Crypto Forum Research Group A. Huelsing
Internet-Draft TU Eindhoven
Intended status: Informational D. Butin
Expires: January 25, 2018 TU Darmstadt
S. Gazdag
genua GmbH
J. Rijneveld
Radboud University
A. Mohaisen
SUNY Buffalo
July 24, 2017
XMSS: Extended Hash-Based Signatures
draft-irtf-cfrg-xmss-hash-based-signatures-10
Abstract
This note describes the eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme (XMSS), a
hash-based digital signature system. It follows existing
descriptions in scientific literature. The note specifies the WOTS+
one-time signature scheme, a single-tree (XMSS) and a multi-tree
variant (XMSS^MT) of XMSS. Both variants use WOTS+ as a main
building block. XMSS provides cryptographic digital signatures
without relying on the conjectured hardness of mathematical problems.
Instead, it is proven that it only relies on the properties of
cryptographic hash functions. XMSS provides strong security
guarantees and is even secure when the collision resistance of the
underlying hash function is broken. It is suitable for compact
implementations, relatively simple to implement, and naturally
resists side-channel attacks. Unlike most other signature systems,
hash-based signatures can withstand so far known attacks using
quantum computers.
Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 25, 2018.
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. CFRG Note on Post-Quantum Cryptography . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2. Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1. Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2. Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3. Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4. Integer to Byte Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5. Hash Function Address Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6. Strings of Base w Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.7. Member Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1. WOTS+ One-Time Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1.1. WOTS+ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.1.1. WOTS+ Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.2. WOTS+ Chaining Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1.3. WOTS+ Private Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1.4. WOTS+ Public Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.1.5. WOTS+ Signature Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.1.6. WOTS+ Signature Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1.7. Pseudorandom Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4. Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1. XMSS: eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1.1. XMSS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.2. XMSS Hash Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1.3. XMSS Private Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1.4. Randomized Tree Hashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1.5. L-Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1.6. TreeHash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
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4.1.7. XMSS Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.8. XMSS Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.1.9. XMSS Signature Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1.10. XMSS Signature Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1.11. Pseudorandom Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.1.12. Free Index Handling and Partial Private Keys . . . . 32
4.2. XMSS^MT: Multi-Tree XMSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2.1. XMSS^MT Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2.2. XMSS^MT Key generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2.3. XMSS^MT Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.2.4. XMSS^MT Signature Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.2.5. XMSS^MT Signature Verification . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.2.6. Pseudorandom Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.2.7. Free Index Handling and Partial Private Keys . . . . 40
5. Parameter Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.1. Implementing the functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2. WOTS+ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.3. XMSS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.3.1. Parameter guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.4. XMSS^MT Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.5. Parameter guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7. Reference Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.1. Security Proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.2. Minimal Security Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
9.3. Post-Quantum Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Appendix A. WOTS+ XDR Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Appendix B. XMSS XDR Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Appendix C. XMSS^MT XDR Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
1. Introduction
A (cryptographic) digital signature scheme provides asymmetric
message authentication. The key generation algorithm produces a key
pair consisting of a private and a public key. A message is signed
using a private key to produce a signature. A message/signature pair
can be verified using a public key. A One-Time Signature (OTS)
scheme allows using a key pair to sign exactly one message securely.
A Many-Time Signature (MTS) system can be used to sign multiple
messages.
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OTS schemes, and MTS schemes composed from them, were proposed by
Merkle in 1979 [Merkle79]. They were well-studied in the 1990s and
have regained interest from the mid 2000s onwards because of their
resistance against quantum-computer-aided attacks. These kinds of
signature schemes are called hash-based signature schemes as they are
built out of a cryptographic hash function. Hash-based signature
schemes generally feature small private and public keys as well as
fast signature generation and verification but large signatures and
relatively slow key generation. In addition, they are suitable for
compact implementations that benefit various applications and are
naturally resistant to most kinds of side-channel attacks.
Some progress has already been made toward introducing and
standardizing hash-based signatures. McGrew, Curcio, and Fluhrer
have published an Internet-Draft [MCF17] specifying the Lamport-
Diffie-Winternitz-Merkle (LDWM) scheme, also taking into account
subsequent adaptations by Leighton and Micali. Independently,
Buchmann, Dahmen and Huelsing have proposed XMSS [BDH11], the
eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme, offering better efficiency and a
modern security proof. Very recently, the stateless hash-based
signature scheme SPHINCS was introduced [BHH15], with the intent of
being easier to deploy in current applications. A reasonable next
step toward introducing hash-based signatures is to complete the
specifications of the basic algorithms - LDWM, XMSS, SPHINCS and/or
variants [Kaliski15].
The eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme (XMSS) [BDH11] is the latest
stateful hash-based signature scheme. It has the smallest signatures
out of such schemes and comes with a multi-tree variant that solves
the problem of slow key generation. Moreover, it can be shown that
XMSS is secure, making only mild assumptions on the underlying hash
function. Especially, it is not required that the cryptographic hash
function is collision-resistant for the security of XMSS.
Improvements upon XMSS, as described in [HRS16], are part of this
note.
This document describes a single-tree and a multi-tree variant of
XMSS. It also describes WOTS+, a variant of the Winternitz OTS
scheme introduced in [Huelsing13] that is used by XMSS. The schemes
are described with enough specificity to ensure interoperability
between implementations.
This document is structured as follows. Notation is introduced in
Section 2. Section 3 describes the WOTS+ signature system. MTS
schemes are defined in Section 4: the eXtended Merkle Signature
Scheme (XMSS) in Section 4.1, and its Multi-Tree variant (XMSS^MT) in
Section 4.2. Parameter sets are described in Section 5. Section 6
describes the rationale behind choices in this note. The IANA
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registry for these signature systems is described in Section 8.
Finally, security considerations are presented in Section 9.
1.1. CFRG Note on Post-Quantum Cryptography
All post-quantum algorithms documented by CFRG are today considered
ready for experimentation and further engineering development (e.g.
to establish the impact of performance and sizes on IETF protocols).
However, at the time of writing, we do not have significant
deployment experience with such algorithms.
Many of these algorithms come with specific restrictions, e.g.
change of classical interface or less cryptanalysis of proposed
parameters than established schemes. CFRG has consensus that all
documents describing post-quantum technologies include the above
paragraph and a clear additional warning about any specific
restrictions, especially as those might affect use or deployment of
the specific scheme. That guidance may be changed over time via
document updates.
Additionally, for XMSS:
CFRG consensus is that we are confident in the cryptographic security
of the signature schemes described in this document against quantum
computers, given the current state of the research community's
knowledge about quantum algorithms. Indeed, we are confident that
the security of a significant part of the Internet could be made
dependent on the signature schemes defined in this document, if
developers take care of the following.
In contrast to traditional signature schemes, the signature schemes
described in this document are stateful, meaning the secret key
changes over time. If a secret key state is used twice, no
cryptographic security guarantees remain. In consequence, it becomes
feasible to forge a signature on a new message. This is a new
property that most developers will not be familiar with and requires
careful handling of secret keys. Developers should not use the
schemes described here except in systems that prevent the reuse of
secret key states.
Note that the fact that the schemes described in this document are
stateful also implies that classical APIs for digital signature
cannot be used without modification. The API MUST be able to handle
a secret key state. This especially means that the API HAS TO allow
to return an updated secret key state.
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1.2. Conventions Used In This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
2. Notation
2.1. Data Types
Bytes and byte strings are the fundamental data types. A byte is a
sequence of eight bits. A single byte is denoted as a pair of
hexadecimal digits with a leading "0x". A byte string is an ordered
sequence of zero or more bytes and is denoted as an ordered sequence
of hexadecimal characters with a leading "0x". For example, 0xe534f0
is a byte string of length 3. An array of byte strings is an
ordered, indexed set starting with index 0 in which all byte strings
have identical length. We assume big-endian representation for any
data types or structures.
2.2. Functions
If x is a non-negative real number, then we define the following
functions:
ceil(x) : returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to x.
floor(x) : returns the largest integer less than or equal to x.
lg(x) : returns the logarithm to base 2 of x.
2.3. Operators
When a and b are integers, mathematical operators are defined as
follows:
^ : a ^ b denotes the result of a raised to the power of b.
* : a * b denotes the product of a and b. This operator is
sometimes omitted in the absence of ambiguity, as in usual
mathematical notation.
/ : a / b denotes the quotient of a by non-zero b.
% : a % b denotes the non-negative remainder of the integer
division of a by b.
+ : a + b denotes the sum of a and b.
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- : a - b denotes the difference of a and b.
++ : a++ denotes incrementing a by 1, i.e., a = a + 1.
<< : a << b denotes a logical left shift with b being non-
negative, i.e., a * 2^b.
>> : a >> b denotes a logical right shift with b being non-
negative, i.e. floor(a / 2^b).
The standard order of operations is used when evaluating arithmetic
expressions.
Arrays are used in the common way, where the i^th element of an array
A is denoted A[i]. Byte strings are treated as arrays of bytes where
necessary: If X is a byte string, then X[i] denotes its i^th byte,
where X[0] is the leftmost byte.
If A and B are byte strings of equal length, then:
A AND B denotes the bitwise logical conjunction operation.
A XOR B denotes the bitwise logical exclusive disjunction
operation.
When B is a byte and i is an integer, then B >> i denotes the logical
right-shift operation.
If X is an x-byte string and Y a y-byte string, then X || Y denotes
the concatenation of X and Y, with X || Y = X[0] ... X[x-1] Y[0] ...
Y[y-1].
2.4. Integer to Byte Conversion
If x and y are non-negative integers, we define Z = toByte(x, y) to
be the y-byte string containing the binary representation of x in
big-endian byte-order.
2.5. Hash Function Address Scheme
The schemes described in this document randomize each hash function
call. This means that aside from the initial message digest, for
each hash function call a different key and different bitmask is
used. These values are pseudorandomly generated using a pseudorandom
function that takes a key SEED and a 32-byte address ADRS as input
and outputs an n-byte value, where n is the security parameter. Here
we explain the structure of address ADRS and propose setter methods
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to manipulate the address. We explain the generation of the
addresses in the following sections where they are used.
The schemes in the next two sections use two kinds of hash functions
parameterized by security parameter n. For the hash tree
constructions, a hash function that maps an n-byte key and 2n-byte
inputs to n-byte outputs is used. To randomize this function, 3n
bytes are needed - n bytes for the key and 2n bytes for a bitmask.
For the OTS scheme constructions, a hash function that maps n-byte
keys and n-byte inputs to n-byte outputs is used. To randomize this
function, 2n bytes are needed - n bytes for the key and n bytes for a
bitmask. Consequently, three addresses are needed for the first
function and two addresses for the second one.
There are three different types of addresses for the different use
cases. One type is used for the hashes in OTS schemes, one is used
for hashes within the main Merkle tree construction, and one is used
for hashes in the L-trees. The latter is used to compress one-time
public keys. All these types share as much format as possible. In
the following we describe these types in detail.
The structure of an address complies with word borders, with a word
being 32 bits long in this context. Only the tree address is too
long to fit a single word but matches a double word. An address is
structured as follows. It always starts with a layer address of one
word in the most significant bits, followed by a tree address of two
words. Both addresses are needed for the multi-tree variant (see
Section 4.2) and describe the position of a tree within a multi-tree.
They are therefore set to zero in case of single-tree applications.
For multi-tree hash-based signatures the layer address describes the
height of a tree within the multi-tree starting from height zero for
trees at the bottom layer. The tree address describes the position
of a tree within a layer of a multi-tree starting with index zero for
the leftmost tree. The next word defines the type of the address.
It is set to 0 for an OTS address, to 1 for an L-tree address, and to
2 for a hash tree address. Whenever the type word of an address is
changed, all following words should be initialized with 0 to prevent
non-zero values in unused padding words.
We first describe the OTS address case. In this case, the type word
is followed by an OTS address word that encodes the index of the OTS
key pair within the tree. The next word encodes the chain address
followed by a word that encodes the address of the hash function call
within the chain. The last word, called keyAndMask, is used to
generate two different addresses for one hash function call. The
word is set to zero to generate the key. To generate the n-byte
bitmask, the word is set to one.
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An OTS hash address
+------------------------+
| layer address (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| tree address (64 bit)|
+------------------------+
| type = 0 (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| OTS address (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| chain address (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| hash address (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| keyAndMask (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
We now discuss the L-tree case, which means that the type word is set
to one. In that case the type word is followed by an L-tree address
word that encodes the index of the leaf computed with this L-tree.
The next word encodes the height of the node being input for the next
computation inside the L-tree. The following word encodes the index
of the node at that height, inside the L-tree. This time, the last
word, keyAndMask, is used to generate three different addresses for
one function call. The word is set to zero to generate the key. To
generate the most significant n bytes of the 2n-byte bitmask, the
word is set to one. The least significant bytes are generated using
the address with the word set to two.
An L-tree address
+------------------------+
| layer address (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| tree address (64 bit)|
+------------------------+
| type = 1 (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| L-tree address (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| tree height (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| tree index (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| keyAndMask (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
We now describe the remaining type for the main tree hash addresses.
In this case the type word is set to two, followed by a zero padding
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of one word. The next word encodes the height of the tree node being
input for the next computation, followed by a word that encodes the
index of this node at that height. As for the L-tree addresses, the
last word, keyAndMask, is used to generate three different addresses
for one function call. The word is set to zero to generate the key.
To generate the most significant n bytes of the 2n-byte bitmask, the
word is set to one. The least significant bytes are generated using
the address with the word set to two.
A hash tree address
+------------------------+
| layer address (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| tree address (64 bit)|
+------------------------+
| type = 2 (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| Padding = 0 (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| tree height (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| tree index (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
| keyAndMask (32 bit)|
+------------------------+
All fields within these addresses encode unsigned integers. When
describing the generation of addresses we use setter methods that
take positive integers and set the bits of a field to the binary
representation of that integer of the length of the field. We
furthermore assume that the setType() method sets the four words
following the type word to zero.
2.6. Strings of Base w Numbers
A byte string can be considered as a string of base w numbers, i.e.
integers in the set {0, ... , w - 1}. The correspondence is defined
by the function base_w(X, w, out_len) as follows. If X is a len_X-
byte string, and w is a member of the set {4, 16}, then base_w(X, w,
out_len) outputs an array of out_len integers between 0 and w - 1.
The length out_len is REQUIRED to be less than or equal to 8 * len_X
/ lg(w).
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Algorithm 1: base_w
Input: len_X-byte string X, int w, output length out_len
Output: out_len int array basew
int in = 0;
int out = 0;
unsigned int total = 0;
int bits = 0;
int consumed;
for ( consumed = 0; consumed < out_len; consumed++ ) {
if ( bits == 0 ) {
total = X[in];
in++;
bits += 8;
}
bits -= lg(w);
basew[out] = (total >> bits) AND (w - 1);
out++;
}
return basew;
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For example, if X is the (big-endian) byte string 0x1234, then
base_w(X, 16, 4) returns the array a = {1, 2, 3, 4}.
X (represented as bits)
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
| 0| 0| 0| 1| 0| 0| 1| 0| 0| 0| 1| 1| 0| 1| 0| 0|
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
X[0] | X[1]
X (represented as base 16 numbers)
+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
base_w(X, 16, 4)
+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
a[0] a[1] a[2] a[3]
base_w(X, 16, 3)
+-----------+-----------+-----------+
| 1 | 2 | 3 |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+
a[0] a[1] a[2]
base_w(X, 16, 2)
+-----------+-----------+
| 1 | 2 |
+-----------+-----------+
a[0] a[1]
2.7. Member Functions
To simplify algorithm descriptions, we assume the existence of member
functions. If a complex data structure like a public key PK contains
a value X then getX(PK) returns the value of X for this public key.
Accordingly, setX(PK, X, Y) sets value X in PK to the value held by
Y. Since camelCase is used for member function names, a value z may
be referred to as Z in the function name, e.g. getZ.
3. Primitives
3.1. WOTS+ One-Time Signatures
This section describes the WOTS+ OTS system, in a version similar to
[Huelsing13]. WOTS+ is a OTS scheme; while a private key can be used
to sign any message, each private key MUST be used only once to sign
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a single message. In particular, if a private key is used to sign
two different messages, the scheme becomes insecure.
The section starts with an explanation of parameters. Afterwards,
the so-called chaining function, which forms the main building block
of the WOTS+ scheme, is explained. A description of the algorithms
for key generation, signing and verification follows. Finally,
pseudorandom key generation is discussed.
3.1.1. WOTS+ Parameters
WOTS+ uses the parameters n, and w; they all take positive integer
values. These parameters are summarized as follows:
n : the message length as well as the length of a private key,
public key, or signature element in bytes.
w : the Winternitz parameter; it is a member of the set {4, 16}.
The parameters are used to compute values len, len_1 and len_2:
len : the number of n-byte string elements in a WOTS+ private key,
public key, and signature. It is computed as len = len_1 + len_2,
with len_1 = ceil(8n / lg(w)) and len_2 = floor(lg(len_1 * (w -
1)) / lg(w)) + 1.
The value of n is determined by the cryptographic hash function used
for WOTS+. The hash function is chosen to ensure an appropriate level
of security. The value of n is the input length that can be
processed by the signing algorithm. It is often the length of a
message digest. The parameter w can be chosen from the set {4, 16}.
A larger value of w results in shorter signatures but slower overall
signing operations; it has little effect on security. Choices of w
are limited to the values 4 and 16 since these values yield optimal
trade-offs and easy implementation.
WOTS+ parameters are implicitly included in algorithm inputs as
needed.
3.1.1.1. WOTS+ Functions
The WOTS+ algorithm uses a keyed cryptographic hash function F. F
accepts and returns byte strings of length n using keys of length n.
More detail on specific instantiations can be found in Section 5.
Security requirements on F are discussed in Section 9. In addition,
WOTS+ uses a pseudorandom function PRF. PRF takes as input an n-byte
key and a 32-byte index and generates pseudorandom outputs of length
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n. More detail on specific instantiations can be found in Section 5.
Security requirements on PRF are discussed in Section 9.
3.1.2. WOTS+ Chaining Function
The chaining function (Algorithm 2) computes an iteration of F on an
n-byte input using outputs of PRF. It takes an OTS hash address as
input. This address will have the first six 32-bit words set to
encode the address of this chain. In each iteration, PRF is used to
generate a key for F and a bitmask that is XORed to the intermediate
result before it is processed by F. In the following, ADRS is a
32-byte OTS hash address as specified in Section 2.5 and SEED is an
n-byte string. To generate the keys and bitmasks, PRF is called with
SEED as key and ADRS as input. The chaining function takes as input
an n-byte string X, a start index i, a number of steps s, as well as
ADRS and SEED. The chaining function returns as output the value
obtained by iterating F for s times on input X, using the outputs of
PRF.
Algorithm 2: chain - Chaining Function
Input: Input string X, start index i, number of steps s,
seed SEED, address ADRS
Output: value of F iterated s times on X
if ( s == 0 ) {
return X;
}
if ( (i + s) > (w - 1) ) {
return NULL;
}
byte[n] tmp = chain(X, i, s - 1, SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setHashAddress(i + s - 1);
ADRS.setKeyAndMask(0);
KEY = PRF(SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setKeyAndMask(1);
BM = PRF(SEED, ADRS);
tmp = F(KEY, tmp XOR BM);
return tmp;
3.1.3. WOTS+ Private Key
The private key in WOTS+, denoted by sk (s for secret), is a length
len array of n-byte strings. This private key MUST be only used to
sign at most one message. Each n-byte string MUST either be selected
randomly from the uniform distribution or using a cryptographically
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secure pseudorandom procedure. In the latter case, the security of
the used procedure MUST at least match that of the WOTS+ parameters
used. For a further discussion on pseudorandom key generation, see
Section 3.1.7. The following pseudocode (Algorithm 3) describes an
algorithm for generating sk.
Algorithm 3: WOTS_genSK - Generating a WOTS+ Private Key
Input: No input
Output: WOTS+ private key sk
for ( i = 0; i < len; i++ ) {
initialize sk[i] with a uniformly random n-byte string;
}
return sk;
3.1.4. WOTS+ Public Key
A WOTS+ key pair defines a virtual structure that consists of len
hash chains of length w. The len n-byte strings in the private key
each define the start node for one hash chain. The public key
consists of the end nodes of these hash chains. Therefore, like the
private key, the public key is also a length len array of n-byte
strings. To compute the hash chain, the chaining function (Algorithm
2) is used. An OTS hash address ADRS and a seed SEED have to be
provided by the calling algorithm. This address will encode the
address of the WOTS+ key pair within a greater structure. Hence, a
WOTS+ algorithm MUST NOT manipulate any other parts of ADRS than the
last three 32-bit words. Please note that the SEED used here is
public information also available to a verifier. The following
pseudocode (Algorithm 4) describes an algorithm for generating the
public key pk, where sk is the private key.
Algorithm 4: WOTS_genPK - Generating a WOTS+ Public Key From a
Private Key
Input: WOTS+ private key sk, address ADRS, seed SEED
Output: WOTS+ public key pk
for ( i = 0; i < len; i++ ) {
ADRS.setChainAddress(i);
pk[i] = chain(sk[i], 0, w - 1, SEED, ADRS);
}
return pk;
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3.1.5. WOTS+ Signature Generation
A WOTS+ signature is a length len array of n-byte strings. The WOTS+
signature is generated by mapping a message to len integers between 0
and w - 1. To this end, the message is transformed into len_1 base w
numbers using the base_w function defined in Section 2.6. Next, a
checksum is computed and appended to the transformed message as len_2
base w numbers using the base_w function. Note that the checksum may
reach a maximum integer value of len_1 * (w - 1) * 2^8 and therefore
depends on the parameters n and w. For the parameter sets given in
Section 5 a 32-bit unsigned integer is sufficient to hold the
checksum. If other parameter settings are used the size of the
variable holding the integer value of the checksum MUST be
sufficiently large. Each of the base w integers is used to select a
node from a different hash chain. The signature is formed by
concatenating the selected nodes. An OTS hash address ADRS and a
seed SEED have to be provided by the calling algorithm. This address
will encode the address of the WOTS+ key pair within a greater
structure. Hence, a WOTS+ algorithm MUST NOT manipulate any other
parts of ADRS than the last three 32-bit words. Please note that the
SEED used here is public information also available to a verifier.
The pseudocode for signature generation is shown below (Algorithm 5),
where M is the message and sig is the resulting signature.
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Algorithm 5: WOTS_sign - Generating a signature from a private key
and a message
Input: Message M, WOTS+ private key sk, address ADRS, seed SEED
Output: WOTS+ signature sig
csum = 0;
// Convert message to base w
msg = base_w(M, w, len_1);
// Compute checksum
for ( i = 0; i < len_1; i++ ) {
csum = csum + w - 1 - msg[i];
}
// Convert csum to base w
csum = csum << ( 8 - ( ( len_2 * lg(w) ) % 8 ));
len_2_bytes = ceil( ( len_2 * lg(w) ) / 8 );
msg = msg || base_w(toByte(csum, len_2_bytes), w, len_2);
for ( i = 0; i < len; i++ ) {
ADRS.setChainAddress(i);
sig[i] = chain(sk[i], 0, msg[i], SEED, ADRS);
}
return sig;
The data format for a signature is given below.
WOTS+ Signature
+---------------------------------+
| |
| sig_ots[0] | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
~ .... ~
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| sig_ots[len - 1] | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
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3.1.6. WOTS+ Signature Verification
In order to verify a signature sig on a message M, the verifier
computes a WOTS+ public key value from the signature. This can be
done by "completing" the chain computations starting from the
signature values, using the base w values of the message hash and its
checksum. This step, called WOTS_pkFromSig, is described below in
Algorithm 6. The result of WOTS_pkFromSig is then compared to the
given public key. If the values are equal, the signature is
accepted. Otherwise, the signature MUST be rejected. An OTS hash
address ADRS and a seed SEED have to be provided by the calling
algorithm. This address will encode the address of the WOTS+ key
pair within a greater structure. Hence, a WOTS+ algorithm MUST NOT
manipulate any other parts of ADRS than the last three 32-bit words.
Please note that the SEED used here is public information also
available to a verifier.
Algorithm 6: WOTS_pkFromSig - Computing a WOTS+ public key from a
message and its signature
Input: Message M, WOTS+ signature sig, address ADRS, seed SEED
Output: 'Temporary' WOTS+ public key tmp_pk
csum = 0;
// Convert message to base w
msg = base_w(M, w, len_1);
// Compute checksum
for ( i = 0; i < len_1; i++ ) {
csum = csum + w - 1 - msg[i];
}
// Convert csum to base w
csum = csum << ( 8 - ( ( len_2 * lg(w) ) % 8 ));
len_2_bytes = ceil( ( len_2 * lg(w) ) / 8 );
msg = msg || base_w(toByte(csum, len_2_bytes), w, len_2);
for ( i = 0; i < len; i++ ) {
ADRS.setChainAddress(i);
tmp_pk[i] = chain(sig[i], msg[i], w - 1 - msg[i], SEED, ADRS);
}
return tmp_pk;
Note: XMSS uses WOTS_pkFromSig to compute a public key value and
delays the comparison to a later point.
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3.1.7. Pseudorandom Key Generation
An implementation MAY use a cryptographically secure pseudorandom
method to generate the private key from a single n-byte value. For
example, the method suggested in [BDH11] and explained below MAY be
used. Other methods MAY be used. The choice of a pseudorandom
method does not affect interoperability, but the cryptographic
strength MUST match that of the used WOTS+ parameters.
The advantage of generating the private key elements from a random
n-byte string is that only this n-byte string needs to be stored
instead of the full private key. The key can be regenerated when
needed. The suggested method from [BDH11] can be described using
PRF. During key generation a uniformly random n-byte string S is
sampled from a secure source of randomness. This string S is stored
as private key. The private key elements are computed as sk[i] =
PRF(S, toByte(i, 32)) whenever needed. Please note that this seed S
MUST be different from the seed SEED used to randomize the hash
function calls. Also, this seed S MUST be kept secret. The seed S
MUST NOT be a low entropy, human-memorable value since private key
elements are derived from S deterministically and their
confidentiality is security-critical.
4. Schemes
In this section, the eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme (XMSS) is
described using WOTS+. XMSS comes in two flavors: First, a single-
tree variant (XMSS) and second a multi-tree variant (XMSS^MT). Both
allow combining a large number of WOTS+ key pairs under a single
small public key. The main ingredient added is a binary hash tree
construction. XMSS uses a single hash tree while XMSS^MT uses a tree
of XMSS key pairs.
4.1. XMSS: eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme
XMSS is a method for signing a potentially large but fixed number of
messages. It is based on the Merkle signature scheme. XMSS uses
four cryptographic components: WOTS+ as OTS method, two additional
cryptographic hash functions H and H_msg, and a pseudorandom function
PRF. One of the main advantages of XMSS with WOTS+ is that it does
not rely on the collision resistance of the used hash functions but
on weaker properties. Each XMSS public/private key pair is
associated with a perfect binary tree, every node of which contains
an n-byte value. Each tree leaf contains a special tree hash of a
WOTS+ public key value. Each non-leaf tree node is computed by first
concatenating the values of its child nodes, computing the XOR with a
bitmask, and applying the keyed hash function H to the result. The
bitmasks and the keys for the hash function H are generated from a
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(public) seed that is part of the public key using the pseudorandom
function PRF. The value corresponding to the root of the XMSS tree
forms the XMSS public key together with the seed.
To generate a key pair that can be used to sign 2^h messages, a tree
of height h is used. XMSS is a stateful signature scheme, meaning
that the private key changes with every signature generation. To
prevent one-time private keys from being used twice, the WOTS+ key
pairs are numbered from 0 to (2^h) - 1 according to the related leaf,
starting from index 0 for the leftmost leaf. The private key
contains an index that is updated with every signature generation,
such that it contains the index of the next unused WOTS+ key pair.
A signature consists of the index of the used WOTS+ key pair, the
WOTS+ signature on the message and the so-called authentication path.
The latter is a vector of tree nodes that allow a verifier to compute
a value for the root of the tree starting from a WOTS+ signature. A
verifier computes the root value and compares it to the respective
value in the XMSS public key. If they match, the signature is
declared valid. The XMSS private key consists of all WOTS+ private
keys and the current index. To reduce storage, a pseudorandom key
generation procedure, as described in [BDH11], MAY be used. The
security of the used method MUST at least match the security of the
XMSS instance.
4.1.1. XMSS Parameters
XMSS has the following parameters:
h : the height (number of levels - 1) of the tree
n : the length in bytes of the message digest as well as of each
node
w : the Winternitz parameter as defined for WOTS+ in Section 3.1
There are 2^h leaves in the tree.
For XMSS and XMSS^MT, private and public keys are denoted by SK (S
for secret) and PK. For WOTS+, private and public keys are denoted
by sk (s for secret) and pk, respectively. XMSS and XMSS^MT
signatures are denoted by Sig. WOTS+ signatures are denoted by sig.
XMSS and XMSS^MT parameters are implicitly included in algorithm
inputs as needed.
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4.1.2. XMSS Hash Functions
Besides the cryptographic hash function F and the pseudorandom
function PRF required by WOTS+, XMSS uses two more functions:
A cryptographic hash function H. H accepts n-byte keys and byte
strings of length 2n and returns an n-byte string.
A cryptographic hash function H_msg. H_msg accepts 3n-byte keys
and byte strings of arbitrary length and returns an n-byte string.
More detail on specific instantiations can be found in Section 5.
Security requirements on H and H_msg are discussed in Section 9.
4.1.3. XMSS Private Key
An XMSS private key SK contains 2^h WOTS+ private keys, the leaf
index idx of the next WOTS+ private key that has not yet been used,
SK_PRF, an n-byte key to generate pseudorandom values for randomized
message hashing, the n-byte value root, which is the root node of the
tree and SEED, the n-byte public seed used to pseudorandomly generate
bitmasks and hash function keys. Although root and SEED formally
would be considered only part of the public key, they are needed e.g.
for signature generation and hence are also required for functions
that do not take the public key as input.
The leaf index idx is initialized to zero when the XMSS private key
is created. The key SK_PRF MUST be sampled from a secure source of
randomness that follows the uniform distribution. The WOTS+ private
keys MUST either be generated as described in Section 3.1 or, to
reduce the private key size, a cryptographic pseudorandom method MUST
be used as discussed in Section 4.1.11. SEED is generated as a
uniformly random n-byte string. Although SEED is public, it is
critical for security that it is generated using a good entropy
source. The root node is generated as described below in the section
on key generation (Section 4.1.7). That section also contains an
example algorithm for combined private and public key generation.
For the following algorithm descriptions, the existence of a method
getWOTS_SK(SK, i) is assumed. This method takes as inputs an XMSS
private key SK and an integer i and outputs the i^th WOTS+ private
key of SK.
4.1.4. Randomized Tree Hashing
To improve readability we introduce a function RAND_HASH(LEFT, RIGHT,
SEED, ADRS) that does the randomized hashing in the tree. It takes
as input two n-byte values LEFT and RIGHT that represent the left and
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the right half of the hash function input, the seed SEED used as key
for PRF and the address ADRS of this hash function call. RAND_HASH
first uses PRF with SEED and ADRS to generate a key KEY and n-byte
bitmasks BM_0, BM_1. Then it returns the randomized hash H(KEY,
(LEFT XOR BM_0) || (RIGHT XOR BM_1)).
Algorithm 7: RAND_HASH
Input: n-byte value LEFT, n-byte value RIGHT, seed SEED,
address ADRS
Output: n-byte randomized hash
ADRS.setKeyAndMask(0);
KEY = PRF(SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setKeyAndMask(1);
BM_0 = PRF(SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setKeyAndMask(2);
BM_1 = PRF(SEED, ADRS);
return H(KEY, (LEFT XOR BM_0) || (RIGHT XOR BM_1));
4.1.5. L-Trees
To compute the leaves of the binary hash tree, a so-called L-tree is
used. An L-tree is an unbalanced binary hash tree, distinct but
similar to the main XMSS binary hash tree. The algorithm ltree
(Algorithm 8) takes as input a WOTS+ public key pk and compresses it
to a single n-byte value pk[0]. Towards this end it also takes an
L-tree address ADRS as input that encodes the address of the L-tree,
and the seed SEED.
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Algorithm 8: ltree
Input: WOTS+ public key pk, address ADRS, seed SEED
Output: n-byte compressed public key value pk[0]
unsigned int len' = len;
ADRS.setTreeHeight(0);
while ( len' > 1 ) {
for ( i = 0; i < floor(len' / 2); i++ ) {
ADRS.setTreeIndex(i);
pk[i] = RAND_HASH(pk[2i], pk[2i + 1], SEED, ADRS);
}
if ( len' % 2 == 1 ) {
pk[floor(len' / 2)] = pk[len' - 1];
}
len' = ceil(len' / 2);
ADRS.setTreeHeight(ADRS.getTreeHeight() + 1);
}
return pk[0];
4.1.6. TreeHash
For the computation of the internal n-byte nodes of a Merkle tree,
the subroutine treeHash (Algorithm 9) accepts an XMSS private key SK
(including seed SEED), an unsigned integer s (the start index), an
unsigned integer t (the target node height), and an address ADRS that
encodes the address of the containing tree. For the height of a node
within a tree counting starts with the leaves at height zero. The
treeHash algorithm returns the root node of a tree of height t with
the leftmost leaf being the hash of the WOTS+ pk with index s. It is
REQUIRED that s % 2^t = 0, i.e. that the leaf at index s is a
leftmost leaf of a sub-tree of height t. Otherwise the hash-
addressing scheme fails. The treeHash algorithm described here uses
a stack holding up to (t - 1) nodes, with the usual stack functions
push() and pop(). We furthermore assume that the height of a node
(an unsigned integer) is stored alongside a node's value (an n-byte
string) on the stack.
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Algorithm 9: treeHash
Input: XMSS private key SK, start index s, target node height t,
address ADRS
Output: n-byte root node - top node on Stack
if( s % (1 << t) != 0 ) return -1;
for ( i = 0; i < 2^t; i++ ) {
SEED = getSEED(SK);
ADRS.setType(0); // Type = OTS hash address
ADRS.setOTSAddress(s + i);
pk = WOTS_genPK (getWOTS_SK(SK, s + i), SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setType(1); // Type = L-tree address
ADRS.setLTreeAddress(s + i);
node = ltree(pk, SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setType(2); // Type = hash tree address
ADRS.setTreeHeight(0);
ADRS.setTreeIndex(i + s);
while ( Top node on Stack has same height t' as node ) {
ADRS.setTreeIndex((ADRS.getTreeIndex() - 1) / 2);
node = RAND_HASH(Stack.pop(), node, SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setTreeHeight(ADRS.getTreeHeight() + 1);
}
Stack.push(node);
}
return Stack.pop();
4.1.7. XMSS Key Generation
The XMSS key pair is computed as described in XMSS_keyGen (Algorithm
10). The XMSS public key PK consists of the root of the binary hash
tree and the seed SEED, both also stored in SK. The root is computed
using treeHash. For XMSS, there is only a single main tree. Hence,
the used address is set to the all-zero string in the beginning.
Note that we do not define any specific format or handling for the
XMSS private key SK by introducing this algorithm. It relates to
requirements described earlier and simply shows a basic but very
inefficient example to initialize a private key.
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Algorithm 10: XMSS_keyGen - Generate an XMSS key pair
Input: No input
Output: XMSS private key SK, XMSS public key PK
// Example initialization for SK-specific contents
idx = 0;
for ( i = 0; i < 2^h; i++ ) {
wots_sk[i] = WOTS_genSK();
}
initialize SK_PRF with a uniformly random n-byte string;
setSK_PRF(SK, SK_PRF);
// Initialization for common contents
initialize SEED with a uniformly random n-byte string;
setSEED(SK, SEED);
setWOTS_SK(SK, wots_sk));
ADRS = toByte(0, 32);
root = treeHash(SK, 0, h, ADRS);
SK = idx || wots_sk || SK_PRF || root || SEED;
PK = OID || root || SEED;
return (SK || PK);
The above is just an example algorithm. It is strongly RECOMMENDED
to use pseudorandom key generation to reduce the private key size.
Public and private key generation MAY be interleaved to save space.
Especially, when a pseudorandom method is used to generate the
private key, generation MAY be done when the respective WOTS+ key
pair is needed by treeHash.
The format of an XMSS public key is given below.
XMSS Public Key
+---------------------------------+
| algorithm OID |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| root node | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| SEED | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
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4.1.8. XMSS Signature
An XMSS signature is a (4 + n + (len + h) * n)-byte string consisting
of
the index idx_sig of the used WOTS+ key pair (4 bytes),
a byte string r used for randomized message hashing (n bytes),
a WOTS+ signature sig_ots (len * n bytes),
the so-called authentication path 'auth' for the leaf associated
with the used WOTS+ key pair (h * n bytes).
The authentication path is an array of h n-byte strings. It contains
the siblings of the nodes on the path from the used leaf to the root.
It does not contain the nodes on the path itself. These nodes are
needed by a verifier to compute a root node for the tree from the
WOTS+ public key. A node Node is addressed by its position in the
tree. Node(x, y) denotes the y^th node on level x with y = 0 being
the leftmost node on a level. The leaves are on level 0, the root is
on level h. An authentication path contains exactly one node on
every layer 0 <= x <= (h - 1). For the i^th WOTS+ key pair, counting
from zero, the j^th authentication path node is
Node(j, floor(i / (2^j)) XOR 1)
The computation of the authentication path is discussed in
Section 4.1.9.
The data format for a signature is given below.
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XMSS Signature
+---------------------------------+
| |
| index idx_sig | 4 bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| randomness r | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| WOTS+ signature sig_ots | len * n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| auth[0] | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
~ .... ~
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| auth[h - 1] | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
4.1.9. XMSS Signature Generation
To compute the XMSS signature of a message M with an XMSS private
key, the signer first computes a randomized message digest using a
random value r, idx_sig, the index of the WOTS+ key pair to be used,
and the root value from the public key as key. Then a WOTS+
signature of the message digest is computed using the next unused
WOTS+ private key. Next, the authentication path is computed.
Finally, the private key is updated, i.e. idx is incremented. An
implementation MUST NOT output the signature before the private key
is updated.
The node values of the authentication path MAY be computed in any
way. This computation is assumed to be performed by the subroutine
buildAuth for the function XMSS_sign, as below. The fastest
alternative is to store all tree nodes and set the array in the
signature by copying the respective nodes. The least storage-
intensive alternative is to recompute all nodes for each signature
online using the treeHash algorithm (Algorithm 9). There exist
several algorithms in between, with different time/storage trade-
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offs. For an overview, see [BDS09]. A further approach can be found
in [KMN14]. Note that the details of this procedure are not relevant
to interoperability; it is not necessary to know any of these details
in order to perform the signature verification operation. The
following version of buildAuth is given for completeness. It is a
simple example for understanding, but extremely inefficient. The use
of one of the alternative algorithms is strongly RECOMMENDED.
Given an XMSS private key SK, all nodes in a tree are determined.
Their value is defined in terms of treeHash (Algorithm 9). Hence,
one can compute the authentication path as follows:
(Example) buildAuth - Compute the authentication path for the i^th
WOTS+ key pair
Input: XMSS private key SK, WOTS+ key pair index i, ADRS
Output: Authentication path auth
for ( j = 0; j < h; j++ ) {
k = floor(i / (2^j)) XOR 1;
auth[j] = treeHash(SK, k * 2^j, j, ADRS);
}
We split the description of the signature generation into two main
algorithms. The first one, treeSig (Algorithm 11), generates the
main part of an XMSS signature and is also used by the multi-tree
version XMSS^MT. XMSS_sign (Algorithm 12) calls treeSig but handles
message compression before and the private key update afterwards.
The algorithm treeSig (Algorithm 11) described below calculates the
WOTS+ signature on an n-byte message and the corresponding
authentication path. treeSig takes as inputs an n-byte message M',
an XMSS private key SK, a signature index idx_sig, and an address
ADRS. It returns the concatenation of the WOTS+ signature sig_ots
and authentication path auth.
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Algorithm 11: treeSig - Generate a WOTS+ signature on a message with
corresponding authentication path
Input: n-byte message M', XMSS private key SK,
signature index idx_sig, ADRS
Output: Concatenation of WOTS+ signature sig_ots and
authentication path auth
auth = buildAuth(SK, idx_sig, ADRS);
ADRS.setType(0); // Type = OTS hash address
ADRS.setOTSAddress(idx_sig);
sig_ots = WOTS_sign(getWOTS_SK(SK, idx_sig),
M', getSEED(SK), ADRS);
Sig = sig_ots || auth;
return Sig;
The algorithm XMSS_sign (Algorithm 12) described below calculates an
updated private key SK and a signature on a message M. XMSS_sign
takes as inputs a message M of arbitrary length, and an XMSS private
key SK. It returns the byte string containing the concatenation of
the updated private key SK and the signature Sig.
Algorithm 12: XMSS_sign - Generate an XMSS signature and update the
XMSS private key
Input: Message M, XMSS private key SK
Output: Updated SK, XMSS signature Sig
idx_sig = getIdx(SK);
setIdx(SK, idx_sig + 1);
ADRS = toByte(0, 32);
byte[n] r = PRF(getSK_PRF(SK), toByte(idx_sig, 32));
byte[n] M' = H_msg(r || getRoot(SK) || (toByte(idx_sig, n)), M);
Sig = idx_sig || r || treeSig(M', SK, idx_sig, ADRS);
return (SK || Sig);
4.1.10. XMSS Signature Verification
An XMSS signature is verified by first computing the message digest
using randomness r, index idx_sig, the root from PK and message M.
Then the used WOTS+ public key pk_ots is computed from the WOTS+
signature using WOTS_pkFromSig. The WOTS+ public key in turn is used
to compute the corresponding leaf using an L-tree. The leaf,
together with index idx_sig and authentication path auth is used to
compute an alternative root value for the tree. The verification
succeeds if and only if the computed root value matches the one in
the XMSS public key. In any other case it MUST return fail.
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As for signature generation, we split verification into two parts to
allow for reuse in the XMSS^MT description. The steps also needed
for XMSS^MT are done by the function XMSS_rootFromSig (Algorithm 13).
XMSS_verify (Algorithm 14) calls XMSS_rootFromSig as a subroutine and
handles the XMSS-specific steps.
The main part of XMSS signature verification is done by the function
XMSS_rootFromSig (Algorithm 13) described below. XMSS_rootFromSig
takes as inputs an index idx_sig, a WOTS+ signature sig_ots, an
authentication path auth, an n-byte message M', seed SEED, and
address ADRS. XMSS_rootFromSig returns an n-byte string holding the
value of the root of a tree defined by the input data.
Algorithm 13: XMSS_rootFromSig - Compute a root node from a tree
signature
Input: index idx_sig, WOTS+ signature sig_ots, authentication path
auth, n-byte message M', seed SEED, address ADRS
Output: n-byte root value node[0]
ADRS.setType(0); // Type = OTS hash address
ADRS.setOTSAddress(idx_sig);
pk_ots = WOTS_pkFromSig(sig_ots, M', SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setType(1); // Type = L-tree address
ADRS.setLTreeAddress(idx_sig);
byte[n][2] node;
node[0] = ltree(pk_ots, SEED, ADRS);
ADRS.setType(2); // Type = hash tree address
ADRS.setTreeIndex(idx_sig);
for ( k = 0; k < h; k++ ) {
ADRS.setTreeHeight(k);
if ( (floor(idx_sig / (2^k)) % 2) == 0 ) {
ADRS.setTreeIndex(ADRS.getTreeIndex() / 2);
node[1] = RAND_HASH(node[0], auth[k], SEED, ADRS);
} else {
ADRS.setTreeIndex((ADRS.getTreeIndex() - 1) / 2);
node[1] = RAND_HASH(auth[k], node[0], SEED, ADRS);
}
node[0] = node[1];
}
return node[0];
The full XMSS signature verification is depicted below (Algorithm
14). It handles message compression, delegates the root computation
to XMSS_rootFromSig, and compares the result to the value in the
public key. XMSS_verify takes an XMSS signature Sig, a message M,
and an XMSS public key PK. XMSS_verify returns true if and only if
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Sig is a valid signature on M under public key PK. Otherwise, it
returns false.
Algorithm 14: XMSS_verify - Verify an XMSS signature using the
corresponding XMSS public key and a message
Input: XMSS signature Sig, message M, XMSS public key PK
Output: Boolean
ADRS = toByte(0, 32);
byte[n] M' = H_msg(r || getRoot(PK) || (toByte(idx_sig, n)), M);
byte[n] node = XMSS_rootFromSig(idx_sig, sig_ots, auth, M',
getSEED(PK), ADRS);
if ( node == getRoot(PK) ) {
return true;
} else {
return false;
}
4.1.11. Pseudorandom Key Generation
An implementation MAY use a cryptographically secure pseudorandom
method to generate the XMSS private key from a single n-byte value.
For example, the method suggested in [BDH11] and explained below MAY
be used. Other methods, such as the one in [HRS16], MAY be used.
The choice of a pseudorandom method does not affect interoperability,
but the cryptographic strength MUST match that of the used XMSS
parameters.
For XMSS a similar method than the one used for WOTS+ can be used.
The suggested method from [BDH11] can be described using PRF. During
key generation a uniformly random n-byte string S is sampled from a
secure source of randomness. This seed S MUST NOT be confused with
the public seed SEED. The seed S MUST be independent of SEED and as
it is the main secret, it MUST be kept secret. This seed S is used
to generate an n-byte value S_ots for each WOTS+ key pair. The
n-byte value S_ots can then be used to compute the respective WOTS+
private key using the method described in Section 3.1.7. The seeds
for the WOTS+ key pairs are computed as S_ots[i] = PRF(S, toByte(i,
32)) where i is the index of the WOTS+ key pair. An advantage of
this method is that a WOTS+ key can be computed using only len + 1
evaluations of PRF when S is given.
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4.1.12. Free Index Handling and Partial Private Keys
Some applications might require to work with partial private keys or
copies of private keys. Examples include delegation of signing
rights / proxy signatures, and load balancing. Such applications MAY
use their own key format and MAY use a signing algorithm different
from the one described above. The index in partial private keys or
copies of a private key MAY be manipulated as required by the
applications. However, applications MUST establish means that
guarantee that each index and thereby each WOTS+ key pair is used to
sign only a single message.
4.2. XMSS^MT: Multi-Tree XMSS
XMSS^MT is a method for signing a large but fixed number of messages.
It was first described in [HRB13]. It builds on XMSS. XMSS^MT uses
a tree of several layers of XMSS trees, a so-called hypertree. The
trees on top and intermediate layers are used to sign the root nodes
of the trees on the respective layer below. Trees on the lowest
layer are used to sign the actual messages. All XMSS trees have
equal height.
Consider an XMSS^MT tree of total height h that has d layers of XMSS
trees of height h / d. Then layer d - 1 contains one XMSS tree,
layer d - 2 contains 2^(h / d) XMSS trees, and so on. Finally, layer
0 contains 2^(h - h / d) XMSS trees.
4.2.1. XMSS^MT Parameters
In addition to all XMSS parameters, an XMSS^MT system requires the
number of tree layers d, specified as an integer value that divides h
without remainder. The same tree height h / d and the same
Winternitz parameter w are used for all tree layers.
All the trees on higher layers sign root nodes of other trees which
are n-byte strings. Hence, no message compression is needed and
WOTS+ is used to sign the root nodes themselves instead of their hash
values.
4.2.2. XMSS^MT Key generation
An XMSS^MT private key SK_MT (S for secret) consists of one reduced
XMSS private key for each XMSS tree. These reduced XMSS private keys
just contain the WOTS+ private keys corresponding to that XMSS key
pair and no pseudorandom function key, no index, no public seed, no
root node. Instead, SK_MT contains a single n-byte pseudorandom
function key SK_PRF, a single (ceil(h / 8))-byte index idx_MT, a
single n-byte seed SEED, and a single root value root which is the
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root of the single tree on the top layer. The index is a global
index over all WOTS+ key pairs of all XMSS trees on layer 0. It is
initialized with 0. It stores the index of the last used WOTS+ key
pair on the bottom layer, i.e. a number between 0 and 2^h - 1.
The reduced XMSS private keys MUST either be generated as described
in Section 4.1.3 or using a cryptographic pseudorandom method as
discussed in Section 4.2.6. As for XMSS, the PRF key SK_PRF MUST be
sampled from a secure source of randomness that follows the uniform
distribution. SEED is generated as a uniformly random n-byte string.
Although SEED is public, it is critical for security that it is
generated using a good entropy source. The root is the root node of
the single XMSS tree on the top layer. Its computation is explained
below. As for XMSS, root and SEED are public information and would
classically be considered part of the public key. However, as both
are needed for signing, which only takes the private key, they are
also part of SK_MT.
This document does not define any specific format for the XMSS^MT
private key SK_MT as it is not required for interoperability. The
algorithm descriptions below use a function getXMSS_SK(SK, x, y) that
outputs the reduced private key of the x^th XMSS tree on the y^th
layer.
The XMSS^MT public key PK_MT contains the root of the single XMSS
tree on layer d - 1 and the seed SEED. These are the same values as
in the private key SK_MT. The pseudorandom function PRF keyed with
SEED is used to generate the bitmasks and keys for all XMSS trees.
XMSSMT_keyGen (Algorithm 15) shows example pseudocode to generate
SK_MT and PK_MT. The n-byte root node of the top layer tree is
computed using treeHash. The algorithm XMSSMT_keyGen outputs an
XMSS^MT private key SK_MT and an XMSS^MT public key PK_MT. The
algorithm below gives an example of how the reduced XMSS private keys
can be generated. However, any of the above mentioned ways is
acceptable as long as the cryptographic strength of the used method
matches or supersedes that of the used XMSS^MT parameter set.
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Algorithm 15: XMSSMT_keyGen - Generate an XMSS^MT key pair
Input: No input
Output: XMSS^MT private key SK_MT, XMSS^MT public key PK_MT
// Example initialization
idx_MT = 0;
setIdx(SK_MT, idx_MT);
initialize SK_PRF with a uniformly random n-byte string;
setSK_PRF(SK_MT, SK_PRF);
initialize SEED with a uniformly random n-byte string;
setSEED(SK_MT, SEED);
// Generate reduced XMSS private keys
ADRS = toByte(0, 32);
for ( layer = 0; layer < d; layer++ ) {
ADRS.setLayerAddress(layer);
for ( tree = 0; tree <
(1 << ((d - 1 - layer) * (h / d)));
tree++ ) {
ADRS.setTreeAddress(tree);
for ( i = 0; i < 2^(h / d); i++ ) {
wots_sk[i] = WOTS_genSK();
}
setXMSS_SK(SK_MT, wots_sk, tree, layer);
}
}
SK = getXMSS_SK(SK_MT, 0, d - 1);
setSEED(SK, SEED);
root = treeHash(SK, 0, h / d, ADRS);
setRoot(SK_MT, root);
PK_MT = OID || root || SEED;
return (SK_MT || PK_MT);
The above is just an example algorithm. It is strongly RECOMMENDED
to use pseudorandom key generation to reduce the private key size.
Public and private key generation MAY be interleaved to save space.
Especially, when a pseudorandom method is used to generate the
private key, generation MAY be delayed to the point when the
respective WOTS+ key pair is needed by another algorithm.
The format of an XMSS^MT public key is given below.
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XMSS^MT Public Key
+---------------------------------+
| algorithm OID |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| root node | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| SEED | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
4.2.3. XMSS^MT Signature
An XMSS^MT signature Sig_MT is a byte string of length (ceil(h / 8) +
n + (h + d * len) * n). It consists of
the index idx_sig of the used WOTS+ key pair on the bottom layer
(ceil(h / 8) bytes),
a byte string r used for randomized message hashing (n bytes),
d reduced XMSS signatures ((h / d + len) * n bytes each).
The reduced XMSS signatures only contain a WOTS+ signature sig_ots
and an authentication path auth. They contain no index idx and no
byte string r.
The data format for a signature is given below.
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XMSS^MT signature
+---------------------------------+
| |
| index idx_sig | ceil(h / 8) bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| randomness r | n bytes
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| (reduced) XMSS signature Sig | (h / d + len) * n bytes
| (bottom layer 0) |
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| (reduced) XMSS signature Sig | (h / d + len) * n bytes
| (layer 1) |
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
~ .... ~
| |
+---------------------------------+
| |
| (reduced) XMSS signature Sig | (h / d + len) * n bytes
| (layer d - 1) |
| |
+---------------------------------+
4.2.4. XMSS^MT Signature Generation
To compute the XMSS^MT signature Sig_MT of a message M using an
XMSS^MT private key SK_MT, XMSSMT_sign (Algorithm 16) described below
uses treeSig as defined in Section 4.1.9. First, the signature index
is set to idx_sig. Next, PRF is used to compute a pseudorandom
n-byte string r. This n-byte string, idx_sig, and the root node from
PK_MT are then used to compute a randomized message digest of length
n. The message digest is signed using the WOTS+ key pair on the
bottom layer with absolute index idx. The authentication path for
the WOTS+ key pair is computed as well as the root of the containing
XMSS tree. The root is signed by the parent XMSS tree. This is
repeated until the top tree is reached.
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Algorithm 16: XMSSMT_sign - Generate an XMSS^MT signature and update
the XMSS^MT private key
Input: Message M, XMSS^MT private key SK_MT
Output: Updated SK_MT, signature Sig_MT
// Init
ADRS = toByte(0, 32);
SEED = getSEED(SK_MT);
SK_PRF = getSK_PRF(SK_MT);
idx_sig = getIdx(SK_MT);
// Update SK_MT
setIdx(SK_MT, idx_sig + 1);
// Message compression
byte[n] r = PRF(SK_PRF, toByte(idx_sig, 32));
byte[n] M' = H_msg(r || getRoot(SK_MT) || (toByte(idx_sig, n)), M);
// Sign
Sig_MT = idx_sig;
unsigned int idx_tree
= (h - h / d) most significant bits of idx_sig;
unsigned int idx_leaf = (h / d) least significant bits of idx_sig;
SK = idx_leaf || getXMSS_SK(SK_MT, idx_tree, 0) || SK_PRF
|| toByte(0, n) || SEED;
ADRS.setLayerAddress(0);
ADRS.setTreeAddress(idx_tree);
Sig_tmp = treeSig(M', SK, idx_leaf, ADRS);
Sig_MT = Sig_MT || r || Sig_tmp;
for ( j = 1; j < d; j++ ) {
root = treeHash(SK, 0, h / d, ADRS);
idx_leaf = (h / d) least significant bits of idx_tree;
idx_tree = (h - j * (h / d)) most significant bits of idx_tree;
SK = idx_leaf || getXMSS_SK(SK_MT, idx_tree, j) || SK_PRF
|| toByte(0, n) || SEED;
ADRS.setLayerAddress(j);
ADRS.setTreeAddress(idx_tree);
Sig_tmp = treeSig(root, SK, idx_leaf, ADRS);
Sig_MT = Sig_MT || Sig_tmp;
}
return SK_MT || Sig_MT;
Algorithm 16 is only one method to compute XMSS^MT signatures.
Especially, there exist time-memory trade-offs that allow to reduce
the signing time to less than the signing time of an XMSS scheme with
tree height h / d. These trade-offs prevent certain values from
being recomputed several times by keeping a state and distribute all
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computations over all signature generations. Details can be found in
[Huelsing13a].
4.2.5. XMSS^MT Signature Verification
XMSS^MT signature verification (Algorithm 17) can be summarized as d
XMSS signature verifications with small changes. First, the message
is hashed. The XMSS signatures are then all on n-byte values.
Second, instead of comparing the computed root node to a given value,
a signature on this root node is verified. Only the root node of the
top tree is compared to the value in the XMSS^MT public key.
XMSSMT_verify uses XMSS_rootFromSig. The function
getXMSSSignature(Sig_MT, i) returns the ith reduced XMSS signature
from the XMSS^MT signature Sig_MT. XMSSMT_verify takes as inputs an
XMSS^MT signature Sig_MT, a message M and a public key PK_MT.
XMSSMT_verify returns true if and only if Sig_MT is a valid signature
on M under public key PK_MT. Otherwise, it returns false.
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Algorithm 17: XMSSMT_verify - Verify an XMSS^MT signature Sig_MT on a
message M using an XMSS^MT public key PK_MT
Input: XMSS^MT signature Sig_MT, message M,
XMSS^MT public key PK_MT
Output: Boolean
idx_sig = getIdx(Sig_MT);
SEED = getSEED(PK_MT);
ADRS = toByte(0, 32);
byte[n] M' = H_msg(getR(Sig_MT) || getRoot(PK_MT)
|| (toByte(idx_sig, n)), M);
unsigned int idx_leaf
= (h / d) least significant bits of idx_sig;
unsigned int idx_tree
= (h - h / d) most significant bits of idx_sig;
Sig' = getXMSSSignature(Sig_MT, 0);
ADRS.setLayerAddress(0);
ADRS.setTreeAddress(idx_tree);
byte[n] node = XMSS_rootFromSig(idx_leaf, getSig_ots(Sig'),
getAuth(Sig'), M', SEED, ADRS);
for ( j = 1; j < d; j++ ) {
idx_leaf = (h / d) least significant bits of idx_tree;
idx_tree = (h - j * h / d) most significant bits of idx_tree;
Sig' = getXMSSSignature(Sig_MT, j);
ADRS.setLayerAddress(j);
ADRS.setTreeAddress(idx_tree);
node = XMSS_rootFromSig(idx_leaf, getSig_ots(Sig'),
getAuth(Sig'), node, SEED, ADRS);
}
if ( node == getRoot(PK_MT) ) {
return true;
} else {
return false;
}
4.2.6. Pseudorandom Key Generation
Like for XMSS, an implementation MAY use a cryptographically secure
pseudorandom method to generate the XMSS^MT private key from a single
n-byte value. For example, the method explained below MAY be used.
Other methods, such as the one in [HRS16], MAY be used. The choice
of a pseudorandom method does not affect interoperability, but the
cryptographic strength MUST match that of the used XMSS^MT
parameters.
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For XMSS^MT a method similar to that for XMSS and WOTS+ can be used.
The method uses PRF. During key generation a uniformly random n-byte
string S_MT is sampled from a secure source of randomness. This seed
S_MT is used to generate one n-byte value S for each XMSS key pair.
This n-byte value can be used to compute the respective XMSS private
key using the method described in Section 4.1.11. Let S[x][y] be the
seed for the x^th XMSS private key on layer y. The seeds are
computed as S[x][y] = PRF(PRF(S, toByte(y, 32)), toByte(x, 32)).
4.2.7. Free Index Handling and Partial Private Keys
The content of Section 4.1.12 also applies to XMSS^MT.
5. Parameter Sets
This section provides a basic set of parameter sets which are assumed
to cover most relevant applications. Parameter sets for two
classical security levels are defined. Parameters with n = 32
provide a classical security level of 256 bits. Parameters with n =
64 provide a classical security level of 512 bits. Considering
quantum-computer-aided attacks, these output sizes yield post-quantum
security of 128 and 256 bits, respectively.
While this document specifies several parameter sets, an
implementation is only REQUIRED to provide support for verification
of all REQUIRED parameter sets. The REQUIRED parameter sets all use
SHA2-256 to instantiate all functions. The REQUIRED parameter sets
are only distinguished by the tree height parameter h which
determines the number of signatures that can be done with a single
key pair and the number of layers d which defines a trade-off between
speed and signature size. An implementation MAY provide support for
signature generation using any of the proposed parameter sets. For
convenience this document defines a default option for XMSS
(XMSS_SHA2_20_256) and XMSS^MT (XMSSMT-SHA2_60/3_256). These are
supposed to match the most generic requirements.
5.1. Implementing the functions
For the n = 32 and n = 64 settings, we give parameters that use
SHA2-256, SHA2-512 as defined in [FIPS180], and the SHA3/Keccak-based
extendable-output functions SHAKE-128, SHAKE-256 as defined in
[FIPS202]. The parameter sets using SHA2-256 are mandatory for
deployment and therefore MUST be provided by any implementation. The
remaining parameter sets specified in this document are OPTIONAL.
SHA2 does not provide a keyed-mode itself. To implement the keyed
hash functions the following is used for SHA2 with n = 32:
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F: SHA2-256(toByte(0, 32) || KEY || M),
H: SHA2-256(toByte(1, 32) || KEY || M),
H_msg: SHA2-256(toByte(2, 32) || KEY || M),
PRF: SHA2-256(toByte(3, 32) || KEY || M).
Accordingly, for SHA2 with n = 64 we use:
F: SHA2-512(toByte(0, 64) || KEY || M),
H: SHA2-512(toByte(1, 64) || KEY || M),
H_msg: SHA2-512(toByte(2, 64) || KEY || M),
PRF: SHA2-512(toByte(3, 64) || KEY || M).
The n-byte padding is used for two reasons. First, it is necessary
that the internal compression function takes 2n-byte blocks but keys
are n and 3n bytes long. Second, the padding is used to achieve
independence of the different function families. Finally, for the
PRF no full-fledged HMAC is needed as the message length is fixed,
meaning that standard length extension attacks are not a concern
here. For that reason, the simpler construction above suffices.
Similar constructions are used with SHA3. To implement the keyed
hash functions the following is used for SHA3 with n = 32:
F: SHAKE128(toByte(0, 32) || KEY || M, 256),
H: SHAKE128(toByte(1, 32) || KEY || M, 256),
H_msg: SHAKE128(toByte(2, 32) || KEY || M, 256),
PRF: SHAKE128(toByte(3, 32) || KEY || M, 256).
Accordingly, for SHA3 with n = 64 we use:
F: SHAKE256(toByte(0, 64) || KEY || M, 512),
H: SHAKE256(toByte(1, 64) || KEY || M, 512),
H_msg: SHAKE256(toByte(2, 64) || KEY || M, 512),
PRF: SHAKE256(toByte(3, 64) || KEY || M, 512).
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As for SHA2, an initial n-byte identifier is used to achieve
independence of the different function families. While a shorter
identifier could be used in case of SHA3, we use n bytes for
consistency with the SHA2 implementations.
5.2. WOTS+ Parameters
To fully describe a WOTS+ signature method, the parameters n, and w,
as well as the functions F and PRF MUST be specified. This section
defines several WOTS+ signature systems, each of which is identified
by a name. Naming follows the convention: WOTSP-[Hashfamily]_[n in
bits]. Naming does not include w as all parameter sets in this
document use w=16. Values for len are provided for convenience.
+-----------------+----------+----+----+-----+
| Name | F / PRF | n | w | len |
+-----------------+----------+----+----+-----+
| REQUIRED: | | | | |
| | | | | |
| WOTSP-SHA2_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 |
| | | | | |
| OPTIONAL: | | | | |
| | | | | |
| WOTSP-SHA2_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 |
| | | | | |
| WOTSP-SHAKE_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 |
| | | | | |
| WOTSP-SHAKE_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 |
+-----------------+----------+----+----+-----+
Table 1
The implementation of the single functions is done as described
above. XDR formats for WOTS+ are listed in Appendix A.
5.3. XMSS Parameters
To fully describe an XMSS signature method, the parameters n, w, and
h, as well as the functions F, H, H_msg, and PRF MUST be specified.
This section defines different XMSS signature systems, each of which
is identified by a name. Naming follows the convention:
XMSS-[Hashfamily]_[h]_[n in bits]. Naming does not include w as all
parameter sets in this document use w=16.
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+-------------------+-----------+----+----+-----+----+
| Name | Functions | n | w | len | h |
+-------------------+-----------+----+----+-----+----+
| REQUIRED: | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_10_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 10 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_16_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 16 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_20_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 20 |
| | | | | | |
| OPTIONAL: | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_10_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 10 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_16_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 16 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_20_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 20 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_10_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 10 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_16_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 16 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_20_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 20 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_10_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 10 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_16_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 16 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_20_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 20 |
+-------------------+-----------+----+----+-----+----+
Table 2
The XDR formats for XMSS are listed in Appendix B.
5.3.1. Parameter guide
In contrast to traditional signature schemes like RSA or DSA, XMSS
has a tree height parameter h which determines the number of messages
that can be signed with one key pair. Increasing the height allows
to use a key pair for more signatures but it also increases the
signature size and slows down key generation, signing, and
verification. To demonstrate the impact of different values of h the
following table shows signature size and runtimes. Runtimes are
given as the number of calls to F and H when the BDS algorithm is
used to compute authentication paths for the worst case. The last
column shows the number of messages that can be signed with one key
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pair. The numbers are the same for the XMSS-SHAKE instances with
same parameters h and n.
+------------------+-------+------------+--------+--------+-------+
| Name | |Sig| | KeyGen | Sign | Verify | #Sigs |
+------------------+-------+------------+--------+--------+-------+
| REQUIRED: | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_10_256 | 2,500 | 1,238,016 | 5,725 | 1,149 | 2^10 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_16_256 | 2,692 | 79*10^6 | 9,163 | 1,155 | 2^16 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_20_256 | 2,820 | 1,268*10^6 | 11,455 | 1,159 | 2^20 |
| | | | | | |
| OPTIONAL: | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_10_512 | 9,092 | 2,417,664 | 11,165 | 2,237 | 2^10 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_16_512 | 9,476 | 155*10^6 | 17,867 | 2,243 | 2^16 |
| | | | | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_20_512 | 9,732 | 2,476*10^6 | 22,335 | 2,247 | 2^20 |
+------------------+-------+------------+--------+--------+-------+
Table 3
Users without special requirements should use as default option XMSS-
SHA2_20_256 which allows to sign 2^20 messages with one key pair and
provides reasonable speed and signature size. Users that require
more signatures per key pair or faster key generation should consider
XMSS^MT.
5.4. XMSS^MT Parameters
To fully describe an XMSS^MT signature method, the parameters n, w,
h, and d, as well as the functions F, H, H_msg, and PRF MUST be
specified. This section defines different XMSS^MT signature systems,
each of which is identified by a name. Naming follows the
convention: XMSSMT-[Hashfamily]_[h]/[d]_[n in bits]. Naming does not
include w as all parameter sets in this document use w=16.
+------------------------+-----------+----+----+-----+----+----+
| Name | Functions | n | w | len | h | d |
+------------------------+-----------+----+----+-----+----+----+
| REQUIRED: | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/2_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 20 | 2 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/4_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 20 | 4 |
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| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/2_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 40 | 2 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/4_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 40 | 4 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/8_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 40 | 8 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/3_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 60 | 3 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/6_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 60 | 6 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/12_256 | SHA2-256 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 60 | 12 |
| | | | | | | |
| OPTIONAL: | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/2_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 20 | 2 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/4_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 20 | 4 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/2_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 40 | 2 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/4_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 40 | 4 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/8_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 40 | 8 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/3_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 60 | 3 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/6_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 60 | 6 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/12_512 | SHA2-512 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 60 | 12 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/2_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 20 | 2 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/4_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 20 | 4 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/2_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 40 | 2 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/4_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 40 | 4 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/8_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 40 | 8 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/3_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 60 | 3 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/6_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 60 | 6 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/12_256 | SHAKE128 | 32 | 16 | 67 | 60 | 12 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/2_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 20 | 2 |
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| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/4_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 20 | 4 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/2_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 40 | 2 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/4_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 40 | 4 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/8_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 40 | 8 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/3_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 60 | 3 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/6_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 60 | 6 |
| | | | | | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/12_512 | SHAKE256 | 64 | 16 | 131 | 60 | 12 |
+------------------------+-----------+----+----+-----+----+----+
Table 4
XDR formats for XMSS^MT are listed in Appendix C.
5.5. Parameter guide
In addition to the tree height parameter already used for XMSS,
XMSS^MT has the parameter d which determines the number of tree
layers. XMSS can be understood as XMSS^MT with a single layer, i.e.,
d=1. Hence, the choice of h has the same effect as for XMSS. The
number of tree layers provides a trade-off between signature size on
the one side and key generation and signing speed on the other side.
Increasing the number of layers reduces key generation time
exponentially and signing time linearly at the cost of increasing the
signature size linearly. Essentially, an XMSS^MT signature contains
one WOTSP signature per layer. Speed roughly corresponds to d-times
the speed for XMSS with trees of height h/d.
To demonstrate the impact of different values of h and d the
following table shows signature size and runtimes. Runtimes are
given as the number of calls to F and H when the BDS algorithm and
distributed signature generation are used. Timings are worst-case
times. The last column shows the number of messages that can be
signed with one key pair. The numbers are the same for the XMSS-
SHAKE instances with same parameters h and n. Due to formatting
limitations, only the parameter part of the parameter set names are
given, omitting the name XMSSMT.
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+----------------+---------+------------+--------+--------+-------+
| Name | |Sig| | KeyGen | Sign | Verify | #Sigs |
+----------------+---------+------------+--------+--------+-------+
| REQUIRED: | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_20/2_256 | 4,963 | 2,476,032 | 7,227 | 2,298 | 2^20 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_20/4_256 | 9,251 | 154,752 | 4,170 | 4,576 | 2^20 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_40/2_256 | 5,605 | 2,535*10^6 | 13,417 | 2,318 | 2^40 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_40/4_256 | 9,893 | 4,952,064 | 7,227 | 4,596 | 2^40 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_40/8_256 | 18,469 | 309,504 | 4,170 | 9,152 | 2^40 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_60/3_256 | 8,392 | 3,803*10^6 | 13,417 | 3,477 | 2^60 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_60/6_256 | 14,824 | 7,428,096 | 7,227 | 6,894 | 2^60 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_60/12_256 | 27,688 | 464,256 | 4,170 | 13,728 | 2^60 |
| | | | | | |
| OPTIONAL: | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_20/2_512 | 18,115 | 4,835,328 | 14,075 | 4,474 | 2^20 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_20/4_512 | 34,883 | 302,208 | 8,138 | 8,928 | 2^20 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_40/2_512 | 19,397 | 4,951*10^6 | 26,025 | 4,494 | 2^40 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_40/4_512 | 36,165 | 9,670,656 | 14,075 | 8,948 | 2^40 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_40/8_512 | 69,701 | 604,416 | 8,138 | 17,856 | 2^40 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_60/3_512 | 29,064 | 7,427*10^6 | 26,025 | 6,741 | 2^60 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_60/6_512 | 54,216 | 14,505,984 | 14,075 | 13,422 | 2^60 |
| | | | | | |
| SHA2_60/12_512 | 104,520 | 906,624 | 8,138 | 26,784 | 2^60 |
+----------------+---------+------------+--------+--------+-------+
Table 5
Users without special requirements should use as default option
XMSSMT-SHA2_60/3_256 which allows to sign 2^60 messages with one key
pair, which is a virtually unbounded number of signatures. At the
same time, signature size and speed are well balanced.
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6. Rationale
The goal of this note is to describe the WOTS+, XMSS and XMSS^MT
algorithms following the scientific literature. The description is
done in a modular way that allows to base a description of stateless
hash-based signature algorithms like SPHINCS [BHH15] on it.
This note slightly deviates from the scientific literature using a
tweak that prevents multi-user / multi-target attacks against H_msg.
To this end, the public key as well as the index of the used one-time
key pair become part of the hash function key. Thereby we achieve a
domain separation that forces an attacker to decide which hash value
to attack.
For the generation of the randomness used for randomized message
hashing, we apply a PRF, keyed with a secret value, to the index of
the used one-time key pair instead of the message. The reason is
that this requires to process the message only once instead of twice.
For long messages this improves speed and simplifies implementations
on resource constrained devices that cannot hold the entire message
in storage.
We give one mandatory set of parameters using SHA2-256. The reasons
are twofold. On the one hand, SHA2-256 is part of most cryptographic
libraries. On the other hand, a 256-bit hash function leads to
parameters that provide 128 bit of security even against quantum-
computer-aided attacks. A post-quantum security level of 256 bit
seems overly conservative. However, to prepare for possible
cryptanalytic breakthroughs, we also provide OPTIONAL parameter sets
using the less widely supported SHA2-512, SHAKE-256, and SHAKE-512
functions.
We suggest the value w = 16 for the Winternitz parameter. No bigger
values are included since the decrease in signature size then becomes
less significant. Furthermore, the value w = 16 considerably
simplifies the implementations of some of the algorithms. Please
note that we do allow w = 4, but limit the specified parameter sets
to w = 16 for efficiency reasons.
The signature and public key formats are designed so that they are
easy to parse. Each format starts with a 32-bit enumeration value
that indicates all of the details of the signature algorithm and
hence defines all of the information that is needed in order to parse
the format.
The enumeration values used in this note are palindromes, which have
the same byte representation in either host order or network order.
This fact allows an implementation to omit the conversion between
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byte order for those enumerations. Note however that the idx field
used in XMSS and XMSS^MT signatures and private keys MUST be properly
converted to and from network byte order; this is the only field that
requires such conversion. There are 2^32 XDR enumeration values,
2^16 of which are palindromes, which is adequate for the foreseeable
future. If there is a need for further assignments, non-palindromes
can be assigned.
7. Reference Code
For testing purposes, a reference implementation in C is available.
The code contains a basic implementation that closely follows the
pseudocode in this document and an optimized implementation which
uses the BDS algorithm [BDS08] to compute authentication paths and
distributed signature generation as described in [HRB13] for XMSS^MT.
The code is permanently available at
https://github.com/joostrijneveld/xmss-reference
8. IANA Considerations
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is requested to create
three registries: one for WOTS+ signatures as defined in Section 3,
one for XMSS signatures and one for XMSS^MT signatures; the latter
two being defined in Section 4. For the sake of clarity and
convenience, the first sets of WOTS+, XMSS, and XMSS^MT parameter
sets are defined in Section 5. Additions to these registries require
that a specification be documented in an RFC or another permanent and
readily available reference in sufficient detail to make
interoperability between independent implementations possible. Each
entry in the registry contains the following elements:
a short name, such as "XMSS_SHA2_20_256",
a positive number, and
a reference to a specification that completely defines the
signature method test cases that can be used to verify the
correctness of an implementation.
Requests to add an entry to the registry MUST include the name and
the reference. The number is assigned by IANA. These number
assignments SHOULD use the smallest available palindromic number.
Submitters SHOULD have their requests reviewed by the IRTF Crypto
Forum Research Group (CFRG) at cfrg@ietf.org. Interested applicants
that are unfamiliar with IANA processes should visit
http://www.iana.org.
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The numbers between 0xDDDDDDDD (decimal 3,722,304,989) and 0xFFFFFFFF
(decimal 4,294,967,295) inclusive, will not be assigned by IANA, and
are reserved for private use; no attempt will be made to prevent
multiple sites from using the same value in different (and
incompatible) ways [RFC8126].
The WOTS+ registry is as follows.
+-----------------+-------------+--------------------+
| Name | Reference | Numeric Identifier |
+-----------------+-------------+--------------------+
| WOTSP-SHA2_256 | Section 5.2 | 0x01000001 |
| | | |
| WOTSP-SHA2_512 | Section 5.2 | 0x02000002 |
| | | |
| WOTSP-SHAKE_256 | Section 5.2 | 0x03000003 |
| | | |
| WOTSP-SHAKE_512 | Section 5.2 | 0x04000004 |
+-----------------+-------------+--------------------+
Table 6
The XMSS registry is as follows.
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+-------------------+-------------+--------------------+
| Name | Reference | Numeric Identifier |
+-------------------+-------------+--------------------+
| XMSS-SHA2_10_256 | Section 5.3 | 0x01000001 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_16_256 | Section 5.3 | 0x02000002 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_20_256 | Section 5.3 | 0x03000003 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_10_512 | Section 5.3 | 0x04000004 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_16_512 | Section 5.3 | 0x05000005 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHA2_20_512 | Section 5.3 | 0x06000006 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_10_256 | Section 5.3 | 0x07000007 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_16_256 | Section 5.3 | 0x08000008 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_20_256 | Section 5.3 | 0x09000009 |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_10_512 | Section 5.3 | 0x0a00000a |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_16_512 | Section 5.3 | 0x0b00000b |
| | | |
| XMSS-SHAKE_20_512 | Section 5.3 | 0x0c00000c |
+-------------------+-------------+--------------------+
Table 7
The XMSS^MT registry is as follows.
+------------------------+-------------+--------------------+
| Name | Reference | Numeric Identifier |
+------------------------+-------------+--------------------+
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/2_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x01000001 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/4_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x02000002 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/2_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x03000003 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/4_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x04000004 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/8_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x05000005 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/3_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x06000006 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/6_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x07000007 |
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| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/12_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x08000008 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/2_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x09000009 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_20/4_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0a00000a |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/2_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0b00000b |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/4_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0c00000c |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_40/8_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0d00000d |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/3_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0e00000e |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/6_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0f00000f |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHA2_60/12_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x01010101 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/2_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x02010102 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/4_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x03010103 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/2_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x04010104 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/4_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x05010105 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/8_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x06010106 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/3_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x07010107 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/6_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x08010108 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/12_256 | Section 5.4 | 0x09010109 |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/2_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0a01010a |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_20/4_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0b01010b |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/2_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0c01010c |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/4_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0d01010d |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_40/8_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0e01010e |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/3_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x0f01010f |
| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/6_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x01020201 |
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| | | |
| XMSSMT-SHAKE_60/12_512 | Section 5.4 | 0x02020202 |
+------------------------+-------------+--------------------+
Table 8
An IANA registration of a signature system does not constitute an
endorsement of that system or its security.
9. Security Considerations
A signature system is considered secure if it prevents an attacker
from forging a valid signature. More specifically, consider a
setting in which an attacker gets a public key and can learn
signatures on arbitrary messages of his choice. A signature system
is secure if, even in this setting, the attacker can not produce a
new message, signature pair of his choosing such that the
verification algorithm accepts.
Preventing an attacker from mounting an attack means that the attack
is computationally too expensive to be carried out. There exist
various estimates for when a computation is too expensive to be done.
For that reason, this note only describes how expensive it is for an
attacker to generate a forgery. Parameters are accompanied by a bit
security value. The meaning of bit security is as follows. A
parameter set grants b bits of security if the best attack takes at
least 2^(b - 1) bit operations to achieve a success probability of
1/2. Hence, to mount a successful attack, an attacker needs to
perform 2^b bit operations on average. The given values for bit
security were estimated according to [HRS16].
9.1. Security Proofs
A full security proof for all schemes described in this document can
be found in [HRS16]. This proof shows that an attacker has to break
at least one out of certain security properties of the used hash
functions and PRFs to forge a signature in any of the described
schemes. The proof in [HRS16] considers a different initial message
compression than the randomized hashing used here. We comment on
this below. For the original schemes, these proofs show that an
attacker has to break certain minimal security properties. In
particular, it is not sufficient to break the collision resistance of
the hash functions to generate a forgery.
More specifically, the requirements on the used functions are that F
and H are post-quantum multi-function multi-target second-preimage
resistant keyed functions, F fulfills an additional statistical
requirement that roughly says that most images have at least two
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preimages, PRF is a post-quantum pseudorandom function, H_msg is a
post-quantum multi-target extended target collision resistant keyed
hash function. For detailed definitions of these properties see
[HRS16]. To give some intuition: Multi-function multi-target second
preimage resistance is an extension of second preimage resistance to
keyed hash functions, covering the case where an adversary succeeds
if it finds a second preimage for one out of many values. The same
holds for multi-target extended target collision resistance which
just lacks the multi-function identifier as target collision
resistance already considers keyed hash functions. The proof in
[HRS16] splits PRF into two functions. When PRF is used for
pseudorandom key generation or generation of randomness for
randomized message hashing it is still considered a pseudorandom
function. Whenever PRF is used to generate bitmasks and hash
function keys it is modeled as a random oracle. This is due to
technical reasons in the proof and an implementation using a
pseudorandom function is secure.
The proof in [HRS16] considers classical randomized hashing for the
initial message compression, i.e., H(r, M) instead of H(r ||
getRoot(PK) || index, M). This classical randomized hashing allows
to get a security reduction from extended target collision resistance
[HRS16], a property that is conjectured to be strictly weaker than
collision resistance. However, it turns out that in this case, an
attacker could still launch a multi-target attack even against
multiple users at the same time. The reason is that the adversary
attacking u users at the same time learns u * 2^h randomized hashes
H(r_i_j || M_i_j) with signature index i in [0, 2^h - 1] and user
index j in [0, u]. It suffices to find a single pair (r*, M*) such
that H(r* || M*) = H(r_i_u || M_i_u) for one out of the u * 2^h
learned hashes. Hence, an attacker can do a brute force search in
time 2^n / u * 2^h instead of 2^n.
The indexed randomized hashing H(r || getRoot(PK) || toByte(idx, n),
M) used in this work makes the hash function calls position- and
user-dependent. This thwarts the above attack because each hash
function evaluation during an attack can only target one of the
learned randomized hash values. More specifically, an attacker now
has to decide which index idx and which root value to use for each
query. If one assumes that the used hash function is a random
function it can be shown that a multi-user existential forgery attack
that targets this message compression has a complexity of 2^n hash
function calls.
The given bit security values were estimated based on the complexity
of the best known generic attacks against the required security
properties of the used hash and pseudorandom functions assuming
conventional and quantum adversaries. At the time of writing,
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generic attacks are the best known attacks for the parameters
suggested in the classical setting. Also in the quantum setting
there are no dedicated attacks known that perform better than generic
attacks. Nevertheless, the topic of quantum cryptanalysis of hash
functions is not as well understood as in the classical setting.
9.2. Minimal Security Assumptions
The security assumptions made to argue for the security of the
described schemes are minimal. Any signature algorithm that allows
arbitrary size messages relies on the security of a cryptographic
hash function, either on collision resistance or on extended target
collision resistance if randomized hashing is used for message
compression. For the schemes described here this is already
sufficient to be secure. In contrast, common signature schemes like
RSA, DSA, and ECDSA additionally rely on the conjectured hardness of
certain mathematical problems.
9.3. Post-Quantum Security
A post-quantum cryptosystem is a system that is secure against
attackers with access to a reasonably sized quantum computer. At the
time of writing this note, whether or not it is feasible to build
such a machine is an open conjecture. However, significant progress
was made over the last few years in this regard. Hence, we consider
it a matter of risk assessment to prepare for this case.
In contrast to RSA, DSA, and ECDSA, the described signature systems
are post-quantum-secure if they are used with an appropriate
cryptographic hash function. In particular, for post-quantum
security, the size of n must be twice the size required for classical
security. This is in order to protect against quantum square root
attacks due to Grover's algorithm. It has been shown in [HRS16] that
variants of Grover's algorithm are the optimal generic attacks
against the security properties of hash functions required for the
described scheme.
As stated above, we only consider generic attacks here, as
cryptographic hash functions should be deprecated as soon as there
exist dedicated attacks that perform significantly better. This also
applies for the quantum setting. As soon as there exist dedicated
quantum attacks against the used hash function that perform
significantly better than the described generic attacks these hash
functions should not be used anymore for the described schemes or the
computation of the security level has to be redone.
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10. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Johannes Braun, Peter Campbell, Stephen
Farrell, Scott Fluhrer, Burt Kaliski, Adam Langley, Marcos Manzano,
David McGrew, Rafael Misoczki, Sean Parkinson, Sebastian Roland, and
the Keccak team for their help and comments.
11. References
11.1. Normative References
[FIPS180] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS 180-4, 2012.
[FIPS202] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "SHA-3
Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output
Functions", FIPS 202, 2015.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
.
[RFC4506] Eisler, M., Ed., "XDR: External Data Representation
Standard", STD 67, RFC 4506, DOI 10.17487/RFC4506, May
2006, .
[RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
.
11.2. Informative References
[BDH11] Buchmann, J., Dahmen, E., and A. Huelsing, "XMSS - A
Practical Forward Secure Signature Scheme Based on Minimal
Security Assumptions", Lecture Notes in Computer Science
volume 7071. Post-Quantum Cryptography, 2011.
[BDS08] Buchmann, J., Dahmen, E., and M. Schneider, "Merkle Tree
Traversal Revisited", Lecture Notes in Computer Science
volume 5299. Post-Quantum Cryptography, 2008.
[BDS09] Buchmann, J., Dahmen, E., and M. Szydlo, "Hash-based
Digital Signature Schemes", Book chapter Post-Quantum
Cryptography, Springer, 2009.
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[BHH15] Bernstein, D., Hopwood, D., Huelsing, A., Lange, T.,
Niederhagen, R., Papachristodoulou, L., Schneider, M.,
Schwabe, P., and Z. Wilcox-O'Hearn, "SPHINCS: Practical
Stateless Hash-Based Signatures", Lecture Notes in
Computer Science volume 9056. Advances in Cryptology -
EUROCRYPT, 2015.
[HRB13] Huelsing, A., Rausch, L., and J. Buchmann, "Optimal
Parameters for XMSS^MT", Lecture Notes in Computer Science
volume 8128. CD-ARES, 2013.
[HRS16] Huelsing, A., Rijneveld, J., and F. Song, "Mitigating
Multi-Target Attacks in Hash-based Signatures", Lecture
Notes in Computer Science volume 9614. Public-Key
Cryptography - PKC 2016, 2016.
[Huelsing13]
Huelsing, A., "W-OTS+ - Shorter Signatures for Hash-Based
Signature Schemes", Lecture Notes in Computer Science
volume 7918. Progress in Cryptology - AFRICACRYPT, 2013.
[Huelsing13a]
Huelsing, A., "Practical Forward Secure Signatures using
Minimal Security Assumptions", PhD thesis TU Darmstadt,
2013,
.
[Kaliski15]
Kaliski, B., "Panel: Shoring up the Infrastructure: A
Strategy for Standardizing Hash Signatures", NIST Workshop
on Cybersecurity in a Post-Quantum World, 2015.
[KMN14] Knecht, M., Meier, W., and C. Nicola, "A space- and time-
efficient Implementation of the Merkle Tree Traversal
Algorithm", Computing Research Repository
(CoRR). arXiv:1409.4081, 2014.
[MCF17] McGrew, D., Curcio, M., and S. Fluhrer, "Hash-Based
Signatures", Work in Progress, draft-mcgrew-hash-sigs-07,
June 2017, .
[Merkle79]
Merkle, R., "Secrecy, Authentication, and Public Key
Systems", Stanford University Information Systems
Laboratory Technical Report 1979-1, 1979,
.
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Appendix A. WOTS+ XDR Formats
The WOTS+ signature and public key formats are formally defined using
XDR [RFC4506] in order to provide an unambiguous, machine readable
definition. Though XDR is used, these formats are simple and easy to
parse without any special tools. To avoid the need to convert to and
from network / host byte order, the enumeration values are all
palindromes. Note that this representation includes all optional
parameter sets. The same applies for the XMSS and XMSS^MT formats
below.
WOTS+ parameter sets are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* ots_algorithm_type identifies a particular
signature algorithm */
enum ots_algorithm_type {
wotsp_reserved = 0x00000000,
wotsp-sha2_256 = 0x01000001,
wotsp-sha2_512 = 0x02000002,
wotsp-shake_256 = 0x03000003,
wotsp-shake_512 = 0x04000004,
};
WOTS+ signatures are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* Byte strings */
typedef opaque bytestring32[32];
typedef opaque bytestring64[64];
union ots_signature switch (ots_algorithm_type type) {
case wotsp-sha2_256:
case wotsp-shake_256:
bytestring32 ots_sig_n32_len67[67];
case wotsp-sha2_512:
case wotsp-shake_512:
bytestring64 ots_sig_n64_len18[131];
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
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WOTS+ public keys are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
union ots_pubkey switch (ots_algorithm_type type) {
case wotsp-sha2_256:
case wotsp-shake_256:
bytestring32 ots_pubk_n32_len67[67];
case wotsp-sha2_512:
case wotsp-shake_512:
bytestring64 ots_pubk_n64_len18[131];
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
Appendix B. XMSS XDR Formats
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XMSS parameter sets are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* Byte strings */
typedef opaque bytestring4[4];
/* Definition of parameter sets */
enum xmss_algorithm_type {
xmss_reserved = 0x00000000,
/* 256 bit classical security, 128 bit post-quantum security */
xmss-sha2_10_256 = 0x01000001,
xmss-sha2_16_256 = 0x02000002,
xmss-sha2_20_256 = 0x03000003,
/* 512 bit classical security, 256 bit post-quantum security */
xmss-sha2_10_512 = 0x04000004,
xmss-sha2_16_512 = 0x05000005,
xmss-sha2_20_512 = 0x06000006,
/* 256 bit classical security, 128 bit post-quantum security */
xmss-shake_10_256 = 0x07000007,
xmss-shake_16_256 = 0x08000008,
xmss-shake_20_256 = 0x09000009,
/* 512 bit classical security, 256 bit post-quantum security */
xmss-shake_10_512 = 0x0a00000a,
xmss-shake_16_512 = 0x0b00000b,
xmss-shake_20_512 = 0x0c00000c,
};
XMSS signatures are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* Authentication path types */
union xmss_path switch (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmss-sha2_10_256:
case xmss-shake_10_256:
bytestring32 path_n32_t10[10];
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case xmss-sha2_16_256:
case xmss-shake_16_256:
bytestring32 path_n32_t16[16];
case xmss-sha2_20_256:
case xmss-shake_20_256:
bytestring32 path_n32_t20[20];
case xmss-sha2_10_512:
case xmss-shake_10_512:
bytestring64 path_n64_t10[10];
case xmss-sha2_16_512:
case xmss-shake_16_512:
bytestring64 path_n64_t16[16];
case xmss-sha2_20_512:
case xmss-shake_20_512:
bytestring64 path_n64_t20[20];
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* Types for XMSS random strings */
union random_string_xmss switch (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmss-sha2_10_256:
case xmss-sha2_16_256:
case xmss-sha2_20_256:
case xmss-shake_10_256:
case xmss-shake_16_256:
case xmss-shake_20_256:
bytestring32 rand_n32;
case xmss-sha2_10_512:
case xmss-sha2_16_512:
case xmss-sha2_20_512:
case xmss-shake_10_512:
case xmss-shake_16_512:
case xmss-shake_20_512:
bytestring64 rand_n64;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* Corresponding WOTS+ type for given XMSS type */
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union xmss_ots_signature switch (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmss-sha2_10_256:
case xmss-sha2_16_256:
case xmss-sha2_20_256:
wotsp-sha2_256;
case xmss-sha2_10_512:
case xmss-sha2_16_512:
case xmss-sha2_20_512:
wotsp-sha2_512;
case xmss-shake_10_256:
case xmss-shake_16_256:
case xmss-shake_20_256:
wotsp-shake_256;
case xmss-shake_10_512:
case xmss-shake_16_512:
case xmss-shake_20_512:
wotsp-shake_512;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* XMSS signature structure */
struct xmss_signature {
/* WOTS+ key pair index */
bytestring4 idx_sig;
/* Random string for randomized hashing */
random_string_xmss rand_string;
/* WOTS+ signature */
xmss_ots_signature sig_ots;
/* authentication path */
xmss_path nodes;
};
XMSS public keys are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* Types for bitmask seed */
union seed switch (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmss-sha2_10_256:
case xmss-sha2_16_256:
case xmss-sha2_20_256:
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case xmss-shake_10_256:
case xmss-shake_16_256:
case xmss-shake_20_256:
bytestring32 seed_n32;
case xmss-sha2_10_512:
case xmss-sha2_16_512:
case xmss-sha2_20_512:
case xmss-shake_10_512:
case xmss-shake_16_512:
case xmss-shake_20_512:
bytestring64 seed_n64;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* Types for XMSS root node */
union xmss_root switch (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmss-sha2_10_256:
case xmss-sha2_16_256:
case xmss-sha2_20_256:
case xmss-shake_10_256:
case xmss-shake_16_256:
case xmss-shake_20_256:
bytestring32 root_n32;
case xmss-sha2_10_512:
case xmss-sha2_16_512:
case xmss-sha2_20_512:
case xmss-shake_10_512:
case xmss-shake_16_512:
case xmss-shake_20_512:
bytestring64 root_n64;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* XMSS public key structure */
struct xmss_public_key {
xmss_root root; /* Root node */
seed SEED; /* Seed for bitmasks */
};
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Appendix C. XMSS^MT XDR Formats
XMSS^MT parameter sets are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* Byte strings */
typedef opaque bytestring3[3];
typedef opaque bytestring5[5];
typedef opaque bytestring8[8];
/* Definition of parameter sets */
enum xmssmt_algorithm_type {
xmssmt_reserved = 0x00000000,
/* 256 bit classical security, 128 bit post-quantum security */
xmssmt-sha2_20/2_256 = 0x01000001,
xmssmt-sha2_20/4_256 = 0x02000002,
xmssmt-sha2_40/2_256 = 0x03000003,
xmssmt-sha2_40/4_256 = 0x04000004,
xmssmt-sha2_40/8_256 = 0x05000005,
xmssmt-sha2_60/3_256 = 0x06000006,
xmssmt-sha2_60/6_256 = 0x07000007,
xmssmt-sha2_60/12_256 = 0x08000008,
/* 512 bit classical security, 256 bit post-quantum security */
xmssmt-sha2_20/2_512 = 0x09000009,
xmssmt-sha2_20/4_512 = 0x0a00000a,
xmssmt-sha2_40/2_512 = 0x0b00000b,
xmssmt-sha2_40/4_512 = 0x0c00000c,
xmssmt-sha2_40/8_512 = 0x0d00000d,
xmssmt-sha2_60/3_512 = 0x0e00000e,
xmssmt-sha2_60/6_512 = 0x0f00000f,
xmssmt-sha2_60/12_512 = 0x01010101,
/* 256 bit classical security, 128 bit post-quantum security */
xmssmt-shake_20/2_256 = 0x02010102,
xmssmt-shake_20/4_256 = 0x03010103,
xmssmt-shake_40/2_256 = 0x04010104,
xmssmt-shake_40/4_256 = 0x05010105,
xmssmt-shake_40/8_256 = 0x06010106,
xmssmt-shake_60/3_256 = 0x07010107,
xmssmt-shake_60/6_256 = 0x08010108,
xmssmt-shake_60/12_256 = 0x09010109,
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/* 512 bit classical security, 256 bit post-quantum security */
xmssmt-shake_20/2_512 = 0x0a01010a,
xmssmt-shake_20/4_512 = 0x0b01010b,
xmssmt-shake_40/2_512 = 0x0c01010c,
xmssmt-shake_40/4_512 = 0x0d01010d,
xmssmt-shake_40/8_512 = 0x0e01010e,
xmssmt-shake_60/3_512 = 0x0f01010f,
xmssmt-shake_60/6_512 = 0x01020201,
xmssmt-shake_60/12_512 = 0x02020202,
};
XMSS^MT signatures are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* Type for XMSS^MT key pair index */
/* Depends solely on h */
union idx_sig_xmssmt switch (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_512:
bytestring3 idx3;
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_512:
bytestring5 idx5;
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_512:
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case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_512:
bytestring8 idx8;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
union random_string_xmssmt switch (xmssmt_algorithm_type type) {
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_256:
bytestring32 rand_n32;
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_512:
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case xmssmt-shake_60/12_512:
bytestring64 rand_n64;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* Type for reduced XMSS signatures */
union xmss_reduced (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_256:
bytestring32 xmss_reduced_n32_t77[77];
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_256:
bytestring32 xmss_reduced_n32_t72[72];
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_256:
bytestring32 xmss_reduced_n32_t87[87];
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_512:
bytestring64 xmss_reduced_n32_t141[141];
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_512:
bytestring64 xmss_reduced_n32_t136[136];
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case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_512:
bytestring64 xmss_reduced_n32_t151[151];
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* xmss_reduced_array depends on d */
union xmss_reduced_array (xmss_algorithm_type type) {
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_512:
xmss_reduced xmss_red_arr_d2[2];
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_512:
xmss_reduced xmss_red_arr_d3[3];
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_512:
xmss_reduced xmss_red_arr_d4[4];
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_512:
xmss_reduced xmss_red_arr_d6[6];
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_256:
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case xmssmt-shake_40/8_512:
xmss_reduced xmss_red_arr_d8[8];
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_512:
xmss_reduced xmss_red_arr_d12[12];
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* XMSS^MT signature structure */
struct xmssmt_signature {
/* WOTS+ key pair index */
idx_sig_xmssmt idx_sig;
/* Random string for randomized hashing */
random_string_xmssmt randomness;
/* Array of d reduced XMSS signatures */
xmss_reduced_array;
};
XMSS^MT public keys are defined using XDR syntax as follows:
/* Types for bitmask seed */
union seed switch (xmssmt_algorithm_type type) {
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_256:
bytestring32 seed_n32;
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case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_512:
bytestring64 seed_n64;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* Types for XMSS^MT root node */
union xmssmt_root switch (xmssmt_algorithm_type type) {
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_256:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_256:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_256:
bytestring32 root_n32;
case xmssmt-sha2_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_40/8_512:
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case xmssmt-sha2_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-sha2_60/12_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_20/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/2_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/4_512:
case xmssmt-shake_40/8_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/3_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/6_512:
case xmssmt-shake_60/12_512:
bytestring64 root_n64;
default:
void; /* error condition */
};
/* XMSS^MT public key structure */
struct xmssmt_public_key {
xmssmt_root root; /* Root node */
seed SEED; /* Seed for bitmasks */
};
Authors' Addresses
Andreas Huelsing
TU Eindhoven
P.O. Box 513
Eindhoven 5600 MB
NL
Email: ietf@huelsing.net
Denis Butin
TU Darmstadt
Hochschulstrasse 10
Darmstadt 64289
DE
Email: dbutin@cdc.informatik.tu-darmstadt.de
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Stefan-Lukas Gazdag
genua GmbH
Domagkstrasse 7
Kirchheim bei Muenchen 85551
DE
Email: ietf@gazdag.de
Joost Rijneveld
Radboud University
Toernooiveld 212
Nijmegen 6525 EC
NL
Email: ietf@joostrijneveld.nl
Aziz Mohaisen
SUNY Buffalo
323 Davis Hall
Buffalo, NY 14260
US
Phone: +1 716 645-1592
Email: mohaisen@buffalo.edu
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