Network Working Group A. Petrescu
Internet-Draft CEA, LIST
Intended status: Standards Track N. Benamar
Expires: August 18, 2018 Moulay Ismail University
J. Haerri
J. Lee
Sangmyung University
T. Ernst
February 14, 2018

Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11 Networks operating in mode Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set (IPv6-over-80211-OCB)


In order to transmit IPv6 packets on IEEE 802.11 networks running outside the context of a basic service set (OCB, earlier "802.11p") there is a need to define a few parameters such as the supported Maximum Transmission Unit size on the 802.11-OCB link, the header format preceding the IPv6 header, the Type value within it, and others. This document describes these parameters for IPv6 and IEEE 802.11-OCB networks; it portrays the layering of IPv6 on 802.11-OCB similarly to other known 802.11 and Ethernet layers - by using an Ethernet Adaptation Layer.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2018.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents ( in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This document describes the transmission of IPv6 packets on IEEE Std 802.11-OCB networks [IEEE-802.11-2016] (a.k.a "802.11p" see Appendix B). This involves the layering of IPv6 networking on top of the IEEE 802.11 MAC layer, with an LLC layer. Compared to running IPv6 over the Ethernet MAC layer, there is no modification expected to IEEE Std 802.11 MAC and Logical Link sublayers: IPv6 works fine directly over 802.11-OCB too, with an LLC layer.

The IPv6 network layer operates on 802.11-OCB in the same manner as operating on Ethernet, but there are two kinds of exceptions:

In the published literature, many documents describe aspects and problems related to running IPv6 over 802.11-OCB: [I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-survey].

2. Terminology

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

IP-OBU (Internet Protocol On-Board Unit): an IP-OBU is a computer situated in a vehicle such as an automobile, bicycle, or similar. It has at least one IP interface that runs in mode OCB of 802.11, and that has an "OBU" transceiver. See the definition of the term "OBU" in section Appendix I.

IP-RSU (IP Road-Side Unit): an IP-RSU is situated along the road. An IP-RSU has at least two distinct IP-enabled interfaces; at least one interface is operated in mode OCB of IEEE 802.11 and is IP-enabled. An IP-RSU is similar to a Wireless Termination Point (WTP), as defined in [RFC5415], or an Access Point (AP), as defined in IEEE documents, or an Access Network Router (ANR) defined in [RFC3753], with one key particularity: the wireless PHY/MAC layer of at least one of its IP-enabled interfaces is configured to operate in 802.11-OCB mode. The IP-RSU communicates with the IP-OBU in the vehicle over 802.11 wireless link operating in OCB mode.

OCB (outside the context of a basic service set - BSS): A mode of operation in which a STA is not a member of a BSS and does not utilize IEEE Std 802.11 authentication, association, or data confidentiality.

802.11-OCB: mode specified in IEEE Std 802.11-2016 when the MIB attribute dot11OCBActivited is true. The OCB mode requires transmission of QoS data frames (IEEE Std 802.11e), half-clocked operation (IEEE Std 802.11j), and use of 5.9 GHz frequency band. Nota: any implementation should comply with standards and regulations set in the different countries for using that frequency band.

3. Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links are Used

The IEEE 802.11-OCB Networks are used for vehicular communications, as 'Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments'. The IP communication scenarios for these environments have been described in several documents; in particular, we refer the reader to [I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-survey], that lists some scenarios and requirements for IP in Intelligent Transportation Systems.

The link model is the following: STA --- 802.11-OCB --- STA. In vehicular networks, STAs can be IP-RSUs and/or IP-OBUs. While 802.11-OCB is clearly specified, and the use of IPv6 over such link is not radically new, the operating environment (vehicular networks) brings in new perspectives.

The mechanisms for forming and terminating, discovering, peering and mobility management for 802.11-OCB links are not described in this document.

4. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB

4.1. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)

The default MTU for IP packets on 802.11-OCB MUST be 1500 octets. It is the same value as IPv6 packets on Ethernet links, as specified in [RFC2464]. This value of the MTU respects the recommendation that every link on the Internet must have a minimum MTU of 1280 octets (stated in [RFC8200], and the recommendations therein, especially with respect to fragmentation). If IPv6 packets of size larger than 1500 bytes are sent on an 802.11-OCB interface card then the IP stack MUST fragment. In case there are IP fragments, the field "Sequence number" of the 802.11 Data header containing the IP fragment field MUST be increased.

Non-IP packets such as WAVE Short Message Protocol (WSMP) can be delivered on 802.11-OCB links. Specifications of these packets are out of scope of this document, and do not impose any limit on the MTU size, allowing an arbitrary number of 'containers'. Non-IP packets such as ETSI GeoNetworking packets have an MTU of 1492 bytes. The operation of IPv6 over GeoNetworking is specified at [ETSI-IPv6-GeoNetworking].

4.2. Frame Format

IP packets are transmitted over 802.11-OCB as standard Ethernet packets. As with all 802.11 frames, an Ethernet adaptation layer is used with 802.11-OCB as well. This Ethernet Adaptation Layer performing 802.11-to-Ethernet is described in Section 4.2.1. The Ethernet Type code (EtherType) for IPv6 MUST be 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD, or otherwise #86DD).

The Frame format for transmitting IPv6 on 802.11-OCB networks is the same as transmitting IPv6 on Ethernet networks, and is described in section 3 of [RFC2464].

1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

is the binary representation of the EtherType value 0x86DD.

4.2.1. Ethernet Adaptation Layer

An 'adaptation' layer is inserted between a MAC layer and the Networking layer. This is used to transform some parameters between their form expected by the IP stack and the form provided by the MAC layer.

An Ethernet Adaptation Layer makes an 802.11 MAC look to IP Networking layer as a more traditional Ethernet layer. At reception, this layer takes as input the IEEE 802.11 Data Header and the Logical-Link Layer Control Header and produces an Ethernet II Header. At sending, the reverse operation is performed.

The operation of the Ethernet Adaptation Layer is depicted by the double arrow in Figure 1.

 | 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer|
 \                               /                         \         /
   -----------------------------                             --------
              802.11-to-Ethernet Adaptation Layer
 | Ethernet II Header  | IPv6 Header | Payload |

Figure 1: Operation of the Ethernet Adaptation Layer

The Receiver and Transmitter Address fields in the 802.11 Data Header MUST contain the same values as the Destination and the Source Address fields in the Ethernet II Header, respectively. The value of the Type field in the LLC Header MUST be the same as the value of the Type field in the Ethernet II Header.

The ".11 Trailer" contains solely a 4-byte Frame Check Sequence.

Additionally, the Ethernet Adaptation Layer performs operations in relation to IP fragmentation and MTU. One of these operations is briefly described in Section 4.1.

In OCB mode, IPv6 packets MAY be transmitted either as "IEEE 802.11 Data" or alternatively as "IEEE 802.11 QoS Data", as illustrated in Figure 2.

| 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header  | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer|


| 802.11 QoS Data Hdr| LLC Header  | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer|

Figure 2: 802.11 Data Header or 802.11 QoS Data Header

The distinction between the two formats is given by the value of the field "Type/Subtype". The value of the field "Type/Subtype" in the 802.11 Data header is 0x0020. The value of the field "Type/Subtype" in the 802.11 QoS header is 0x0028.

The mapping between qos-related fields in the IPv6 header (e.g. "Traffic Class", "Flow label") and fields in the "802.11 QoS Data Header" (e.g. "QoS Control") are not specified in this document. Guidance for a potential mapping is provided in [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11], although it is not specific to OCB mode.

The placement of IPv6 networking layer on Ethernet Adaptation Layer is illustrated in Figure 3.

|                 IPv6                  |
|       Ethernet Adaptation Layer       |
|             802.11 MAC                |
|             802.11 PHY                |

Figure 3: Ethernet Adaptation Layer stacked with other layers

(in the above figure, a 802.11 profile is represented; this is used also for 802.11 OCB profile.)

Other alternative views of layering are EtherType Protocol Discrimination (EPD), see Appendix E, and SNAP see [RFC1042].

4.3. Link-Local Addresses

The link-local address of an 802.11-OCB interface is formed in the same manner as on an Ethernet interface. This manner is described in section 5 of [RFC2464]. Additionally, if stable identifiers are needed, it is recommended to follow the Recommendation on Stable IPv6 Interface Identifiers [RFC8064]. Additionally, if semantically opaque Interface Identifiers are needed, a potential method for generating semantically opaque Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration is given in [RFC7217].

4.4. Address Mapping

For unicast as for multicast, there is no change from the unicast and multicast address mapping format of Ethernet interfaces, as defined by sections 6 and 7 of [RFC2464].

4.4.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast

The procedure for mapping IPv6 unicast addresses into Ethernet link-layer addresses is described in [RFC4861].

4.4.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast

The multicast address mapping is performed according to the method specified in section 7 of [RFC2464]. The meaning of the value "3333" mentioned in that section 7 of [RFC2464] is defined in section 2.3.1 of [RFC7042].

Transmitting IPv6 packets to multicast destinations over 802.11 links proved to have some performance issues [I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802]. These issues may be exacerbated in OCB mode. Solutions for these problems should consider the OCB mode of operation.

4.5. Stateless Autoconfiguration

The Interface Identifier for an 802.11-OCB interface is formed using the same rules as the Interface Identifier for an Ethernet interface; this is described in section 4 of [RFC2464]. No changes are needed, but some care must be taken when considering the use of the Stateless Address Auto-Configuration procedure.

The bits in the interface identifier have no generic meaning and the identifier should be treated as an opaque value. The bits 'Universal' and 'Group' in the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface are significant, as this is an IEEE link-layer address. The details of this significance are described in [RFC7136].

As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers ([RFC7721]), the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface may involve privacy, MAC address spoofing and IP address hijacking risks. A vehicle embarking an OBU or an IP-OBU whose egress interface is 802.11-OCB may expose itself to eavesdropping and subsequent correlation of data; this may reveal data considered private by the vehicle owner; there is a risk of being tracked; see the privacy considerations described in Appendix F.

If stable Interface Identifiers are needed in order to form IPv6 addresses on 802.11-OCB links, it is recommended to follow the recommendation in [RFC8064]. Additionally, if semantically opaque Interface Identifiers are needed, a potential method for generating semantically opaque Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration is given in [RFC7217].

4.6. Subnet Structure

A subnet is formed by the external 802.11-OCB interfaces of vehicles that are in close range (not their on-board interfaces). This ephemeral subnet structure is strongly influenced by the mobility of vehicles: the 802.11 hidden node effects appear. On another hand, the structure of the internal subnets in each car is relatively stable.

The 802.11 networks in OCB mode may be considered as 'ad-hoc' networks. The addressing model for such networks is described in [RFC5889].

An addressing model involves several types of addresses, like Globally-unique Addresses (GUA), Link-Local Addresses (LL) and Unique Local Addresses (ULA). The subnet structure in 'ad-hoc' networks may have characteristics that lead to difficulty of using GUAs derived from a received prefix, but the LL addresses may be easier to use since the prefix is constant.

The operation of the Neighbor Discovery protocol (ND) over 802.11 OCB links is different than over 802.11 links. In OCB, the link layer does not ensure that all associated members receive all messages, because there is no association operation. The operation of ND over 802.11 OCB is not specified in this document.

The operation of the Mobile IPv6 protocol over 802.11 OCB links is different than on other links. The Movement Detection operation (section 11.5.1 of [RFC6275]) can not rely on Neighbor Unreachability Detection operation of the Neighbor Discovery protocol, for the reason mentioned in the previous paragraph. Also, the 802.11 OCB link layer is not a lower layer that can provide an indication that a link layer handover has occured. The operation of the Mobile IPv6 protocol over 802.11 OCB is not specified in this document.

5. Security Considerations

Any security mechanism at the IP layer or above that may be carried out for the general case of IPv6 may also be carried out for IPv6 operating over 802.11-OCB.

The OCB operation is stripped off of all existing 802.11 link-layer security mechanisms. There is no encryption applied below the network layer running on 802.11-OCB. At application layer, the IEEE 1609.2 document [IEEE-1609.2] does provide security services for certain applications to use; application-layer mechanisms are out-of-scope of this document. On another hand, a security mechanism provided at networking layer, such as IPsec [RFC4301], may provide data security protection to a wider range of applications.

802.11-OCB does not provide any cryptographic protection, because it operates outside the context of a BSS (no Association Request/Response, no Challenge messages). Any attacker can therefore just sit in the near range of vehicles, sniff the network (just set the interface card's frequency to the proper range) and perform attacks without needing to physically break any wall. Such a link is less protected than commonly used links (wired link or protected 802.11).

The potential attack vectors are: MAC address spoofing, IP address and session hijacking and privacy violation.

Within the IPsec Security Architecture [RFC4301], the IPsec AH and ESP headers [RFC4302] and [RFC4303] respectively, its multicast extensions [RFC5374], HTTPS [RFC2818] and SeND [RFC3971] protocols can be used to protect communications. Further, the assistance of proper Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) protocols [RFC4210] is necessary to establish credentials. More IETF protocols are available in the toolbox of the IP security protocol designer. Certain ETSI protocols related to security protocols in Intelligent Transportation Systems are described in [ETSI-sec-archi].

As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers, there may exist privacy risks in the use of 802.11-OCB interface identifiers. Moreover, in outdoors vehicular settings, the privacy risks are more important than in indoors settings. New risks are induced by the possibility of attacker sniffers deployed along routes which listen for IP packets of vehicles passing by. For this reason, in the 802.11-OCB deployments, there is a strong necessity to use protection tools such as dynamically changing MAC addresses. This may help mitigate privacy risks to a certain level. On another hand, it may have an impact in the way typical IPv6 address auto-configuration is performed for vehicles (SLAAC would rely on MAC addresses and would hence dynamically change the affected IP address), in the way the IPv6 Privacy addresses were used, and other effects.

6. IANA Considerations

No request to IANA.

7. Contributors

Christian Huitema, Tony Li.

Romain Kuntz contributed extensively about IPv6 handovers between links running outside the context of a BSS (802.11-OCB links).

Tim Leinmueller contributed the idea of the use of IPv6 over 802.11-OCB for distribution of certificates.

Marios Makassikis, Jose Santa Lozano, Albin Severinson and Alexey Voronov provided significant feedback on the experience of using IP messages over 802.11-OCB in initial trials.

Michelle Wetterwald contributed extensively the MTU discussion, offered the ETSI ITS perspective, and reviewed other parts of the document.

8. Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Witold Klaudel, Ryuji Wakikawa, Emmanuel Baccelli, John Kenney, John Moring, Francois Simon, Dan Romascanu, Konstantin Khait, Ralph Droms, Richard 'Dick' Roy, Ray Hunter, Tom Kurihara, Michal Sojka, Jan de Jongh, Suresh Krishnan, Dino Farinacci, Vincent Park, Jaehoon Paul Jeong, Gloria Gwynne, Hans-Joachim Fischer, Russ Housley, Rex Buddenberg, Erik Nordmark, Bob Moskowitz, Andrew (Dryden?), Georg Mayer, Dorothy Stanley, Sandra Cespedes, Mariano Falcitelli, Sri Gundavelli, Abdussalam Baryun, Margaret Cullen, Erik Kline, Carlos Jesus Bernardos Cano and William Whyte. Their valuable comments clarified particular issues and generally helped to improve the document.

Pierre Pfister, Rostislav Lisovy, and others, wrote 802.11-OCB drivers for linux and described how.

For the multicast discussion, the authors would like to thank Owen DeLong, Joe Touch, Jen Linkova, Erik Kline, Brian Haberman and participants to discussions in network working groups.

The authors would like to thank participants to the Birds-of-a-Feather "Intelligent Transportation Systems" meetings held at IETF in 2016.

9. References

9.1. Normative References

[RFC1042] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over IEEE 802 networks", STD 43, RFC 1042, DOI 10.17487/RFC1042, February 1988.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997.
[RFC2464] Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks", RFC 2464, DOI 10.17487/RFC2464, December 1998.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000.
[RFC3753] Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004.
[RFC3971] Arkko, J., Kempf, J., Zill, B. and P. Nikander, "SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, DOI 10.17487/RFC3971, March 2005.
[RFC4086] Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J. and S. Crocker, "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005.
[RFC4210] Adams, C., Farrell, S., Kause, T. and T. Mononen, "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate Management Protocol (CMP)", RFC 4210, DOI 10.17487/RFC4210, September 2005.
[RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301, December 2005.
[RFC4302] Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302, DOI 10.17487/RFC4302, December 2005.
[RFC4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W. and H. Soliman, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007.
[RFC5374] Weis, B., Gross, G. and D. Ignjatic, "Multicast Extensions to the Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", RFC 5374, DOI 10.17487/RFC5374, November 2008.
[RFC5415] Calhoun, P., Montemurro, M. and D. Stanley, "Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) Protocol Specification", RFC 5415, DOI 10.17487/RFC5415, March 2009.
[RFC5889] Baccelli, E. and M. Townsley, "IP Addressing Model in Ad Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, DOI 10.17487/RFC5889, September 2010.
[RFC6275] Perkins, C., Johnson, D. and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July 2011.
[RFC7042] Eastlake 3rd, D. and J. Abley, "IANA Considerations and IETF Protocol and Documentation Usage for IEEE 802 Parameters", BCP 141, RFC 7042, DOI 10.17487/RFC7042, October 2013.
[RFC7136] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6 Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136, February 2014.
[RFC7217] Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217, DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014.
[RFC7721] Cooper, A., Gont, F. and D. Thaler, "Security and Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Address Generation Mechanisms", RFC 7721, DOI 10.17487/RFC7721, March 2016.
[RFC8064] Gont, F., Cooper, A., Thaler, D. and W. Liu, "Recommendation on Stable IPv6 Interface Identifiers", RFC 8064, DOI 10.17487/RFC8064, February 2017.
[RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200, DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017.

9.2. Informative References

[ETSI-IPv6-GeoNetworking] "ETSI EN 302 636-6-1 v1.2.1 (2014-05), ETSI, European Standard, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Geonetworking; Part 6: Internet Integration; Sub-part 1: Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Geonetworking Protocols. Downloaded on September 9th, 2017, freely available from ETSI website at URL"
[ETSI-sec-archi] "ETSI TS 102 940 V1.2.1 (2016-11), ETSI Technical Specification, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; ITS communications security architecture and security management, November 2016. Downloaded on September 9th, 2017, freely available from ETSI website at URL"
[I-D.hinden-6man-rfc2464bis] Crawford, M. and R. Hinden, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks", Internet-Draft draft-hinden-6man-rfc2464bis-02, March 2017.
[I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-survey] Jeong, J., Cespedes, S., Benamar, N., Haerri, J. and M. Wetterwald, "Survey on IP-based Vehicular Networking for Intelligent Transportation Systems", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-survey-00, July 2017.
[I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11] Szigeti, T., Henry, J. and F. Baker, "Diffserv to IEEE 802.11 Mapping", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11-11, December 2017.
[I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802] Perkins, C., Stanley, D., Kumari, W. and J. Zuniga, "Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media", Internet-Draft draft-perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802-03, July 2017.
[IEEE-1609.2] "IEEE SA - 1609.2-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Security Services for Applications and Management Messages. Example URL accessed on August 17th, 2017."
[IEEE-1609.3] "IEEE SA - 1609.3-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Networking Services. Example URL accessed on August 17th, 2017."
[IEEE-1609.4] "IEEE SA - 1609.4-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Multi-Channel Operation. Example URL accessed on August 17th, 2017."
[IEEE-802.11-2016] "IEEE Standard 802.11-2016 - IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications. Status - Active Standard. Description retrieved freely on September 12th, 2017, at URL"
[IEEE-802.11p-2010] "IEEE Std 802.11p (TM)-2010, IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments; document freely available at URL retrieved on September 20th, 2013."

Appendix A. ChangeLog

The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent changes appearing at the top of the list.

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-15 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-16

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-14 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-15

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-13 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-14

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-12 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-13

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-11 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-12

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-10 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-11

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-09 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-10

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-08 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-09

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-07 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-08

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-06 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-07

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-05 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-06

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-04 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-05

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-03 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-04

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-02 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-03

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-01 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-02

From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-00 to draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-01

Appendix B. 802.11p

The term "802.11p" is an earlier definition. The behaviour of "802.11p" networks is rolled in the document IEEE Std 802.11-2016. In that document the term 802.11p disappears. Instead, each 802.11p feature is conditioned by the Management Information Base (MIB) attribute "OCBActivated". Whenever OCBActivated is set to true the IEEE Std 802.11 OCB state is activated. For example, an 802.11 STAtion operating outside the context of a basic service set has the OCBActivated flag set. Such a station, when it has the flag set, uses a BSS identifier equal to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.

Appendix C. Aspects introduced by the OCB mode to 802.11

In the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode, all nodes in the wireless range can directly communicate with each other without involving authentication or association procedures. At link layer, it is necessary to set the same channel number (or frequency) on two stations that need to communicate with each other. The manner in which stations set their channel number is not specified in this document. Stations STA1 and STA2 can exchange IP packets if they are set on the same channel. At IP layer, they then discover each other by using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol.

Briefly, the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode has the following properties:

All the nodes in the radio communication range (IP-OBU and IP-RSU) receive all the messages transmitted (IP-OBU and IP-RSU) within the radio communications range. The eventual conflict(s) are resolved by the MAC CDMA function.

The message exchange diagram in Figure 4 illustrates a comparison between traditional 802.11 and 802.11 in OCB mode. The 'Data' messages can be IP packets such as HTTP or others. Other 802.11 management and control frames (non IP) may be transmitted, as specified in the 802.11 standard. For information, the names of these messages as currently specified by the 802.11 standard are listed in Appendix G.

     STA                    AP              STA1                   STA2
     |                      |               |                      |
     |<------ Beacon -------|               |<------ Data -------->|
     |                      |               |                      |
     |---- Probe Req. ----->|               |<------ Data -------->|
     |<--- Probe Res. ------|               |                      |
     |                      |               |<------ Data -------->|
     |---- Auth Req. ------>|               |                      |
     |<--- Auth Res. -------|               |<------ Data -------->|
     |                      |               |                      |
     |---- Asso Req. ------>|               |<------ Data -------->|
     |<--- Asso Res. -------|               |                      |
     |                      |               |<------ Data -------->|
     |<------ Data -------->|               |                      |
     |<------ Data -------->|               |<------ Data -------->|

      (i) 802.11 Infrastructure mode         (ii) 802.11-OCB mode

Figure 4: Difference between messages exchanged on 802.11 (left) and 802.11-OCB (right)

The interface 802.11-OCB was specified in IEEE Std 802.11p (TM) -2010 [IEEE-802.11p-2010] as an amendment to IEEE Std 802.11 (TM) -2007, titled "Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments". Since then, this amendment has been integrated in IEEE 802.11(TM) -2012 and -2016 [IEEE-802.11-2016].

In document 802.11-2016, anything qualified specifically as "OCBActivated", or "outside the context of a basic service" set to be true, then it is actually referring to OCB aspects introduced to 802.11.

In order to delineate the aspects introduced by 802.11-OCB to 802.11, we refer to the earlier [IEEE-802.11p-2010]. The amendment is concerned with vehicular communications, where the wireless link is similar to that of Wireless LAN (using a PHY layer specified by 802.11a/b/g/n), but which needs to cope with the high mobility factor inherent in scenarios of communications between moving vehicles, and between vehicles and fixed infrastructure deployed along roads. While 'p' is a letter identifying the Ammendment, just like 'a, b, g' and 'n' are, 'p' is concerned more with MAC modifications, and a little with PHY modifications; the others are mainly about PHY modifications. It is possible in practice to combine a 'p' MAC with an 'a' PHY by operating outside the context of a BSS with OFDM at 5.4GHz and 5.9GHz.

The 802.11-OCB links are specified to be compatible as much as possible with the behaviour of 802.11a/b/g/n and future generation IEEE WLAN links. From the IP perspective, an 802.11-OCB MAC layer offers practically the same interface to IP as the 802.11a/b/g/n and 802.3. A packet sent by an IP-OBU may be received by one or multiple IP-RSUs. The link-layer resolution is performed by using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol.

To support this similarity statement (IPv6 is layered on top of LLC on top of 802.11-OCB, in the same way that IPv6 is layered on top of LLC on top of 802.11a/b/g/n (for WLAN) or layered on top of LLC on top of 802.3 (for Ethernet)) it is useful to analyze the differences between 802.11-OCB and 802.11 specifications. During this analysis, we note that whereas 802.11-OCB lists relatively complex and numerous changes to the MAC layer (and very little to the PHY layer), there are only a few characteristics which may be important for an implementation transmitting IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB links.

The most important 802.11-OCB point which influences the IPv6 functioning is the OCB characteristic; an additional, less direct influence, is the maximum bandwidth afforded by the PHY modulation/demodulation methods and channel access specified by 802.11-OCB. The maximum bandwidth theoretically possible in 802.11-OCB is 54 Mbit/s (when using, for example, the following parameters: 20 MHz channel; modulation 64-QAM; coding rate R is 3/4); in practice of IP-over-802.11-OCB a commonly observed figure is 12Mbit/s; this bandwidth allows the operation of a wide range of protocols relying on IPv6.

Section 4.6.

Other aspects particular to 802.11-OCB, which are also particular to 802.11 (e.g. the 'hidden node' operation), may have an influence on the use of transmission of IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB networks. The OCB subnet structure is described in

Appendix D. Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to become a 802.11-OCB driver

The 802.11p amendment modifies both the 802.11 stack's physical and MAC layers but all the induced modifications can be quite easily obtained by modifying an existing 802.11a ad-hoc stack.

Conditions for a 802.11a hardware to be 802.11-OCB compliant:

Changes needed on the network stack in OCB mode:

Appendix E. EtherType Protocol Discrimination (EPD)

A more theoretical and detailed view of layer stacking, and interfaces between the IP layer and 802.11-OCB layers, is illustrated in Figure 5. The IP layer operates on top of the EtherType Protocol Discrimination (EPD); this Discrimination layer is described in IEEE Std 802.3-2012; the interface between IPv6 and EPD is the LLC_SAP (Link Layer Control Service Access Point).

 |                 IPv6                  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-{            }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             {   LLC_SAP  }                 802.11-OCB
 +-+-+-+-+-+-{            }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  Boundary
 |            EPD          |       |     |
 |                         | MLME  |     |
 +-+-+-{  MAC_SAP   }+-+-+-|  MLME_SAP   |
 |      MAC Sublayer       |       |     |  802.11-OCB
 |     and ch. coord.      |       | SME |  Services
 +-+-+-{   PHY_SAP  }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-|     |
 |                         | PLME  |     |
 |            PHY Layer    |   PLME_SAP  |

Figure 5: EtherType Protocol Discrimination

Appendix F. Design Considerations

The networks defined by 802.11-OCB are in many ways similar to other networks of the 802.11 family. In theory, the encapsulation of IPv6 over 802.11-OCB could be very similar to the operation of IPv6 over other networks of the 802.11 family. However, the high mobility, strong link asymmetry and very short connection makes the 802.11-OCB link significantly different from other 802.11 networks. Also, the automotive applications have specific requirements for reliability, security and privacy, which further add to the particularity of the 802.11-OCB link.

F.1. Vehicle ID

In automotive networks it is required that each node is represented uniquely at a certain point in time. Accordingly, a vehicle must be identified by at least one unique identifier. The current specification at ETSI and at IEEE 1609 identifies a vehicle by its MAC address, which is obtained from the 802.11-OCB Network Interface Card (NIC).

In case multiple 802.11-OCB NICs are present in one car, implicitely multiple vehicle IDs will be generated. Additionally, some software generates a random MAC address each time the computer boots; this constitutes an additional difficulty.

A mechanim to uniquely identify a vehicle irrespectively to the multiplicity of NICs, or frequent MAC address generation, is necessary.

F.2. Reliability Requirements

The dynamically changing topology, short connectivity, mobile transmitter and receivers, different antenna heights, and many-to-many communication types, make IEEE 802.11-OCB links significantly different from other IEEE 802.11 links. Any IPv6 mechanism operating on IEEE 802.11-OCB link must support strong link asymmetry, spatio-temporal link quality, fast address resolution and transmission.

IEEE 802.11-OCB strongly differs from other 802.11 systems to operate outside of the context of a Basic Service Set. This means in practice that IEEE 802.11-OCB does not rely on a Base Station for all Basic Service Set management. In particular, IEEE 802.11-OCB shall not use beacons. Any IPv6 mechanism requiring L2 services from IEEE 802.11 beacons must support an alternative service.

Channel scanning being disabled, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB must implement a mechanism for transmitter and receiver to converge to a common channel.

Authentication not being possible, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB must implement an distributed mechanism to authenticate transmitters and receivers without the support of a DHCP server.

Time synchronization not being available, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB must implement a higher layer mechanism for time synchronization between transmitters and receivers without the support of a NTP server.

The IEEE 802.11-OCB link being asymmetric, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB must disable management mechanisms requesting acknowledgements or replies.

The IEEE 802.11-OCB link having a short duration time, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB should implement fast IPv6 mobility management mechanisms.

F.3. Multiple interfaces

There are considerations for 2 or more IEEE 802.11-OCB interface cards per vehicle. For each vehicle taking part in road traffic, one IEEE 802.11-OCB interface card could be fully allocated for Non IP safety-critical communication. Any other IEEE 802.11-OCB may be used for other type of traffic.

The mode of operation of these other wireless interfaces is not clearly defined yet. One possibility is to consider each card as an independent network interface, with a specific MAC Address and a set of IPv6 addresses. Another possibility is to consider the set of these wireless interfaces as a single network interface (not including the IEEE 802.11-OCB interface used by Non IP safety critical communications). This will require specific logic to ensure, for example, that packets meant for a vehicle in front are actually sent by the radio in the front, or that multiple copies of the same packet received by multiple interfaces are treated as a single packet. Treating each wireless interface as a separate network interface pushes such issues to the application layer.

Certain privacy requirements imply that if these multiple interfaces are represented by many network interface, a single renumbering event shall cause renumbering of all these interfaces. If one MAC changed and another stayed constant, external observers would be able to correlate old and new values, and the privacy benefits of randomization would be lost.

The privacy requirements of Non IP safety-critical communications imply that if a change of pseudonyme occurs, renumbering of all other interfaces shall also occur.

F.4. MAC Address Generation

In 802.11-OCB networks, the MAC addresses may change during well defined renumbering events. A 'randomized' MAC address has the following characteristics:

To meet the randomization requirements for the 46 remaining bits, a hash function may be used. For example, the SHA256 hash function may be used with input a 256 bit local secret, the "nominal" MAC Address of the interface, and a representation of the date and time of the renumbering event.

Appendix G. IEEE 802.11 Messages Transmitted in OCB mode

For information, at the time of writing, this is the list of IEEE 802.11 messages that may be transmitted in OCB mode, i.e. when dot11OCBActivated is true in a STA:

Appendix H. Implementation Status

This section describes an example of an IPv6 Packet captured over a IEEE 802.11-OCB link.

By way of example we show that there is no modification in the headers when transmitted over 802.11-OCB networks - they are transmitted like any other 802.11 and Ethernet packets.

We describe an experiment of capturing an IPv6 packet on an 802.11-OCB link. In topology depicted in Figure 6, the packet is an IPv6 Router Advertisement. This packet is emitted by a Router on its 802.11-OCB interface. The packet is captured on the Host, using a network protocol analyzer (e.g. Wireshark); the capture is performed in two different modes: direct mode and 'monitor' mode. The topology used during the capture is depicted below.

The packet is captured on the Host. The Host is an IP-OBU containing an 802.11 interface in format PCI express (an ITRI product). The kernel runs the ath5k software driver with modifications for OCB mode. The capture tool is Wireshark. The file format for save and analyze is 'pcap'. The packet is generated by the Router. The Router is an IP-RSU (ITRI product).

     +--------+                                +-------+
     |        |        802.11-OCB Link         |       |
  ---| Router |--------------------------------| Host  |
     |        |                                |       |
     +--------+                                +-------+

Figure 6: Topology for capturing IP packets on 802.11-OCB

During several capture operations running from a few moments to several hours, no message relevant to the BSSID contexts were captured (no Association Request/Response, Authentication Req/Resp, Beacon). This shows that the operation of 802.11-OCB is outside the context of a BSSID.

Overall, the captured message is identical with a capture of an IPv6 packet emitted on a 802.11b interface. The contents are precisely similar.

H.1. Capture in Monitor Mode

The IPv6 RA packet captured in monitor mode is illustrated below. The radio tap header provides more flexibility for reporting the characteristics of frames. The Radiotap Header is prepended by this particular stack and operating system on the Host machine to the RA packet received from the network (the Radiotap Header is not present on the air). The implementation-dependent Radiotap Header is useful for piggybacking PHY information from the chip's registers as data in a packet understandable by userland applications using Socket interfaces (the PHY interface can be, for example: power levels, data rate, ratio of signal to noise).

The packet present on the air is formed by IEEE 802.11 Data Header, Logical Link Control Header, IPv6 Base Header and ICMPv6 Header.


Radiotap Header v0
|Header Revision|  Header Pad   |    Header length              |
|                         Present flags                         |
| Data Rate     |             Pad                               |

IEEE 802.11 Data Header
|  Type/Subtype and Frame Ctrl  |          Duration             | 
|                      Receiver Address...                       
... Receiver Address           |      Transmitter Address...    
 ... Transmitter Address                                        |
|                            BSS Id...                           
 ... BSS Id                     |  Frag Number and Seq Number   |

Logical-Link Control Header
|      DSAP   |I|     SSAP    |C| Control field | Org. code...   
 ... Organizational Code        |             Type              |

IPv6 Base Header
|Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |
|         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |
+                         Source Address                        +
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |
+                      Destination Address                      +
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |

Router Advertisement
|     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
| Cur Hop Limit |M|O|  Reserved |       Router Lifetime         |
|                         Reachable Time                        |
|                          Retrans Timer                        |
|   Options ...

The value of the Data Rate field in the Radiotap header is set to 6 Mb/s. This indicates the rate at which this RA was received.

The value of the Transmitter address in the IEEE 802.11 Data Header is set to a 48bit value. The value of the destination address is 33:33:00:00:00:1 (all-nodes multicast address). The value of the BSS Id field is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, which is recognized by the network protocol analyzer as being "broadcast". The Fragment number and sequence number fields are together set to 0x90C6.

The value of the Organization Code field in the Logical-Link Control Header is set to 0x0, recognized as "Encapsulated Ethernet". The value of the Type field is 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD, or otherwise #86DD), recognized as "IPv6".

A Router Advertisement is periodically sent by the router to multicast group address ff02::1. It is an icmp packet type 134. The IPv6 Neighbor Discovery's Router Advertisement message contains an 8-bit field reserved for single-bit flags, as described in [RFC4861].

The IPv6 header contains the link local address of the router (source) configured via EUI-64 algorithm, and destination address set to ff02::1. Recent versions of network protocol analyzers (e.g. Wireshark) provide additional informations for an IP address, if a geolocalization database is present. In this example, the geolocalization database is absent, and the "GeoIP" information is set to unknown for both source and destination addresses (although the IPv6 source and destination addresses are set to useful values). This "GeoIP" can be a useful information to look up the city, country, AS number, and other information for an IP address.

The Ethernet Type field in the logical-link control header is set to 0x86dd which indicates that the frame transports an IPv6 packet. In the IEEE 802.11 data, the destination address is 33:33:00:00:00:01 which is the corresponding multicast MAC address. The BSS id is a broadcast address of ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. Due to the short link duration between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure, there is no need in IEEE 802.11-OCB to wait for the completion of association and authentication procedures before exchanging data. IEEE 802.11-OCB enabled nodes use the wildcard BSSID (a value of all 1s) and may start communicating as soon as they arrive on the communication channel.

H.2. Capture in Normal Mode

The same IPv6 Router Advertisement packet described above (monitor mode) is captured on the Host, in the Normal mode, and depicted below.


Ethernet II Header
|                       Destination...                           
...Destination                 |           Source...            
...Source                                                      |
|          Type                 |

IPv6 Base Header
|Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |
|         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |
+                         Source Address                        +
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |
+                      Destination Address                      +
|                                                               |
+                                                               +
|                                                               |

Router Advertisement
|     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
| Cur Hop Limit |M|O|  Reserved |       Router Lifetime         |
|                         Reachable Time                        |
|                          Retrans Timer                        |
|   Options ...

One notices that the Radiotap Header, the IEEE 802.11 Data Header and the Logical-Link Control Headers are not present. On the other hand, a new header named Ethernet II Header is present.

The Destination and Source addresses in the Ethernet II header contain the same values as the fields Receiver Address and Transmitter Address present in the IEEE 802.11 Data Header in the "monitor" mode capture.

The value of the Type field in the Ethernet II header is 0x86DD (recognized as "IPv6"); this value is the same value as the value of the field Type in the Logical-Link Control Header in the "monitor" mode capture.

The knowledgeable experimenter will no doubt notice the similarity of this Ethernet II Header with a capture in normal mode on a pure Ethernet cable interface.

An Adaptation layer is inserted on top of a pure IEEE 802.11 MAC layer, in order to adapt packets, before delivering the payload data to the applications. It adapts 802.11 LLC/MAC headers to Ethernet II headers. In further detail, this adaptation consists in the elimination of the Radiotap, 802.11 and LLC headers, and in the insertion of the Ethernet II header. In this way, IPv6 runs straight over LLC over the 802.11-OCB MAC layer; this is further confirmed by the use of the unique Type 0x86DD.

Appendix I. Extra Terminology

The following terms are defined outside the IETF. They are used to define the main terms in the main terminology section Section 2.

DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication): a term defined outside the IETF. The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 47, Parts 90 and 95. This Code is referred in the definitions below. At the time of the writing of this Internet Draft, the last update of this Code was dated October 1st, 2010.

DSRCS (Dedicated Short-Range Communications Services): a term defined outside the IETF. The use of radio techniques to transfer data over short distances between roadside and mobile units, between mobile units, and between portable and mobile units to perform operations related to the improvement of traffic flow, traffic safety, and other intelligent transportation service applications in a variety of environments. DSRCS systems may also transmit status and instructional messages related to the units involve. [Ref. 47 CFR 90.7 - Definitions]

OBU (On-Board Unit): a term defined outside the IETF. An On-Board Unit is a DSRCS transceiver that is normally mounted in or on a vehicle, or which in some instances may be a portable unit. An OBU can be operational while a vehicle or person is either mobile or stationary. The OBUs receive and contend for time to transmit on one or more radio frequency (RF) channels. Except where specifically excluded, OBU operation is permitted wherever vehicle operation or human passage is permitted. The OBUs mounted in vehicles are licensed by rule under part 95 of the respective chapter and communicate with Roadside Units (RSUs) and other OBUs. Portable OBUs are also licensed by rule under part 95 of the respective chapter. OBU operations in the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) Bands follow the rules in those bands. - [CFR 90.7 - Definitions].

RSU (Road-Side Unit): a term defined outside of IETF. A Roadside Unit is a DSRC transceiver that is mounted along a road or pedestrian passageway. An RSU may also be mounted on a vehicle or is hand carried, but it may only operate when the vehicle or hand- carried unit is stationary. Furthermore, an RSU operating under the respectgive part is restricted to the location where it is licensed to operate. However, portable or hand-held RSUs are permitted to operate where they do not interfere with a site-licensed operation. A RSU broadcasts data to OBUs or exchanges data with OBUs in its communications zone. An RSU also provides channel assignments and operating instructions to OBUs in its communications zone, when required. - [CFR 90.7 - Definitions].

Authors' Addresses

Alexandre Petrescu CEA, LIST CEA Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette , Ile-de-France 91190 France Phone: +33169089223 EMail:
Nabil Benamar Moulay Ismail University Morocco Phone: +212670832236 EMail:
Jerome Haerri Eurecom Sophia-Antipolis , 06904 France Phone: +33493008134 EMail:
Jong-Hyouk Lee Sangmyung University 31, Sangmyeongdae-gil, Dongnam-gu Cheonan , 31066 Republic of Korea EMail:
Thierry Ernst YoGoKo France EMail: