Network Working Group S. Josefsson
Internet-Draft SJD AB
Intended status: Informational J. Strombergson
Expires: May 31, 2014 Secworks Sweden AB
N. Mavrogiannopoulos
Red Hat
November 27, 2013

The Salsa20 Stream Cipher for Transport Layer Security
draft-josefsson-salsa20-tls-04

Abstract

This document describe how the Salsa20 stream cipher can be used in the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocols.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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This Internet-Draft will expire on May 31, 2014.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This document describe how the Salsa20 stream cipher can be used in the Transport Layer Security (TLS) version 1.0 [RFC2246], TLS version 1.1 [RFC4346], and TLS version 1.2 [RFC5246] protocols, as well as in the Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) versions 1.0 [RFC4347] and 1.2 [RFC6347]. It can also be used with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) version 3.0 [RFC6101].

Salsa20 [SALSA20SPEC] is a stream cipher that has been designed for high performance in software implementations. The cipher has compact implementation and uses few resources and inexpensive operations that makes it suitable for implementation on a wide range of architectures. It has been designed to prevent leakage of information through side channel analysis, has a simple and fast key setup and provides good overall performance. Salsa20 is one of the ciphers selected as part of the eSTREAM portfolio of stream ciphers [ESTREAM].

Recent attacks [CBC-ATTACK] have indicated problems with CBC-mode cipher suites in TLS and DTLS as well as issues with the only supported stream cipher (RC4) [RC4-ATTACK]. While the existing AEAD ciphersuites address these issues, concerns about their performance, on general purpose CPUs, are sometimes raised [AEAD-PERFORMANCE]. Moreover, the DTLS protocol cannot take advantage of the fast RC4 stream cipher because it does not provide random access in the key stream.

Therefore, a new stream cipher to replace RC4 and address all the previous issues is needed. It is the purpose of this document to describe a secure stream cipher for both TLS and DTLS that is comparable to RC4 in speed on a wide range of platforms.

2. Salsa20 Cipher Suites

The following variants of Salsa20 are specified. The variants provide a range of performance and security that can be selected as appropriate.

ESTREAM_SALSA20:
Salsa20 with 12 rounds and a 256 bit key. This cipher is the high performant eSTREAM Salsa20 with 256 bit key.
SALSA20:
Salsa20 with 20 rounds and a 256 bit key. This is the original (conservative with respect to security) variant of Salsa20.

In the next sections different ciphersuites are defined that utilize the Salsa20 cipher combined with various MAC methods

In all cases, the pseudorandom function (PRF) for TLS 1.2 is the TLS PRF with SHA-256 as the hash function. When used with TLS versions prior to 1.2, the PRF is calculated as specified in the appropriate version of the TLS specification.

2.1. Salsa20 Cipher Suites with HMAC-SHA1

The following CipherSuites are defined: (note that the third column contains the suggested to IANA ciphersuite numbers)

  TLS_RSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1         = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x10}
  TLS_RSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1                 = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x11}

  TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1   = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x12}
  TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1           = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x13}

  TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1 = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x14}
  TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1         = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x15}

  TLS_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1         = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x16}
  TLS_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1                 = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x17}
  TLS_ECDHE_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1   = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x18}
  TLS_ECDHE_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1           = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x19}

  TLS_RSA_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1     = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1A}
  TLS_RSA_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1             = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1B}

  TLS_DHE_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1     = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1C}
  TLS_DHE_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1             = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1D}

  TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1     = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1E}
  TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1             = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1F}

Note that Salsa20 requires a 64-bit nonce. That nonce is updated on the encryption of every TLS record, and is set to be the 64-bit TLS record sequence number. In case of DTLS the 64-bit nonce is formed as the concatenation of the 16-bit epoch with the 48-bit sequence number.

The RSA, DHE_RSA, ECDHE_RSA, ECDHE_ECDSA, PSK, DHE_PSK, RSA_PSK, ECDHE_PSK key exchanges are performed as defined in [RFC5246], [RFC4492], and [RFC5489].

The MAC algorithm used in the ciphersuites above is HMAC-SHA1 [RFC6234].

3. The TLS GenericStreamCipher

The ciphersuites defined in this document differ from the TLS RC4 ciphersuites that have been the basis for the definition of GenericStreamCipher. Unlike RC4, Salsa20 requires a nonce per record. This however, does not affect the description of the GenericStreamCipher if one assumes that a nonce is optional and depends on the cipher's characteristics (in that case RC4 uses a 0 byte nonce, and Salsa20 an 8-byte nonce).

As specified in TLS [RFC5246] the MAC is computed before encryption and the stream cipher encrypts the entire block, including the MAC.

4. Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank D. J. Bernstein, David McGrew, Wan-Teh Chang, and Adam Langley for discussion and suggestions.

5. IANA Considerations

IANA is requested to allocate the following numbers in the TLS Cipher Suite Registry (note that the third column contains the suggested ciphersuite numbers):

  TLS_RSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1         = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x10}
  TLS_RSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1                 = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x11}

  TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1   = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x12}
  TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1           = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x13}

  TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1 = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x14}
  TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1         = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x15}

  TLS_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1         = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x16}
  TLS_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1                 = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x17}
  TLS_ECDHE_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1   = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x18}
  TLS_ECDHE_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1           = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x19}

  TLS_RSA_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1     = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1A}
  TLS_RSA_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1             = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1B}

  TLS_DHE_PSK_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1     = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1C}
  TLS_DHE_PSK_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1             = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1D}

  TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_ESTREAM_SALSA20_SHA1     = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1E}
  TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_SALSA20_SHA1             = {0xTBD, 0xTBD}  {0xE4, 0x1F}

6. Security Considerations

The security of Salsa20 is discussed in the Salsa20 security [SALSA20-SECURITY] paper. At the time of writing this document, there are no known significant security problems with the eSTREAM variant of Salsa20, nor with the original 20 round variant. As of early 2013, the best cryptanalysis breaks 8 out of 20 rounds to recover the 256-bit secret key in 2^251 operations, using 2^31 keystream pairs (see [SALSA20-ATTACK]). For more background, see the eSTREAM report [ESTREAM].

There are no ciphersuites defined in this document that utilize the variant of Salsa20 with 128-bit key material, because (due to the design of Salsa20) they provide no performance advantage over the 256-bit variant.

This document should not introduce any other security considerations than those that directly follow from any use of the stream cipher Salsa20 and those that directly follow from introducing any set of stream cipher suites into TLS and DTLS.

7. Algorithm Selection Background

This draft uses Salsa20, a winner of an international competion of stream ciphers (eStream), which is easily implementable without leaking information through side-channels, i.e. timing and power attacks.

Suggestions has been made to instead use Chacha [CHACHASPEC], a derivative of Salsa20 that has been shown to be 7% faster in hardware and occupy 10% less space [VLSI-IMPL]. In our opinion the performance benefits don't justify switching from a winner of an international competition to another algorithm (even if it is a derivative of it).

This draft adds a new cipher to existing TLS and DTLS implementations which is combined with the existing MAC algorithms in TLS (i.e., HMAC-SHA1). That allows the new cipher to replace the, currently known to be broken, RC4 ciphersuites, in all TLS versions.

8. References

8.1. Normative References

[RFC2246] Dierks, T. and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0", RFC 2246, January 1999.
[RFC4346] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.1", RFC 4346, April 2006.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
[RFC4347] Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer Security", RFC 4347, April 2006.
[RFC4492] Blake-Wilson, S., Bolyard, N., Gupta, V., Hawk, C. and B. Moeller, "Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Cipher Suites for Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 4492, May 2006.
[RFC5489] Badra, M. and I. Hajjeh, "ECDHE_PSK Cipher Suites for Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 5489, March 2009.
[RFC6347] Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, January 2012.
[RFC6234] Eastlake, D. and T. Hansen, "US Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA and SHA-based HMAC and HKDF)", RFC 6234, May 2011.
[SALSA20SPEC] Bernstein, D., "Salsa20 specification", WWW http://cr.yp.to/snuffle/spec.pdf, April 2005.

8.2. Informative References

[RFC6101] Freier, A., Karlton, P. and P. Kocher, "The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Protocol Version 3.0", RFC 6101, August 2011.
[SALSA20-SECURITY] Bernstein, D., "Salsa20 security", WWW http://cr.yp.to/snuffle/security.pdf, April 2005.
[ESTREAM] Babbage, S., DeCanniere, C., Cantenaut, A., Cid, C., Gilbert, H., Johansson, T., Parker, M., Preneel, B., Rijmen, V. and M. Robshaw, "The eSTREAM Portfolio (rev. 1)", WWW http://www.ecrypt.eu.org/stream/finallist.html, September 2008.
[CBC-ATTACK] AlFardan, N. and K. Paterson, "Lucky Thirteen: Breaking the TLS and DTLS Record Protocols", IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy , 2013.
[RC4-ATTACK] Isobe, T., Ohigashi, T., Watanabe, Y. and M. Morii, "Full Plaintext Recovery Attack on Broadcast RC4", International Workshop on Fast Software Encryption , 2013.
[AEAD-PERFORMANCE] Krovetz, T. and P. Rogaway, "The Software Performance of Authenticated-Encryption Modes", International Workshop on Fast Software Encryption , 2011.
[SALSA20-ATTACK] Aumasson, J-P., Fischer, S., Khazaei, S., Meier, W. and C. Rechberger, "New Features of Latin Dances: Analysis of Salsa, ChaCha, and Rumba", WWW http://eprint.iacr.org/2007/472.pdf, 2007.
[CHACHASPEC] Bernstein, D., "ChaCha, a variant of Salsa20", WWW http://cr.yp.to/chacha/chacha-20080128.pdf, January 2008.
[VLSI-IMPL] Henzen, L., Carbognani, F. and W. Fichtner, "VLSI hardware evaluation of the stream ciphers Salsa20 and ChaCha, and the compression function Rumba.", 2008.

Authors' Addresses

Simon Josefsson SJD AB EMail: simon@josefsson.org URI: http://josefsson.org/
Joachim Strombergson Secworks Sweden AB EMail: joachim@secworks.se URI: http://secworks.se/
Nikos Mavrogiannopoulos Red Hat EMail: nmav@redhat.com