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For this RFC, original HTML is available from the RFC-Editor: RFC8952



Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         K. Larose
Request for Comments: 8952                                      Agilicus
Category: Informational                                        D. Dolson
ISSN: 2070-1721
                                                                  H. Liu
                                                                  Google
                                                           November 2020


                      Captive Portal Architecture

Abstract

   This document describes a captive portal architecture.  Network
   provisioning protocols such as DHCP or Router Advertisements (RAs),
   an optional signaling protocol, and an HTTP API are used to provide
   the solution.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8952.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Requirements Language
     1.2.  Terminology
   2.  Components
     2.1.  User Equipment
     2.2.  Provisioning Service
       2.2.1.  DHCP or Router Advertisements
       2.2.2.  Provisioning Domains
     2.3.  Captive Portal API Server
     2.4.  Captive Portal Enforcement Device
     2.5.  Captive Portal Signal
     2.6.  Component Diagram
   3.  User Equipment Identity
     3.1.  Identifiers
     3.2.  Recommended Properties
       3.2.1.  Uniquely Identify User Equipment
       3.2.2.  Hard to Spoof
       3.2.3.  Visible to the API Server
       3.2.4.  Visible to the Enforcement Device
     3.3.  Evaluating Types of Identifiers
     3.4.  Example Identifier Types
       3.4.1.  Physical Interface
       3.4.2.  IP Address
       3.4.3.  Media Access Control (MAC) Address
     3.5.  Context-Free URI
   4.  Solution Workflow
     4.1.  Initial Connection
     4.2.  Conditions about to Expire
     4.3.  Handling of Changes in Portal URI
   5.  IANA Considerations
   6.  Security Considerations
     6.1.  Trusting the Network
     6.2.  Authenticated APIs
     6.3.  Secure APIs
     6.4.  Risks Associated with the Signaling Protocol
     6.5.  User Options
     6.6.  Privacy
   7.  References
     7.1.  Normative References
     7.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Existing Captive Portal Detection Implementations
   Acknowledgments
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   In this document, "Captive Portal" is used to describe a network to
   which a device may be voluntarily attached, such that network access
   is limited until some requirements have been fulfilled.  Typically, a
   user is required to use a web browser to fulfill requirements imposed
   by the network operator, such as reading advertisements, accepting an
   acceptable-use policy, or providing some form of credentials.

   Implementations of captive portals generally require a web server,
   some method to allow/block traffic, and some method to alert the
   user.  Common methods of alerting the user in implementations prior
   to this work involve modifying HTTP or DNS traffic.

   This document describes an architecture for implementing captive
   portals while addressing most of the problems arising for current
   captive portal mechanisms.  The architecture is guided by these
   requirements:

   *  Current captive portal solutions typically implement some
      variations of forging DNS or HTTP responses.  Some attempt man-in-
      the-middle (MITM) proxy of HTTPS in order to forge responses.
      Captive portal solutions should not have to break any protocols or
      otherwise act in the manner of an attacker.  Therefore, solutions
      MUST NOT require the forging of responses from DNS or HTTP servers
      or from any other protocol.

   *  Solutions MUST permit clients to perform DNSSEC validation, which
      rules out solutions that forge DNS responses.  Solutions SHOULD
      permit clients to detect and avoid TLS man-in-the-middle attacks
      without requiring a human to perform any kind of "exception"
      processing.

   *  To maximize universality and adoption, solutions MUST operate at
      the layer of Internet Protocol (IP) or above, not being specific
      to any particular access technology such as cable, Wi-Fi, or
      mobile telecom.

   *  Solutions SHOULD allow a device to query the network to determine
      whether the device is captive, without the solution being coupled
      to forging intercepted protocols or requiring the device to make
      sacrificial queries to "canary" URIs to check for response
      tampering (see Appendix A).  Current captive portal solutions that
      work by affecting DNS or HTTP generally only function as intended
      with browsers, breaking other applications using those protocols;
      applications using other protocols are not alerted that the
      network is a captive portal.

   *  The state of captivity SHOULD be explicitly available to devices
      via a standard protocol, rather than having to infer the state
      indirectly.

   *  The architecture MUST provide a path of incremental migration,
      acknowledging the existence of a huge variety of pre-existing
      portals and end-user device implementations and software versions.
      This requirement is not to recommend or standardize existing
      approaches, but rather to provide device and portal implementors a
      path to a new standard.

   A side benefit of the architecture described in this document is that
   devices without user interfaces are able to identify parameters of
   captivity.  However, this document does not describe a mechanism for
   such devices to negotiate for unrestricted network access.  A future
   document could provide a solution to devices without user interfaces.
   This document focuses on devices with user interfaces.

   The architecture uses the following mechanisms:

   *  Network provisioning protocols provide end-user devices with a
      Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) [RFC3986] for the API that end-
      user devices query for information about what is required to
      escape captivity.  DHCP, DHCPv6, and Router Advertisement options
      for this purpose are available in [RFC8910].  Other protocols
      (such as RADIUS), Provisioning Domains [CAPPORT-PVD], or static
      configuration may also be used to convey this Captive Portal API
      URI.  A device MAY query this API at any time to determine whether
      the network is holding the device in a captive state.

   *  A Captive Portal can signal User Equipment in response to
      transmissions by the User Equipment.  This signal works in
      response to any Internet protocol and is not done by modifying
      protocols in band.  This signal does not carry the Captive Portal
      API URI; rather, it provides a signal to the User Equipment that
      it is in a captive state.

   *  Receipt of a Captive Portal Signal provides a hint that User
      Equipment could be captive.  In response, the device MAY query the
      provisioned API to obtain information about the network state.
      The device can take immediate action to satisfy the portal
      (according to its configuration/policy).

   The architecture attempts to provide confidentiality, authentication,
   and safety mechanisms to the extent possible.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

1.2.  Terminology

   Captive Portal
      A network that limits the communication of attached devices to
      restricted hosts until the user has satisfied Captive Portal
      Conditions, after which access is permitted to a wider set of
      hosts (typically the Internet).

   Captive Portal Conditions
      Site-specific requirements that a user or device must satisfy in
      order to gain access to the wider network.

   Captive Portal Enforcement Device
      The network equipment that enforces the traffic restriction.  Also
      known as "Enforcement Device".

   Captive Portal User Equipment
      A device that has voluntarily joined a network for purposes of
      communicating beyond the constraints of the Captive Portal.  Also
      known as "User Equipment".

   User Portal
      The web server providing a user interface for assisting the user
      in satisfying the conditions to escape captivity.

   Captive Portal API
      An HTTP API allowing User Equipment to query information about its
      state of captivity within the Captive Portal.  This information
      might include how to obtain full network access (e.g., by visiting
      a URI).  Also known as "API".

   Captive Portal API Server
      A server hosting the Captive Portal API.  Also known as "API
      Server".

   Captive Portal Signal
      A notification from the network used to signal to the User
      Equipment that the state of its captivity could have changed.

   Captive Portal Signaling Protocol
      The protocol for communicating Captive Portal Signals.  Also known
      as "Signaling Protocol".

   Captive Portal Session
      Also referred to simply as the "Session", a Captive Portal Session
      is the association for a particular User Equipment instance that
      starts when it interacts with the Captive Portal and gains open
      access to the network and ends when the User Equipment moves back
      into the original captive state.  The Captive Network maintains
      the state of each active Session and can limit Sessions based on a
      length of time or a number of bytes used.  The Session is
      associated with a particular User Equipment instance using the
      User Equipment's identifier (see Section 3).

2.  Components

2.1.  User Equipment

   The User Equipment is the device that a user desires to be attached
   to a network with full access to all hosts on the network (e.g., to
   have Internet access).  The User Equipment communication is typically
   restricted by the Enforcement Device, described in Section 2.4, until
   site-specific requirements have been met.

   This document only considers devices with web browsers, with web
   applications being the means of satisfying Captive Portal Conditions.
   An example of such User Equipment is a smart phone.

   The User Equipment:

   *  SHOULD support provisioning of the URI for the Captive Portal API
      (e.g., by DHCP).

   *  SHOULD distinguish Captive Portal API access per network
      interface, in the manner of Provisioning Domain Architecture
      [RFC7556].

   *  SHOULD have a non-spoofable mechanism for notifying the user of
      the Captive Portal.

   *  SHOULD have a web browser so that the user may navigate to the
      User Portal.

   *  SHOULD support updates to the Captive Portal API URI from the
      Provisioning Service.

   *  MAY prevent applications from using networks that do not grant
      full network access.  For example, a device connected to a mobile
      network may be connecting to a captive Wi-Fi network; the
      operating system could avoid updating the default route to a
      device on the captive Wi-Fi network until network access
      restrictions have been lifted (excepting access to the User
      Portal) in the new network.  This has been termed "make before
      break".

   None of the above requirements are mandatory because (a) we do not
   wish to say users or devices must seek full access to the Captive
   Portal, (b) the requirements may be fulfilled by manually visiting
   the captive portal web application, and (c) legacy devices must
   continue to be supported.

   If User Equipment supports the Captive Portal API, it MUST validate
   the API Server's TLS certificate (see [RFC2818]) according to the
   procedures in [RFC6125].  The API Server's URI is obtained via a
   network provisioning protocol, which will typically provide a
   hostname to be used in TLS server certificate validation, against a
   DNS-ID in the server certificate.  If the API Server is identified by
   IP address, the iPAddress subjectAltName is used to validate the
   server certificate.  An Enforcement Device SHOULD allow access to any
   services that User Equipment could need to contact to perform
   certificate validation, such as Online Certificate Status Protocol
   (OCSP) responders, Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs), and NTP
   servers; see Section 4.1 of [RFC8908] for more information.  If
   certificate validation fails, User Equipment MUST NOT make any calls
   to the API Server.

   The User Equipment can store the last response it received from the
   Captive Portal API as a cached view of its state within the Captive
   Portal.  This state can be used to determine whether its Captive
   Portal Session is near expiry.  For example, the User Equipment might
   compare a timestamp indicating when the Session expires to the
   current time.  Storing state in this way can reduce the need for
   communication with the Captive Portal API.  However, it could lead to
   the state becoming stale if the User Equipment's view of the relevant
   conditions (byte quota, for example) is not consistent with the
   Captive Portal API's.

2.2.  Provisioning Service

   The Provisioning Service is primarily responsible for providing a
   Captive Portal API URI to the User Equipment when it connects to the
   network, and later if the URI changes.  The Provisioning Service
   could also be the same service that is responsible for provisioning
   the User Equipment for access to the Captive Portal (e.g., by
   providing it with an IP address).  This section discusses two
   mechanisms that may be used to provide the Captive Portal API URI to
   the User Equipment.

2.2.1.  DHCP or Router Advertisements

   A standard for providing a Captive Portal API URI using DHCP or
   Router Advertisements is described in [RFC8910].  The captive portal
   architecture expects this URI to indicate the API described in
   Section 2.3.

2.2.2.  Provisioning Domains

   [CAPPORT-PVD] proposes a mechanism for User Equipment to be provided
   with Provisioning Domain (PvD) Bootstrap Information containing the
   URI for the API described in Section 2.3.

2.3.  Captive Portal API Server

   The purpose of a Captive Portal API is to permit a query of Captive
   Portal state without interrupting the user.  This API thereby removes
   the need for User Equipment to perform clear-text "canary" (see
   Appendix A) queries to check for response tampering.

   The URI of this API will have been provisioned to the User Equipment.
   (Refer to Section 2.2.)

   This architecture expects the User Equipment to query the API when
   the User Equipment attaches to the network and multiple times
   thereafter.  Therefore, the API MUST support multiple repeated
   queries from the same User Equipment and return the state of
   captivity for the equipment.

   At minimum, the API MUST provide the state of captivity.  Further,
   the API MUST be able to provide a URI for the User Portal.  The
   scheme for the URI MUST be "https" so that the User Equipment
   communicates with the User Portal over TLS.

   If the API receives a request for state that does not correspond to
   the requesting User Equipment, the API SHOULD deny access.  Given
   that the API might use the User Equipment's identifier for
   authentication, this requirement motivates Section 3.2.2.

   A caller to the API needs to be presented with evidence that the
   content it is receiving is for a version of the API that it supports.
   For an HTTP-based interaction, such as in [RFC8908], this might be
   achieved by using a content type that is unique to the protocol.

   When User Equipment receives Captive Portal Signals, the User
   Equipment MAY query the API to check its state of captivity.  The
   User Equipment SHOULD rate-limit these API queries in the event of
   the signal being flooded.  (See Section 6.)

   The API MUST be extensible to support future use cases by allowing
   extensible information elements.

   The API MUST use TLS to ensure server authentication.  The
   implementation of the API MUST ensure both confidentiality and
   integrity of any information provided by or required by it.

   This document does not specify the details of the API.

2.4.  Captive Portal Enforcement Device

   The Enforcement Device component restricts the network access of User
   Equipment according to the site-specific policy.  Typically, User
   Equipment is permitted access to a small number of services
   (according to the policies of the network provider) and is denied
   general network access until it satisfies the Captive Portal
   Conditions.

   The Enforcement Device component:

   *  Allows traffic to pass for User Equipment that is permitted to use
      the network and has satisfied the Captive Portal Conditions.

   *  Blocks (discards) traffic according to the site-specific policy
      for User Equipment that has not yet satisfied the Captive Portal
      Conditions.

   *  Optionally signals User Equipment using the Captive Portal
      Signaling Protocol if certain traffic is blocked.

   *  Permits User Equipment that has not satisfied the Captive Portal
      Conditions to access necessary APIs and web pages to fulfill
      requirements for escaping captivity.

   *  Updates allow/block rules per User Equipment in response to
      operations from the User Portal.

2.5.  Captive Portal Signal

   When User Equipment first connects to a network, or when there are
   changes in status, the Enforcement Device could generate a signal
   toward the User Equipment.  This signal indicates that the User
   Equipment might need to contact the API Server to receive updated
   information.  For instance, this signal might be generated when the
   end of a Session is imminent or when network access was denied.  For
   simplicity, and to reduce the attack surface, all signals SHOULD be
   considered equivalent by the User Equipment as a hint to contact the
   API.  If future solutions have multiple signal types, each type
   SHOULD be rate-limited independently.

   An Enforcement Device MUST rate-limit any signal generated in
   response to these conditions.  See Section 6.4 for a discussion of
   risks related to a Captive Portal Signal.

2.6.  Component Diagram

   The following diagram shows the communication between each component
   in the case where the Captive Portal has a User Portal and the User
   Equipment chooses to visit the User Portal in response to discovering
   and interacting with the API Server.

   o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
   . CAPTIVE PORTAL                                                .
   . +------------+  Join Network               +--------------+   .
   . |            |+--------------------------->| Provisioning |   .
   . |            |  Provision API URI          |  Service     |   .
   . |            |<---------------------------+|              |   .
   . |   User     |                             +--------------+   .
   . | Equipment  |  Query captivity status     +-------------+    .
   . |            |+--------------------------->|  API        |    .
   . |            |  Captivity status response  |  Server     |    .
   . |            |<---------------------------+|             |    .
   . |            |                             +------+------+    .
   . |            |                                    | Status    .
   . |            | Portal UI page requests     +------+------+    .
   . |            |+--------------------------->|             |    .
   . |            | Portal UI pages             | User Portal |    .
   . |            |<---------------------------+|             |    .
   . +------------+                             |             |    .
   .     ^   ^ |                                +-------------+    .
   .     |   | | Data to/from ext. network               |         .
   .     |   | +-----------------> +---------------+  Allow/Deny   .
   .     |   +--------------------+|               |    Rules      .
   .     |                         | Enforcement   |     |         .
   .     |   Captive Portal Signal | Device        |<----+         .
   .     +-------------------------+---------------+               .
   .                                      ^ |                      .
   .                                      | |                      .
   .                          Data to/from external network        .
   .                                      | |                      .
   o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| |. . . . . . . . . . . o
                                          | v
                                     EXTERNAL NETWORK

          Figure 1: Captive Portal Architecture Component Diagram

   In the diagram:

   *  During provisioning (e.g., DHCP), and possibly later, the User
      Equipment acquires the Captive Portal API URI.

   *  The User Equipment queries the API to learn of its state of
      captivity.  If captive, the User Equipment presents the portal
      user interface from the User Portal to the user.

   *  Based on user interaction, the User Portal directs the Enforcement
      Device to either allow or deny external network access for the
      User Equipment.

   *  The User Equipment attempts to communicate to the external network
      through the Enforcement Device.

   *  The Enforcement Device either allows the User Equipment's packets
      to the external network or blocks the packets.  If blocking
      traffic and a signal has been implemented, it may respond with a
      Captive Portal Signal.

   The Provisioning Service, API Server, and User Portal are described
   as discrete functions.  An implementation might provide the multiple
   functions within a single entity.  Furthermore, these functions,
   combined or not, as well as the Enforcement Device, could be
   replicated for redundancy or scale.

3.  User Equipment Identity

   Multiple components in the architecture interact with both the User
   Equipment and each other.  Since the User Equipment is the focus of
   these interactions, the components must be able to both identify the
   User Equipment from their interactions with it and agree on the
   identity of the User Equipment when interacting with each other.

   The methods by which the components interact restrict the type of
   information that may be used as an identifying characteristic.  This
   section discusses the identifying characteristics.

3.1.  Identifiers

   An identifier is a characteristic of the User Equipment used by the
   components of a Captive Portal to uniquely determine which specific
   User Equipment instance is interacting with them.  An identifier can
   be a field contained in packets sent by the User Equipment to the
   external network.  Or, an identifier can be an ephemeral property not
   contained in packets destined for the external network, but instead
   correlated with such information through knowledge available to the
   different components.

3.2.  Recommended Properties

   The set of possible identifiers is quite large.  However, in order to
   be considered a good identifier, an identifier SHOULD meet the
   following criteria.  Note that the optimal identifier will likely
   change depending on the position of the components in the network as
   well as the information available to them.  An identifier SHOULD:

   *  uniquely identify the User Equipment

   *  be hard to spoof

   *  be visible to the API Server

   *  be visible to the Enforcement Device

   An identifier might only apply to the current point of network
   attachment.  If the device moves to a different network location, its
   identity could change.

3.2.1.  Uniquely Identify User Equipment

   The Captive Portal MUST associate the User Equipment with an
   identifier that is unique among all of the User Equipment interacting
   with the Captive Portal at that time.

   Over time, the User Equipment assigned to an identifier value MAY
   change.  Allowing the identified device to change over time ensures
   that the space of possible identifying values need not be overly
   large.

   Independent Captive Portals MAY use the same identifying value to
   identify different User Equipment instances.  Allowing independent
   captive portals to reuse identifying values allows the identifier to
   be a property of the local network, expanding the space of possible
   identifiers.

3.2.2.  Hard to Spoof

   A good identifier does not lend itself to being easily spoofed.  At
   no time should it be simple or straightforward for one User Equipment
   instance to pretend to be another User Equipment instance, regardless
   of whether both are active at the same time.  This property is
   particularly important when the User Equipment identifier is
   referenced externally by devices such as billing systems or when the
   identity of the User Equipment could imply liability.

3.2.3.  Visible to the API Server

   Since the API Server will need to perform operations that rely on the
   identity of the User Equipment, such as answering a query about
   whether the User Equipment is captive, the API Server needs to be
   able to relate a request to the User Equipment making the request.

3.2.4.  Visible to the Enforcement Device

   The Enforcement Device will decide on a per-packet basis whether the
   packet should be forwarded to the external network.  Since this
   decision depends on which User Equipment instance sent the packet,
   the Enforcement Device requires that it be able to map the packet to
   its concept of the User Equipment.

3.3.  Evaluating Types of Identifiers

   To evaluate whether a type of identifier is appropriate, one should
   consider every recommended property from the perspective of
   interactions among the components in the architecture.  When
   comparing identifier types, choose the one that best satisfies all of
   the recommended properties.  The architecture does not provide an
   exact measure of how well an identifier type satisfies a given
   property; care should be taken in performing the evaluation.

3.4.  Example Identifier Types

   This section provides some example identifier types, along with some
   evaluation of whether they are suitable types.  The list of
   identifier types is not exhaustive; other types may be used.  An
   important point to note is that whether a given identifier type is
   suitable depends heavily on the capabilities of the components and
   where in the network the components exist.

3.4.1.  Physical Interface

   The physical interface by which the User Equipment is attached to the
   network can be used to identify the User Equipment.  This identifier
   type has the property of being extremely difficult to spoof: the User
   Equipment is unaware of the property; one User Equipment instance
   cannot manipulate its interactions to appear as though it is another.

   Further, if only a single User Equipment instance is attached to a
   given physical interface, then the identifier will be unique.  If
   multiple User Equipment instances are attached to the network on the
   same physical interface, then this type is not appropriate.

   Another consideration related to uniqueness of the User Equipment is
   that if the attached User Equipment changes, both the API Server and
   the Enforcement Device MUST invalidate their state related to the
   User Equipment.

   The Enforcement Device needs to be aware of the physical interface,
   which constrains the environment; it must either be part of the
   device providing physical access (e.g., implemented in firmware), or
   packets traversing the network must be extended to include
   information about the source physical interface (e.g., a tunnel).

   The API Server faces a similar problem, implying that it should co-
   exist with the Enforcement Device or that the Enforcement Device
   should extend requests to it with the identifying information.

3.4.2.  IP Address

   A natural identifier type to consider is the IP address of the User
   Equipment.  At any given time, no device on the network can have the
   same IP address without causing the network to malfunction, so it is
   appropriate from the perspective of uniqueness.

   However, it may be possible to spoof the IP address, particularly for
   malicious reasons where proper functioning of the network is not
   necessary for the malicious actor.  Consequently, any solution using
   the IP address SHOULD proactively try to prevent spoofing of the IP
   address.  Similarly, if the mapping of IP address to User Equipment
   is changed, the components of the architecture MUST remove or update
   their mapping to prevent spoofing.  Demonstrations of return
   routability, such as that required for TCP connection establishment,
   might be sufficient defense against spoofing, though this might not
   be sufficient in networks that use broadcast media (such as some
   wireless networks).

   Since the IP address may traverse multiple segments of the network,
   more flexibility is afforded to the Enforcement Device and the API
   Server; they simply must exist on a segment of the network where the
   IP address is still unique.  However, consider that a NAT may be
   deployed between the User Equipment and the Enforcement Device.  In
   such cases, it is possible for the components to still uniquely
   identify the device if they are aware of the port mapping.

   In some situations, the User Equipment may have multiple IP addresses
   (either IPv4, IPv6, or a dual-stack [RFC4213] combination) while
   still satisfying all of the recommended properties.  This raises some
   challenges to the components of the network.  For example, if the
   User Equipment tries to access the network with multiple IP
   addresses, should the Enforcement Device and API Server treat each IP
   address as a unique User Equipment instance, or should it tie the
   multiple addresses together into one view of the subscriber?  An
   implementation MAY do either.  Attention should be paid to IPv6 and
   the fact that it is expected for a device to have multiple IPv6
   addresses on a single link.  In such cases, identification could be
   performed by subnet, such as the /64 to which the IP belongs.

3.4.3.  Media Access Control (MAC) Address

   The MAC address of a device is often used as an identifier in
   existing implementations.  This document does not discuss the use of
   MAC addresses within a captive portal system, but they can be used as
   an identifier type, subject to the criteria in Section 3.2.

3.5.  Context-Free URI

   A Captive Portal API needs to present information to clients that is
   unique to that client.  To do this, some systems use information from
   the context of a request, such as the source address, to identify the
   User Equipment.

   Using information from context rather than information from the URI
   allows the same URI to be used for different clients.  However, it
   also means that the resource is unable to provide relevant
   information if the User Equipment makes a request using a different
   network path.  This might happen when User Equipment has multiple
   network interfaces.  It might also happen if the address of the API
   provided by DNS depends on where the query originates (as in split
   DNS [RFC8499]).

   Accessing the API MAY depend on contextual information.  However, the
   URIs provided in the API SHOULD be unique to the User Equipment and
   not dependent on contextual information to function correctly.

   Though a URI might still correctly resolve when the User Equipment
   makes the request from a different network, it is possible that some
   functions could be limited to when the User Equipment makes requests
   using the Captive Portal.  For example, payment options could be
   absent or a warning could be displayed to indicate the payment is not
   for the current connection.

   URIs could include some means of identifying the User Equipment in
   the URIs.  However, including unauthenticated User Equipment
   identifiers in the URI may expose the service to spoofing or replay
   attacks.

4.  Solution Workflow

   This section aims to improve understanding by describing a possible
   workflow of solutions adhering to the architecture.  Note that the
   section is not normative; it describes only a subset of possible
   implementations.

4.1.  Initial Connection

   This section describes a possible workflow when User Equipment
   initially joins a Captive Portal.

   1.  The User Equipment joins the Captive Portal by acquiring a DHCP
       lease, RA, or similar, acquiring provisioning information.

   2.  The User Equipment learns the URI for the Captive Portal API from
       the provisioning information (e.g., [RFC8910]).

   3.  The User Equipment accesses the Captive Portal API to receive
       parameters of the Captive Portal, including the User Portal URI.
       (This step replaces the clear-text query to a canary URI.)

   4.  If necessary, the user navigates to the User Portal to gain
       access to the external network.

   5.  If the user interacted with the User Portal to gain access to the
       external network in the previous step, the User Portal indicates
       to the Enforcement Device that the User Equipment is allowed to
       access the external network.

   6.  The User Equipment attempts a connection outside the Captive
       Portal.

   7.  If the requirements have been satisfied, the access is permitted;
       otherwise, the "Expired" behavior occurs.

   8.  The User Equipment accesses the network until conditions expire.

4.2.  Conditions about to Expire

   This section describes a possible workflow when access is about to
   expire.

   1.  Precondition: the API has provided the User Equipment with a
       duration over which its access is valid.

   2.  The User Equipment is communicating with the outside network.

   3.  The User Equipment detects that the length of time left for its
       access has fallen below a threshold by comparing its stored
       expiry time with the current time.

   4.  The User Equipment visits the API again to validate the expiry
       time.

   5.  If expiry is still imminent, the User Equipment prompts the user
       to access the User Portal URI again.

   6.  The user accepts the prompt displayed by the User Equipment.

   7.  The user extends their access through the User Portal via the
       User Equipment's user interface.

   8.  The User Equipment's access to the outside network continues
       uninterrupted.

4.3.  Handling of Changes in Portal URI

   A different Captive Portal API URI could be returned in the following
   cases:

   *  If DHCP is used, a lease renewal/rebind may return a different
      Captive Portal API URI.

   *  If RA is used, a new Captive Portal API URI may be specified in a
      new RA message received by end User Equipment.

   When the Provisioning Service updates the Captive Portal API URI, the
   User Equipment can retrieve updated state from the URI immediately,
   or it can wait as it normally would until the expiry conditions it
   retrieved from the old URI are about to expire.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

6.  Security Considerations

6.1.  Trusting the Network

   When joining a network, some trust is placed in the network operator.
   This is usually considered to be a decision by a user on the basis of
   the reputation of an organization.  However, once a user makes such a
   decision, protocols can support authenticating that a network is
   operated by who claims to be operating it.  The Provisioning Domain
   Architecture [RFC7556] provides some discussion on authenticating an
   operator.

   The user makes an informed choice to visit and trust the Captive
   Portal URI.  Since the network provides the Captive Portal URI to the
   User Equipment, the network SHOULD do so securely so that the user's
   trust in the network can extend to their trust of the Captive Portal
   URI.  For example, the DHCPv6 AUTH option can sign this information.

   If a user decides to incorrectly trust an attacking network, they
   might be convinced to visit an attacking web page and unwittingly
   provide credentials to an attacker.  Browsers can authenticate
   servers but cannot detect cleverly misspelled domains, for example.

   Further, the possibility of an on-path attacker in an attacking
   network introduces some risks.  The attacker could redirect traffic
   to arbitrary destinations.  The attacker could analyze the user's
   traffic leading to loss of confidentiality, or the attacker could
   modify the traffic inline.

6.2.  Authenticated APIs

   The solution described here requires that when the User Equipment
   needs to access the API Server, the User Equipment authenticates the
   server; see Section 2.1.

   The Captive Portal API URI might change during the Captive Portal
   Session.  The User Equipment can apply the same trust mechanisms to
   the new URI as it did to the URI it received initially from the
   Provisioning Service.

6.3.  Secure APIs

   The solution described here requires that the API be secured using
   TLS.  This is required to allow the User Equipment and API Server to
   exchange secrets that can be used to validate future interactions.
   The API MUST ensure the integrity of this information, as well as its
   confidentiality.

   An attacker with access to this information might be able to
   masquerade as a specific User Equipment instance when interacting
   with the API, which could then allow them to masquerade as that User
   Equipment instance when interacting with the User Portal.  This could
   give them the ability to determine whether the User Equipment has
   accessed the portal, deny the User Equipment service by ending their
   Session using mechanisms provided by the User Portal, or consume that
   User Equipment's quota.  An attacker with the ability to modify the
   information could deny service to the User Equipment or cause them to
   appear as different User Equipment instances.

6.4.  Risks Associated with the Signaling Protocol

   If a Signaling Protocol is implemented, it may be possible for any
   user on the Internet to send signals in an attempt to cause the
   receiving equipment to communicate with the Captive Portal API.  This
   has been considered, and implementations may address it in the
   following ways:

   *  The signal only signals to the User Equipment to query the API.
      It does not carry any information that may mislead or misdirect
      the User Equipment.

   *  Even when responding to the signal, the User Equipment securely
      authenticates with API Servers.

   *  The User Equipment limits the rate at which it accesses the API,
      reducing the impact of an attack attempting to generate excessive
      load on either the User Equipment or API.  Note that because there
      is only one type of signal and one type of API request in response
      to the signal, this rate-limiting will not cause loss of signaling
      information.

6.5.  User Options

   The Captive Portal Signal could signal to the User Equipment that it
   is being held captive.  There is no requirement that the User
   Equipment do something about this.  Devices MAY permit users to
   disable automatic reaction to Captive Portal Signal indications for
   privacy reasons.  However, there would be the trade-off that the user
   doesn't get notified when network access is restricted.  Hence, end-
   user devices MAY allow users to manually control captive portal
   interactions, possibly on the granularity of Provisioning Domains.

6.6.  Privacy

   Section 3 describes a mechanism by which all components within the
   Captive Portal are designed to use the same identifier to uniquely
   identify the User Equipment.  This identifier could be abused to
   track the user.  Implementers and designers of Captive Portals should
   take care to ensure that identifiers, if stored, are stored securely.
   Likewise, if any component communicates the identifier over the
   network, it should ensure the confidentiality of the identifier on
   the wire by using encryption such as TLS.

   There are benefits to choosing mutable anonymous identifiers.  For
   example, User Equipment could cycle through multiple identifiers to
   help prevent long-term tracking.  However, if the components of the
   network use an internal mapping to map the identity to a stable,
   long-term value in order to deal with changing identifiers, they need
   to treat that value as sensitive information; an attacker could use
   it to tie traffic back to the originating User Equipment, despite the
   User Equipment having changed identifiers.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>.

   [RFC6125]  Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and
              Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity
              within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509
              (PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, DOI 10.17487/RFC6125, March
              2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6125>.

   [RFC7556]  Anipko, D., Ed., "Multiple Provisioning Domain
              Architecture", RFC 7556, DOI 10.17487/RFC7556, June 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7556>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8910]  Kumari, W. and E. Kline, "Captive-Portal Identification in
              DHCP and Router Advertisements (RAs)", RFC 8910,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8910, September 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8910>.

7.2.  Informative References

   [CAPPORT-PVD]
              Pfister, P. and T. Pauly, "Using Provisioning Domains for
              Captive Portal Discovery", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-pfister-capport-pvd-00, 30 June 2018,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pfister-capport-pvd-
              00>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC4213]  Nordmark, E. and R. Gilligan, "Basic Transition Mechanisms
              for IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 4213,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4213, October 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4213>.

   [RFC8499]  Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS
              Terminology", BCP 219, RFC 8499, DOI 10.17487/RFC8499,
              January 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8499>.

   [RFC8908]  Pauly, T., Ed. and D. Thakore, Ed., "Captive Portal API",
              RFC 8908, DOI 10.17487/RFC8908, September 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8908>.

Appendix A.  Existing Captive Portal Detection Implementations

   Operating systems and user applications may perform various tests
   when network connectivity is established to determine if the device
   is attached to a network with a captive portal present.  A common
   method is to attempt to make an HTTP request to a known, vendor-
   hosted endpoint with a fixed response.  Any other response is
   interpreted as a signal that a captive portal is present.  This check
   is typically not secured with TLS, as a network with a captive portal
   may intercept the connection, leading to a host name mismatch.  This
   has been referred to as a "canary" request because, like the canary
   in the coal mine, it can be the first sign that something is wrong.

   Another test that can be performed is a DNS lookup to a known address
   with an expected answer.  If the answer differs from the expected
   answer, the equipment detects that a captive portal is present.  DNS
   queries over TCP or HTTPS are less likely to be modified than DNS
   queries over UDP due to the complexity of implementation.

   The different tests may produce different conclusions, varying by
   whether or not the implementation treats both TCP and UDP traffic and
   by which types of DNS are intercepted.

   Malicious or misconfigured networks with a captive portal present may
   not intercept these canary requests and choose to pass them through
   or decide to impersonate, leading to the device having a false
   negative.

Acknowledgments

   The authors thank Lorenzo Colitti for providing the majority of the
   content for the Captive Portal Signal requirements.

   The authors thank Benjamin Kaduk for providing the content related to
   TLS certificate validation of the API Server.

   The authors thank Michael Richardson for providing wording requiring
   DNSSEC and TLS to operate without the user adding exceptions.

   The authors thank various individuals for their feedback on the
   mailing list and during the IETF 98 hackathon: David Bird, Erik
   Kline, Alexis La Goulette, Alex Roscoe, Darshak Thakore, and Vincent
   van Dam.

Authors' Addresses

   Kyle Larose
   Agilicus

   Email: kyle@agilicus.com


   David Dolson

   Email: ddolson@acm.org


   Heng Liu
   Google

   Email: liucougar@google.com


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