section 3.2.1.4, MUST also be present. |
       +-------+---------+----------------------------------------+
       | 3     | PENDING | Request pending for manual approval.   |
       +-------+---------+----------------------------------------+

                      Table 4: pkiStatus Attributes

   PKI status values not defined above MUST be treated as errors unless
   their use has been negotiated through GetCACaps (Section 3.5.1).

3.2.1.4.  failInfo and failInfoText

   The failInfo attribute MUST contain one of the following failure
   reasons:

      +=======+=================+==================================+
      | Value | Name            | Description                      |
      +=======+=================+==================================+
      | 0     | badAlg          | Unrecognised or unsupported      |
      |       |                 | algorithm.                       |
      +-------+-----------------+----------------------------------+
      | 1     | badMessageCheck | Integrity check (meaning         |
      |       |                 | signature verification of the    |
      |       |                 | CMS message) failed.             |
      +-------+-----------------+----------------------------------+
      | 2     | badRequest      | Transaction not permitted or     |
      |       |                 | supported.                       |
      +-------+-----------------+----------------------------------+
      | 3     | badTime         | The signingTime attribute from   |
      |       |                 | the CMS authenticatedAttributes  |
      |       |                 | was not sufficiently close to    |
      |       |                 | the system time.  This condition |
      |       |                 | may occur if the CA is concerned |
      |       |                 | about replays of old messages.   |
      +-------+-----------------+----------------------------------+
      | 4     | badCertId       | No certificate could be          |
      |       |                 | identified matching the provided |
      |       |                 | criteria.                        |
      +-------+-----------------+----------------------------------+

                       Table 5: failInfo Attributes

   Failure reasons not defined above MUST be treated as errors unless
   their use has been negotiated through GetCACaps (Section 3.5.1).

   The failInfoText is a free-form UTF-8 text string that provides
   further information in the case of pkiStatus = FAILURE.  In
   particular, it may be used to provide details on why a certificate
   request was not granted that go beyond what's provided by the near-
   universal failInfo = badRequest status.  Since this is a free-form
   text string intended for interpretation by humans, implementations
   SHOULD NOT assume that it has any type of machine-processable
   content.

3.2.1.5.  senderNonce and recipientNonce

   The senderNonce and recipientNonce attributes are each a 16-byte
   random number generated for each transaction.  These are intended to
   prevent replay attacks.

   When a sender sends a PKI message to a recipient, a fresh senderNonce
   MUST be included in the message.  The recipient MUST copy the
   senderNonce into the recipientNonce of the reply as a proof of
   liveliness.  The original sender MUST verify that the recipientNonce
   of the reply matches the senderNonce it sent in the request.  If the
   nonce does not match, then the message MUST be rejected.

   Note that since SCEP exchanges consist of a single request followed
   by a single response, the use of distinct sender and recipient nonces
   is redundant, since the client sends a nonce in its request and the
   CA responds with the same nonce in its reply.  In effect, there's
   just a single nonce, identified as senderNonce in the client's
   request and recipientNonce in the CA's reply.

3.2.2.  SCEP pkcsPKIEnvelope

   The information portion of a SCEP message is carried inside an
   EnvelopedData content type, as defined in CMS, with the following
   restrictions:

   *  contentType in encryptedContentInfo MUST be data ({pkcs-7 1}).
   *  encryptedContent MUST be the SCEP message being transported (see
      Section 4) and MUST match the messageType authenticated Attribute
      in the pkiMessage.

3.3.  SCEP pkiMessage types

   All of the messages in this section are pkiMessages (Section 3.2),
   where the type of the message MUST be specified in the "messageType"
   authenticated Attribute.  Each section defines a valid message type,
   the corresponding messageData formats, and mandatory authenticated
   attributes for that type.

3.3.1.  PKCSReq/RenewalReq

   The messageData for this type consists of a PKCS #10 Certificate
   Request.  The certificate request MUST contain at least the following
   items:

   *  The subject Distinguished Name.
   *  The subject public key.
   *  For a PKCSReq, if authorisation based on a shared secret is being
      used, a challengePassword attribute.

   In addition, the message must contain the authenticatedAttributes
   specified in Section 3.2.1.

3.3.2.  CertRep

   The messageData for this type consists of a degenerate certificates-
   only CMS SignedData message (Section 3.4).  The exact content
   required for the reply depends on the type of request that this
   message is a response to.  The request types are detailed in Sections
   3.3.2.1 and 4.  In addition, the message must contain the
   authenticatedAttributes specified in Section 3.2.1.

   Earlier draft versions of this specification required that this
   message include a senderNonce alongside the recipientNonce, which was
   to be used to chain to subsequent polling operations.  However, if a
   single message was lost during the potentially extended interval over
   which polling could take place (see Section 5 for an example of
   this), then if the implementation were to enforce this requirement,
   the overall transaction would fail, even though nothing had actually
   gone wrong.  Because of this issue, implementations mostly ignored
   the requirement to either carry this nonce over to subsequent polling
   messages or verify its presence.  More recent versions of the
   specification no longer require the chaining of nonces across polling
   operations.

3.3.2.1.  CertRep SUCCESS

   When the pkiStatus attribute is set to SUCCESS, the messageData for
   this message consists of a degenerate certificates-only CMS
   SignedData message (Section 3.4).  The content of this degenerate
   certificates-only SignedData message depends on what the original
   request was, as outlined in Table 6.

   +==============+===============================================+
   | Request-type | Reply-contents                                |
   +==============+===============================================+
   | PKCSReq      | The reply MUST contain at least the issued    |
   |              | certificate in the certificates field of the  |
   |              | SignedData.  The reply MAY contain additional |
   |              | certificates, but the issued certificate MUST |
   |              | be the leaf certificate.                      |
   +--------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | RenewalReq   | Same as PKCSReq                               |
   +--------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | CertPoll     | Same as PKCSReq                               |
   +--------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | GetCert      | The reply MUST contain at least the requested |
   |              | certificate in the certificates field of the  |
   |              | SignedData.  The reply MAY contain additional |
   |              | certificates, but the requested certificate   |
   |              | MUST be the leaf certificate.                 |
   +--------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | GetCRL       | The reply MUST contain the CRL in the crls    |
   |              | field of the SignedData.                      |
   +--------------+-----------------------------------------------+

                   Table 6: CertRep Response Types

3.3.2.2.  CertRep FAILURE

   When the pkiStatus attribute is set to FAILURE, the reply MUST also
   contain a failInfo (Section 3.2.1.4) attribute set to the appropriate
   error condition describing the failure.  The reply MAY also contain a
   failInfoText attribute providing extended details on why the
   operation failed, typically to expand on the catchall failInfo =
   badRequest status.  The pkcsPKIEnvelope (Section 3.2.2) MUST be
   omitted.

3.3.2.3.  CertRep PENDING

   When the pkiStatus attribute is set to PENDING, the pkcsPKIEnvelope
   (Section 3.2.2) MUST be omitted.

3.3.3.  CertPoll (GetCertInitial)

   This message is used for certificate polling.  For unknown reasons,
   it was referred to as "GetCertInitial" in earlier draft versions of
   this specification.  The messageData for this type consists of an
   IssuerAndSubject:

   issuerAndSubject ::= SEQUENCE {
       issuer     Name,
       subject    Name
       }

   The issuer is set to the subjectName of the CA (in other words, the
   intended issuerName of the certificate that's being requested).  The
   subject is set to the subjectName used when requesting the
   certificate.

   Note that both of these fields are redundant; the CA is identified by
   the recipientInfo in the pkcsPKIEnvelope (or in most cases, simply by
   the server that the message is being sent to), and the client/
   transaction being polled is identified by the transactionID.  Both of
   these fields can be processed by the CA without going through the
   cryptographically expensive process of unwrapping and processing the
   issuerAndSubject.  For this reason, implementations SHOULD assume
   that the polling operation will be controlled by the recipientInfo
   and transactionID rather than the contents of the messageData.  In
   addition, the message must contain the authenticatedAttributes
   specified in Section 3.2.1.

3.3.4.  GetCert and GetCRL

   The messageData for these types consist of an IssuerAndSerialNumber,
   as defined in CMS, that uniquely identifies the certificate being
   requested, either the certificate itself for GetCert or its
   revocation status via a CRL for GetCRL.  In addition, the message
   must contain the authenticatedAttributes specified in Section 3.2.1.

   These message types, while included here for completeness, apply
   unnecessary cryptography and messaging overhead to the simple task of
   transferring a certificate or CRL (see Section 7.8).  Implementations
   SHOULD prefer HTTP certificate-store access [RFC4387] or LDAP over
   the use of these messages.

3.4.  Degenerate certificates-only CMS SignedData

   CMS includes a degenerate case of the SignedData content type in
   which there are no signers.  The use of such a degenerate case is to
   disseminate certificates and CRLs.  For SCEP, the content field of
   the ContentInfo value of a degenerate certificates-only SignedData
   MUST be omitted.  When carrying certificates, the certificates are
   included in the certificates field of the SignedData.  When carrying
   a CRL, the CRL is included in the crls field of the SignedData.

3.5.  CA Capabilities

   In order to provide support for future enhancements to the protocol,
   CAs MUST implement the GetCACaps message to allow clients to query
   which functionality is available from the CA.

3.5.1.  GetCACaps HTTP Message Format

   This message requests capabilities from a CA, with the format as
   described in Section 4.1:

   "GET" SP SCEPPATH "?operation=GetCACaps" SP HTTP-version CRLF

3.5.2.  CA Capabilities Response Format

   The response for a GetCACaps message is a list of CA capabilities, in
   plain text and in any order, separated by <CR><LF> or <LF>
   characters.  This specification defines the following keywords
   (quotation marks are not sent):

   +==================+========================================+
   | Keyword          | Description                            |
   +==================+========================================+
   | AES              | CA supports the AES128-CBC encryption  |
   |                  | algorithm.                             |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | DES3             | CA supports the triple DES-CBC         |
   |                  | encryption algorithm.                  |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | GetNextCACert    | CA supports the GetNextCACert message. |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | POSTPKIOperation | CA supports PKIOPeration messages sent |
   |                  | via HTTP POST.                         |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | Renewal          | CA supports the Renewal CA operation.  |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | SHA-1            | CA supports the SHA-1 hashing          |
   |                  | algorithm.                             |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | SHA-256          | CA supports the SHA-256 hashing        |
   |                  | algorithm.                             |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | SHA-512          | CA supports the SHA-512 hashing        |
   |                  | algorithm.                             |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | SCEPStandard     | CA supports all mandatory-to-implement |
   |                  | sections of the SCEP standard.  This   |
   |                  | keyword implies "AES",                 |
   |                  | "POSTPKIOperation", and "SHA-256", as  |
   |                  | well as the provisions of Section 2.9. |
   +------------------+----------------------------------------+

                Table 7: GetCACaps Response Keywords

   Table 7 lists all of the keywords that are defined in this
   specification.  A CA MAY provide additional keywords advertising
   further capabilities and functionality.  A client MUST be able to
   accept and ignore any unknown keywords that might be sent by a CA.

   The CA MUST use the text case specified here, but clients SHOULD
   ignore the text case when processing this message.  Clients MUST
   accept the standard HTTP-style text delimited by <CR><LF> as well as
   the text delimited by <LF> specified in an earlier draft version of
   this specification.

   The client SHOULD use SHA-256 in preference to SHA-1 hashing and
   AES128-CBC in preference to triple DES-CBC if they are supported by
   the CA.  Although the CMS format allows any form of AES and SHA-2 to
   be specified, in the interests of interoperability the de facto
   universal standards of AES128-CBC and SHA-256 SHOULD be used.

   Announcing some of these capabilities individually is redundant,
   since they're required as mandatory-to-implement functionality (see
   Section 2.9) whose presence as a whole is signalled by the
   "SCEPStandard" capability.  However, it may be useful to announce
   them in order to deal with older implementations that would otherwise
   default to obsolete, insecure algorithms and mechanisms.

   If the CA supports none of the above capabilities, it SHOULD return
   an empty message.  A CA MAY simply return an HTTP error.  A client
   that receives an empty message or an HTTP error SHOULD interpret the
   response as if none of the capabilities listed are supported by the
   CA.

   Note that at least one widely deployed server implementation supports
   several of the above operations but doesn't support the GetCACaps
   message to indicate that it supports them, and it will close the
   connection if sent a GetCACaps message.  This means that the
   equivalent of GetCACaps must be performed through server
   fingerprinting, which can be done using the ID string "Microsoft-
   IIS".  Newer versions of the same server, if sent a SCEP request
   using AES and SHA-2, will respond with an invalid response that can't
   be decrypted, requiring the use of 3DES and SHA-1 in order to obtain
   a response that can be processed, even if AES and/or SHA-2 are
   allegedly supported.  In addition, the server will generate CA
   certificates that only have one, but not both, of the keyEncipherment
   and digitalSignature keyUsage flags set, requiring that the client
   ignore the keyUsage flags in order to use the certificates for SCEP.

   The Content-type of the reply SHOULD be "text/plain".  Clients SHOULD
   ignore the Content-type, as older implementations of SCEP may send
   various Content-types.

   Example:

   GET /cgi-bin/pkiclient.exe?operation=GetCACaps HTTP/1.1

   might return:

   AES
   GetNextCACert
   POSTPKIOperation
   SCEPStandard
   SHA-256

   This means that the CA supports modern crypto algorithms, and the
   GetNextCACert message allows PKIOperation messages (PKCSReq/
   RenewalReq, GetCert, CertPoll, ...) to be sent using HTTP POST and is
   compliant with the final version of the SCEP standard.

4.  SCEP Transactions

   This section describes the SCEP Transactions and their HTTP [RFC7230]
   transport mechanism.

   Note that SCEP doesn't follow best current practices on usage of
   HTTP.  In particular, it recommends ignoring some media types and
   hard-codes specific URI paths.  Guidance on the appropriate
   application of HTTP in these circumstances may be found in [HTTP].

4.1.  HTTP POST and GET Message Formats

   SCEP uses the HTTP POST and GET methods [RFC7230] to exchange
   information with the CA.  The following defines the ABNF syntax of
   HTTP POST and GET methods sent from a client to a CA:

   POSTREQUEST = "POST" SP SCEPPATH "?operation=" OPERATION
                 SP HTTP-version CRLF

   GETREQUEST = "GET" SP SCEPPATH "?operation=" OPERATION
                "&message=" MESSAGE SP HTTP-version CRLF

   where:

   *  SCEPPATH is the HTTP URL path for accessing the CA.  Clients
      SHOULD set SCEPPATH to the fixed string "/cgi-bin/pkiclient.exe"
      unless directed to do otherwise by the CA.
   *  OPERATION depends on the SCEP transaction and is defined in the
      following sections.
   *  HTTP-version is the HTTP version string, which is "HTTP/1.1" for
      [RFC7230].
   *  SP and CRLF are space and carriage return/linefeed, as defined in
      [RFC5234].

   The CA will typically ignore SCEPPATH, since it's unlikely to be
   issuing certificates via a web server.  Clients SHOULD set SCEPPATH
   to the fixed string "/cgi-bin/pkiclient.exe" unless directed to do
   otherwise by the CA.  The CA SHOULD ignore the SCEPPATH unless its
   precise format is critical to the CA's operation.

   Early SCEP drafts performed all communications via GET messages,
   including non-idempotent ones that should have been sent via POST
   messages; see [HTTP] for details.  This has caused problems because
   of the way that the (supposedly) idempotent GET interacts with caches
   and proxies, and because the extremely large GET requests created by
   encoding CMS messages may be truncated in transit.  These issues are
   typically not visible when testing on a LAN, but crop up during
   deployment over WANs.  If the remote CA supports POST, the CMS-
   encoded SCEP messages MUST be sent via HTTP POST instead of HTTP GET.
   This applies to any SCEP message except GetCACert, GetNextCACert, and
   GetCACaps and avoids the need for base64 and URL encoding that's
   required for GET messaging.  The client can verify that the CA
   supports SCEP messages via POST by looking for the "SCEPStandard" or
   "POSTPKIOperation" capability (see Section 3.5.2).

   If a client or CA uses HTTP GET and encounters HTTP-related problems
   such as messages being truncated, seeing errors such as HTTP 414
   ("Request-URI too long"), or simply having the message not sent/
   received at all when standard requests to the server (for example,
   via a web browser) work, then this is a symptom of the problematic
   use of HTTP GET.  The solution to this problem is to update the
   implementation to use HTTP POST instead.  In addition, when using
   GET, it's recommended to test the implementation from as many
   different network locations as possible to determine whether the use
   of GET will cause problems with communications.

   When using GET messages to communicate binary data, base64 encoding
   as specified in Section 4 of [RFC4648] MUST be used.  The
   base64-encoded data is distinct from "base64url" and may contain URI
   reserved characters; thus, it MUST be escaped as specified in
   [RFC3986] in addition to being base64 encoded.  Finally, the encoded
   data is inserted into the MESSAGE portion of the HTTP GET request.

4.2.  Get CA Certificate

   To get the CA certificate(s), the client sends a GetCACert message to
   the CA.  The OPERATION MUST be set to "GetCACert".  There is no
   request data associated with this message.

4.2.1.  Get CA Certificate Response Message Format

   The response for GetCACert is different between the case where the CA
   directly communicates with the client during the enrolment and the
   case where an intermediate CA exists and the client communicates with
   this CA during the enrolment.

4.2.1.1.  CA Certificate Response Message Format

   If the CA does not have any intermediate CA certificates, the
   response consists of a single X.509 CA certificate.  The response
   will have a Content-Type of "application/x-x509-ca-cert".

   "Content-Type: application/x-x509-ca-cert"

   <binary X.509>

4.2.1.2.  CA Certificate Chain Response Message Format

   If the CA has intermediate CA certificates, the response consists of
   a degenerate certificates-only CMS SignedData message (Section 3.4)
   containing the certificates, with the intermediate CA certificate(s)
   as the leaf certificate(s).  The response will have a Content-Type of
   "application/x-x509-ca-ra-cert".  Note that this designation is used
   for historical reasons due to its use in older versions of this
   specification -- no special meaning should be attached to the label.

   "Content-Type: application/x-x509-ca-ra-cert"

   <binary CMS>

4.3.  Certificate Enrolment/Renewal

   A PKCSReq/RenewalReq (Section 3.3.1) message is used to perform a
   certificate enrolment or renewal transaction.  The OPERATION MUST be
   set to "PKIOperation".  Note that when used with HTTP POST, the only
   OPERATION possible is "PKIOperation", so many CAs don't check this
   value or even notice its absence.  When implemented using HTTP POST,
   the message is sent with a Content-Type of "application/x-pki-
   message" and might look as follows:

   POST /cgi-bin/pkiclient.exe?operation=PKIOperation HTTP/1.1
   Content-Length: <length of data>
   Content-Type: application/x-pki-message

   <binary CMS data>

   When implemented using HTTP GET, this might look as follows:

   GET /cgi-bin/pkiclient.exe?operation=PKIOperation& \
   message=MIAGCSqGSIb3DQEHA6CAMIACAQAxgDCBzAIBADB2MG \
   IxETAPBgNVBAcTCE......AAAAAA== HTTP/1.1

4.3.1.  Certificate Enrolment/Renewal Response Message

   If the request is granted, a CertRep SUCCESS message
   (Section 3.3.2.1) is returned.  If the request is rejected, a CertRep
   FAILURE message (Section 3.3.2.2) is returned.  If the CA is
   configured to manually authenticate the client, a CertRep PENDING
   message (Section 3.3.2.3) MAY be returned.  The CA MAY return a
   PENDING for other reasons.

   The response will have a Content-Type of "application/x-pki-message".

   "Content-Type: application/x-pki-message"

   <binary CertRep message>

4.4.  Poll for Client Initial Certificate

   When the client receives a CertRep message with pkiStatus set to
   PENDING, it will enter the polling state by periodically sending
   CertPoll messages to the CA until either the request is granted and
   the certificate is sent back or the request is rejected or some
   preconfigured time limit for polling or maximum number of polls is
   exceeded.  The OPERATION MUST be set to "PKIOperation".

   CertPoll messages exchanged during the polling period MUST carry the
   same transactionID attribute as the previous PKCSReq/RenewalReq.  A
   CA receiving a CertPoll for which it does not have a matching
   PKCSReq/RenewalReq MUST reject this request.

   Since at this time the certificate has not been issued, the client
   can only use its own subject name (which was contained in the
   original PKCS# 10 sent via PKCSReq/RenewalReq) to identify the polled
   certificate request (but see the note on identification during
   polling in Section 3.3.3).  In theory, there can be multiple
   outstanding requests from one client (for example, if different keys
   and different key usages were used to request multiple certificates),
   so the transactionID must also be included to disambiguate between
   multiple requests.  In practice, however, the client SHOULD NOT have
   multiple requests outstanding at any one time, since this tends to
   confuse some CAs.

4.4.1.  Polling Response Message Format

   The response messages for CertPoll are the same as in Section 4.3.1.

4.5.  Certificate Access

   A client can query an issued certificate from the SCEP CA, as long as
   the client knows the issuer name and the issuer-assigned certificate
   serial number.

   This transaction consists of one GetCert (Section 3.3.4) message sent
   to the CA by a client and one CertRep (Section 3.3.2) message sent
   back from the CA.  The OPERATION MUST be set to "PKIOperation".

4.5.1.  Certificate Access Response Message Format

   In this case, the CertRep from the CA is same as in Section 4.3.1,
   except that the CA will either grant the request (SUCCESS) or reject
   it (FAILURE).

4.6.  CRL Access

   Clients can request a CRL from the SCEP CA, as described in
   Section 2.7.  The OPERATION MUST be set to "PKIOperation".

4.6.1.  CRL Access Response Message Format

   The CRL is sent back to the client in a CertRep (Section 3.3.2)
   message.  The information portion of this message is a degenerate
   certificates-only SignedData (Section 3.4) that contains only the
   most recent CRL in the crls field of the SignedData.

4.7.  Get Next Certificate Authority Certificate

   When a CA certificate is about to expire, clients need to retrieve
   the CA's next CA certificate (i.e., the rollover certificate).  This
   is done via the GetNextCACert message.  The OPERATION MUST be set to
   "GetNextCACert".  There is no request data associated with this
   message.

4.7.1.  Get Next CA Response Message Format

   The response consists of a SignedData CMS message, signed by the
   current CA signing key.  Clients MUST validate the signature on the
   message before trusting any of its contents.  The response will have
   a Content-Type of "application/x-x509-next-ca-cert".

   "Content-Type: application/x-x509-next-ca-cert"

   <binary CMS>

   The content of the SignedData message is a degenerate certificates-
   only SignedData message (Section 3.4) containing the new CA
   certificate(s) to be used when the current CA certificate expires.

5.  SCEP Transaction Examples

   The following section gives several examples of client-to-CA
   transactions.  Client actions are indicated in the left column, CA
   actions are indicated in the right column, and the transactionID is
   given in parentheses.  For ease of reading, small integer values have
   been used; in practice, full transaction IDs would be used.  The
   first transaction, for example, would read like this:

   |  Client Sends PKCSReq message with transactionID 1 to the CA.  The
   |  CA signs the certificate and constructs a CertRep Message
   |  containing the signed certificate with a transaction ID 1.  The
   |  client receives the message and installs the certificate locally.

5.1.  Successful Transactions

   PKCSReq (1)             ----------> CA issues certificate
                           <---------- CertRep (1) SUCCESS
   Client installs certificate

         Figure 7: Successful Enrolment Case: Automatic Processing

   PKCSReq (2)             ----------> Cert request goes into queue
                           <---------- CertRep (2) PENDING
   CertPoll (2)            ----------> Still pending
                           <---------- CertRep (2) PENDING
   CertPoll (2)            ----------> CA issues certificate
                           <---------- CertRep (2) SUCCESS
   Client installs certificate

    Figure 8: Successful Enrolment Case: Manual Authentication Required

   GetNextCACert         ---------->
                         <---------- New CA certificate

   PKCSReq*              ----------> CA issues certificate with
                                     new key
                         <---------- CertRep SUCCESS
   Client stores certificate
   for installation when
   existing certificate expires.

                   Figure 9: CA Certificate Rollover Case

   * Enveloped for the new CA certificate.  The CA will use the envelope
   to determine which key to use to issue the client certificate.

5.2.  Transactions with Errors

   In the case of polled transactions that aren't completed
   automatically, there are two potential options for dealing with a
   transaction that's interrupted due to network or software/hardware
   issues.  The first is for the client to preserve its transaction
   state and resume the CertPoll polling when normal service is
   restored.  The second is for the client to begin a new transaction by
   sending a new PKCSReq/RenewalReq, rather than continuing the previous
   CertPoll.  Both options have their own advantages and disadvantages.

   The CertPoll continuation requires that the client maintain its
   transaction state for the time when it resumes polling.  This is
   relatively simple if the problem is a brief network outage, but less
   simple when the problem is a client crash and restart.  In addition,
   the CA may treat a lost network connection as the end of a
   transaction, so that a new connection followed by a CertPoll will be
   treated as an error.

   The PKCSReq/RenewalReq continuation doesn't require any state to be
   maintained, since it's a new transaction.  However, it may cause
   problems on the CA side if the certificate was successfully issued
   but the client never received it, since the resumed transaction
   attempt will appear to be a request for a duplicate certificate (see
   Section 7.4 for more on why this is a problem).  In this case, the CA
   may refuse the transaction or require manual intervention to remove/
   revoke the previous certificate before the client can request another
   one.

   Since the new-transaction resume is more robust in the presence of
   errors and doesn't require special-case handling by either the client
   or CA, clients SHOULD use the new-transaction option in preference to
   the resumed-CertPoll option to recover from errors.

   Resync Case 1: Client resyncs via new PKCSReq (recommended):

   PKCSReq (3)           ----------> Cert request goes into queue
                         <---------- CertRep (3) PENDING
   CertPoll (3)          ----------> Still pending
                           X-------- CertRep(3) PENDING
   (Network outage)
   (Client reconnects)
   PKCSReq (4)           ---------->
                         <---------- CertRep (4) PENDING
   etc...

                          Figure 10: Resync Case 1

   Resync Case 2: Client resyncs via resumed CertPoll after a network
   outage (not recommended; use PKCSReq to resync):

   PKCSReq (5)           ----------> Cert request goes into queue
                         <---------- CertRep (5) PENDING
   CertPoll (5)          ----------> Still pending
                           X-------- CertRep(5) PENDING
   (Network outage)
   (Client reconnects)
   CertPoll (5)          ----------> CA issues certificate
                         <---------- CertRep (5) SUCCESS
   Client installs certificate

                          Figure 11: Resync Case 2

   Resync Case 3: Special-case variation of Case 2 where the CertRep
   SUCCESS rather than the CertRep PENDING is lost (recommended):

   PKCSReq (6)           ----------> Cert request goes into queue
                         <---------- CertRep (6) PENDING
   CertPoll (6)          ----------> Still pending
                         <---------- CertRep (6) PENDING
   CertPoll (6)          ----------> CA issues certificate
                           X-------- CertRep(6) SUCCESS
   (Network outage)
   (Client reconnects)
   PKCSReq (7)           ----------> There is already a valid
                                     certificate with this
                                     Distinguished Name (DN).
                         <---------- CertRep (7) FAILURE
                                     Admin revokes certificate
   PKCSReq (8)           ----------> CA issues new certificate
                         <---------- CertRep (8) SUCCESS
   Client installs certificate

                          Figure 12: Resync Case 3

   Resync Case 4: Special-case variation of Case 1 where the CertRep
   SUCCESS rather than the CertRep PENDING is lost (not recommended; use
   PKCSReq to resync):

   PKCSReq (9)           ----------> Cert request goes into queue
                         <---------- CertRep (9) PENDING
   CertPoll (9)          ----------> Still pending
                         <---------- CertRep (9) PENDING
   CertPoll (9)          ----------> CA issues certificate
                           X-------- CertRep(9) SIGNED CERT
   (Network outage)
   (Client reconnects)
   CertPoll (9)          ----------> Certificate already issued
                         <---------- CertRep (9) SUCCESS
   Client installs certificate

                          Figure 13: Resync Case 4

   As these examples indicate, resumption from an error via a resumed
   CertPoll is tricky due to the state that needs to be held by both the
   client and/or the CA.  A PKCSReq/RenewalReq resume is the easiest to
   implement, since it's stateless and is identical for both polled and
   nonpolled transactions, whereas a CertPoll resume treats the two
   differently.  (A nonpolled transaction is resumed with a PKCSReq/
   RenewalReq; a polled transaction is resumed with a CertPoll.)  For
   this reason, error recovery SHOULD be handled via a new PKCSReq
   rather than a resumed CertPoll.

6.  IANA Considerations

   An object identifier for an arc to assign SCEP Attribute Identifiers
   has been assigned in the "SMI Security for PKIX" registry
   (1.3.6.1.5.5.7).  This object identifer, Simple Certificate
   Enrollment Protocol Attributes, is denoted as id-scep:

   id-scep OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-pkix 24 }

   IANA created the "SMI Security for SCEP Attribute Identifiers"
   registry (1.3.6.1.5.5.7.24) with the following entries with
   references to this document:

   id-scep-failInfoText OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-scep 1 }

   Entries in the registry are assigned according to the "Specification
   Required" policy defined in [RFC8126].

   Section 3.2.1.2 describes an "SCEP Message Type" registry, and
   Section 3.5 describes an "SCEP CA Capabilities" registry; these
   registries are maintained by IANA and define a number of such code-
   point identifiers.  Entries in the registry are assigned according to
   the "Specification Required" policy defined in [RFC8126].

   The "SCEP Message Types" registry has "Value", "Name", "Description",
   and "Reference" columns.  The "Value" entry is a small positive
   integer; value "0" is reserved.

   The "SCEP CA Capabilities" registry has "Keyword", "Description", and
   "Reference" columns.  Although implementations SHOULD use the "SCEP
   CA Capabilities" registry, SCEP is often employed in situations where
   this isn't possible.  In this case, private-use CA capabilities may
   be specified using a unique prefix such as an organisation identifier
   or domain name under the control of the entity that defines the
   capability.  For example, the prefix would be "Example.com-", and the
   complete capability would be "Example.com-CapabilityName".

   IANA has registered four media types as defined in this document:

   *  application/x-x509-ca-cert

   *  application/x-x509-ca-ra-cert

   *  application/x-x509-next-ca-cert

   *  application/x-pki-message

   Note that these are grandfathered media types registered as per
   Appendix A of [RFC6838].  Templates for registrations are specified
   below.

6.1.  Registration of the application/x-x509-ca-cert Media Type

   Type name:  application

   Subtype name:  x-x509-ca-cert

   Required parameters:  none

   Optional parameters:  none

   Encoding considerations:  binary

   Security considerations:  This media type contains a certificate; see
      the Security Considerations section of [RFC5280].  There is no
      executable content.

   Interoperability considerations:  This is a grandfathered
      registration of an alias to application/pkix-cert (basically a
      single DER-encoded Certification Authority certificate), which is
      only used in SCEP.

   Published specification:  RFC 8894

   Applications that use this media type:  SCEP uses this media type
      when returning a CA certificate.

   Fragment identifier considerations:  N/A

   Additional information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type:  N/A

      Magic number(s):  none

      File extension(s):  N/A

      Macintosh file type code(s):  N/A

   Person and email address to contact for further information:  See the
      Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894.

   Intended usage:  LIMITED USE

   Restrictions on usage:  SCEP protocol

   Author:  See the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894

   Change controller:  IETF

   Provisional registration?  No

6.2.  Registration of the application/x-x509-ca-ra-cert Media Type

   Type name:  application

   Subtype name:  x-x509-ca-ra-cert

   Required parameters:  none

   Optional parameters:  none

   Encoding considerations:  binary

   Security considerations:  This media type consists of a degenerate
      certificates-only CMS SignedData message (Section 3.4) containing
      the certificates, with the intermediate CA certificate(s) as the
      leaf certificate(s).  There is no executable content.

   Interoperability considerations:  This is a grandfathered
      registration that is only used in SCEP.

   Published specification:  RFC 8894

   Applications that use this media type:  SCEP uses this media type
      when returning CA Certificate Chain Response.

   Fragment identifier considerations:  N/A

   Additional information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type:  N/A

      Magic number(s):  none

      File extension(s):  N/A

      Macintosh file type code(s):  N/A

   Person and email address to contact for further information:  See the
      Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894.

   Intended usage:  LIMITED USE

   Restrictions on usage:  SCEP protocol

   Author:  See the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894.

   Change controller:  IETF

   Provisional registration?  no

6.3.  Registration of the application/x-x509-next-ca-cert Media Type

   Type name:  application

   Subtype name:  x-x509-next-ca-cert

   Required parameters:  none

   Optional parameters:  none

   Encoding considerations:  binary

   Security considerations:  This media type consists of a SignedData
      CMS message, signed by the current CA signing key.  There is no
      executable content.

   Interoperability considerations:  This is a grandfathered
      registration that is only used in SCEP.

   Published specification:  RFC 8894

   Applications that use this media type:  SCEP uses this media type
      when returning a Get Next CA response.

   Fragment identifier considerations:  N/A

   Additional information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type:  N/A

      Magic number(s):  none

      File extension(s):  N/A

      Macintosh file type code(s):  N/A

   Person and email address to contact for further information:  See the
      Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894.

   Intended usage:  LIMITED USE

   Restrictions on usage:  SCEP protocol

   Author:  See the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894.

   Change controller:  IETF

   Provisional registration?  no

6.4.  Registration of the application/x-pki-message Media Type

   Type name:  application

   Subtype name:  x-pki-message

   Required parameters:  none

   Optional parameters:  none

   Encoding considerations:  binary

   Security considerations:  This media type consists of a degenerate
      certificates-only CMS SignedData message.  There is no executable
      content.

   Interoperability considerations:  This is a grandfathered
      registration that is only used in SCEP.

   Published specification:  RFC 8894

   Applications that use this media type:  SCEP uses this media type
      when returning a Certificate Enrolment/Renewal Response.

   Fragment identifier considerations:  N/A

   Additional information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type:  N/A

      Magic number(s):  none

      File extension(s):  N/A

      Macintosh file type code(s):  N/A

   Person and email address to contact for further information:  See the
      Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894.

   Intended usage:  LIMITED USE

   Restrictions on usage:  SCEP protocol

   Author:  See the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8894.

   Change controller:  IETF

   Provisional registration?  no

7.  Security Considerations

   The security goal of SCEP is that no adversary can subvert the public
   key/identity binding from that intended.  An adversary is any entity
   other than the client and the CA participating in the protocol.

   This goal is met through the use of CMS and PKCS #10 encryption and
   digital signatures using authenticated public keys.  The CA's public
   key is authenticated via out-of-band means such as the checking of
   the CA fingerprint, and the SCEP client's public key is authenticated
   through manual or preshared secret authentication.

7.1.  General Security

   Common key-management considerations such as keeping private keys
   truly private and using adequate lengths for symmetric and asymmetric
   keys must be followed in order to maintain the security of this
   protocol.  This is especially true for CA keys which, when
   compromised, compromise the security of all relying parties.

7.2.  Use of the CA Private Key

   A CA private key is generally meant for, and usually flagged as,
   being usable for certificate (and CRL) signing exclusively rather
   than data signing or encryption.  The SCEP protocol, however, uses
   the CA private key to both sign and optionally encrypt CMS transport
   messages.  This is generally considered undesirable, as it widens the
   possibility of an implementation weakness and provides an additional
   location where the private key must be used (and hence is slightly
   more vulnerable to exposure) and where a side-channel attack might be
   applied.

7.3.  ChallengePassword Shared Secret Value

   The security measures that should be applied to the challengePassword
   shared secret depend on the manner in which SCEP is employed.  In the
   simplest case, with SCEP used to provision devices with certificates
   in the manufacturing facility, the physical security of the facility
   may be enough to protect the certificate issue process with no
   additional measures explicitly required.  In general, though, the
   security of the issue process depends on the security employed around
   the use of the challengePassword shared secret.  While it's not
   possible to enumerate every situation in which SCEP may be utilised,
   the following security measures should be considered.

   *  The challengePassword, despite its name, shouldn't be a
      conventional password but a high-entropy shared-secret
      authentication string.  Using the base64 encoding of a keying
      value generated or exchanged as part of standard device
      authentication protocols like the Extensible Authentication
      Protocol (EAP) or DNP3 Secure Authentication (DNP3-SA) makes for a
      good challengePassword.  The use of high-entropy shared secrets is
      particularly important when the PasswordRecipientInfo option is
      used to encrypt SCEP messages; see Section 3.1.
   *  If feasible, the challengePassword should be a one-time value used
      to authenticate the issue of a single certificate (subsequent
      certificate requests will be authenticated by being signed with
      the initial certificate).  If the challengePassword is single use,
      then the arrival of subsequent requests using the same
      challengePassword can then be used to indicate a security breach.
   *  The lifetime of a challengePassword can be limited, so that it can
      be used during initial device provisioning but will have expired
      at a later date if an attacker manages to compromise the
      challengePassword value -- for example, by compromising the device
      that it's stored in.
   *  The CA should take appropriate measures to protect the
      challengePassword.  Examples of possible measures include:
      physical security measures; storing it as a salted iterated hash
      or equivalent memory-hard function; storing it as a keyed MAC
      value if it's not being used for encryption; and storing it in
      encrypted form if it is being used for encryption.

7.4.  Lack of Certificate Issue Confirmation

   SCEP provides no confirmation that the issued certificate was
   successfully received and processed by the client.  This means that
   if the CertRep message is lost or can't be processed by the client,
   then the CA will consider the certificate successfully issued while
   the client won't.  If this situation is of concern, then the correct
   issuance of the certificate will need to be verified by out-of-band
   means, for example, through the client sending a message signed by
   the newly issued certificate to the CA.  This also provides the proof
   of possession that's not present in the case of a renewal operation;
   see Section 7.6.

7.5.  GetCACaps Issues

   The GetCACaps response is not authenticated by the CA.  This allows
   an attacker to perform downgrade attacks on the cryptographic
   capabilities of the client/CA exchange.  In particular, if the server
   were to support MD5 and single DES, then an in-path attacker could
   trivially roll back the encryption to use these insecure algorithms.
   By taking advantage of the presence of large amounts of static known
   plaintext in the SCEP messages, as of 2017, a DES rainbow table
   attack can recover most encryption keys in under a minute, and MD5
   chosen-prefix collisions can be calculated for a few tens of cents of
   computing time using tools like HashClash.  It is for this reason
   that this specification makes single DES and MD5 a MUST NOT feature.
   Note that all known servers support at least triple DES and SHA-1
   (regardless of whether "DES3" and "SHA-1" are indicated in
   GetCACaps), so there should never be a reason to fall all the way
   back to single DES and MD5.

   One simple countermeasure to a GetCACaps downgrade attack is for
   clients that are operating in an environment where on-path attacks
   are possible and that expect the "SCEPStandard" capability to be
   indicated by the CA but don't see it in the GetCACaps response to
   treat its absence as a security issue, and either discontinue the
   exchange or continue as if "SCEPStandard" had been returned.  This
   requires a certain trade-off between compatibility with old servers
   and security against active attacks.

7.6.  Lack of PoP in Renewal Requests

   Renewal operations (but not standard certificate-issue operations)
   are processed via a previously issued certificate and its associated
   private key, not the key in the PKCS #10 request.  This means that a
   client no longer demonstrates proof of possession (PoP) of the
   private key corresponding to the public key in the PKCS #10 request.
   It is therefore possible for a client to recertify an existing key
   used by a third party, so that two or more certificates exist for the
   same key.  By switching out the certificate in a signature, an
   attacker can appear to have a piece of data signed by their
   certificate rather than the original signer's certificate.  This, and
   other, attacks are described in S/MIME ESS [RFC2634].

   Avoiding these types of attacks requires situation-specific measures.
   For example, CMS/SMIME implementations may use the ESSCertID
   attribute from S/MIME ESS [RFC2634] or its successor, S/MIME ESSv2
   [RFC5035], to unambiguously identify the signing certificate.
   However, since other mechanisms and protocols that the certificates
   will be used with typically don't defend against this problem, it's
   unclear whether this is an actual issue with SCEP.

7.7.  Traffic Monitoring

   SCEP messages are signed with certificates that may contain
   identifying information.  If these are sent over the public Internet
   and real identity information (rather than placeholder values or
   arbitrary device IDs) is included in the signing certificate data, an
   attacker may be able to monitor the identities of the entities
   submitting the certificate requests.  If this is an issue, then
   [RFC7258] should be consulted for guidance.

7.8.  Unnecessary Cryptography

   Some of the SCEP exchanges use unnecessary signing and encryption
   operations.  In particular, the GetCert and GetCRL exchanges are
   encrypted and signed in both directions.  The information requested
   is public, and thus encrypting the requests is of questionable value.
   In addition, CRLs and certificates sent in responses are already
   signed by the CA and can be verified by the recipient without
   requiring additional signing and encryption.  More lightweight means
   of retrieving certificates and CRLs such as HTTP certificate-store
   access [RFC4387] and LDAP are recommended for this reason.

7.9.  Use of SHA-1

   The majority of the large number of devices that use SCEP today
   default to SHA-1, with many supporting only that hash algorithm with
   no ability to upgrade to a newer one.  SHA-1 is no longer regarded as
   secure in all situations, but as used in SCEP, it's still safe.
   There are three reasons for this.  The first is that attacking SCEP
   would require creating a fully general SHA-1 collision in close to
   real time alongside breaking AES (more specifically, it would require
   creating a fully general SHA-1 collision for the PKCS #10 request,
   breaking the AES encryption around the PKCS #10 request, and then
   creating a second SHA-1 collision for the signature on the encrypted
   data), which won't be feasible for a long time.

   The second reason is that the signature over the message -- in other
   words, the SHA-1 hash that isn't protected by encryption -- doesn't
   serve any critical cryptographic purpose: The PKCS #10 data itself is
   authenticated through its own signature, protected by encryption, and
   the overall request is authorised by the (encrypted) shared secret.
   The sole exception to this will be the small number of
   implementations that support the Renewal operation, which may be
   authorised purely through a signature, but presumably any
   implementation recent enough to support Renewal also supports SHA-2.
   Any legacy implementation that supports the historic core SCEP
   protocol would not be affected.

   The third reason is that SCEP uses the same key for encryption and
   signing, so that even if an attacker were able to capture an outgoing
   renewal request that didn't include a shared secret (in other words,
   one that was only authorised through a signature), break the AES
   encryption, forge the SHA-1 hash in real time, and forward the forged
   request to the CA, they couldn't decrypt the returned certificate,
   which is protected with the same key that was used to generate the
   signature.  While Section 7.8 points out that SCEP uses unnecessary
   cryptography in places, the additional level of security provided by
   the extra crypto makes it immune to any issues with SHA-1.

   This doesn't mean that SCEP implementations should continue to use
   SHA-1 in perpetuity, merely that there's no need for a panicked
   switch to SHA-2.

7.10.  Use of HTTP

   SCEP is an encrypted, authenticated certificate enrollment protocol
   that uses HTTP as a simple transport mechanism.  Since SCEP messages
   are already cryptographically secured, it does not require transport
   layer security.  Where HTTPS is elected, a performance hit may result
   from the TLS overhead, operational problems may result due to the
   more complex configuration, and potential security vulnerability may
   result due to the addition of an entire TLS protocol stack alongside
   the basic SCEP protocol.

   In particular, experience has shown that the issue of configuring
   certificates, CAs, and trust for both TLS and SCEP often leads to
   interoperability problems because different certificates and trust
   models are used in each.  Use of HTTPS to authenticate the server
   does not enable omission of the ChallengePassword or similar
   authenticator in the SCEP message on the assumption that using HTTPS
   instead of HTTP will somehow make this insecure usage secure again.
   HTTPS is not soy sauce for security and is unnecessary for SCEP,
   which uses cryptographically secured messages and does not require
   transport layer security.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [AES]      Technology, U. N. I. O. S. A., "The Advanced Encryption
              Standard (AES)", FIPS 197, DOI 10.6028/NIST.FIPS.197,
              November 2001, <https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.FIPS.197>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2985]  Nystrom, M. and B. Kaliski, "PKCS #9: Selected Object
              Classes and Attribute Types Version 2.0", RFC 2985,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2985, November 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2985>.

   [RFC2986]  Nystrom, M. and B. Kaliski, "PKCS #10: Certification
              Request Syntax Specification Version 1.7", RFC 2986,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2986, November 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2986>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
              Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC5652]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
              RFC 5652, DOI 10.17487/RFC5652, September 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5652>.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
              RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6838>.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
              RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, DOI 10.17487/RFC7258, May
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7258>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [SHA2]     Technology, U. N. I. O. S. A., "Secure Hash Standard
              (SHS)", FIPS 180-3, October 2008.

8.2.  Informative References

   [HTTP]     Nottingham, M., "Building Protocols with HTTP", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-httpbis-bcp56bis-09,
              November 1, 2019, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-
              httpbis-bcp56bis-09>.

   [JSCEP]    "A Java implementation of the Simple Certificate Enrolment
              Protocol", commit 7410332, January 2020,
              <https://github.com/jscep/jscep>.

   [RFC2634]  Hoffman, P., Ed., "Enhanced Security Services for S/MIME",
              RFC 2634, DOI 10.17487/RFC2634, June 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2634>.

   [RFC4387]  Gutmann, P., Ed., "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Operational Protocols: Certificate Store
              Access via HTTP", RFC 4387, DOI 10.17487/RFC4387, February
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4387>.

   [RFC5035]  Schaad, J., "Enhanced Security Services (ESS) Update:
              Adding CertID Algorithm Agility", RFC 5035,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5035, August 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5035>.

   [RFC7296]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
              Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [RFC8551]  Schaad, J., Ramsdell, B., and S. Turner, "Secure/
              Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 4.0
              Message Specification", RFC 8551, DOI 10.17487/RFC8551,
              April 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8551>.

Appendix A.  Background Notes

   This specification has spent over twenty years in the draft stage.
   Its original goal, provisioning IPsec routers with certificates, has
   long since changed to general device/embedded system/IoT use.  To fit
   this role, extra features were bolted on in a haphazard manner
   through the addition of a growing list of appendices and by inserting
   additional, often conflicting, paragraphs in various locations in the
   body text.  Since existing features were never updated as newer ones
   were added, the specification accumulated large amounts of historical
   baggage over time.  If OpenPGP was described as "a museum of 1990s
   crypto", then the SCEP document was its graveyard.

   About five years ago, the specification, which even at that point had
   seen only sporadic reposts of the existing document, was more or less
   abandoned by its original sponsors.  Due to its widespread use in
   large segments of the industry, the specification was rebooted in
   2015, cleaning up fifteen years' worth of accumulated cruft, fixing
   errors, clarifying ambiguities, and bringing the algorithms and
   standards used into the current century (prior to the update, the de
   facto lowest-common-denominator algorithms used for interoperability
   were the insecure forty-year-old single DES and broken MD5 hash
   algorithms).

   Note that although the text of the current specification has changed
   significantly due to the consolidation of features and appendices
   into the main document, the protocol that it describes is identical
   on the wire to the original (with the unavoidable exception of the
   switch from single DES and MD5 to AES and SHA-2).  The only two
   changes introduced, the "SCEPStandard" indicator in GetCACaps and the
   failInfoText attribute, are both optional values and would be ignored
   by older implementations that don't support them, or can be omitted
   from messages if they are found to cause problems.

   Other changes include:

   *  Resolved contradictions in the text -- for example, a requirement
      given as a MUST in one paragraph and a SHOULD in the next, a MUST
      NOT in one paragraph and a MAY a few paragraphs later, a SHOULD
      NOT contradicted later by a MAY, and so on.

   *  Merged several later fragmentary addenda placed in appendices (for
      example, the handling of certificate renewal) with the body of the
      text.

   *  Merged the "SCEP Transactions" and "SCEP Transport" sections,
      since the latter mostly duplicated (with occasional
      inconsistencies) the former.

   *  Updated the algorithms to ones dating from at least this century.

   *  Did the same for normative references to other standards.

   *  Updated the text to use consistent terminology for the client and
      CA rather than a mixture of client, requester, requesting system,
      end entity, server, certificate authority, certification
      authority, and CA.

   *  Corrected incorrect references to other standards, e.g.,
      IssuerAndSerial -> IssuerAndSerialNumber.

   *  Corrected errors such as a statement that when both signature and
      encryption certificates existed, the signature certificate was
      used for encryption.

   *  Condensed redundant discussions of the same topic spread across
      multiple sections into a single location.  For example, the
      description of intermediate CA handling previously existed in
      three different locations, with slightly different requirements in
      each one.

   *  Added a description of how pkiMessages were processed, which was
      never made explicit in the original specification.  This led to
      creative interpretations that had security problems but were
      employed anyway due to the lack of specific guidance on what to
      do.

   *  Relaxed some requirements that didn't serve any obvious purpose
      and that major implementations didn't seem to be enforcing.  For
      example, the requirement that the self-signed certificate used
      with a request MUST contain a subject name that matched the one in
      the PKCS #10 request was relaxed to a SHOULD, because a number of
      implementations either ignored the issue entirely or at worst
      performed some minor action like creating a log entry, after which
      they continued anyway.

   *  Removed discussion of the transactionID from the security
      considerations, since the instructions there were directly
      contradicted by the discussion of the use of the transactionID in
      Section 5.

   *  Added a requirement that the signed message include the signing
      certificate(s) in the signedData certificates field.  This was
      implicit in the original specification (without it, the message
      couldn't be verified by the CA) and was handled by the fact that
      most PKCS #7/CMS libraries do this by default, but was never
      explicitly mentioned.

   *  Clarified sections that were unclear or even made no sense -- for
      example, the requirement for a "hash on the public key" [sic]
      encoded as a PrintableString.

   *  Renamed "RA certificates" to "intermediate CA certificates".  The
      original document at some point added mention of RA certificates
      without specifying how the client was to determine that an RA was
      in use, how the RA operations were identified in the protocol, or
      how it was used.  It's unclear whether what was meant was a true
      RA or merely an intermediate CA, as opposed to the default
      practice of having certificates issued directly from a single root
      CA certificate.  This update uses the term "intermediate CA
      certificates", since this seems to have been the original intent
      of the text.

   *  Redid the PKIMessage diagram to match what was specified in CMS;
      the original diagram omitted a number of fields and nested data
      structures, which meant that the diagram didn't match either the
      text or the CMS specification.

   *  Removed the requirement for a CertPoll to contain a
      recipientNonce, since CertPoll is a client message and will never
      be sent in response to a message containing a senderNonce.  See
      also the note in Section 3.3.2.

   *  Clarified certificate renewal.  This represents a capability that
      was bolted onto the original protocol with (at best) vaguely
      defined semantics, including a requirement by the CA to guess
      whether a particular request was a renewal or not.  In response to
      developer feedback that they either avoided renewal entirely
      because of this uncertainty or hard-coded in particular behaviour
      on a per-CA basis, this specification explicitly identifies
      renewal requests as such and provides proper semantics for them.

   *  Corrected the requirement that "undefined message types are
      treated as an error", since this negates the effect of GetCACaps,
      which is used to define new message types.  In particular,
      operations such as GetCACaps "Renewal" would be impossible if
      enforced as written, because the Renewal operation was an
      undefined message type at the time.

   *  In line with the above, added IANA registries for several entries
      that had previously been defined in an ad hoc manner in different
      locations in the text.

   *  Added the "SCEPStandard" keyword to GetCACaps to indicate that the
      CA complies with the final version of the SCEP standard, since the
      definition of what constitutes SCEP standards compliance has
      changed significantly over the years.

   *  Added the optional failInfoText attribute to deal with the fact
      that failInfo was incapable of adequately communicating to clients
      why a certificate request operation had been rejected.

   *  Removed the discussion in the security considerations of
      revocation issues, since SCEP doesn't support revocation as part
      of the protocol.

   *  Clarified the use of nonces, which if applied as originally
      specified would have made the use of polling in the presence of a
      lost message impossible.

   *  Removed the discussion of generating a given transactionID by
      hashing the public key, since this implied that there was some
      special significance in the value generated this way.  Since it
      was neither a MUST nor a MAY, it was unsound to imply that servers
      could rely on the value being generated a certain way.  In
      addition, it wouldn't work if multiple transactions as discussed
      in Section 4.4 were initiated, since the deterministic generation
      via hashing would lead to duplicate transactionIDs.

   *  Added examples of SCEP messages to give implementers something to
      aim for.

Acknowledgements

   The editor would like to thank all of the previous editors, authors,
   and contributors for their work maintaining the document over the
   years: Cheryl Madson, Xiaoyi Liu, David McGrew, David Cooper, Andy
   Nourse, Max Pritikin, Jan Vilhuber, and others.  The IETF reviewers
   provided much useful feedback that helped improve the document, and
   in particular spotted a number of things that were present in SCEP
   through established practice rather than by being explicitly
   described in the text.  Numerous other people have contributed during
   the long life cycle of the document, and all deserve thanks.  In
   addition, several PKCS #7 / CMS libraries contributed to
   interoperability by doing the right thing despite what earlier SCEP
   documents required.

   The authors of earlier draft versions of this document would like to
   thank Peter William of ValiCert, Inc. (formerly of VeriSign, Inc.),
   Alex Deacon of VeriSign, Inc., and Christopher Welles of IRE, Inc.
   for their contributions to early versions of this protocol and this
   document.

Author's Address

   Peter Gutmann
   University of Auckland
   Department of Computer Science
   Auckland
   New Zealand

   Email: pgut001@cs.auckland.ac.nz


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