This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work in progress.”
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 9, 2009.
Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info). Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document.
This document describes 'P-Charge-Info', a private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) header (P-header) used to convey billing information about the party to be charged. This P-Header is currently in production usage by a number of equipment vendors and carriers and this document is submitted to request the registration of this header with IANA as required by section 4.2 of RFC 3427. This P-Header may also be used in some situations to carry the ISUP Charge Number parameter for PSTN interconnection.
2. Requirements Language
3. Purpose of this Document
4. Examples of the Problem
4.1. Use Case - Billing Identifier
4.2. Use Case - ISUP Charge Number
4.3. Use Case - Distributed Enterprise
4.4. Use Case - Hosted Telephony Provider
6. The P-Charge-Info Header
6.1. Applicability Statement for the P-Charge-Info header
6.2. Usage of the P-Charge-Info header
6.2.1. Procedures at the UA
6.2.2. Procedures at the Proxy
6.3. Examples of Usage
7. Formal Syntax
8. IANA Considerations
9. Security Considerations
9.1. Trust Relationship
9.2. Untrusted Peers
9.2.1. Ingress from Untrusted Peers
9.2.2. Egress to Untrusted Peers
12.1. Normative References
12.2. Informative References
§ Authors' Addresses
In certain network configurations, it is desirable to decouple the identity of the caller (what is normally thought of as "Caller ID") from the identity/number used for billing purposes. This document describes the current usage of 'P-Charge-Info', a private SIP header, to provide simple billing information and requests the registration of this header with IANA as required by section 4.2 of RFC 3427 (Mankin, A., Bradner, S., Mahy, R., Willis, D., Ott, J., and B. Rosen, “Change Process for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP),” December 2002.) [RFC3427].
In a typical configuration, the identity of the caller, commonly referred to as "Caller ID" by end users, is derived from one of the following SIP headers:
(NOTE: Some service providers today also use the "Remote-Party-ID" header but this was replaced by P-Asserted-Identity in RFC 3325.)
This identity/number is typically presented to the receiving UA where it is usually displayed for the end user. It is also typically used for billing purposes by the network entities involved in carrying the session.
However, in some network configurations the "Caller ID" presented to the receiving UA may be different from the number desired to be used for billing purposes.
For example, the "Caller ID" may not reflect the actual reality of the underlying network in terms of costs incurred on the PSTN. This may result in excessive charging of one carrier by another based on the erroneous assumption that the call was originating from a different point on the PSTN.
Another example would be where a gateway to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) receives the ISUP "Charge Number" in the PSTN signaling which designates the number to be billed. The gateway needs to pass this information along to a SIP entity associated with billing.
In both these examples, there exists a need for a way to pass an additional billing identifier that can be used between network entities in order to correctly bill for services. At least one equipment provider, Sonus Networks, and several carriers have been using the "P-Charge-Info" header for the last 2-3 years as a simple mechanism to exchange this billing identifier.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
This document has been prepared to comply with section 4.2 of RFC 3427 (Mankin, A., Bradner, S., Mahy, R., Willis, D., Ott, J., and B. Rosen, “Change Process for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP),” December 2002.) [RFC3427] which states very clearly:
All implemented P-headers SHOULD meet the P-Header requirements in 4.1. Any P-header used outside of a very restricted research or teaching environment (such as a student lab on implementing extensions) MUST meet those requirements and MUST be documented in an RFC and be IANA registered.
This document is submitted to comply with the process outlined in section RFC 3427 Section 4.1 and the registration requirements in Section 4.2.
The simplest use case for P-Charge-Info could be an enterprise environment where each SIP endpoint has a direct number that is passed by the enterprise SIP proxy across to a SIP proxy at a SIP Service Provider who provides PSTN connectivity. Rather than cause the SIP Service Provider to have to track each individual direct number for billing purposes, the enterprise SIP proxy could send in the P-Charge-Info header a single billing identifier that the SIP Service Provider uses for billing purposes.
A second use case is one in which a PSTN gateway receives PSTN signaling that includes an ISUP Charge Number parameter and the PSTN gateway needs to send that ISUP Charge Number via SIP to other servers. In this instance, the PSTN gateway will insert the ISUP Charge Number into the P-Charge-Info SIP header.
A third and common use case is a large enterprise with a widely distributed SIP network to designate the specific point at which PSTN interconnection occurs. Consider an enterprise with a work force and offices distributed over a wide geographic area and linked by a common internal network over which voice traffic is sent. Users across the network may be able to contact each other directly via SIP sessions, but there may only be a relatively few points in the network where interconnection occurs to the PSTN. Consider this case:
Rather than use the direct numbers of each SIP endpoint for generating the billing information, the enterprise might choose to instead pass the SIP URI of the PSTN interconnection point in the P-Charge-Info header, either for simplicity or potentially to obtain better rates from the SIP service provider.
Similar to the third use case of a large enterprise, a hosted telephony provider or hosted voice application provider may have a large SIP network with customers distributed over a very large geographic area using local market PSTN numbers but with only a very few actual PSTN interconnection points.
As with the branch office earlier, the customer may have all local phone numbers yet outgoing calls are actually being routed across a SIP network and out specific PSTN gateways or across specific SIP connections to SIP service providers. The hosted provider may want to pass a billing identifier to its SIP service providers again either for the purpose of simplicity in billing or to obtain better rates from the SIP service providers.
P-Charging-Vector is defined in section 4.6 of RFC 3455 (Garcia-Martin, M., Henrikson, E., and D. Mills, “Private Header (P-Header) Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for the 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP),” January 2003.) [RFC3455] and used by the 3GPP to carry information related to the charging of a session. There are, however, some differences in the semantics associated with P-Charging-Vector and P-Charge-Info. P-Charging-Vector is mainly used to carry information for correlation of multiple charging records generated for a single session. On the other hand, P-Charge-Info is used to convey information about the party to be billed for a call. Furthermore, P-Charging-Vector has a mandatory icid-value parameter which is a globally unique value to identify the session for which the charging information is generated. Such a globally-unique identifier is not necessary when carrying information about the user to be billed when it is attached to the corresponding session-related signaling.
P-DCS-Billing-Info is defined in section 7 of RFC 3603 (Marshall, W. and F. Andreasen, “Private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Proxy-to-Proxy Extensions for Supporting the PacketCable Distributed Call Signaling Architecture,” October 2003.) [RFC3603] and used for passing billing information between trusted entities in the PacketCable Distributed Call Signaling Architecture. For many billing situations, particularly the very large-scale residential telephone networks for which this header is designed, P-DCS-Billing-Info is an excellent solution. However, this ability to address a range of situations adds complexity. According to RFC 3603, each use of the P-DCS-Billing-Info header MUST include in the header the following:
and may include a variety of additional parameters.
While this may work well in many billing scenarios, there are other billing scenarios that do not at all need this level of complexity. In those simpler scenarios all that is needed is simply a number to use for billing. P-Charge-Info provides this simple solution for simple billing scenarios.
Additionally, section 7.3 of RFC 3603 mandates that a UA MUST create a Billing-Correlation-ID and insert this into the P-DCS-Billing-Info header (along with the other required information) sent in the initial SIP INVITE. This again makes sense for the residential telephone service environment for which this header is designed. In contrast, P-Charge-Info is designed to be used among proxies and not to be used at all by normal user agents. (P-Charge-Info may, though, by used by user agents associated with PSTN gateways.)
Early reviewers of this document asked why the "P-Asserted-Identity" header documented in RFC 3325 (Jennings, C., Peterson, J., and M. Watson, “Private Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Asserted Identity within Trusted Networks,” November 2002.) [RFC3325] could not be used. As mentioned in the use case example above, P-Asserted-Identity is used to indicate the identity of the calling party. However, in this instance, the requirement is to provide an additional identity of the SIP-to-PSTN interconnect point.
It would be typical to find both P-Asserted-Identity and P-Charge-Info used in a SIP exchange. P-Asserted-Identity would be used to provide the caller identity which would be displayed to the end user as "Caller ID" while P-Charge-Info would provide the billing identifier used for the billing associated with the call.
The P-Charge-Info header is applicable within a single private administrative domain or between different administrative domains where there is a trust relationship between the domains.
The P-Charge-Info header is used to convey information about the identity of the party to be charged. The P-Charge-Info header is typically inserted by one of the following:
P-Charge-Info is to be consumed by the SIP entity that provides billing services for a session. This could be an entity generating billing records or an entity interacting with another enitity generating billing records. Upon receipt of an INVITE request with P-Charge-Info header, such an entity SHOULD use the value present in the P-Charge-Info as indicating the party responsible for the charges associated with the session.
The P-Charge-Info header may be inserted by PSTN gateways or application servers acting as a SIP UA, either through local policy or as a result of information received via PSTN signaling, e.g. the Charge Number parameter in an ISUP IAM message.
The P-Charge-Info header is not used/interpreted by a regular UA and should not normally be seen by such a UA. If the header is transmitted to such a UA, the UA SHOULD ignore the header.
A PSTN gateway or application server acting as a UA MAY use the content of the P-Charge-Info header present in an INVITE request it received for billing related procedures, e.g. in a billing record or during interaction with another entity generating billing records, as the identity of the party to be charged for the session. A PSTN gateway or application server acting as a UA MAY use the content of the P-Charge-Info header to populate information about the identity of the party to charge in another type of signaling, e.g. ISUP.
A SIP proxy that supports this extension and receives a request, typically a SIP INVITE, without the P-Charge-Info header MAY insert a P-Charge-Info header. The contents of the inserted header may be decided based on local policy or by querying an external entity to determine the identity of the party to be charged.
A proxy MAY use the content of the P-Charge-Info header present in an INVITE request it received for billing related procedures, e.g. in a billing record or during interaction with another entity generating billing records.
A SIP proxy that does not support this extension will pass any received P-Charge-Info header unmodified in compliance with RFC 3261.
A proxy supporting this extension SHOULD remove the P-Charge-Info header before sending a request to a UA that is not acting as a PSTN gateway or appropriate application server.
The content of the P-Charge-Info header is typically simply a SIP URI used as a billing indicator. As such, an example would be as simple as:
Any other applicable SIP URI could be used.
P-Charge-Info optionally includes the additional parameters of the "Numbering Plan Indicator" and "Nature of Address". These are used when the ISUP Charge Number value needs to be passed as part of P-Charge-Info. For instance, this might be required in a SIP message for scenarios where SIP is used to connect two PSTN segments and needs to pass charging information between them. An example of the usage of the optional header is:
The Private Header specified in this document is described in both prose and an augmented Backus-Naur Form (BNF) defined in RFC 2234. Further, several BNF definitions are inherited from SIP and are not repeated here. Implementors need to be familiar with the notation and contents of SIP  and RFC 2234  to understand this document.
The syntax of the P-Charge-Info header is described as follows:
P-Charge-Info = "P-Charge-Info" HCOLON (name-addr / addr-spec)* (SEMI charge-param) ; name-addr and addr-spec are specified in RFC 3261 charge-param = npi-param / noa-param / generic-param npi-param = "npi" EQUAL npi-value ; generic-param is specifed in RFC 3261 npi-value = ("ISDN" / "DATA" / "TELEX" / "PRIVATE" / "SPARE0" / "SPARE1" / "SPARE2" / "SPARE3" / "SPARE4" / "SPARE5" / "SPARE6" / "SPARE7" / "UNKNOWN" ) noa-param = "noa" EQUAL noa-value noa-value = gen-value
This document defines a private SIP extension header field (beginning with the prefixe "P-").
The extension is registered as a private extension field:
RFC Number: RFCXXXX [Note to IANA: Please fill in with the RFC number of this specification.
Header Field Name: P-Charge-Info
Compact Form: none
Given that the information contained in the P-Charge-Info header will be used for billing purposes the proxies and other SIP entities that share this information MUST have a trust relationship.
If an untrusted entity were inserted between the trusted entities, it could potentially interfere with the billing records for the call. If the SIP connections are not made over a private WAN, a mechanism for securing the confidentiality and integrity of the SIP connection should be used to protect the information. One such mechanism could be TLS-encryption of the SIP signaling stream.
If the P-Charge-Info header was accepted by a SIP entity from an untrusted peer, there is the potential for fraud if the untrusted entity sent incorrect information, either inadvertently or maliciously.
Therefore a SIP entity MUST remove and ignore the P-Charge-Info header when it is received from an untrusted entity.
If the P-Charge-Info header was sent by a SIP entity to an untrusted peer, there is the potential exposure of network information that is internal to a trust domain. For instance, the untrusted entity may learn the identities of public SIP proxies used within the trust domain which could then potentially be directly attacked.
Therefore a SIP entity MUST remove the P-Charge-Info header when it is sent to an untrusted entity.
The authors thank the following people for their comments, criticism, suggestions and assistance with ABNF notation: Keith Drage, Miguel Garcia, Christer Holmberg, Paul Kyzivat, Jonathan Rosenberg, Juha Heinanen and Sumit Garg.
For revision -05, the authors thank John Haluska who provided a range of comments and specific information related to interworking with the ISUP Charge Number.
NOTE TO RFC EDITOR - Please remove this "Changes" section prior to publication. Thank you.
Revision -06 had only a minor correction to the second usage example. The IPR statement was also updated to comply with RFC 5378.
Revision -05 included the following modifications:
Revision -04 corrected a major error in the example where the parameter was placed inside the angle brackets. The P-DCS-Billing-Info header was also added as an alternative and a few minor edits were made.
|[RFC3427]||Mankin, A., Bradner, S., Mahy, R., Willis, D., Ott, J., and B. Rosen, “Change Process for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP),” RFC 3427, December 2002 (TXT).|
|[RFC3325]||Jennings, C., Peterson, J., and M. Watson, “Private Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Asserted Identity within Trusted Networks,” RFC 3325, November 2002 (TXT).|
|[RFC3455]||Garcia-Martin, M., Henrikson, E., and D. Mills, “Private Header (P-Header) Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for the 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP),” RFC 3455, January 2003 (TXT).|
|[RFC3603]||Marshall, W. and F. Andreasen, “Private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Proxy-to-Proxy Extensions for Supporting the PacketCable Distributed Call Signaling Architecture,” RFC 3603, October 2003 (TXT).|
|3 Paragon Way|
|Freehold, NJ 07728|