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INFORMATIONAL

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                     B. Varga, Ed.
Request for Comments: 8938                                     J. Farkas
Category: Informational                                         Ericsson
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                L. Berger
                                                 LabN Consulting, L.L.C.
                                                                A. Malis
                                                        Malis Consulting
                                                               S. Bryant
                                                  Futurewei Technologies
                                                           November 2020


         Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Data Plane Framework

Abstract

   This document provides an overall framework for the Deterministic
   Networking (DetNet) data plane.  It covers concepts and
   considerations that are generally common to any DetNet data plane
   specification.  It describes related Controller Plane considerations
   as well.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8938.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Terminology
     2.1.  Terms Used in This Document
     2.2.  Abbreviations
   3.  Overview of the DetNet Data Plane
     3.1.  Data Plane Characteristics
       3.1.1.  Data Plane Technology
       3.1.2.  Encapsulation
     3.2.  DetNet-Specific Metadata
     3.3.  DetNet IP Data Plane
     3.4.  DetNet MPLS Data Plane
     3.5.  Further DetNet Data Plane Considerations
       3.5.1.  Functions Provided on a Per-Flow Basis
       3.5.2.  Service Protection
       3.5.3.  Aggregation Considerations
       3.5.4.  End-System-Specific Considerations
       3.5.5.  Sub-network Considerations
   4.  Controller Plane (Management and Control) Considerations
     4.1.  DetNet Controller Plane Requirements
     4.2.  Generic Controller Plane Considerations
       4.2.1.  Flow Aggregation Control
       4.2.2.  Explicit Routes
       4.2.3.  Contention Loss and Jitter Reduction
       4.2.4.  Bidirectional Traffic
     4.3.  Packet Replication, Elimination, and Ordering Functions
           (PREOF)
   5.  Security Considerations
   6.  IANA Considerations
   7.  References
     7.1.  Normative References
     7.2.  Informative References
   Acknowledgements
   Contributors
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   DetNet (Deterministic Networking) provides the ability to carry
   specified unicast or multicast data flows for real-time applications
   with extremely low packet loss rates and assured maximum end-to-end
   delivery latency.  A description of the general background and
   concepts of DetNet can be found in [RFC8655].

   This document describes the concepts needed by any DetNet data plane
   specification (i.e., the DetNet-specific use of packet header fields)
   and provides considerations for any corresponding implementation.  It
   covers the building blocks that provide the DetNet service, the
   DetNet service sub-layer, and the DetNet forwarding sub-layer
   functions as described in the DetNet architecture [RFC8655].

   The DetNet architecture models the DetNet-related data plane
   functions as being decomposed into two sub-layers: a service
   sub-layer and a forwarding sub-layer.  The service sub-layer is used
   to provide DetNet service protection and reordering.  The forwarding
   sub-layer leverages traffic engineering mechanisms and provides
   congestion protection (low loss, assured latency, and limited out-of-
   order delivery).  A particular forwarding sub-layer may have
   capabilities that are not available on other forwarding sub-layers.
   DetNet makes use of the existing forwarding sub-layers with their
   respective capabilities and does not require 1:1 equivalence between
   different forwarding sub-layer capabilities.

   As part of the service sub-layer functions, this document describes
   typical DetNet node data plane operation.  It describes the
   functionality and operation of the Packet Replication Function (PRF),
   the Packet Elimination Function (PEF), and the Packet Ordering
   Function (POF) within the service sub-layer.  Furthermore, it
   describes the forwarding sub-layer.

   As defined in [RFC8655], DetNet flows may be carried over network
   technologies that can provide service characteristics required by
   DetNet.  For example, DetNet MPLS flows can be carried over IEEE
   802.1 Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) sub-networks [IEEE802.1TSNTG].
   However, IEEE 802.1 TSN support is not required in DetNet.  TSN frame
   preemption is an example of a forwarding layer capability that is
   typically not replicated in other forwarding technologies.  Most of
   DetNet's benefits can be gained by running over a data-link layer
   that has not been specifically enhanced to support all TSN
   capabilities, but for such networks and traffic mixes, delay and
   jitter performance may vary due to the forwarding sub-layer's
   intrinsic properties.

   Different application flows, such as Ethernet or IP, can be mapped on
   top of DetNet.  DetNet can optionally reuse header information
   provided by, or shared with, applications.  An example of shared
   header fields can be found in [RFC8939].

   This document also covers basic concepts related to the Controller
   Plane and Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM).  Data
   plane OAM specifics are out of scope for this document.

2.  Terminology

2.1.  Terms Used in This Document

   This document uses the terminology established in the DetNet
   architecture [RFC8655], and it is assumed that the reader is familiar
   with that document and its terminology.

2.2.  Abbreviations

   The following abbreviations are used in this document:

   BGP         Border Gateway Protocol

   CoS         Class of Service

   d-CW        DetNet Control Word

   DetNet      Deterministic Networking

   DN          DetNet

   GMPLS       Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching

   GRE         Generic Routing Encapsulation

   IPsec       IP Security

   L2          Layer 2

   LSP         Label Switched Path

   MPLS        Multiprotocol Label Switching

   OAM         Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   PCEP        Path Computation Element Communication Protocol

   PEF         Packet Elimination Function

   POF         Packet Ordering Function

   PREOF       Packet Replication, Elimination, and Ordering Functions

   PRF         Packet Replication Function

   PSN         Packet Switched Network

   QoS         Quality of Service

   S-Label     DetNet "service" label

   TDM         Time-Division Multiplexing

   TSN         Time-Sensitive Networking

   YANG        Yet Another Next Generation

3.  Overview of the DetNet Data Plane

   This document describes how application flows, or App-flows
   [RFC8655], are carried over DetNet networks.  The DetNet architecture
   [RFC8655] models the DetNet-related data plane functions as
   decomposed into two sub-layers: a service sub-layer and a forwarding
   sub-layer.

   Figure 1, reproduced from [RFC8655], shows a logical DetNet service
   with the two sub-layers.

              |  packets going  |        ^  packets coming   ^
              v down the stack  v        |   up the stack    |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           |        Source         |   |      Destination      |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           |   Service sub-layer:  |   |   Service sub-layer:  |
           |   Packet sequencing   |   | Duplicate elimination |
           |    Flow replication   |   |      Flow merging     |
           |    Packet encoding    |   |    Packet decoding    |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           | Forwarding sub-layer: |   | Forwarding sub-layer: |
           |  Resource allocation  |   |  Resource allocation  |
           |    Explicit routes    |   |    Explicit routes    |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           |     Lower layers      |   |     Lower layers      |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
                       v                           ^
                        \_________________________/

                 Figure 1: DetNet Data Plane Protocol Stack

   The DetNet forwarding sub-layer may be directly provided by the
   DetNet service sub-layer -- for example, by IP tunnels or MPLS.
   Alternatively, an overlay approach may be used in which the packet is
   natively carried between key nodes within the DetNet network (say,
   between PREOF nodes), and a sub-layer is used to provide the
   information needed to reach the next hop in the overlay.

   The forwarding sub-layer provides the QoS-related functions needed by
   the DetNet flow.  It may do this directly through the use of queuing
   techniques and traffic engineering methods, or it may do this through
   the assistance of its underlying connectivity.  For example, it may
   call upon Ethernet TSN capabilities defined in IEEE 802.1 TSN
   [IEEE802.1TSNTG].  The forwarding sub-layer uses buffer resources for
   packet queuing, as well as reservation and allocation of bandwidth
   capacity resources.

   The service sub-layer provides additional support beyond the
   connectivity function of the forwarding sub-layer.  See Section 4.3
   regarding PREOF.  The POF uses sequence numbers added to packets,
   enabling a range of packet order protection from simple ordering and
   dropping out-of-order packets to more complex reordering of a fixed
   number of out-of-order, minimally delayed packets.  Reordering
   requires buffer resources and has an impact on the delay and jitter
   of packets in the DetNet flow.

   The method of instantiating each of the layers is specific to the
   particular DetNet data plane method, and more than one approach may
   be applicable to a given network type.

3.1.  Data Plane Characteristics

   The data plane has two major characteristics: the technology and the
   encapsulation, as discussed below.

3.1.1.  Data Plane Technology

   The DetNet data plane is provided by the DetNet service and
   forwarding sub-layers.  The DetNet service sub-layer generally
   provides its functions for the DetNet application flows by using or
   applying existing standardized headers and/or encapsulations.  The
   DetNet forwarding sub-layer may provide capabilities leveraging that
   same header or encapsulation technology (e.g., DN IP or DN MPLS), or
   it may be achieved via other technologies, as shown in Figure 2
   below.  DetNet is currently defined for operation over packet-
   switched (IP) networks or label-switched (MPLS) networks.

3.1.2.  Encapsulation

   DetNet encodes specific flow attributes (flow identity and sequence
   number) in packets.  For example, in DetNet IP, zero encapsulation is
   used, and no sequence number is available; in DetNet MPLS, DetNet-
   specific information may be added explicitly to the packets in the
   form of an S-Label and a d-CW [DetNet-MPLS].

   The encapsulation of a DetNet flow allows it to be sent over a data
   plane technology other than its native type.  DetNet uses header
   information to perform traffic classification, i.e., identify DetNet
   flows, and provide DetNet service and forwarding functions.  As
   mentioned above, DetNet may add headers, as is the case for DN MPLS,
   or may use headers that are already present, as is the case for DN
   IP.  Figure 2 illustrates some relationships between the components.

                                             +-----+
                                             | TSN |
                        +-------+          +-+-----+-+
                        | DN IP |          | DN MPLS |
                     +--+--+----+----+   +-+---+-----+-+
                     | TSN | DN MPLS |   | TSN | DN IP |
                     +-----+---------+   +-----+-------+

                     Figure 2: DetNet Service Examples

   The use of encapsulation is also required if additional information
   (metadata) is needed by the DetNet data plane and either (1) there is
   no ability to include it in the client data packet or (2) the
   specification of the client data plane does not permit the
   modification of the packet to include additional data.  An example of
   such metadata is the inclusion of a sequence number required by
   PREOF.

   Encapsulation may also be used to carry or aggregate flows for
   equipment with limited DetNet capability.

3.2.  DetNet-Specific Metadata

   The DetNet data plane can provide or carry the following metadata:

   1.  Flow-ID

   2.  Sequence number

   The DetNet data plane framework supports a Flow-ID (for
   identification of the flow or aggregate flow) and/or a sequence
   number (for PREOF) for each DetNet flow.  The Flow-ID is used by both
   the service and forwarding sub-layers, but the sequence number is
   only used by the service layer.  Metadata can also be used for OAM
   indications and instrumentation of DetNet data plane operation.

   Metadata inclusion can be implicit or explicit.  Explicit inclusions
   involve a dedicated header field that is used to include metadata in
   a DetNet packet.  In the implicit method, part of an already-existing
   header field is used to encode the metadata.

   Explicit inclusion of metadata is possible through the use of IP
   options or IP extension headers.  New IP options are almost
   impossible to get standardized or to deploy in an operational network
   and will not be discussed further in this text.  IPv6 extension
   headers are finding popularity in current IPv6 development work,
   particularly in connection with Segment Routing of IPv6 (SRv6) and IP
   OAM.  The design of a new IPv6 extension header or the modification
   of an existing one is a technique available in the toolbox of the
   DetNet IP data plane designer.

   Explicit inclusion of metadata in an IP packet is also possible
   through the inclusion of an MPLS label stack and the MPLS d-CW, using
   one of the methods for carrying MPLS over IP
   [DetNet-MPLS-over-UDP-IP].  This is described in more detail in
   Section 3.5.5.

   Implicit metadata in IP can be included through the use of the
   network programming paradigm [SRv6-Network-Prog], in which the suffix
   of an IPv6 address is used to encode additional information for use
   by the network of the receiving host.

   An MPLS example of explicit metadata is the sequence number used by
   PREOF, or even the case where all the essential information is
   included in the DetNet-over-MPLS label stack (the d-CW and the DetNet
   S-Label).

3.3.  DetNet IP Data Plane

   An IP data plane may operate natively or through the use of an
   encapsulation.  Many types of IP encapsulation can satisfy DetNet
   requirements, and it is anticipated that more than one encapsulation
   may be deployed -- for example, GRE, IPsec.

   One method of operating an IP DetNet data plane without encapsulation
   is to use 6-tuple-based flow identification, where "6-tuple" refers
   to information carried in IP-layer and higher-layer protocol headers.
   General background on the use of IP headers and 6-tuples to identify
   flows and support QoS can be found in [RFC3670].  The extra field in
   the 6-tuple is the DSCP field in the packet.  [RFC7657] provides
   useful background on differentiated services (Diffserv) and tuple-
   based flow identification.  DetNet flow aggregation may be enabled
   via the use of wildcards, masks, prefixes, and ranges.  The operation
   of this method is described in detail in [RFC8939].

   The DetNet forwarding plane may use explicit route capabilities and
   traffic engineering capabilities to provide a forwarding sub-layer
   that is responsible for providing resource allocation and explicit
   routes.  It is possible to include such information in a native IP
   packet either explicitly or implicitly.

3.4.  DetNet MPLS Data Plane

   MPLS provides a forwarding sub-layer for traffic over implicit and
   explicit paths to the point in the network where the next DetNet
   service sub-layer action needs to take place.  It does this through
   the use of a stack of one or more labels with various forwarding
   semantics.

   MPLS also provides the ability to identify a service instance that is
   used to process the packet through the use of a label that maps the
   packet to a service instance.

   In cases where metadata is needed to process an MPLS-encapsulated
   packet at the service sub-layer, the d-CW [DetNet-MPLS] can be used.
   Although such d-CWs are frequently 32 bits long, there is no
   architectural constraint on the size of this structure -- only the
   requirement that it be fully understood by all parties operating on
   it in the DetNet service sub-layer.  The operation of this method is
   described in detail in [DetNet-MPLS].

3.5.  Further DetNet Data Plane Considerations

   This section provides informative considerations related to providing
   DetNet service to flows that are identified based on their header
   information.

3.5.1.  Functions Provided on a Per-Flow Basis

   At a high level, the following functions are provided on a per-flow
   basis.

3.5.1.1.  Reservation and Allocation of Resources

   Resources might be reserved in order to make them available for
   allocation to specific DetNet flows.  This can eliminate packet
   contention and packet loss for DetNet traffic.  This also can reduce
   jitter for DetNet traffic.  Resources allocated to a DetNet flow
   protect it from other traffic flows.  On the other hand, it is
   assumed that DetNet flows behave in accordance with the reserved
   traffic profile.  It must be possible to detect misbehaving DetNet
   flows and to ensure that they do not compromise QoS of other flows.
   Queuing, policing, and shaping policies can be used to ensure that
   the allocation of resources reserved for DetNet is met.

3.5.1.2.  Explicit Routes

   A flow can be routed over a specific, precomputed path.  This allows
   control of network delay by steering the packet with the ability to
   influence the physical path.  Explicit routes complement reservation
   by ensuring that a consistent path can be associated with its
   resources for the duration of that path.  Coupled with the traffic
   mechanism, this limits misordering and bounds latency.  Explicit
   route computation can encompass a wide set of constraints and can
   optimize the path for a certain characteristic, e.g., highest
   bandwidth or lowest jitter.  In these cases, the "best" path for any
   set of characteristics may not be a shortest path.  The selection of
   the path can take into account multiple network metrics.  Some of
   these metrics are measured and distributed by the routing system as
   traffic engineering metrics.

3.5.1.3.  Service Protection

   Service protection involves the use of multiple packet streams using
   multiple paths -- for example, 1+1 or 1:1 linear protection.  For
   DetNet, this primarily relates to packet replication and elimination
   capabilities.  MPLS offers a number of protection schemes.  MPLS
   hitless protection can be used to switch traffic to an already-
   established path in order to restore delivery rapidly after a
   failure.  Path changes, even in the case of failure recovery, can
   lead to the out-of-order delivery of data requiring POFs either
   within the DetNet service or at a high layer in the application
   traffic.  Establishment of new paths after a failure is out of scope
   for DetNet services.

3.5.1.4.  Network Coding

   Network Coding [nwcrg], not to be confused with network programming,
   comprises several techniques where multiple data flows are encoded.
   These resulting flows can then be sent on different paths.  The
   encoding operation can combine flows and error recovery information.
   When the encoded flows are decoded and recombined, the original flows
   can be recovered.  Note that Network Coding uses an alternative to
   packet-by-packet PREOF.  Therefore, for certain network topologies
   and traffic loads, Network Coding can be used to improve a network's
   throughput, efficiency, latency, and scalability, as well as
   resilience to partition, attacks, and eavesdropping, as compared to
   traditional methods.  DetNet could use Network Coding as an
   alternative to other means of protection.  Network Coding is often
   applied in wireless networks and is being explored for other network
   types.

3.5.1.5.  Load-Sharing

   The use of packet-by-packet load-sharing of the same DetNet flow over
   multiple paths is not recommended, except for the cases listed above
   where PREOF are utilized to improve protection of traffic and
   maintain order.  Packet-by-packet load-sharing, e.g., via Equal-Cost
   Multipath (ECMP) or Unequal-Cost Multipath (UCMP), impacts ordering
   and, possibly, jitter.

3.5.1.6.  Troubleshooting

   DetNet leverages many different forwarding sub-layers, each of which
   supports various tools to troubleshoot connectivity -- for example,
   identification of misbehaving flows.  The DetNet service layer can
   leverage existing mechanisms to troubleshoot or monitor flows, such
   as those in use by IP and MPLS networks.  At the Application layer, a
   client of a DetNet service can use existing techniques to detect and
   monitor delay and loss.

3.5.1.7.  Flow Recognition for Analytics

   Network analytics can be inherited from the technologies of the
   service and forwarding sub-layers.  At the DetNet service edge,
   packet and bit counters (e.g., sent, received, dropped, out of
   sequence) can be maintained.

3.5.1.8.  Correlation of Events with Flows

   The provider of a DetNet service may provide other capabilities to
   monitor flows, such as more detailed loss statistics and timestamping
   of events.  Details regarding these capabilities are out of scope for
   this document.

3.5.2.  Service Protection

   Service protection allows DetNet services to increase reliability and
   maintain a desired level of service assurance in the case of network
   congestion or network failure.  DetNet relies on the underlying
   technology capabilities for various protection schemes.  Protection
   schemes enable partial or complete coverage of the network paths and
   active protection with combinations of the PRF, PEF, and POF.

3.5.2.1.  Linear Service Protection

   An example DetNet MPLS network fragment and its packet flow are
   illustrated in Figure 3.

            1      1.1       1.1      1.2.1    1.2.1      1.2.2
         CE1----EN1--------R1-------R2-------R3--------EN2-----CE2
                  \           1.2.1 /                  /
                   \1.2     /------+                  /
                    +------R4------------------------+
                              1.2.2

            Figure 3: Example of Packet Flow Protected by DetNet

   In Figure 3, the numbers are used to identify the instance of a
   packet.  Packet 1 is the original packet.  Packets 1.1 and 1.2 are
   two first-generation copies of packet 1, packet 1.2.1 is a second-
   generation copy of packet 1.2, and so on.  Note that these numbers
   never appear in the packet and are not to be confused with sequence
   numbers, labels, or any other identifiers that appear in the packet.
   They simply indicate the generation number of the original packet so
   that its passage through the network fragment can be identified for
   the reader.

   Customer Equipment device CE1 sends a packet into the DetNet-enabled
   network.  This is packet 1.  Edge Node EN1 encapsulates the packet as
   a DetNet packet and sends it to Relay Node R1 (packet 1.1).  EN1
   makes a copy of the packet (1.2), encapsulates it, and sends this
   copy to Relay Node R4.

   Note that R1 may be directly attached to EN1, or there may be one or
   more nodes on the path that, for clarity, are not shown in Figure 3.
   The same holds true for any other path between two DetNet entities as
   shown in the figure.

   Relay Node R4 has been configured to send one copy of the packet to
   Relay Node R2 (packet 1.2.1) and one copy to Edge Node EN2 (packet
   1.2.2).

   R2 receives packet copy 1.2.1 before packet copy 1.1 arrives and,
   having been configured to perform packet elimination on this DetNet
   flow, forwards packet 1.2.1 to Relay Node R3.  Packet copy 1.1 is of
   no further use and so is discarded by R2.

   Edge Node EN2 receives packet copy 1.2.2 from R4 before it receives
   packet copy 1.2.1 from R2 via Relay Node R3.  EN2 therefore strips
   any DetNet encapsulation from packet copy 1.2.2 and forwards the
   packet to CE2.  When EN2 receives packet copy 1.2.1 later on, the
   copy is discarded.

   The above is of course illustrative of many network scenarios that
   can be configured.

   This example also illustrates a 1:1 protection scheme, meaning there
   is traffic over each segment of the end-to-end path.  Local DetNet
   relay nodes determine which packets are eliminated and which packets
   are forwarded.  A 1+1 scheme where only one path is used for traffic
   at a time could use the same topology.  In this case, there is no
   PRF, and traffic is switched upon detection of failure.  An OAM
   scheme that monitors the paths to detect the loss of a path or
   traffic is required to initiate the switch.  A POF may still be used
   in this case to prevent misordering of packets.  In both cases, the
   protection paths are established and maintained for the duration of
   the DetNet service.

3.5.2.2.  Path Differential Delay

   In the preceding example, proper operation of duplicate elimination
   and the reordering of packets are dependent on the number of out-of-
   order packets that can be buffered and the difference in delay of the
   arriving packets.  DetNet uses flow-specific requirements (e.g.,
   maximum number of out-of-order packets, maximum latency of the flow)
   for configuration of POF-related buffers.  If the differential delay
   between paths is excessively large or there is excessive misordering
   of the packets, then packets may be dropped instead of being
   reordered.  Likewise, the PEF uses the sequence number to identify
   duplicate packets, and large differential delays combined with high
   numbers of packets may exceed the PEF's ability to work properly.

3.5.2.3.  Ring Service Protection

   Ring protection may also be supported if the underlying technology
   supports it.  Many of the same concepts apply; however, rings are
   normally 1+1 protection for data efficiency reasons.  [RFC8227]
   provides an example of an MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) data plane
   that supports ring protection.

3.5.3.  Aggregation Considerations

   The DetNet data plane also allows for the aggregation of DetNet
   flows, which can improve scalability by reducing the per-hop state.
   How this is accomplished is data plane or control plane dependent.
   When DetNet flows are aggregated, transit nodes provide service to
   the aggregate and not on a per-DetNet-flow basis.  When aggregating
   DetNet flows, the flows should be compatible, i.e., the same or very
   similar QoS and CoS characteristics.  In this case, nodes performing
   aggregation will ensure that per-flow service requirements are
   achieved.

   If bandwidth reservations are used, the reservation should be the sum
   of all the individual reservations; in other words, the reservations
   should not add up to an oversubscription of bandwidth reservation.
   If maximum delay bounds are used, the system should ensure that the
   aggregate does not exceed the delay bounds of the individual flows.

   When an encapsulation is used, the choice of reserving a maximum
   resource level and then tracking the services in the aggregated
   service or adjusting the aggregated resources as the services are
   added is implementation and technology specific.

   DetNet flows at edges must be able to handle rejection to an
   aggregation group due to lack of resources as well as conditions
   where requirements are not satisfied.

3.5.3.1.  IP Aggregation

   IP aggregation has both data plane and Controller Plane aspects.  For
   the data plane, flows may be aggregated for treatment based on shared
   characteristics such as 6-tuple [RFC8939].  Alternatively, an IP
   encapsulation may be used to tunnel an aggregate number of DetNet
   flows between relay nodes.

3.5.3.2.  MPLS Aggregation

   MPLS aggregation also has data plane and Controller Plane aspects.
   MPLS flows are often tunneled in a forwarding sub-layer, under the
   reservation associated with that MPLS tunnel.

3.5.4.  End-System-Specific Considerations

   Data flows requiring DetNet service are generated and terminated on
   end systems.  Encapsulation depends on the application and its
   preferences.  For example, in a DetNet MPLS domain, the sub-layer
   functions use the d-CWs, S-Labels, and F-Labels [DetNet-MPLS] to
   provide DetNet services.  However, an application may exchange
   further flow-related parameters (e.g., timestamps) that are not
   provided by DetNet functions.

   As a general rule, DetNet domains are capable of forwarding any
   DetNet flows, and the DetNet domain does not mandate the
   encapsulation format for end systems or edge nodes.  Unless some form
   of proxy is present, end systems peer with similar end systems using
   the same application encapsulation format.  For example, as shown in
   Figure 4, IP applications peer with IP applications, and Ethernet
   applications peer with Ethernet applications.

             +-----+
             |  X  |                               +-----+
             +-----+                               |  X  |
             | Eth |               ________        +-----+
             +-----+     _____    /        \       | Eth |
                    \   /     \__/          \___   +-----+
                     \ /                        \ /
                      0======== tunnel-1 ========0_
                      |                             \
                       \                             |
                       0========= tunnel-2 =========0
                      / \                        __/ \
               +-----+   \__ DetNet MPLS domain /     \
               |  X  |      \         __       /       +-----+
               +-----+       \_______/  \_____/        |  X  |
               |  IP |                                 +-----+
               +-----+                                 |  IP |
                                                       +-----+

              Figure 4: End Systems and the DetNet MPLS Domain

3.5.5.  Sub-network Considerations

   Any of the DetNet service types may be transported by another DetNet
   service.  MPLS nodes may be interconnected by different sub-network
   technologies, which may include point-to-point links.  Each of these
   sub-network technologies needs to provide appropriate service to
   DetNet flows.  In some cases, e.g., on dedicated point-to-point links
   or TDM technologies, all that is required is for a DetNet node to
   appropriately queue its output traffic.  In other cases, DetNet nodes
   will need to map DetNet flows to the flow semantics (i.e.,
   identifiers) and mechanisms used by an underlying sub-network
   technology.  Figure 5 shows several examples of sub-network
   encapsulations that can be used to carry DetNet MPLS flows over
   different sub-network technologies.  L2 represents a generic Layer 2
   encapsulation that might be used on a point-to-point link.  TSN
   represents the encapsulation used on an IEEE 802.1 TSN network, as
   described in [DetNet-MPLS-over-TSN].  UDP/IP represents the
   encapsulation used on a DetNet IP PSN, as described in
   [DetNet-MPLS-over-UDP-IP].

                              +------+  +------+  +------+
           App-flow           |  X   |  |  X   |  |  X   |
                        +-----+======+--+======+--+======+-----+
           DetNet-MPLS        | d-CW |  | d-CW |  | d-CW |
                              +------+  +------+  +------+
                              |Labels|  |Labels|  |Labels|
                        +-----+======+--+======+--+======+-----+
           Sub-network        |  L2  |  | TSN  |  | UDP  |
                              +------+  +------+  +------+
                                                  |  IP  |
                                                  +------+
                                                  |  L2  |
                                                  +------+

        Figure 5: Example DetNet MPLS Encapsulations in Sub-networks

4.  Controller Plane (Management and Control) Considerations

4.1.  DetNet Controller Plane Requirements

   The Controller Plane corresponds to the aggregation of the Control
   and Management Planes discussed in [RFC7426] and [RFC8655].  While
   more details regarding any DetNet Controller Plane are out of scope
   for this document, there are particular considerations and
   requirements for the Controller Plane that result from the unique
   characteristics of the DetNet architecture and data plane as defined
   herein.

   The primary requirements of the DetNet Controller Plane are that it
   must be able to:

   *  Instantiate DetNet flows in a DetNet domain (which may, for
      example, include some or all of the following: explicit path
      determination, link bandwidth reservations, restricting flows to
      IEEE 802.1 TSN links, node buffer and other resource reservations,
      specification of required queuing disciplines along the path,
      ability to manage bidirectional flows, etc.) as needed for a flow.

   *  In the case of MPLS, manage DetNet S-Label and F-Label allocation
      and distribution.  In cases where the DetNet MPLS encapsulation is
      being used, see [DetNet-MPLS].

   *  Support DetNet flow aggregation.

   *  Advertise static and dynamic node and link resources such as
      capabilities and adjacencies to other network nodes (for dynamic
      signaling approaches) or to network controllers (for centralized
      approaches).

   *  Scale to handle the number of DetNet flows expected in a domain
      (which may require per-flow signaling or provisioning).

   *  Provision flow identification information at each of the nodes
      along the path.  Flow identification may differ, depending on the
      location in the network and the DetNet functionality (e.g.,
      transit node vs. relay node).

   These requirements, as stated earlier, could be satisfied using
   distributed control protocol signaling (such as RSVP-TE), centralized
   network management provisioning mechanisms (BGP, PCEP, YANG,
   [DetNet-Flow-Info], etc.), or hybrid combinations of the two, and
   could also make use of MPLS-based segment routing.

   In the abstract, the results of either distributed signaling or
   centralized provisioning are equivalent from a DetNet data plane
   perspective -- flows are instantiated, explicit routes are
   determined, resources are reserved, and packets are forwarded through
   the domain using the DetNet data plane.

   However, from a practical and implementation standpoint, Controller
   Plane alternatives are not equivalent at all.  Some approaches are
   more scalable than others in terms of signaling load on the network.
   Some alternatives can take advantage of global tracking of resources
   in the DetNet domain for better overall network resource
   optimization.  Some solutions are more resilient than others if link,
   node, or management equipment failures occur.  While a detailed
   analysis of the control plane alternatives is out of scope for this
   document, the requirements from this document can be used as the
   basis of a future analysis of the alternatives.

4.2.  Generic Controller Plane Considerations

   This section covers control plane considerations that are independent
   of the data plane technology used for DetNet service delivery.

   While the management plane and the control plane are traditionally
   considered separately, from a data plane perspective, there is no
   practical difference based on the origin of flow-provisioning
   information, and the DetNet architecture [RFC8655] refers to these
   collectively as the "Controller Plane".  This document therefore does
   not distinguish between information provided by distributed control
   plane protocols (e.g., RSVP-TE [RFC3209] [RFC3473]) or centralized
   network management mechanisms (e.g., RESTCONF [RFC8040], YANG
   [RFC7950], PCEP [PCECC]), or any combination thereof.  Specific
   considerations and requirements for the DetNet Controller Plane are
   discussed in Section 4.1.

   Each respective data plane document also covers the control plane
   considerations for that technology.  For example, [RFC8939] also
   covers IP control plane normative considerations, and [DetNet-MPLS]
   also covers MPLS control plane normative considerations.

4.2.1.  Flow Aggregation Control

   Flow aggregation means that multiple App-flows are served by a single
   new DetNet flow.  There are many techniques to achieve aggregation.
   For example, in the case of IP, IP flows that share 6-tuple
   attributes or flow identifiers at the DetNet sub-layer can be
   grouped.  Another example includes aggregation accomplished through
   the use of hierarchical LSPs in MPLS and tunnels.

   Control of aggregation involves a set of procedures listed here.
   Aggregation may use some or all of these capabilities, and the order
   may vary:

   Traffic engineering resource collection and distribution:
      Available resources are tracked through control plane or
      management plane databases and distributed amongst controllers or
      nodes that can manage resources.

   Path computation and resource allocation:
      When DetNet services are provisioned or requested, one or more
      paths meeting the requirements are selected and the resources
      verified and recorded.

   Resource assignment and data plane coordination:
      The assignment of resources along the path depends on the
      technology and includes assignment of specific links, coordination
      of queuing, and other traffic management capabilities such as
      policing and shaping.

   Assigned resource recording and updating:
      Depending on the specific technology, the assigned resources are
      updated and distributed in the databases, preventing
      oversubscription.

4.2.2.  Explicit Routes

   Explicit routes are used to ensure that packets are routed through
   the resources that have been reserved for them and hence provide the
   DetNet application with the required service.  A requirement for the
   DetNet Controller Plane will be the ability to assign a particular
   identified DetNet IP flow to a path through the DetNet domain that
   has been assigned the required per-node resources.  This provides the
   appropriate traffic treatment for the flow and also includes
   particular links as a part of the path that are able to support the
   DetNet flow.  For example, by using IEEE 802.1 TSN links (as
   discussed in [DetNet-MPLS-over-TSN]), DetNet parameters can be
   maintained.  Further considerations and requirements for the DetNet
   Controller Plane are discussed in Section 4.1.

   Whether configuring, calculating, and instantiating these routes is a
   single-stage or multi-stage process, or is performed in a centralized
   or distributed manner, is out of scope for this document.

   There are several approaches that could be used to provide explicit
   routes and resource allocation in the DetNet forwarding sub-layer.
   For example:

   *  The path could be explicitly set up by a controller that
      calculates the path and explicitly configures each node along that
      path with the appropriate forwarding and resource allocation
      information.

   *  The path could use a distributed control plane such as RSVP
      [RFC2205] or RSVP-TE [RFC3473] extended to support DetNet IP
      flows.

   *  The path could be implemented using IPv6-based segment routing
      when extended to support resource allocation.

   See Section 4.1 for further discussion of these alternatives.  In
   addition, [RFC2386] contains useful background information on QoS-
   based routing, and [RFC5575] (which will be updated by
   [Flow-Spec-Rules]) discusses a specific mechanism used by BGP for
   traffic flow specification and policy-based routing.

4.2.3.  Contention Loss and Jitter Reduction

   This document does not specify the mechanisms needed to eliminate
   packet contention or packet loss or to reduce jitter for DetNet flows
   at the DetNet forwarding sub-layer.  The ability to manage node and
   link resources to be able to provide these functions is a necessary
   part of the DetNet Controller Plane.  It is also necessary to be able
   to control the required queuing mechanisms used to provide these
   functions along a flow's path through the network.  See [RFC8939] and
   Section 4.1 for further discussion of these requirements.  Some forms
   of protection may minimize packet loss or change jitter
   characteristics in the cases where packets are reordered when out-of-
   order packets are received at the service sub-layer.

4.2.4.  Bidirectional Traffic

   In many cases, DetNet flows can be considered unidirectional and
   independent.  However, there are cases where the DetNet service
   requires bidirectional traffic from a DetNet application service
   perspective.  IP and MPLS typically treat each direction separately
   and do not force interdependence of each direction.  The IETF MPLS
   Working Group has studied bidirectional traffic requirements.  The
   definitions provided in [RFC5654] are useful to illustrate terms such
   as associated bidirectional flows and co-routed bidirectional flows.
   MPLS defines a point-to-point associated bidirectional LSP as
   consisting of two unidirectional point-to-point LSPs, one from A to B
   and the other from B to A, which are regarded as providing a single
   logical bidirectional forwarding path.  This is analogous to standard
   IP routing.  MPLS defines a point-to-point co-routed bidirectional
   LSP as an associated bidirectional LSP that satisfies the additional
   constraint that its two unidirectional component LSPs follow the same
   path (in terms of both nodes and links) in both directions.  An
   important property of co-routed bidirectional LSPs is that their
   unidirectional component LSPs share fate.  In both types of
   bidirectional LSPs, resource reservations may differ in each
   direction.  The concepts of associated bidirectional flows and
   co-routed bidirectional flows can also be applied to DetNet IP flows.

   While the DetNet IP data plane must support bidirectional DetNet
   flows, there are no special bidirectional features with respect to
   the data plane other than the need for the two directions of a
   co-routed bidirectional flow to take the same path.  That is to say,
   bidirectional DetNet flows are solely represented at the management
   plane and control plane levels, without specific support or knowledge
   within the DetNet data plane.  Fate-sharing and associated or
   co-routed bidirectional flows can be managed at the control level.

   DetNet's use of PREOF may increase the complexity of using co-routing
   bidirectional flows, because if PREOF are used, the replication
   points in one direction would have to match the elimination points in
   the other direction, and vice versa.  In such cases, the optimal
   points for these functions in one direction may not match the optimal
   points in the other, due to network and traffic constraints.
   Furthermore, due to the per-packet service protection nature,
   bidirectional forwarding may not be ensured.  The first packet of
   received member flows is selected by the elimination function
   independently of which path it has taken through the network.

   Control and management mechanisms need to support bidirectional
   flows, but the specification of such mechanisms is out of scope for
   this document.  Example control plane solutions for MPLS can be found
   in [RFC3473], [RFC6387], and [RFC7551].  These requirements are
   included in Section 4.1.

4.3.  Packet Replication, Elimination, and Ordering Functions (PREOF)

   The Controller Plane protocol solution required for managing the
   processing of PREOF is outside the scope of this document.  That
   said, it should be noted that the ability to determine, for a
   particular flow, optimal packet replication and elimination points in
   the DetNet domain requires explicit support.  There may be existing
   capabilities that can be used or extended -- for example, GMPLS end-
   to-end recovery [RFC4872] and GMPLS segment recovery [RFC4873].

5.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations for DetNet are described in detail in
   [DetNet-Security].  General security considerations for the DetNet
   architecture are described in [RFC8655].  This section considers
   architecture-level DetNet security considerations applicable to all
   data planes.

   Part of what makes DetNet unique is its ability to provide specific
   and reliable QoS (delivering data flows with extremely low packet
   loss rates and bounded end-to-end delivery latency), and the
   security-related aspects of protecting that QoS are similarly unique.

   As for all communications protocols, the primary consideration for
   the data plane is to maintain integrity of data and delivery of the
   associated DetNet service traversing the DetNet network.  Application
   flows can be protected through whatever means is provided by the
   underlying technology.  For example, encryption may be used, such as
   that provided by IPsec [RFC4301] for IP flows and/or by an underlying
   sub-network using MACsec [IEEE802.1AE-2018] for Ethernet (Layer 2)
   flows.

   At the management and control levels, DetNet flows are identified on
   a per-flow basis, which may provide Controller Plane attackers with
   additional information about the data flows (when compared to
   Controller Planes that do not include per-flow identification).  This
   is an inherent property of DetNet that has security implications that
   should be considered when determining if DetNet is a suitable
   technology for any given use case.

   To provide uninterrupted availability of the DetNet service,
   provisions can be made against DoS attacks and delay attacks.  To
   protect against DoS attacks, excess traffic due to malicious or
   malfunctioning devices can be prevented or mitigated -- for example,
   through the use of existing mechanisms such as policing and shaping
   applied at the input of a DetNet domain.  To prevent DetNet packets
   from being delayed by an entity external to a DetNet domain, DetNet
   technology definitions can allow for the mitigation of man-in-the-
   middle attacks -- for example, through the use of authentication and
   authorization of devices within the DetNet domain.

   In order to prevent or mitigate DetNet attacks on other networks via
   flow escape, edge devices can, for example, use existing mechanisms
   such as policing and shaping applied at the output of a DetNet
   domain.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC8655]  Finn, N., Thubert, P., Varga, B., and J. Farkas,
              "Deterministic Networking Architecture", RFC 8655,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8655, October 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8655>.

7.2.  Informative References

   [DetNet-Flow-Info]
              Varga, B., Farkas, J., Cummings, R., Jiang, Y., and D.
              Fedyk, "DetNet Flow Information Model", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-detnet-flow-information-model-
              11, 21 October 2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-
              ietf-detnet-flow-information-model-11>.

   [DetNet-MPLS]
              Varga, B., Ed., Farkas, J., Berger, L., Malis, A., Bryant,
              S., and J. Korhonen, "DetNet Data Plane: MPLS", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-detnet-mpls-13, 11
              October 2020,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-detnet-mpls-13>.

   [DetNet-MPLS-over-TSN]
              Varga, B., Ed., Farkas, J., Malis, A., and S. Bryant,
              "DetNet Data Plane: MPLS over IEEE 802.1 Time Sensitive
              Networking (TSN)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-detnet-mpls-over-tsn-04, 2 November 2020,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-detnet-mpls-over-
              tsn-04>.

   [DetNet-MPLS-over-UDP-IP]
              Varga, B., Ed., Farkas, J., Berger, L., Malis, A., and S.
              Bryant, "DetNet Data Plane: MPLS over UDP/IP", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-detnet-mpls-over-udp-
              ip-07, 11 October 2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/
              draft-ietf-detnet-mpls-over-udp-ip-07>.

   [DetNet-Security]
              Grossman, E., Ed., Mizrahi, T., and A. Hacker,
              "Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Security
              Considerations", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-detnet-security-12, 2 October 2020,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-detnet-security-
              12>.

   [Flow-Spec-Rules]
              Loibl, C., Hares, S., Raszuk, R., McPherson, D., and M.
              Bacher, "Dissemination of Flow Specification Rules", Work
              in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-idr-rfc5575bis-27,
              15 October 2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-
              idr-rfc5575bis-27>.

   [IEEE802.1AE-2018]
              IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
              networks-Media Access Control (MAC) Security", IEEE Std
              802.1AE-2018, DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2018.8585421, December
              2018, <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8585421>.

   [IEEE802.1TSNTG]
              IEEE, "Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) Task Group",
              <https://1.ieee802.org/tsn/>.

   [nwcrg]    IRTF, "Coding for efficient NetWork Communications
              Research Group (nwcrg)",
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/rg/nwcrg/about>.

   [PCECC]    Li, Z., Peng, S., Negi, M. S., Zhao, Q., and C. Zhou,
              "PCEP Procedures and Protocol Extensions for Using PCE as
              a Central Controller (PCECC) of LSPs", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-pce-pcep-extension-for-pce-
              controller-08, 1 November 2020,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-pce-pcep-
              extension-for-pce-controller-08>.

   [RFC2205]  Braden, R., Ed., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
              Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1
              Functional Specification", RFC 2205, DOI 10.17487/RFC2205,
              September 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2205>.

   [RFC2386]  Crawley, E., Nair, R., Rajagopalan, B., and H. Sandick, "A
              Framework for QoS-based Routing in the Internet",
              RFC 2386, DOI 10.17487/RFC2386, August 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2386>.

   [RFC3209]  Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V.,
              and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP
              Tunnels", RFC 3209, DOI 10.17487/RFC3209, December 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3209>.

   [RFC3473]  Berger, L., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
              Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-
              Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC 3473,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3473, January 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3473>.

   [RFC3670]  Moore, B., Durham, D., Strassner, J., Westerinen, A., and
              W. Weiss, "Information Model for Describing Network Device
              QoS Datapath Mechanisms", RFC 3670, DOI 10.17487/RFC3670,
              January 2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3670>.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301,
              December 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

   [RFC4872]  Lang, J.P., Ed., Rekhter, Y., Ed., and D. Papadimitriou,
              Ed., "RSVP-TE Extensions in Support of End-to-End
              Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)
              Recovery", RFC 4872, DOI 10.17487/RFC4872, May 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4872>.

   [RFC4873]  Berger, L., Bryskin, I., Papadimitriou, D., and A. Farrel,
              "GMPLS Segment Recovery", RFC 4873, DOI 10.17487/RFC4873,
              May 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4873>.

   [RFC5575]  Marques, P., Sheth, N., Raszuk, R., Greene, B., Mauch, J.,
              and D. McPherson, "Dissemination of Flow Specification
              Rules", RFC 5575, DOI 10.17487/RFC5575, August 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5575>.

   [RFC5654]  Niven-Jenkins, B., Ed., Brungard, D., Ed., Betts, M., Ed.,
              Sprecher, N., and S. Ueno, "Requirements of an MPLS
              Transport Profile", RFC 5654, DOI 10.17487/RFC5654,
              September 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5654>.

   [RFC6387]  Takacs, A., Berger, L., Caviglia, D., Fedyk, D., and J.
              Meuric, "GMPLS Asymmetric Bandwidth Bidirectional Label
              Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC 6387, DOI 10.17487/RFC6387,
              September 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6387>.

   [RFC7426]  Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S.,
              Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-
              Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture
              Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7426>.

   [RFC7551]  Zhang, F., Ed., Jing, R., and R. Gandhi, Ed., "RSVP-TE
              Extensions for Associated Bidirectional Label Switched
              Paths (LSPs)", RFC 7551, DOI 10.17487/RFC7551, May 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7551>.

   [RFC7657]  Black, D., Ed. and P. Jones, "Differentiated Services
              (Diffserv) and Real-Time Communication", RFC 7657,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7657, November 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7657>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8227]  Cheng, W., Wang, L., Li, H., van Helvoort, H., and J.
              Dong, "MPLS-TP Shared-Ring Protection (MSRP) Mechanism for
              Ring Topology", RFC 8227, DOI 10.17487/RFC8227, August
              2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8227>.

   [RFC8939]  Varga, B., Ed., Farkas, J., Berger, L., Fedyk, D., and S.
              Bryant, "Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Data Plane:
              IP", RFC 8939, DOI 10.17487/RFC8939, November 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8939>.

   [SRv6-Network-Prog]
              Filsfils, C., Ed., Camarillo, P., Ed., Leddy, J., Voyer,
              D., Matsushima, S., and Z. Li, "SRv6 Network Programming",
              Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-spring-srv6-
              network-programming-26, 26 November 2020,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-spring-srv6-
              network-programming-26>.

Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank Pat Thaler, Norman Finn, Loa Andersson,
   David Black, Rodney Cummings, Ethan Grossman, Tal Mizrahi, David
   Mozes, Craig Gunther, George Swallow, Yuanlong Jiang, and Carlos
   J. Bernardos for their various contributions to this work.

Contributors

   The following people contributed substantially to the content of this
   document:

      Don Fedyk
      Jouni Korhonen

Authors' Addresses

   Balázs Varga (editor)
   Ericsson
   Budapest
   Magyar Tudosok krt. 11.
   1117
   Hungary

   Email: balazs.a.varga@ericsson.com


   János Farkas
   Ericsson
   Budapest
   Magyar Tudosok krt. 11.
   1117
   Hungary

   Email: janos.farkas@ericsson.com


   Lou Berger
   LabN Consulting, L.L.C.

   Email: lberger@labn.net


   Andrew G. Malis
   Malis Consulting

   Email: agmalis@gmail.com


   Stewart Bryant
   Futurewei Technologies

   Email: sb@stewartbryant.com


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