< draft-bormann-lwig-7228bis-03.txt   draft-bormann-lwig-7228bis-04.txt >
LWIG Working Group C. Bormann LWIG Working Group C. Bormann
Internet-Draft Universitaet Bremen TZI Internet-Draft Universitaet Bremen TZI
Intended status: Informational M. Ersue Intended status: Informational M. Ersue
Expires: January 3, 2019 Nokia Solutions and Networks Expires: September 12, 2019 Nokia Solutions and Networks
A. Keranen A. Keranen
Ericsson Ericsson
C. Gomez C. Gomez
UPC/i2CAT UPC/i2CAT
July 02, 2018 March 11, 2019
Terminology for Constrained-Node Networks Terminology for Constrained-Node Networks
draft-bormann-lwig-7228bis-03 draft-bormann-lwig-7228bis-04
Abstract Abstract
The Internet Protocol Suite is increasingly used on small devices The Internet Protocol Suite is increasingly used on small devices
with severe constraints on power, memory, and processing resources, with severe constraints on power, memory, and processing resources,
creating constrained-node networks. This document provides a number creating constrained-node networks. This document provides a number
of basic terms that have been useful in the standardization work for of basic terms that have been useful in the standardization work for
constrained-node networks. constrained-node networks.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Core Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Core Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. Constrained Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Constrained Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Constrained Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Constrained Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2.1. Challenged Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2.1. Challenged Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3. Constrained-Node Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3. Constrained-Node Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3.1. LLN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.1. LLN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3.2. LoWPAN, 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.2. LoWPAN, 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Classes of Constrained Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Classes of Constrained Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. Power Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1. Firmware/Software upgradeability . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. Scaling Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2. Isolation functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. Classes of Energy Limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3. Shielded secrets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.3. Strategies for Using Power for Communication . . . . . . 13 4. Power Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Classes of Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.1. Scaling Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. Classes of link layer MTU size . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2. Classes of Energy Limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. Class of Internet Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.3. Strategies for Using Power for Communication . . . . . . 14
5.3. Classes of physical layer bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5. Classes of Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.1. Classes of link layer MTU size . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2. Class of Internet Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.3. Classes of physical layer bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so- Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so-
called "constrained devices" (often used as sensors/actuators, smart called "constrained devices" (often used as sensors/actuators, smart
objects, or smart devices) can form a network, becoming "constrained objects, or smart devices) can form a network, becoming "constrained
nodes" in that network. Such a network may itself exhibit nodes" in that network. Such a network may itself exhibit
constraints, e.g., with unreliable or lossy channels, limited and constraints, e.g., with unreliable or lossy channels, limited and
unpredictable bandwidth, and a highly dynamic topology. unpredictable bandwidth, and a highly dynamic topology.
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| M | Class 3, C3 | ~ 100 KiB | ~ 500..1000 | STM32F103RG | | M | Class 3, C3 | ~ 100 KiB | ~ 500..1000 | STM32F103RG |
| | | | KiB | | | | | | KiB | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| M | Class 4, C4 | ~ | ~ | "Luxury" | | M | Class 4, C4 | ~ | ~ | "Luxury" |
| | | 300..500..1000 | 1000...2000 | | | | | 300..500..1000 | 1000...2000 | |
| | | KiB | KiB | | | | | KiB | KiB | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| J | Class 10, | 4-8 MiB | (?) | OpenWRT | | J | Class 10, | 4-8 MiB | (?) | OpenWRT |
| | C10 | | | routers | | | C10 | | | routers |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| J | | fill in useful | J-group | | | J | | fill in | ...J-group | |
| | | | classes | | | | | useful... | classes | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| J | Class 13, | 0.5..1 GiB | (lots) | Raspberry | | J | Class 15, | 0.5..1 GiB | (lots) | Raspberry |
| | C13 | | | PI | | | C13 | | | PI |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| J | Class 15, | 1..2 GiB | (lots) | Smartphones | | J | Class 16, | 1..4 GiB | (lots) | Smartphones |
| | C15 | | | | | | C15 | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| J | Class 16, | 4..32 GiB | (lots) | Laptops | | J | Class 17, | 4..32 GiB | (lots) | Laptops |
| | C16 | | | | | | C16 | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| J | Class 19, | (lots) | (lots) | Servers | | J | Class 19, | (lots) | (lots) | Servers |
| | C19 | | | | | | C19 | | | |
+-------+--------------+----------------+-------------+-------------+ +-------+--------------+----------------+-------------+-------------+
Table 1: Classes of Constrained Devices (KiB = 1024 bytes) Table 1: Classes of Constrained Devices (KiB = 1024 bytes)
As of the writing of this document, these characteristics correspond As of the writing of this document, these characteristics correspond
to distinguishable clusters of commercially available chips and to distinguishable clusters of commercially available chips and
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choose to support different functions. Even though Class 2 devices choose to support different functions. Even though Class 2 devices
have some more functionality available and may be able to provide a have some more functionality available and may be able to provide a
more complete set of functions, they still need to be assessed for more complete set of functions, they still need to be assessed for
the type of applications they will be running and the protocol the type of applications they will be running and the protocol
functions they would need. To be able to derive any requirements, functions they would need. To be able to derive any requirements,
the use cases and the involvement of the devices in the application the use cases and the involvement of the devices in the application
and the operational scenario need to be analyzed. Use cases may and the operational scenario need to be analyzed. Use cases may
combine constrained devices of multiple classes as well as more combine constrained devices of multiple classes as well as more
traditional Internet nodes. traditional Internet nodes.
3.1. Firmware/Software upgradeability
Platforms may differ in their firmware or software upgradeability.
The below is a first attempt at classifying this.
+------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| Name | Firmware/Software upgradeability |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| F0 | no (discard for upgrade) |
| | |
| F1 | replaceable, out of service during replacement, reboot |
| | |
| F2 | patchable during operation, reboot required |
| | |
| F3 | patchable during operation, restart not visible externally |
| | |
| F9 | app-level upgradeability, no reboot required ("hitless") |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------+
3.2. Isolation functionality
TBD. This section could discuss the ability of the platform to
isolate different components. The categories below are not mutually
exclusive; we need to build relevant clusters.
+------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| Name | Isolation functionality |
+------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| Is0 | no isolation |
| | |
| Is2 | MPU (memory protection unit), at least boundary registers |
| | |
| Is5 | MMU with Linux-style kernel/user |
| | |
| Is7 | Virtualization-style isolation |
| | |
| Is8 | Secure enclave isolation |
+------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
3.3. Shielded secrets
Some platforms can keep shielded secrets (usually in conjuction with
secure enclave functionality).
4. Power Terminology 4. Power Terminology
Devices not only differ in their computing capabilities but also in Devices not only differ in their computing capabilities but also in
available power and/or energy. While it is harder to find available power and/or energy. While it is harder to find
recognizable clusters in this space, it is still useful to introduce recognizable clusters in this space, it is still useful to introduce
some common terminology. some common terminology.
4.1. Scaling Properties 4.1. Scaling Properties
The power and/or energy available to a device may vastly differ, from The power and/or energy available to a device may vastly differ, from
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<http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/ <http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/
wp-50-billions.pdf>. wp-50-billions.pdf>.
[I-D.hui-vasseur-roll-rpl-deployment] [I-D.hui-vasseur-roll-rpl-deployment]
Vasseur, J., Hui, J., Dasgupta, S., and G. Yoon, "RPL Vasseur, J., Hui, J., Dasgupta, S., and G. Yoon, "RPL
deployment experience in large scale networks", draft-hui- deployment experience in large scale networks", draft-hui-
vasseur-roll-rpl-deployment-01 (work in progress), July vasseur-roll-rpl-deployment-01 (work in progress), July
2012. 2012.
[I-D.ietf-lpwan-ipv6-static-context-hc] [I-D.ietf-lpwan-ipv6-static-context-hc]
Minaburo, A., Toutain, L., Gomez, C., and D. Barthel, Minaburo, A., Toutain, L., Gomez, C., Barthel, D., and J.
"LPWAN Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) and Zuniga, "LPWAN Static Context Header Compression (SCHC)
fragmentation for IPv6 and UDP", draft-ietf-lpwan-ipv6- and fragmentation for IPv6 and UDP", draft-ietf-lpwan-
static-context-hc-16 (work in progress), June 2018. ipv6-static-context-hc-18 (work in progress), December
2018.
[I-D.ietf-lwig-tls-minimal] [I-D.ietf-lwig-tls-minimal]
Kumar, S., Keoh, S., and H. Tschofenig, "A Hitchhiker's Kumar, S., Keoh, S., and H. Tschofenig, "A Hitchhiker's
Guide to the (Datagram) Transport Layer Security Protocol Guide to the (Datagram) Transport Layer Security Protocol
for Smart Objects and Constrained Node Networks", draft- for Smart Objects and Constrained Node Networks", draft-
ietf-lwig-tls-minimal-01 (work in progress), March 2014. ietf-lwig-tls-minimal-01 (work in progress), March 2014.
[I-D.irtf-t2trg-iot-seccons] [I-D.irtf-t2trg-iot-seccons]
Garcia-Morchon, O., Kumar, S., and M. Sethi, "State-of- Garcia-Morchon, O., Kumar, S., and M. Sethi, "State-of-
the-Art and Challenges for the Internet of Things the-Art and Challenges for the Internet of Things
Security", draft-irtf-t2trg-iot-seccons-15 (work in Security", draft-irtf-t2trg-iot-seccons-16 (work in
progress), May 2018. progress), December 2018.
[ISQ-13] International Electrotechnical Commission, "International [ISQ-13] International Electrotechnical Commission, "International
Standard -- Quantities and units -- Part 13: Information Standard -- Quantities and units -- Part 13: Information
science and technology", IEC 80000-13, March 2008. science and technology", IEC 80000-13, March 2008.
[RFC0793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, [RFC0793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981, RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.
[RFC4838] Cerf, V., Burleigh, S., Hooke, A., Torgerson, L., Durst, [RFC4838] Cerf, V., Burleigh, S., Hooke, A., Torgerson, L., Durst,
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