PCE Working Group D. Dhody
Internet-Draft Y. Lee
Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies
Expires: September 9, 2019 D. Ceccarelli
March 08, 2019

Applicability of the Path Computation Element (PCE) to the Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)


Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN) refers to the set of virtual network (VN) operations needed to orchestrate, control and manage large-scale multi-domain TE networks so as to facilitate network programmability, automation, efficient resource sharing, and end-to-end virtual service aware connectivity and network function virtualization services.

The Path Computation Element (PCE) is a component, application, or network node that is capable of computing a network path or route based on a network graph and applying computational constraints. The PCE serves requests from Path Computation Clients (PCCs) that communicate with it over a local API or using the Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP).

This document examines the applicability of PCE to the ACTN framework.

Status of This Memo

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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 9, 2019.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN) [RFC8453] refers to the set of virtual network (VN) operations needed to orchestrate, control and manage large-scale multi-domain TE networks so as to facilitate network programmability, automation, efficient resource sharing, and end-to-end virtual service aware connectivity and network function virtualization services.

The Path Computation Element (PCE) [RFC4655] is a component, application, or network node that is capable of computing a network path or route based on a network graph and applying computational constraints. The PCE serves requests from Path Computation Clients (PCCs) that communicate with it over a local API or using the Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP).

This document examines the PCE and ACTN architecture and describes how PCE architecture is applicable to ACTN. It also lists the PCEP extensions that are needed to use PCEP as an ACTN interface. This document also identifies any gaps in PCEP, that exist at the time of publication of this document.

Further, ACTN, stateful H-PCE [I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-hpce], and PCE as a central controller (PCECC) [RFC8283] are based on the same basic hierarchy framework and thus compatible with each other.

2. Background Information

2.1. Path Computation Element (PCE)

The Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP) [RFC5440] provides mechanisms for Path Computation Clients (PCCs) to request a Path Computation Element (PCE) [RFC4655] to perform path computations.

The ability to compute shortest constrained TE LSPs in Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) networks across multiple domains has been identified as a key motivation for PCE development.

A stateful PCE [RFC8231] is capable of considering, for the purposes of path computation, not only the network state in terms of links and nodes (referred to as the Traffic Engineering Database or TED) but also the status of active services (previously computed paths), and currently reserved resources, stored in the Label Switched Paths Database (LSP-DB).

[RFC8051] describes general considerations for a stateful PCE deployment and examines its applicability and benefits, as well as its challenges and limitations through a number of use cases.

[RFC8231] describes a set of extensions to PCEP to provide stateful control. A stateful PCE has access to not only the information carried by the network's Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), but also the set of active paths and their reserved resources for its computations. The additional state allows the PCE to compute constrained paths while considering individual LSPs and their interactions. [RFC8281] describes the setup, maintenance and teardown of PCE-initiated LSPs under the stateful PCE model.

[RFC8231] also describes the active stateful PCE. The active PCE functionality allows a PCE to reroute an existing LSP or make changes to the attributes of an existing LSP, or a PCC to delegate control of specific LSPs to a new PCE.

2.1.1. Role of PCE in SDN

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) [RFC7149] refers to a separation between the control elements and the forwarding components so that software running in a centralized system called a controller, can act to program the devices in the network to behave in specific ways. A required element in an SDN architecture is a component that plans how the network resources will be used and how the devices will be programmed. It is possible to view this component as performing specific computations to place flows within the network given knowledge of the availability of network resources, how other forwarding devices are programmed, and the way that other flows are routed. It is concluded in [RFC7399], that this is the same function that a PCE might offer in a network operated using a dynamic control plane. This is the function and purpose of a PCE, and the way that a PCE integrates into a wider network control system including SDN is presented in Application-Based Network Operation (ABNO) [RFC7491].

2.1.2. PCE in Multi-domain and Multi-layer Deployments

Computing paths across large multi-domain environments requires special computational components and cooperation between entities in different domains capable of complex path computation. The PCE provides an architecture and a set of functional components to address this problem space. A PCE may be used to compute end-to-end paths across multi-domain environments using a per-domain path computation technique [RFC5152]. The Backward Recursive PCE based path computation (BRPC) mechanism [RFC5441] defines a PCE-based path computation procedure to compute inter-domain constrained MPLS and GMPLS TE networks. However, per-domain technique assumes that the sequence of domains to be crossed from source to destination is known, either fixed by the network operator or obtained by other means. BRPC can work best with a known domain sequence, and it will also work nicely with a small set of interconnected domains. However, it doesn't work well for is a large set of interconnected domains.

[RFC6805] describes a Hierarchical PCE (H-PCE) architecture which can be used for computing end-to-end paths for inter-domain MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE) and GMPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs) when the domain sequence is not known. Within the Hierarchical PCE (H-PCE) architecture, the Parent PCE (P-PCE) is used to compute a multi-domain path based on the domain connectivity information. A Child PCE (C-PCE) may be responsible for a single domain or multiple domains, it is used to compute the intra-domain path based on its domain topology information.

[I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-hpce] state the considerations for stateful PCEs in hierarchical PCE architecture. In particular, the behavior changes and additions to the existing stateful PCE mechanisms (including PCE- initiated LSP setup and active PCE usage) in the context of networks using the H-PCE architecture.

[RFC5623] describes a framework for applying the PCE-based architecture to inter-layer to (G)MPLS TE. It provides suggestions for the deployment of PCE in support of multi-layer networks. It also describes the relationship between PCE and a functional component in charge of the control and management of the Virtual Network Topology (VNT) [RFC5212], called the VNT Manager (VNTM).

2.1.3. Relationship to PCE Based Central Control

[RFC8283] introduces the architecture for PCE as a central controller (PCECC), it further examines the motivations and applicability for PCEP as a southbound interface, and introduces the implications for the protocol. Section 2.1.3 of [RFC8283] describe a hierarchy of PCE-based controller as per the Hierarchy of PCE framework defined in [RFC6805].

2.2. Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)

[RFC8453] describes the high-level ACTN requirements and the architecture model for ACTN including the entities Customer Network Controller (CNC), Multi-domain Service Coordinator (MDSC), and Provisioning Network Controller (PNC) and their interfaces.

The ACTN reference architecture is shown in Figure 1 which is reproduced here from [RFC8453] for convenience. [RFC8453] remains the definitive reference for the ACTN architecture. As depicted in Figure 1, the ACTN architecture identifies a three-tier hierarchy.

           +---------+           +---------+           +---------+
           |   CNC   |           |   CNC   |           |   CNC   |
           +---------+           +---------+           +---------+
                     \                |                /
                      \               |               /
Boundary  =============\==============|==============/============
Between                 \             |             /
Customer &               -------      | CMI  -------
Network Operator                \     |     /
                              |     MDSC      |
                                /     |     \
                    ------------      | MPI  -------------
                   /                  |                   \
              +-------+          +-------+             +-------+
              |  PNC  |          |  PNC  |             |  PNC  |
              +-------+          +-------+             +-------+
                  | SBI            /   |                /   \
                  |               /    | SBI           /     \
              ---------        -----   |              /       \
             (         )      (     )  |             /         \
             - Control -     ( Phys. ) |            /        -----
            (  Plane    )     ( Net )  |           /        (     )
           (  Physical   )     -----   |          /        ( Phys. )
            (  Network  )            -----      -----       ( Net )
             -         -            (     )    (     )       -----
             (         )           ( Phys. )  ( Phys. )
              ---------             ( Net )    ( Net )
                                     -----      -----

CMI - (CNC-MDSC Interface)
MPI - (MDSC-PNC Interface)

Figure 1: ACTN Hierarchy

There are two interfaces with respect to the MDSC: one north of the MDSC (the CNC-MDSC Interface : CMI), and one south (the MDSC-PNC Interface : MPI). A hierarchy of MDSCs is possible with a recursive MPI interface.

[RFC8454] provides an information model for ACTN interfaces.

3. Architectural Considerations

The ACTN architecture [RFC8453] is based on hierarchy and recursiveness of controllers. It defines three types of controllers (depending on the functionalities they implement). The main functionalities are -

Section 3 of [RFC8453] describes these functions.

It should be noted that this document lists all possible ways in which PCE could be used for each of the above functions, but all functions are not required to be implemented via PCE. Similarly, this document presents the ways in which PCEP could be used as the communications medium between functional components. Operators may choose to use the PCEP for multi-domain coordination via stateful H-PCE, but alternatively use RESTCONF [RFC8040] or BGP-LS [RFC7752] to get access to the topology and support abstraction function.

3.1. Multi-Domain Coordination via Hierarchy

With the definition of domain being "everything that is under the control of the single logical controller", as per [RFC8453], it is needed to have a control entity that oversees the specific aspects of the different domains and to build a single abstracted end-to-end network topology in order to coordinate end-to-end path computation and path/service provisioning.

The MDSC in ACTN framework realizes this function by coordinating the per-domain PNCs in a hierarchy of controllers. It also needs to detach from the underlying network technology and express customer concerns by business needs.

[RFC6805] and [I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-hpce] describe a hierarchy of PCEs with the Parent PCE coordinating multi-domain path computation function between Child PCEs. It is easy to see how these principles align, and thus how the stateful H-PCE architecture can be used to realize ACTN.

The per domain stitched LSP in the Hierarchical stateful PCE architecture, described in Section 3.3.1 of [I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-hpce] is well suited for multi-domain coordination function. This includes domain sequence selection; End-to-End (E2E) path computation; Controller (PCE) initiated path setup and reporting. This is also applicable to multi-layer coordination in case of IP+optical networks.

[I-D.litkowski-pce-state-sync] describes the procedures to allow a stateful communication between PCEs for various use-cases. The procedures and extensions are also applicable to Child and Parent PCE communication and thus useful for ACTN as well.

3.2. Abstraction

To realize ACTN, an abstracted view of the underlying network resources needs to be built. This includes global network-wide abstracted topology based on the underlying network resources of each domain. This also includes abstract topology created as per the customer service connectivity requests and represented as a VN slice allocated to each customer.

In order to compute and provide optimal paths, PCEs require an accurate and timely Traffic Engineering Database (TED). Traditionally this TED has been obtained from a link state (LS) routing protocol supporting traffic engineering extensions. PCE may construct its TED by participating in the IGP ([RFC3630] and [RFC5305] for MPLS-TE; [RFC4203] and [RFC5307] for GMPLS). An alternative is offered by BGP-LS [RFC7752].

In case of H-PCE [RFC6805], the Parent PCE needs to build the domain topology map of the child domains and their interconnectivity. [RFC6805] and [I-D.ietf-pce-inter-area-as-applicability] suggest that BGP-LS could be used as a "northbound" TE advertisement from the Child PCE to the Parent PCE.

[I-D.dhodylee-pce-pcep-ls] proposes another approach for learning and maintaining the Link-State and TE information as an alternative to IGPs and BGP flooding, using PCEP itself. The Child PCE can use this mechanism to transport Link-State and TE information from Child PCE to a Parent PCE using PCEP.

In ACTN, there is a need to control the level of abstraction based on the deployment scenario and business relationship between the controllers. The mechanism used to disseminate information from PNC (Child PCE) to MDSC (Parent PCE) should support abstraction. [RFC8453] describes a few alternative approaches of abstraction. The resulting abstracted topology can be encoded using the PCEP-LS mechanisms [I-D.dhodylee-pce-pcep-ls] and its optical network extension [I-D.lee-pce-pcep-ls-optical]. PCEP-LS is an attractive option when the operator would wish to have a single control plane protocol (PCEP) to achieve ACTN functions.

[RFC8453] discusses two ways to build abstract topology from an MDSC standpoint with interaction with PNCs. The primary method is called automatic generation of abstract topology by configuration. With this method, automatic generation is based on the abstraction/summarization of the whole domain by the PNC and its advertisement on the MPI. The secondary method is called on-demand generation of supplementary topology via Path Compute Request/Reply. This method may be needed to obtain further complementary information such as potential connectivity from Child PCEs in order to facilitate an end-to-end path provisioning. PCEP is well suited to support both methods.

3.3. Customer Mapping

In ACTN, there is a need to map customer virtual network (VN) requirements into a network provisioning request to the PNC. That is, the customer requests/commands are mapped by the MDSC into network provisioning requests that can be sent to the PNC. Specifically, the MDSC provides mapping and translation of a customer's service request into a set of parameters that are specific to a network type and technology such that network configuration process is made possible.

[RFC8281] describes the setup, maintenance and teardown of PCE-initiated LSPs under the stateful PCE model, without the need for local configuration on the PCC, thus allowing for a dynamic network that is centrally controlled and deployed. To instantiate or delete an LSP, the PCE sends the Path Computation LSP Initiate Request (PCInitiate) message to the PCC. As described in [I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-hpce], for inter-domain LSP in Hierarchical PCE architecture, the initiation operations can be carried out at the Parent PCE. In which case, after Parent PCE finishes the E2E path computation, it can send the PCInitiate message to the Child PCE, the Child PCE further propagates the initiate request to the Label Switching Router (LSR). The customer request is received by the MDSC (Parent PCE) and based on the business logic, global abstracted topology, network conditions and local policy, the MDSC (Parent PCE) translates this into per domain LSP initiation request that a PNC (Child PCE) can understand and act on. This can be done via the PCInitiate message.

PCEP extensions for associating opaque policy between PCEP peer [I-D.ietf-pce-association-policy] can be used.

3.4. Virtual Service Coordination

Virtual service coordination function in ACTN incorporates customer service-related information into the virtual network service operations in order to seamlessly operate virtual networks while meeting customer's service requirements.

[I-D.leedhody-pce-vn-association] describes the need for associating a set of LSPs with a VN "construct" to facilitate VN operations in PCE architecture. This association allows the PCEs to identify which LSPs belong to a certain VN.

This association based on VN is useful for various optimizations at the VN level which can be applied to all the LSPs that are part of the VN slice. During path computation, the impact of a path for an LSP is compared against the paths of other LSPs in the VN. This is to make sure that the overall optimization and SLA of the VN rather than of a single LSP. Similarly, during re-optimization, advanced path computation algorithm and optimization technique can be considered for all the LSPs belonging to a VN/customer and optimize them all together.

4. Interface Considerations

As per [RFC8453], to allow virtualization and multi-domain coordination, the network has to provide open, programmable interfaces, in which customer applications can create, replace and modify virtual network resources and services in an interactive, flexible and dynamic fashion while having no impact on other customers. The two ACTN interfaces are -

In the case of hierarchy MDSCs, the MPI is applied recursively. From an abstraction point of view, the top level MDSC which interfaces the CNC operates on a higher level of abstraction (i.e., less granular level) than the lower level MSDCs.

PCEP is especially suitable on the MPI as it meets the requirement and the functions as set out in the ACTN framework [RFC8453]. Its recursive nature is well suited via the multi-level hierarchy of PCE. PCEP can also be applied to the CMI as the CNC can be a path computation client while the MDSC can be a path computation server. Section 5 describes how PCE and PCEP could help realize ACTN on the MPI.

5. Realizing ACTN with PCE (and PCEP)

As per the example in Figure 2, there are 4 domains, each with its own PNC and an MDSC on top. The PNC and MDSC need PCE as a important function. The PNC (or Child PCE) already uses PCEP to communicate to the network device. It can utilize the PCEP as the MPI to communicate between controllers too.

             .            ****** ..                   MPI    .
          .                .        .                        .
       .                   .          .                      .
     .                    .             .                    .
    .                    .                .                  .
   .                    .                  .                 .
  .                    .                    .                .
  v                    v                    v                .
******               ******               ******             .    
*PNC1*               *PNC2*               *PNC4*             .
******               ******               ******             .
+---------------+    +---------------+    +---------------+  .
|A              |----|               |----|              C|  .
|               |    |               |    |               |  .
|DOMAIN 1       |----|DOMAIN 2       |----|DOMAIN 4       |  .
+------------B13+    +---------------+    +B43------------+  .
                \                         /                  .
                 \   ******              /                   .
                  \  *PNC3*<............/.....................
                   \ ******            /
                     B31           B34
                     |               |
                     |DOMAIN 3      B|

MDSC -> Parent PCE
PNC  -> Child  PCE
MPI  -> PCEP            

Figure 2: ACTN with PCE

6. IANA Considerations

This document makes no requests for IANA action.

7. Security Considerations

Various security considerations for PCEP are described in [RFC5440], [RFC6952], and [RFC8253]. Further, this document lists various extensions of PCEP that are applicable, each of them specify various security considerations which continue to apply here.

The ACTN framework described in [RFC8453] defines key components and interfaces for managed traffic engineered networks. It also lists various security considerations such as request and control of resources, confidentially of the information, and availability of function which should be taken into consideration.

As per [RFC8453], securing the request and control of resources, confidentiality of the information, and availability of function should all be critical security considerations when deploying and operating ACTN platforms. From a security and reliability perspective, ACTN may encounter many risks such as malicious attack and rogue elements attempting to connect to various ACTN components (with PCE being one of them). Furthermore, some ACTN components represent a single point of failure and threat vector and must also manage policy conflicts and eavesdropping of communication between different ACTN components. [RFC8453] further states that all protocols used to realize the ACTN framework should have rich security features, and customer, application and network data should be stored in encrypted data stores.

When PCEP is used as an ACTN interface, the security of PCEP provided by Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC8253], as per the recommendations and best current practices in [RFC7525], is used.

As per [RFC8453], regarding the MPI, a PKI- based mechanism is suggested, such as building a TLS or HTTPS connection between the MDSC and PNCs, to ensure trust between the physical network layer control components and the MDSC. Which MDSC the PNC exports topology information to, and the level of detail (full or abstracted), should also be authenticated, and specific access restrictions and topology views should be configurable and/or policy based. When PCEP is used in MPI, the security functions as per [RFC8253] are used to fulfill these requirements.

As per [RFC8453], regarding the CMI, suitable authentication and authorization of each CNC connecting to the MDSC will be required. If PCEP is used in CMI, the security functions as per [RFC8253] can be used to support peer authentication, message encryption, and integrity checks.

8. Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Jonathan Hardwick for the inspiration behind this document. Further thanks to Avantika for her comments with suggested text.

Thanks to Adrian Farrel and Daniel King for their substantial reviews.

9. References

9.1. Normative References

[RFC4655] Farrel, A., Vasseur, J. and J. Ash, "A Path Computation Element (PCE)-Based Architecture", RFC 4655, DOI 10.17487/RFC4655, August 2006.
[RFC5440] Vasseur, JP. and JL. Le Roux, "Path Computation Element (PCE) Communication Protocol (PCEP)", RFC 5440, DOI 10.17487/RFC5440, March 2009.
[RFC6805] King, D. and A. Farrel, "The Application of the Path Computation Element Architecture to the Determination of a Sequence of Domains in MPLS and GMPLS", RFC 6805, DOI 10.17487/RFC6805, November 2012.
[RFC8453] Ceccarelli, D. and Y. Lee, "Framework for Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)", RFC 8453, DOI 10.17487/RFC8453, August 2018.

9.2. Informative References

[RFC3630] Katz, D., Kompella, K. and D. Yeung, "Traffic Engineering (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630, DOI 10.17487/RFC3630, September 2003.
[RFC4203] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC 4203, DOI 10.17487/RFC4203, October 2005.
[RFC5152] Vasseur, JP., Ayyangar, A. and R. Zhang, "A Per-Domain Path Computation Method for Establishing Inter-Domain Traffic Engineering (TE) Label Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC 5152, DOI 10.17487/RFC5152, February 2008.
[RFC5212] Shiomoto, K., Papadimitriou, D., Le Roux, JL., Vigoureux, M. and D. Brungard, "Requirements for GMPLS-Based Multi-Region and Multi-Layer Networks (MRN/MLN)", RFC 5212, DOI 10.17487/RFC5212, July 2008.
[RFC5305] Li, T. and H. Smit, "IS-IS Extensions for Traffic Engineering", RFC 5305, DOI 10.17487/RFC5305, October 2008.
[RFC5307] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "IS-IS Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC 5307, DOI 10.17487/RFC5307, October 2008.
[RFC5441] Vasseur, JP., Zhang, R., Bitar, N. and JL. Le Roux, "A Backward-Recursive PCE-Based Computation (BRPC) Procedure to Compute Shortest Constrained Inter-Domain Traffic Engineering Label Switched Paths", RFC 5441, DOI 10.17487/RFC5441, April 2009.
[RFC5623] Oki, E., Takeda, T., Le Roux, JL. and A. Farrel, "Framework for PCE-Based Inter-Layer MPLS and GMPLS Traffic Engineering", RFC 5623, DOI 10.17487/RFC5623, September 2009.
[RFC6952] Jethanandani, M., Patel, K. and L. Zheng, "Analysis of BGP, LDP, PCEP, and MSDP Issues According to the Keying and Authentication for Routing Protocols (KARP) Design Guide", RFC 6952, DOI 10.17487/RFC6952, May 2013.
[RFC7149] Boucadair, M. and C. Jacquenet, "Software-Defined Networking: A Perspective from within a Service Provider Environment", RFC 7149, DOI 10.17487/RFC7149, March 2014.
[RFC7399] Farrel, A. and D. King, "Unanswered Questions in the Path Computation Element Architecture", RFC 7399, DOI 10.17487/RFC7399, October 2014.
[RFC7491] King, D. and A. Farrel, "A PCE-Based Architecture for Application-Based Network Operations", RFC 7491, DOI 10.17487/RFC7491, March 2015.
[RFC7525] Sheffer, Y., Holz, R. and P. Saint-Andre, "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, DOI 10.17487/RFC7525, May 2015.
[RFC7752] Gredler, H., Medved, J., Previdi, S., Farrel, A. and S. Ray, "North-Bound Distribution of Link-State and Traffic Engineering (TE) Information Using BGP", RFC 7752, DOI 10.17487/RFC7752, March 2016.
[RFC8040] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M. and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017.
[RFC8051] Zhang, X. and I. Minei, "Applicability of a Stateful Path Computation Element (PCE)", RFC 8051, DOI 10.17487/RFC8051, January 2017.
[RFC8231] Crabbe, E., Minei, I., Medved, J. and R. Varga, "Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP) Extensions for Stateful PCE", RFC 8231, DOI 10.17487/RFC8231, September 2017.
[RFC8253] Lopez, D., Gonzalez de Dios, O., Wu, Q. and D. Dhody, "PCEPS: Usage of TLS to Provide a Secure Transport for the Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP)", RFC 8253, DOI 10.17487/RFC8253, October 2017.
[RFC8281] Crabbe, E., Minei, I., Sivabalan, S. and R. Varga, "Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP) Extensions for PCE-Initiated LSP Setup in a Stateful PCE Model", RFC 8281, DOI 10.17487/RFC8281, December 2017.
[RFC8283] Farrel, A., Zhao, Q., Li, Z. and C. Zhou, "An Architecture for Use of PCE and the PCE Communication Protocol (PCEP) in a Network with Central Control", RFC 8283, DOI 10.17487/RFC8283, December 2017.
[RFC8454] Lee, Y., Belotti, S., Dhody, D., Ceccarelli, D. and B. Yoon, "Information Model for Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)", RFC 8454, DOI 10.17487/RFC8454, September 2018.
[I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-hpce] Dhody, D., Lee, Y., Ceccarelli, D., Shin, J., King, D. and O. Dios, "Hierarchical Stateful Path Computation Element (PCE).", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pce-stateful-hpce-06, October 2018.
[I-D.ietf-pce-inter-area-as-applicability] King, D. and H. Zheng, "Applicability of the Path Computation Element to Inter-Area and Inter-AS MPLS and GMPLS Traffic Engineering", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pce-inter-area-as-applicability-07, December 2018.
[I-D.dhodylee-pce-pcep-ls] Dhody, D., Lee, Y. and D. Ceccarelli, "PCEP Extension for Distribution of Link-State and TE Information.", Internet-Draft draft-dhodylee-pce-pcep-ls-13, February 2019.
[I-D.lee-pce-pcep-ls-optical] Lee, Y., Zheng, H., Ceccarelli, D., weiw@bupt.edu.cn, w., Park, P. and B. Yoon, "PCEP Extension for Distribution of Link-State and TE information for Optical Networks", Internet-Draft draft-lee-pce-pcep-ls-optical-07, March 2019.
[I-D.leedhody-pce-vn-association] Lee, Y., Zhang, X. and D. Ceccarelli, "PCEP Extensions for Establishing Relationships Between Sets of LSPs and Virtual Networks", Internet-Draft draft-leedhody-pce-vn-association-07, February 2019.
[I-D.litkowski-pce-state-sync] Litkowski, S., Sivabalan, S. and D. Dhody, "Inter Stateful Path Computation Element communication procedures", Internet-Draft draft-litkowski-pce-state-sync-04, October 2018.
[I-D.ietf-pce-association-policy] Litkowski, S., Sivabalan, S., Tantsura, J., Hardwick, J. and M. Negi, "Path Computation Element communication Protocol extension for associating Policies and LSPs", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pce-association-policy-05, February 2019.
[I-D.dugeon-pce-stateful-interdomain] Dugeon, O., Meuric, J., Lee, Y. and D. Ceccarelli, "PCEP Extension for Stateful Inter-Domain Tunnels", Internet-Draft draft-dugeon-pce-stateful-interdomain-02, March 2019.
[EXP] Casellas, R., Vilalta, R., Martinez, R., Munoz, R., Zheng, H. and Y. Lee, "Experimental Validation of the ACTN architecture for flexi-grid optical networks using Active Stateful Hierarchical PCEs", 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) , July 2017.

Appendix A. Additional Information

In the paper [EXP], the application of the ACTN architecture is presented to demonstrate the control of a multi-domain flexi-grid optical network, by proposing, adopting and extending -

The design and the implementation of the testbed are reported in order to validate the approach.

Authors' Addresses

Dhruv Dhody Huawei Technologies Divyashree Techno Park, Whitefield Bangalore, Karnataka 560066 India EMail: dhruv.ietf@gmail.com
Young Lee Huawei Technologies 5340 Legacy Drive, Building 3 Plano, TX 75023 USA EMail: leeyoung@huawei.com
Daniele Ceccarelli Ericsson Torshamnsgatan,48 Stockholm, Sweden EMail: daniele.ceccarelli@ericsson.com