This document defines the 'application/tei+xml' media type for markup languages defined in accordance with the Text Encoding and Interchange guidelines
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2. Recognizing TEI files
3. Fragment identifier
4. Security considerations
4.1. Harmful content
4.2. Intellectual Property Rights
4.3. Authenticity and confidentiality
5. IANA Considerations
5.1. Registration of MIME type 'application/tei+xml'
6.1. Normative References
6.2. Informative References
§ Authors' Addresses
Text Encoding and Interchange (TEI) is an international and interdisciplinary standard that is widely used by libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars to represent all kinds of textual material for online research and teaching.[TEI] (, “TEI Guidelines,” .)
This document defines the 'application/tei+xml' media type in accordance with [RFC3023] (Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, “XML Media Types,” January 2001.) in order enable generic processing of such documents on the Internet using eXtensible Markup Language (XML)[W3C.REC‑xml‑20081126] (Maler, E., Yergeau, F., Sperberg-McQueen, C., Paoli, J., and T. Bray, “Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition),” November 2008.) technologies.
TEI files are XML documents or fragments having the root element (as defined in [W3C.REC‑xml‑20081126] (Maler, E., Yergeau, F., Sperberg-McQueen, C., Paoli, J., and T. Bray, “Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition),” November 2008.)) in a TEI namespace. TEI namespace names are defined as an Universal Resource Identifier (URI) [RFC3986] (Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” January 2005.) in accordance with [W3C.REC‑xml‑names‑20091208] (Thompson, H., Hollander, D., Tobin, R., Bray, T., and A. Layman, “Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition),” December 2009.) and begins with http://www.tei-c.org/ns/ followed by the version number of the namespace. The current namespace is http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0
The most common root element names for TEI documents are
The teiCorpus documents give the possibility to bundle multiple documents into a single file.
A document having <TEI> root element<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"> <teiHeader> ... </teiHeader> <text> ... </text> </TEI>
A document having <teiCorpus> root element<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <teiCorpus xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"> <teiHeader> ... </teiHeader> <TEI> <teiHeader> ... </teiHeader> <text> ... </text> </TEI> <TEI> ... second document ... </TEI> <TEI> ... third document ... </TEI> </teiCorpus>
TEI and teiCorpus files are often given the extensions .tei and .teiCorpus, respectively. There is a third type of file, which often is given the suffix .odd. ODD (‘One Document Does it All’) is a TEI XML document which include schema fragments, prose documentation, and reference documentation. It is used for the definition and documentation of XML based languages, and primarily for the TEI Guidelines.[ODD] (, “Getting Started with P5 ODDs,” .) In other words, ODD files does not differ from other TEI file in syntax, only in function.
Documents having the media type 'application/tei+xml', use the fragment identifier notation as specified in [RFC3023] (Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, “XML Media Types,” January 2001.) for the media type 'application/xml'.
An XML resource does not in itself compromise data security. When being available on a network simply through the dereferencing of an Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) [RFC3987] (Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, “Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs),” January 2005.) or an URI, care must be taken to properly interpret the data to prevent unintended access. Hence the security issues of [RFC3986] (Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” January 2005.), section 7, apply. In addition, as this media type uses the "+xml" convention, it shares the same security considerations as described in RFC 3023 [RFC3023] (Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, “XML Media Types,” January 2001.), section 10. In general, security issues related to the use of XML in IETF protocols are treated in RFC 3470[RFC3470] (Hollenbeck, S., Rose, M., and L. Masinter, “Guidelines for the Use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) within IETF Protocols,” January 2003.), section 7. We will not try to duplicate this material, but review some aspects that are important for document centric XML as applied to text encoding.
Any application accepting submitted or retrieving TEI XML for processing has to be aware of risks connected with injection of harmful scripts and executable XML. XML inclusion[W3C.REC‑xinclude‑20061115] (Orchard, D., Marsh, J., and D. Veillard, “XML Inclusions (XInclude) Version 1.0 (Second Edition),” November 2006.) and the use of external entities, are vulnerable to various forms of spoofing but can also reveal aspects of a service in a way that may compromise its security. Any vulnerability of these kinds are, however, application specific. The TEI namespaces do not contain such elements.
TEI documents often arise in digitization of cultural heritage materials. Texts made accessible in TEI format may be unrestricted in the sense that their distribution may be unlimited by Digital Rights Management[DRM] (, “Digital rights management,” .) or Intellectual Property Rights[IPR] (, “Intellectual property,” .) constraints. However, TEI documents are heterogeneous. Some parts of a document may be unrestricted, whereas other, such as editorial text and annotations may be subject to DRM restrictions.
The TEI format provides means for highly granular attribution, down to the content of individual XML elements. Software agents participating in the exchange or processing TEI may be required to honour markup of this kind. Even when there are no IPR constraints, intellectual property attribution alone requires that document users are able to tell the difference between content from different sources.
Historical archival records are often encoded in TEI and legal document may be binding centuries after they were written. Digitization and encoding of legal texts may require technologies for assuring authenticity, such as cryptographic check sums and electronic signatures.
Similarly, historical documents may in part or in their entirety be confidential. This may be required by law or by the terms and conditions such as in the case of donated or deposited text from private sources. A text archive may need content filtering or cryptographic technologies to meet such requirements.
MIME media type name: application
MIME subtype name: tei+xml
Required parameters: None
Optional parameters: charset
the parameter has identical semantics to the charset parameter of the "application/xml" media type as specified in RFC 3023 [RFC3023] (Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, “XML Media Types,” January 2001.).
Identical to those for 'application/xml'. See RFC 3023 [RFC3023] (Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, “XML Media Types,” January 2001.), Section 3.2.
See Security considerations (Security considerations) in this specification.
TEI documents are often given the extension '.xml', which is not uncommon for other XML document formats.
This media type registration is for TEI documents[TEI] (, “TEI Guidelines,” .) as described in here. TEI syntax is defined in a schema.[TEIschema] (, “Schema generated from ODD source,” .)
Applications which use this media type:
There are currently no known applications using the media type 'application/tei+xml'.
There is no single initial octet sequence that is always present in TEI documents.
Common extensions are '.tei', '.teiCorpus' and '.odd'. See Recognizing TEI files (Recognizing TEI files) in this specification.
Macintosh File Type Code(s)
Object Identifier(s) or OID(s)
|[RFC3023]||Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, “XML Media Types,” RFC 3023, January 2001 (TXT).|
|[RFC3470]||Hollenbeck, S., Rose, M., and L. Masinter, “Guidelines for the Use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) within IETF Protocols,” BCP 70, RFC 3470, January 2003 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC3986]||Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” STD 66, RFC 3986, January 2005 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC3987]||Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, “Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs),” RFC 3987, January 2005 (TXT).|
|[TEIschema]||“Schema generated from ODD source.”|
|[W3C.REC-xml-20081126]||Maler, E., Yergeau, F., Sperberg-McQueen, C., Paoli, J., and T. Bray, “Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition),” World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-20081126, November 2008 (HTML).|
|[W3C.REC-xml-names-20091208]||Thompson, H., Hollander, D., Tobin, R., Bray, T., and A. Layman, “Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition),” World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-names-20091208, December 2009 (HTML).|
|[DRM]||“Digital rights management.”|
|[ODD]||“Getting Started with P5 ODDs.”|
|[W3C.REC-xinclude-20061115]||Orchard, D., Marsh, J., and D. Veillard, “XML Inclusions (XInclude) Version 1.0 (Second Edition),” World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xinclude-20061115, November 2006 (HTML).|
|TEI Consortium and INRIA|
|The Royal Library, Copenhagen|
|1016 København K|