MBONED Working Group W. Atwood
Internet-Draft Concordia University/CSE
Intended status: Standards Track S. Islam
Expires: September 03, 2009 INRS Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications
March 04, 2009

Multicast User Authentication


RFC 1112 offers no facilities for participant control or accounting. This document explores the requirements for such facilities, and offers a potential solution, based on extending the IGMP and MLD "join" operations to carry EAP and/or ERP packets.

Status of This Memo

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The procedure for joining a network-level IP multicast group [RFC1112] an open one---a request is made by the receiving host, using MLD (IPv6) [RFC3810] or IGMP (IPv4) [RFC3376], and the multicast routing protocol (typically PIM-SM [RFC4601]) is responsibile for building a Data Distribution Tree (DDT) to ensure that the data are delivered to the receiving host(s).

The procedure for joining an application-level group clearly depends on the application. When IP multicast is used as the data distribution technology, then it is desirable to be able to limit delivery of the network-level multicast data packets to those hosts that have receiving users who are valid members of the application-level group.

The anyone-can-send, anyone-can-receive nature of IP multicast [RFC1112] has resulted in restricted deployment of multicast distribution technology, since it is impossible to generate any revenue from services based on standard multicast.

However, several pieces of the problem have received significant attention in recent years. The problem of security and key management for application-level groups has been explored by the Multicast Security (MSEC) working group, and a framework devised [RFC3740].

The use of AAA protocols (RADIUS [RFC2865], Diameter [RFC3588]) to manage network-level access has been standardized. These protocols (especially Diameter) can be extended to permit controlling access to application-level groups.

The requirements for "well-managed" multicast have been stated in [I-D.ietf-mboned-maccnt-req], and a framework for satisfying these requirements with the help of AAA functionality has been described in [I-D.ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework].

Finally, work is under way on securing the network infrastructure [I-D.lebovitz-kmart-roadmap] and the exchanges between adjacent multicast routers [I-D.ietf-pim-sm-linklocal].

However, one key piece is missing. To minimize the resource wastage that would result from delivering multicast traffic to hosts that have no entitlement to receive them, it is necessary to authenticate and authorize receiving users and to correlate their right to access a group with the action of putting the data on that part of the network that is directly connected to the receiving host.

2. Terminology

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. They indicate requirement levels for compliant PIM-SM implementations.

3. Problem Statement

3.1. Authenticating and Authorizing Multicast Users

The design of IP multicast [RFC1112] ensures that there is no relationship between the receiving hosts and the sending host(s) in a network-level multicast group. Multicast sending hosts do not even know whether there are receiving hosts or not, much less who they are or whether they are entitled to receive the data. The receiving host issues a network-level "join" on behalf of a receiving user, using IGMP (IPv4) [RFC3376] or MLD (IPv6) [RFC3810], and a designated access router is responsible for grafting itself onto the data distribution tree. The network exercises no control over this process---it is required to provide the data flow.

Although specifications exist for encrypting the user data, thus ensuring that only legitimate users can decrypt these data, these specifications provide no way to ensure that the data distribution tree is not extended when a non-authorized receiving user makes a request to join the tree. Thus, key management and receiving user access control have to be considered as separate problems.

Given the lack of a relationship between the sending user(s) and the receiving user(s), it is difficult to create and enforce an appropriate business model.

3.2. Re-authentication and Re-authorization

Several scenarios can cause a need for re-authentication and re-authorization:

3.3. Accounting

The fact of delivery of group data needs to be recorded, to enable revenue to be earned. This is only one of a range of accounting issues that may need to be addressed, which points to the need for a general solution.

3.4. Independence of Authentication and Authorization Procedures

There is a wide range of authentication and authorization procedures that may be desired by an Internet Service Provider, including some that may not yet be standardized. This implies the adoption of a very general framework for such procedures.

3.5. Coupling of Network and Application Level Controls

It is conceivable that a solution could be found for the above issues that would be based on standard network protocols and separate (proprietary or standard) group management protocols. For example, the key management and distribution protocol associated with the application-level group could have authentication as one of its features. However, the separation of the network-level controls from the application-level controls enables a significant class of security attacks. It is therefore important that control of access to the network resources and control of access to the application-level resources be strongly coupled.

3.6. Separation of Network Access Controls from Group Access Controls

Access to the network is different from access to a group. As an example, the authorization to watch a particular video presentation may be associated with a specific family member, while the authorization to use the network connection may be associated with an entire family (or to anyone present in the house).

While existing AAA procedures are designed to control network level access, they must be extended (or alternatives found) if group access must be controlled.

4. Proposed Solution

Two levels of action are apparent: the action of joining the network-level data distribution tree, and the action of joining the group, with its accompanying security properties.

Joining the data distribution tree should not occur unless and until the receiving user has been authenticated and authorized. One way to ensure that this relationship is enforced is to carry the receiving user authentication material in the network-level join packet.

To support multiple types of authentication methods, the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) [RFC3748] provides a standardized solution.

To support a method-independent and efficient re-authentication, the EAP Re-Authentication Protocol (ERP) [RFC5296] provides a possible solution. ERP is applicable for mobile receivers [MulticastMobile].

To permit correlating the join actions (at the group level and the network level) with the accounting procedures, the EAP/ERP packets that are delivered to the access router by the extended network-level join can be forwarded to the local AAA server for a decision, using existing AAA protocols, such as RADIUS or Diameter. In keeping with the statement in [I-D.ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework] that "A CP may delegate AAA responsibility to an NSP.", we observe that the NSP can distribute the responsibility among a collection of local AAA servers, and that there is sufficient generality in the AAA architectural model that a wide range of policies could be implemented, in support of a wide range of business models.

5. Protocol Details

Pending incorporation of the material into this document, readers are invited to access Islam, et al. [MulticastReceiver].

6. Security Considerations


7. IANA Considerations

This document has no actions for IANA.

8. Acknowledgements

9. References

9.1. Normative References

[RFC1112] Deering, S., "Host extensions for IP multicasting", STD 5, RFC 1112, August 1989.
[RFC3810] Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.
[RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B. and A. Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3", RFC 3376, October 2002.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2865] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A. and W. Simpson, "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2865, June 2000.
[RFC3588] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G. and J. Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.
[RFC3748] Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J. and H. Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3748, June 2004.

9.2. Informative References

[RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H. and I. Kouvelas, "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.
[RFC3740] Hardjono, T. and B. Weis, "The Multicast Group Security Architecture", RFC 3740, March 2004.
[RFC5296] Narayanan, V. and L. Dondeti, "EAP Extensions for EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP)", RFC 5296, August 2008.
[I-D.ietf-mboned-maccnt-req] Hayashi, T, Satou, H, Ohta, H, He, H and S Vaidya, "Requirements for Multicast AAA coordinated between Content Provider(s) and Network Service Provider(s)", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-10, August 2010.
[I-D.ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework] Satou, H, Ohta, H, Hayashi, T, Jacquenet, C and H He, "AAA and Admission Control Framework for Multicasting", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework-12, August 2010.
[I-D.lebovitz-kmart-roadmap] Lebovitz, G, "Roadmap for Cryptographic Authentication of Routing Protocol Packets on the Wire", Internet-Draft draft-lebovitz-kmart-roadmap-03, November 2009.
[I-D.ietf-pim-sm-linklocal] Atwood, W, Islam, S and M Siami, "Authentication and Confidentiality in PIM-SM Link-local Messages", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pim-sm-linklocal-10, December 2009.
[MulticastReceiver] Islam, S. and W. Atwood, "Multicast Receiver Access Control by IGMP-AC, Computer Networks, doi://10.1016/j.comnet.2008.12.005", January 2009.
[MulticastMobile] Islam, S. and W. Atwood, "Receiver Access Control and Secured Handoff in Mobile Multicast using IGMP-AC, LCN 2008, pp. 411--418", November 2008.

Authors' Addresses

J. William Atwood Concordia University/CSE 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd, West Montreal, QC H3G 1M8 Canada Phone: +1(514)848-2424 ext3046 EMail: bill@cse.concordia.ca URI: http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~bill
Salekul Islam INRS Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications 800, de La Gauchetiere, suite 800 Montreal, QC H5A 1K6 Canada EMail: Salekul.Islam@emt.inrs.ca URI: http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~salek_is