The objective of this document is to describe the design of so-called DNS Redirect services deployed today by Internet Service Providers (ISPs), DNS Application Service Providers (ASPs), and other organizations providing so-called DNS Redirect services via their recursive DNS servers, as well as to describe the recommended practices regarding relating to DNS redirect. This document specifically and narrowly addresses those cases where DNS Redirect is being utilized to provide a web error redirect service to end users, and describes the critical implications for DNS Redirect when DNSSEC is deployed.
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work in progress.”
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 8, 2011.
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.
This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other than English.
3. Document Scope
4. DNSSEC Considerations and Implications
6. Web Error Redirect
7. Opt-In or Opt-Out Mechanisms
8. Practices to Avoid
9. Functional Design
9.1. DNS Recursive Resolver
9.2. Web Error Landing Server
9.3. Web Browser Client
9.4. Domain White List
10. Example DNS and HTTP Flows
11. Security Considerations
12. IANA Considerations
15. Normative References
Appendix A. Document Change Log
Appendix B. Open Issues
§ Authors' Addresses
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119] (Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels,” March 1997.).
Internet users typically are provided with several IP addresses for recursive DNS servers, as described in Section 2.3 of [RFC1591] (Postel, J., “Domain Name System Structure and Delegation,” March 1994.), by their respective ISPs, typically in an automated fashion via DHCP [RFC2131] (Droms, R., “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,” March 1997.). Some other users and organizations choose to use a different set of IP address for their DNS servers, which are hosted and managed by another organization, such as a DNS ASP. It is also the case that a number of users and organizations choose to operate their own DNS servers, though those use cases are outside of the scope of this document.
ISPs and DNS ASPs have over time created " enhanced " DNS services for their users, which often rely upon DNS Redirect functionality. These enhanced services, which are offered on an opt-in or opt-out basis, can perform a number of enhanced services for users, such as attempting to interpret web address errors when an invalid fully qualified domain name (FQDN, Section 5.1 of [RFC1035] (Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - implementation and specification,” November 1987.)) has been typed by a user.
This document describes the design and function of a DNS Redirect service, as well as recommended practices and practices to avoid. It also describes the critical implications for DNS Redirect when DNSSEC is adopted, in Section 4 (DNSSEC Considerations and Implications).
This document focuses on the systems and practices of ISPs and DNS ASPs. All other use cases, such as when an Internet user or organization chooses to operate their own DNS servers is outside of the scope of this document.
There are several ways that such entities can provide users with these enhanced DNS services. In addition to methods which rely primarily upon a recursive DNS server, alternate methods include (a) interception and replacement of the error by a web browser client software, (b) interception and replacement of the error by a tool bar, plug-in, personal firewall security software or other web browser client add-on. These alternate methods, which rely upon various types of client software, are also outside of the scope of this document.
It is important to note that while these alternate methods are considered out of scope for this document, this should not be interpreted as a negative judgment of their suitability or applicability to the relevant problem space. Instead, these should simply be considered as alternate methods since, as with most any technical problem, there are a variety of valid methods for solving a problem.
Lastly, while the Section 7 (Opt-In or Opt-Out Mechanisms) section indicates that users must be able to opt into or out of DNS Redirect services, the reasons for why an ISP or DNS ASP may choose one or the other as the default are out of scope.
DNS security extensions defined in [RFC4033] (Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, “DNS Security Introduction and Requirements,” March 2005.), [RFC4034] (Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, “Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions,” March 2005.), and [RFC4035] (Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, “Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions,” March 2005.) use cryptographic digital signatures to provide origin authentication and integrity assurance for DNS data. This is done by creating signatures for DNS data on a DNS Security-Aware Name Server that can be used by DNS Security-Aware Resolvers to verify the answers.
DNSSEC is now in the process of being deployed on authoritative servers, now that the DNS root has been signed and several key Top Level Domains (TLDs) have been signed. DNSSEC is also starting to be adopted by service providers, which are now in the process of adding DNSSEC validation in DNS recursive resolvers.
It is critically important that service providers understand that adoption of DNSSEC is technically incompatible with DNS redirect. As such, in order to properly implement DNSSEC and maintain a valid chain of trust, DNS redirect MUST NOT be used any longer. Thus, once DNSSEC is in widespread use, this document should be considered historical. That being said, sections of this document concerning opt-in and opt-out practices may be useful for future reference in other, unrelated documents.
While these terms are generally well known, it is important to define them in the context of this document.
An Internet Service Provider, which provides Internet services, including basic network connectivity. It is not germane to this document what the method of connection is, such as wired or wireless, what the speed of such a connection is, or what other services are included or available to users. It is, however, assumed that the ISP is providing recursive DNS services to their users and is in some manner providing users with the IP addresses of these DNS servers, whether via DHCP, static assignment by users, or some other method.
A DNS Application Service Provider, which provides managed and/or hosted recursive DNS services (and possibly other DNS services) to their users. In the case of managed services, the DNS ASP may remotely manage the recursive DNS servers in a user's network. For a hosted recursive DNS service, these servers are typically located outside of the user's network and these hosted resources are shared across multiple users. In most instances, these are hosted services and users are manually configuring either their DHCP server or their individual computing devices with the IP addresses of the recursive DNS servers operated by their ASP.
An Internet user, which is generally a person using a computing device to connect to and make use of the Internet. Such users are typically connected at the edge of the network, though the method by which they connect to the Internet is not particularly relevant to this document.
A DNS recursive resolver processes fully qualified domain name queries (FQDN, Section 5.1 of [RFC1035] (Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - implementation and specification,” November 1987.)) into IP addresses by finding the resource records in the authoritative DNS servers for the domain associated with the FQDN. The resource records are then cached on the recursive server for future requests until an expiration timer expires called time to live (TTL), as described in Section 5.2 of [RFC2181] (Elz, R. and R. Bush, “Clarifications to the DNS Specification,” July 1997.). These servers are in most cases provided by ISPs for name resolution.
Client software operated by the user locally on their computing device, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, Google Chrome, etc.
The host that a user is directed to when the DNS Recursive Server receives a NXDOMAIN response. The contents of the web page that the web server sends the user varies widely across different ISPs and DNS ASPs. In some cases it is simply a more descriptive error that the user would otherwise receive, while in other cases it may include links to sites similar to the URL attempted and/or a search page, among many other possibilities.
The web server that a user is directed to via a link on a page served by the Web Error Landing Server, the Malicious Domain Web Error Landing Server, from another system such as an account management system, or via direct access, which enables a user to control whether or not they are opted into or opted out of DNS Redirect services. This is described in additional detail in the Section 7 (Opt-In or Opt-Out Mechanisms) section.
In this document, an NXDOMAIN (nonexistent domain) response can be used interchangeably with an RCODE 3 response. The RCODE 3 response was first documented in see Section 4.1.1 of [RFC1035] (Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - implementation and specification,” November 1987.)). Subsequent RFCs introduced the term NXDOMAIN response, which is synonymous with RCODE 3 and tends to be used more frequently, as noted in Section 2.2 of [RFC2136] (Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound, “Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE),” April 1997.), Section 1 of [RFC2308] (Andrews, M., “Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS NCACHE),” March 1998.), and Section 5.4 of [RFC2535] (Eastlake, D., “Domain Name System Security Extensions,” March 1999.).
A web error redirect service enables an ISP or ASP to provide a user, who is generally utilizing a web browser, with an improved user experience when an attempt to reach a nonexistent domain is made.
A user enters an incorrect URL into their web browser, such as http://www.example.invalid, where .invalid is a nonexistent Top Level Domain (TLD, see Section 2 of [RFC1591] (Postel, J., “Domain Name System Structure and Delegation,” March 1994.)). In such a case, a user would typically receive an error.
When a recursive DNS server detects such a nonexistent domain error (NXDOMAIN, see Section 4.1.1 of [RFC1035] (Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - implementation and specification,” November 1987.)), the ISP or ASP can instead provide a IP address for a Web Error Landing Server that can present the user with a list of suggested destinations rather than simply an error page. This page must also provide the user with a link to a method of opting out in the future. See Figure 1 (DNS Redirect Response), Figure 2 (Web Error Landing Server), and Figure 5 (DNS Redirect and HTTP Flow) for examples below.
It is important to note that this technology can directly impact non-web clients such as instant messaging, VPNs, FTP, email filters-related DNS queries. Thus, special exclusions may need to be made in order to prevent unintentional side effects. Design considerations for the Web Error Search and Malicious Site Protection services should include properly and promptly terminating non-HTTP connection requests. Only A and AAAA resource records should be redirected, all other resource record types must be answered as if there was no redirection.
ISPs and DNS ASPs MUST provide their users with a method to opt into (opt-in) or out (opt-out) of some or all DNS Redirect services. Opt-out and opt-in methods should be reliable and should take into consideration the Section 8 (Practices to Avoid) section below. Whether such services are offered on an opt-in or opt-out basis depends on a range of factors which are outside of the scope of this document. The two different methods, opt-out and opt-in, are described below.
Opt-Out is used when the users are by default offered all or some DNS Redirect services. As a result, the user must take an action to disable some or all such services. This is typically performed via a User Options Web Server. Users that have chosen to opt-out should receive DNS responses which are indistinguishable from those responses provided by a DNS server with no DNS Redirect functionality. In addition, opt-out should be persistent in nature, which means that opt-out should be tied to a fixed credential or attribute of some type, such as an account identifier, billing identifier, or equipment identifier, which is not typically subject to change on a regular basis.
Opt-In is used when the users are by default not offered any DNS Redirect services. As a result, the user must take an action to enable some or all such services. This is typically performed via a User Options Web Server.
Once a user has selected to opt-in or opt-out of DNS Redirect services, such changes should occur automatically, when this is technically possible, without requiring the user to manually change any settings on their computing device. Such changes should also occur within a reasonable period of time. In some cases, however, a user may be offered the ability to speed the period of time for these changes to take effect, such as by restarting the computing device or a piece of network equipment which connects them to their ISP's network, for example.
While an automated mechanism may be the easiest for users, since it requires no manual reconfiguration of their network settings, the authors also recognize that there may be extenuating circumstances where this is not achievable. In such cases, which may for example be due to the particular attributes of one or another ISP's network design, a fully automated mechanism may not be possible. Another example is where a user is switching from their ISP's DNS server IP addresses to those of a DNS ASP. As a result, a user in all of these cases, as well as other possible cases, must manually reconfigure their network with different DNS IP addresses.
There are several workable methods that can be employed to effect the actual opt-out for a given user. These include setting a local user application attribute, such as via a cookie in a web browser, as well as setting a network attribute, via a DHCP change or manually configuring the DNS IP addresses (in the operating system, modem, home gateway device, or router) in order to change the DNS IP addresses for a particular user.
While all of these methods are workable and can be made reliable, the best current method is via a network-based change of some sort. In this way, all Internet-connected computing devices within a given household are included in the opt-out (these devices are generally connected in some manner to the LAN side of some type of customer premise device, such as a cable modem or DSL modem). This is in contrast to a method which uses a local user application attribute, such as a cookie in a web browser, where deletion of cookies, upgrade to a new operating system, upgrade to a new web browser, use of a different web browser, or countless other factors on that device could cause the user to be opted back into a DNS Redirect service. Thus, a network-based approach which sets opt-out-related attributes at the device, or household level, is the most inclusive and persistent method for providing a reliable opt-out method, and is the recommended practice.
This document primarily focuses on the recommended practices for an ISP or ASP to provide users with DNS Redirect services. However, it is important to note that some entities may not operate in accordance with such practices. As such, some of these are catalogued below in order to contrast them with recommended practices and provide information which may be of interest and use to the community.
When DNSSEC has been implemented in a service provider's resolvers, DNS redirect MUST NOT be used, as it is technically incompatible with DNSSEC and breaks the chain of trust critical to proper DNSSEC validation functionality.
It has been observed that some service providers improperly utilize DNS Redirect services when there is a valid DNS resource record returned in response to a DNS recursive query. The effect is to redirect users to a server not maintained by the intended destination, such as a web site that looks like the intended web site but is not actually the intended site and is instead controlled by the service provider. For example a DNS query for www.example.com results in a valid A record response, but this valid response is instead replaced with an A record controlled by the service provider. In this case the intended server identified with the valid A record contained valid, lawful, non-malicious content, and there would otherwise appear to be no valid justification for a redirect to occur. See Figure 6 (Improper Redirect of Valid Response Redirect and HTTP Flow) for an example below.
If there is a valid and reasonable justification for such a redirect to occur, examples of which are not currently known by the authors of this document, then the resulting connection to the server that the user has been redirected to should clearly and prominently disclose that this is not the intended site. For example, in the case of an attempt by a user to connect to a web site, the site may contain a banner or frame which indicates that this is not the intended site or that the site is in some manner controlled by the service provider. In addition, such a notice should also offer a clear method to opt-out of this redirect function.
Thus, to summarize, redirection of valid responses SHOULD NOT be performed.
Redirection of SERVFAIL responses SHOULD NOT occur. SERVFAIL responses may occur intermittently in an operational network for a variety of highly transient reasons. As a result, a DNS Redirect should not be performed when a SERVFAIL response is received, as normal retry a short time later is likely to result in a valid response.
There are several well known and dependable methods of opt-out mechanisms that ISPs and DNS ASPs can deploy for users to opt-out of their DNS Redirect services. These methods can rather easily be employed and are highly recommended, as noted in Section 7 (Opt-In or Opt-Out Mechanisms). However, some ISPs and DNS ASPs may instead choose to employ a less dependable mechanism, which routinely fails to work as expected by users or is known not to function properly.
For example, one routinely unreliable method for opt-out is the cookie-based method. When a user opts out of a DNS Redirect service, a cookie is installed in their web browser. The problem with this method occurs when a user clears their cookies or the cookies are deleted for some reason. In some cases, users may configure their web browsers to clear all cookies every time the close their web browser. Thus, one possible effect upon the user in this case is that they are once again opted into the redirect service. Furthermore, a cookie-based method has the effect of only opting out browser-based protocols (generally HTTP and HTTPS), which means that the user may have non-web applications affected by DNS Redirect, even though they believe they have opted-out. As a result, there is no assured permanency with this opt-out method, nor does it work consistently across all applications and protocols, which can be aggravating to users who do not wish to utilize DNS Redirect services.
Another example of an unreliable method for opt-out is one where opt-out is tied to the IP address of the user, where that address may be subject to change on a regular basis, such as via an ISP-based DHCP lease. In such a case, if opt-out was tied to what can be considered a largely dynamic IP address, then the user would be opted-in every time they received a new IP address, forcing them to repeatedly opt-out.
Thus, to summarize, the opt-out mechanism provided to users SHOULD be reliable and SHOULD NOT be routinely broken, purposefully broken, or otherwise unreliable.
An ISP or DNS ASP should also understand that DNS query latency, the time between when a user's stub resolver issues and DNS query and receives a DNS response, should be kept as low as is reasonably possible. High DNS query latency is often perceived by users, and can have an adverse effect on a variety of applications where low DNS query latency may be especially important. Any additional processing which must be performed in order to provide DNS Redirect services should be monitored closely, in order that DNS Redirect functionality does not markedly slow DNS query performance.
Thus, to summarize, when DNS redirect is performed, DNS query performance SHOULD NOT suffer as a result, since this could provide an incrementally inferior user experience as compared to when DNS redirect is not performed.
Some users may decide to use the DNS server IP addresses of a DNS ASP or other non-ISP-provided DNS servers. Such selections should be preserved as the free choice of a user, particularly when DNS Redirect services are offered. Thus, an ISP SHOULD NOT redirect port 53 DNS traffic from servers intended by the user via their selection of non-ISP DNS servers to the DNS servers of the ISP, except in reasonable and justifiable cases where a user has been placed into a so-called "walled garden" for reasons of abuse, security compromise, account non-payment, new service activation, etc.
The functional design described in this section is intended to be generally representative of the many different ways that DNS Redirect services are deployed today. As such, they are necessarily high level and different implementations may vary somewhat, due to any number of factors.
The DNS Recursive Resolver is used by the host computer to translate fully qualified domain names into IP addresses, according to Section 3.6.1 of [RFC1034] (Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - concepts and facilities,” November 1987.). When a FQDN does not exist in authoritative DNS a NXDOMAIN response, as described in Section 4.1.1 of [RFC1035] (Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - implementation and specification,” November 1987.) is normally returned (see Figure 1 (DNS Redirect Response)). In the case of DNS Redirect, the NXDOMAIN response is changed to reply with a resource record (RR) response which instructs the host computer to send the original request to a new IP address (see Figure 1 (DNS Redirect Response)).
Request Request www.example.invalid www.example.invalid +--------+ +--------+ ++--++ ------------> | | ------------> | | || || | | | | +-++--++-+ | | | | +--------+ <------------ | | <------------ | | Host NXDOMAIN +--------+ NXDOMAIN +--------+ Computer Response Recursive Response Authoritative Server Server
| Figure 1: DNS Redirect Response |
When a user requests an invalid URL or Domain, their web client is redirected to a Web Error Landing Server which presents several possible helpful website views (see Figure 2 (Web Error Landing Server)). The first is "Did you mean..." response which presents the user with possible correct results based on their original invalid request. The search server can also present search engine results to the user.
Request Request www.example.invalid www.example.invalid +--------+ +--------+ ++--++ ---------------> | | --------------->| | || || | | | | +-++--++-+ | | | | +--------+ <-------------- | | <------------- | | Host Redirect +--------+ NXDOMAIN +--------+ Computer IP Address Recursive Response Authoritative Server Server | | ___________________________________ | +--------+ | Web Response: | | | | | "Did you mean...www.example.com"| +------> | | ------> |__________________________________| | | | Search result: #1 | | | | Search result: #2 | +--------+ |__________________________________| Web Server Landing Page
| Figure 2: Web Error Landing Server |
The Web Browser Client is redirected to a Web Server Landing Page instead of presenting an error page when there is no valid DNS record present.
Examples of common Web Browser Clients include:
There may be certain domains which should be not be redirected under any circumstances for technical, legal, business, or other reasons. The Domain White List can contain both domains, such as *.example.com, as well as specific FQDNs, such as www.example.com. For instance, the owner of example.com may request that the ISP or DNS ASP not perform DNS Redirect for the example.com domain, so that there is no DNS Redirect resulting from queries to nonexistent names, such as invalid.example.com.
This section shows several illustrated examples of DNS and HTTP flows, in order to better explain certain DNS and HTTP use cases.
This example represents a successful lookup of a valid DNS RR, and the resulting HTTP transaction.
Web DNS R DNS A DNS Web Server Browser Client Server Server 10.1.10.10 | Request | A | | | |www.example. |Record Query | A | | | com |www.example. |Record Query | | |------------>| com |www.example. | | | |------------>| com | | | | |------------>| | | | | A Record | | | | A Record | 10.1.10.10 | | | DNS Response| 10.1.10.10 |<------------| | | 10.1.10.10 |<------------| | | |<------------| | | | | HTTP GET | | | | | 10.1.10.10 | | | | |------------------------------------------------------>| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Figure 3: Successful DNS Lookup and HTTP Flow |
This example represents a lookup of a nonexistent DNS RR, and the resulting HTTP transaction.
Web DNS R DNS A DNS Browser Client Server Server | Request | A | | |www.example. |Record Query | A | | invalid |www.example. |Record Query | |------------>| invalid |www.example. | | |------------>| invalid | | | |------------>| | | | NXDOMAIN | | | NXDOMAIN |<------------| | NXDOMAIN |<------------| | |<------------| | | | | | |
| Figure 4: Unsuccessful DNS Lookup and HTTP Flow |
This example represents a lookup of a non-existing DNS RR, and the HTTP transition that results from a typical DNS Redirect service.
Redirect Host R DNS A DNS Web Server Web Server Computer Server Server 10.2.20.20 10.1.10.10 | A | | | | |Record Query | A | | | |www.example. |Record Query | | | | invalid |www.example. | | | |------------>| invalid | | | | |------------>| | | | A Record | NXDOMAIN | | | | 10.2.20.20 |<------------| | | |<------------| | | | | HTTP GET | | | | | 10.2.20.20 | | | | |---------------------------------------->| | | | | HTTP 200 OK | | |<----------------------------------------| | | A | | | | |Record Query | A | | | |www.example. |Record Query | | | | com |www.example. | | | |------------>| com | | | | |------------>| | | | | A Record | | | | A Record | 10.1.10.10 | | | | 10.1.10.10 |<------------| | | |<------------| | | | | HTTP GET | | | | | 10.1.10.10 | | | | |------------------------------------------------------>| | | | | HTTP 200 OK | |<------------------------------------------------------| | | | | |
| Figure 5: DNS Redirect and HTTP Flow |
This example represents an improper redirect occurring when a valid DNS RR should have been returned in response to a DNS recursive query for an example website, the resulting HTTP transaction, and that no DNS query or HTTP traffic was sent to the valid authoritative DNS server and valid web server. Section 4 (DNSSEC Considerations and Implications) below shows one of the reasons why this practice is problematic. Another reason is that a user intends to visit a valid resource with lawful and legitimate content, such as a web site, and is instead sent to a different destination (which may even closely resemble the intended site, in the pattern used by phishing sites).
R DNS Improper Valid Server Redirect Valid Web Host R DNS Improper Web Server A DNS Server Computer Server Reirect List 10.2.20.20 Server 10.1.10.10 | A | Improper | | | | |Record Query |Redirect List| | | | |www.example. | Query | | | | | com |www.example. | | | | |------------>| com | | | | | |------------>| | | | | | Postivie | | | | | A Record | Match | | | | | 10.2.20.20 |<------------| | | | |<------------| | | | | | HTTP GET | | | | | | 10.2.20.20 | | | | | |-------------------------------------->| | | | | |HTTP 200 OK| | | |<--------------------------------------| | | | | | | | |
| Figure 6: Improper Redirect of Valid Response Redirect and HTTP Flow |
The critical considerations relating to DNS Security Extensions are detailed in Section 4 (DNSSEC Considerations and Implications).
Security best practices should be followed regarding access to the opt-in and opt-out functions, in order that someone other than the user is able to change the user's DNS Redirect settings. For example, the User Options Web Server must not permit someone to modify a page URI to access and change another user's options. Thus, if the URI is "http://www.example.net/redirect-options.php?account=1234", someone must not be able to modify the account to be "=1235" and then be able to change the options for a different user with some other additional validation being performed. While web site security practices are outside the scope of this document, the authors believe it is important to identify such problematic use cases to any ISPs and DNS ASPs offering and/or implementing DNS Redirect functionality.
There are no IANA considerations in this document.
The following people made significant textual contributions to this document and played an important role in the development and evolution of this document:
Don Bowman, Sandvine (email@example.com)
Rick Hiester, Verizon (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Chris Roosenraad, Time Warner Cable (email@example.com)
David Ulevitch, OpenDNS (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The authors and contributors also wish to acknowledge the assistance of the following individuals in helping us to develop and/or review this document:
John Barnitz, Comcast Cable Communications (email@example.com)
Mike Burns, Cablevision (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Phil Marcella, Comcast Interactive Media (email@example.com)
Luis Uribarri, Comcast Cable Communications (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sandy Wilbourn, Nominum (email@example.com)
Matt Williams, Cox Cable (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The authors and contributors also wish to thank ICANN's Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC) for their review and debate of this document, as well as for raising important questions concerning DNSSEC compatibility.
|[RFC1034]||Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - concepts and facilities,” STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987 (TXT).|
|[RFC1035]||Mockapetris, P., “Domain names - implementation and specification,” STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987 (TXT).|
|[RFC1536]||Kumar, A., Postel, J., Neuman, C., Danzig, P., and S. Miller, “Common DNS Implementation Errors and Suggested Fixes,” RFC 1536, October 1993 (TXT).|
|[RFC1591]||Postel, J., “Domain Name System Structure and Delegation,” RFC 1591, March 1994 (TXT).|
|[RFC2119]||Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels,” BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC2131]||Droms, R., “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,” RFC 2131, March 1997 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC2136]||Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound, “Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE),” RFC 2136, April 1997 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC2181]||Elz, R. and R. Bush, “Clarifications to the DNS Specification,” RFC 2181, July 1997 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC2308]||Andrews, M., “Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS NCACHE),” RFC 2308, March 1998 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC2535]||Eastlake, D., “Domain Name System Security Extensions,” RFC 2535, March 1999 (TXT).|
|[RFC4033]||Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, “DNS Security Introduction and Requirements,” RFC 4033, March 2005 (TXT).|
|[RFC4034]||Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, “Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions,” RFC 4034, March 2005 (TXT).|
|[RFC4035]||Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, “Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions,” RFC 4035, March 2005 (TXT).|
[RFC Editor: This section is to be removed before publication]
-01 - Removed sections regarding malicious domain protection, legally-mandated redirect, and content-based redirect based on DNSOP WG feedback to split those out into separate documents which will be published in the future. Also significantly modified the DNSSEC section and moved it to the top of the document. Also, capitalized applicable 2119 language.
-00 - Rirst version published.
[RFC Editor: This section is to be removed before publication]
|Comcast Cable Communications|
|One Comcast Center|
|1701 John F. Kennedy Boulevard|
|Philadelphia, PA 19103|
|Comcast Cable Communications|
|One Comcast Center|
|1701 John F. Kennedy Boulevard|
|Philadelphia, PA 19103|
|Comcast Cable Communications|
|One Comcast Center|
|1701 John F. Kennedy Boulevard|
|Philadelphia, PA 19103|