< draft-fairhurst-tsvwg-datagram-plpmtud-01.txt   draft-fairhurst-tsvwg-datagram-plpmtud-02.txt >
Internet Engineering Task Force G. Fairhurst Internet Engineering Task Force G. Fairhurst
Internet-Draft T. Jones Internet-Draft T. Jones
Intended status: Standards Track University of Aberdeen Intended status: Standards Track University of Aberdeen
Expires: May 01, 2018 M. Tuexen Expires: June 07, 2018 M. Tuexen
I. Ruengeler I. Ruengeler
Muenster University of Applied Sciences Muenster University of Applied Sciences
October 30, 2017 December 6, 2017
Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery for Datagram Transports Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery for Datagram Transports
draft-fairhurst-tsvwg-datagram-plpmtud-01.txt draft-fairhurst-tsvwg-datagram-plpmtud-02
Abstract Abstract
This document describes a robust method for Path MTU Discovery This document describes a robust method for Path MTU Discovery
(PMTUD) for datagram packetization layers. It allows these layers to (PMTUD) for datagram Packetization layers. The method allows a
probe an Internet path with progressively larger packets to determine Packetization layer (or a datagram application that uses it) to probe
a maximum packet size This method is described as an extension to RFC an network path with progressively larger packets to determine a
1191 and RFC 8201, which specify ICMP-based Path MTU Discovery for IP maximum packet size. The document describes as an extension to RFC
versions 4 and 6. The document provides functionally for datagram 1191 and RFC 8201, which specify ICMP-based Path MTU Discovery for
transports that is equivalent to the packetization layer PMTUD IPv4 and IPv6. This provides functionally for datagram transports
specification for TCP, specified in RFC4821. that is equivalent to the Packetization layer PMTUD specification for
TCP, specified in RFC4821.
When published, this specification updates RFC4821.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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This Internet-Draft will expire on May 01, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 07, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Features required to provide PLPMTUD at the Transport Layer . 6 3. Features required to provide Datagram PLPMTUD . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. PMTU Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1. PMTU Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2. Validation of the current effective PMTU . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. Validation of the current effective PMTU . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3. Reduction of the effective PMTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3. Reduction of the effective PMTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Datagram PLPMTUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Datagram Packetization Layer PMTUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1. Probing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1. Probing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2. Verication and use of PTB messages . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3. Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4. Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.4. Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.5. State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.5. Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Specification of Protocol-Specific Methods . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.6. State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1. UDP and UDP-Lite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Specification of Protocol-Specific Methods . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.1.1. UDP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1. DPLPMTUD for UDP and UDP-Lite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.2. UDP Options required for PLPMTUD . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1.1. UDP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.2.1. Echo Request Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1.2. UDP Options required for PLPMTUD . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.2.2. Echo Response Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1.2.1. Echo Request Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.3. Sending UDP-Option Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1.2.2. Echo Response Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.4. Validating the Path with UDP Options . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.3. Sending UDP-Option Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1.5. Handling of PTB Messages by UDP . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.4. Validating the Path with UDP Options . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2. SCTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.5. Handling of PTB Messages by UDP . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.1. SCTP/IP4 and SCTP/IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2. DPLPMTUD for SCTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.1.1. Sending SCTP Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.1. SCTP/IP4 and SCTP/IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.1.2. Validating the Path with SCTP . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.1.1. Sending SCTP Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.1.3. PTB Message Handling by SCTP . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.1.2. Validating the Path with SCTP . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.2. SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.1.3. PTB Message Handling by SCTP . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.2.1. Sending SCTP/UDP Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.2. DPLPMTUD for SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.2.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.2.1. Sending SCTP/UDP Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.2.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . 16 5.2.2.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.3. SCTP/DTLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.2.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/UDP . . . . . . . 19
5.2.3.1. Sending SCTP/DTLS Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.3. DPLPMTUD for SCTP/DTLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2.3.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/DTLS . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.3.1. Sending SCTP/DTLS Probe Packets . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2.3.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/DTLS . . . . . . 17 5.2.3.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/DTLS . . . . . . . . 19
5.3. Other IETF Transports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.3.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/DTLS . . . . . . 19
6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3. Other IETF Transports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.4. DPLPMTUD by Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix A. Event-driven state changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix B. Revision Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Appendix A. Event-driven state changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Appendix B. Revision Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The IETF has specified datagram transport using UDP, SCTP, SCTP/UDP,
DCCP, and DCCP/UDP, as well as protocols layered on top of these The IETF has specified datagram transport using UDP, SCTP, and DCCP,
transports. as well as protocols layered on top of these transports (e.g., SCTP/
UDP, DCCP/UDP).
Classical Path Maximum Transmission Unit Discovery (PMTUD) can be Classical Path Maximum Transmission Unit Discovery (PMTUD) can be
used with any transport that is able to process ICMP Packet Too Big used with any transport that is able to process ICMP Packet Too Big
(PTB) messages (e.g., [RFC1191] and [RFC8201]). It adjusts the (PTB) messages (e.g., [RFC1191] and [RFC8201]). It adjusts the
effective Path MTU (PMTU), based on reception of ICMP Path too Big effective Path MTU (PMTU), based on reception of ICMP Path too Big
(PTB) messages to decrease the PMTU when a packet is sent with a size (PTB) messages to decrease the PMTU when a packet is sent with a size
larger than the value supported along a path, and a method that from larger than the value supported along a path, and a method that from
time-to-time increases the packet size in attempt to discover an time-to-time increases the packet size in attempt to discover an
increase in the supported PMTU. increase in the supported PMTU.
However, Classical PMTUD is subject to protocol failures. One However, Classical PMTUD is subject to protocol failures. One
failure arises when traffic using a packet size larger than the failure arises when traffic using a packet size larger than the
actual supported PMTU is blackholed (silently discarded). This may actual supported PMTU is black-holed (all datagrams sent with this
happen when ICMP PTB messages are not delivered back to the sender size are silently discarded). This could continue to happen when ICMP
for some reason [RFC2923]). For example, ICMP messages are PTB messages are not delivered back to the sender for some reason
increasingly filtered by middleboxes (including Firewalls) [RFC4890], [RFC2923]). For example, ICMP messages are increasingly filtered by
and may not be correctly processed by tunnel endpoints. middleboxes (including firewalls) [RFC4890], and in some cases are
not correctly processed by tunnel endpoints.
Another failure could result if a system not on the path sends a PTB Another failure could result if a system not on the network path
that attempts to force the sender to change the effective PMTU sends a PTB that attempts to force the sender to change the effective
[RFC8201]. A sender could protect itself by using the quoted packet PMTU [RFC8201]. A sender can protect itself from reacting to such
within the PTB message payload to verify that the received PTB messages by utilising the quoted packet within the PTB message
message was generated in response to a packet that had actually been payload to verify that the received PTB message was generated in
sent. However, there are situations where a sender is unable to response to a packet that had actually been sent. However, there are
provide this verification (e.g., when the PTB message does not situations where a sender is unable to provide this verification
include sufficient information, often the case for IPv4; or where the (e.g., when the PTB message does not include sufficient information,
information corresponds to an encrypted packet). At the network layer often the case for IPv4; or where the information corresponds to an
there also could be insufficient context to perform this encrypted packet). Most routers implement RFC792 [RFC0792], which
verification, which depends on information about the active transport requires them to return only the first 64 bits of the IP payload of
flows (e.g., the socket/address pairs being used, and other protocol the packet, whereas RFC1812 [RFC1812] requires routers to return the
header information). This verification is more straight forward at a full packet if possible.
the Packetization Layer (PL) or a higher layer.
The term Packetization Layer has been introduced to describe the Even when the PTB message includes sufficient bytes of the quoted
packet, the network layer could lack sufficient context to perform
verification, because this depends on information about the active
transport flows at an endpoint node (e.g., the socket/address pairs
being used, and other protocol header information).
The term Packetization Layer (PL) has been introduced to describe the
layer that is responsible for placing data blocks into the payload of layer that is responsible for placing data blocks into the payload of
packets and selecting an appropriate maximum packet size. This packets and selecting an appropriate maximum packet size. This
function is often performed by a transport protocol, but can also be function is often performed by a transport protocol, but can also be
performed by other encapsulation methods working below the performed by other encapsulation methods working above the transport.
application. PTB verification is more straight forward at the PL or at a higher
layer.
In contrast to PMTUD, Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery In contrast to PMTUD, Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery
(PLPMTUD) [RFC4821] does not rely upon reception and verification of (PLPMTUD) [RFC4821] does not rely upon reception and verification of
PTB messages. It is therefore more robust than Classical PMTUD. This PTB messages. It is therefore more robust than Classical PMTUD. This
has become the recommended approach for implementing PMTU discovery has become the recommended approach for implementing PMTU discovery
with TCP. It uses a general strategy where the PL searches for an with TCP. It uses a general strategy where the PL searches for an
appropriate PMTU by sending probe packets along the network path with appropriate PMTU by sending probe packets along the network path with
a progressively larger packet size. If a probe packet is a progressively larger packet size. If a probe packet is
successfully delivered (as determined by the PL), then the effective successfully delivered (as determined by the PL), then the effective
Path MTU is raised to the probe size. Path MTU is raised to the size of the successful probe.
PLPMTUD introduces flexibility in the implementation of PMTU PLPMTUD introduces flexibility in the implementation of PMTU
discovery. At one extreme, it can be configured to only perform PTB discovery. At one extreme, it can be configured to only perform PTB
black hole recovery to increase the robustness of Classical PMTUD, or black hole detection and recovery to increase the robustness of
at the other extreme, all PTB processing can be disabled and PLPMTUD Classical PMTUD, or at the other extreme, all PTB processing can be
can completely replace Classical PMTUD. PLPMTUD can also include disabled and PLPMTUD can completely replace Classical PMTUD. PLPMTUD
additional consistency checks without increasing the risk of can also include additional consistency checks without increasing the
blackholing. risk of increased blackholing.
The UDP-Guidelines [RFC8085] state "an application SHOULD either use The UDP-Guidelines [RFC8085] state "an application SHOULD either use
the path MTU information provided by the IP layer or implement Path the path MTU information provided by the IP layer or implement Path
MTU Discovery (PMTUD)", but does not provide a mechanism for MTU Discovery (PMTUD)", but does not provide a mechanism for
discovering the largest size of unfragmented datagram than can be discovering the largest size of unfragmented datagram than can be
used on a path. PLPMTUD has not currently been specified for UDP, used on a path. PLPMTUD has not currently been specified for UDP,
while Section 10.2 of [RFC4821] recommends a PLPMTUD probing method while Section 10.2 of [RFC4821] recommends a PLPMTUD probing method
for SCTP that utilises heartbeat messages as packet probes, but does for SCTP that utilises heartbeat messages as probe packets, but does
not provide a complete specification. This document provides the not provide a complete specification. This document provides the
details to complete that specification. Similarly, the method details to complete that specification. Similarly, the method
defined in this specification could be used with the Datagram defined in this specification could be used with the Datagram
Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4340] requires implementations Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4340] requires implementations
to support Classical PMTUD and states that a DCCP sender "MUST to support Classical PMTUD and states that a DCCP sender "MUST
maintain the maximum packet size (MPS) allowed for each active DCCP maintain the maximum packet size (MPS) allowed for each active DCCP
session". It also defines the current congestion control maximum session". It also defines the current congestion control maximum
packet size (CCMPS) supported by a path. This recommends use of packet size (CCMPS) supported by a path. This recommends use of
PMTUD, and suggests use of control packets (DCCP-Sync) as path probe PMTUD, and suggests use of control packets (DCCP-Sync) as path probe
packets, because they do not risk application data loss. The packets, because they do not risk application data loss.
document also contains information that enables the implementation of
PLPMTUD with other datagram transports
Section Section 4 of this document presents a set of algorithms for Section 4 of this document presents a set of algorithms for datagram
datagram protocols to discover a maximum size for the effective PMTU protocols to discover a maximum size for the effective PMTU across a
across a path. The methods described rely on features of the PL path. The methods described rely on features of the PL Section 3 and
Section 3 and apply to transport protocols over IPv4 and IPv6. It apply to transport protocols over IPv4 and IPv6. It does not require
does not require cooperation from the lower layers (except that they cooperation from the lower layers (except that they are consistent
are consistent about which packet sizes are acceptable). It can about which packet sizes are acceptable). A method can utilise ICMP
utilise PTB messages when these are available. PTB messages when received messages are made available to the PL.
Finally, Section 5 specifies the method for a set of transports, and
provides information to enables the implementation of PLPMTUD with
other datagram transports and applications that use datagram
transports.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Other terminology is directly copied from [RFC4821], and the Other terminology is directly copied from [RFC4821], and the
definitions in [RFC1122]. definitions in [RFC1122].
Black-Holed: When the sender is unaware that packets are not Black-Holed: When the sender is unaware that packets are not
delivered to the destination endpoint (e.g., when the sender is delivered to the destination endpoint (e.g., when the sender
unaware of a change in the path to one with a smaller PMTU). transmits packets of a particular size with a previously known
PMTU, but is unaware of a change to the path that resulted in a
smaller PMTU).
Classical Path MTU Discovery: Classical PMTUD is a process described Classical Path MTU Discovery: Classical PMTUD is a process described
in [RFC1191] and [RFC8201], in which nodes rely on PTB messages to in [RFC1191] and [RFC8201], in which nodes rely on PTB messages to
learn the largest size of unfragmented datagram than can be used learn the largest size of unfragmented datagram than can be used
across a path. across a path.
Datagram: A datagram is a transport-layer protocol data unit, Datagram: A datagram is a transport-layer protocol data unit,
transmitted in the payload of an IP packet. transmitted in the payload of an IP packet.
Effective PMTU: The current estimated value for PMTU used by a Effective PMTU: The current estimated value for PMTU that is used by
Packetization Layer. a Packetization Layer.
EMTU_S: The Effective MTU for sending (EMTU_S) is defined in EMTU_S: The Effective MTU for sending (EMTU_S) is defined in
[RFC1122] as "the maximum IP datagram size that may be sent, for a [RFC1122] as "the maximum IP datagram size that may be sent, for a
particular combination of IP source and destination addresses...". particular combination of IP source and destination addresses...".
EMTU_R: The Effective MTU for receiving (EMTU_R) is designated in EMTU_R: The Effective MTU for receiving (EMTU_R) is designated in
[RFC1122] as "the largest datagram size that can be reassembled by [RFC1122] as the largest datagram size that can be reassembled by
EMTU_R ("Effective MTU to receive")". EMTU_R ("Effective MTU to receive").
Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can
communicate at the link layer, i.e., a layer below the IP layer. communicate at the link layer, i.e., a layer below the IP layer.
Examples are Ethernet LANs and Internet (or higher) layer and Examples are Ethernet LANs and Internet (or higher) layer and
tunnels. tunnels.
Link MTU: The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the size in bytes of Link MTU: The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the size in bytes of
the largest IP packet, including the IP header and payload, that the largest IP packet, including the IP header and payload, that
can be transmitted over a link. Note that this could more can be transmitted over a link. Note that this could more
properly be called the IP MTU, to be consistent with how other properly be called the IP MTU, to be consistent with how other
standards organizations use the acronym MTU. This includes the IP standards organizations use the acronym MTU. This includes the IP
header, but excludes link layer headers and other framing that is header, but excludes link layer headers and other framing that is
not part of IP or the IP payload. Other standards organizations not part of IP or the IP payload. Other standards organizations
generally define link MTU to include the link layer headers. generally define link MTU to include the link layer headers.
MPS: The Maximum Packet Size (MPS), the largest size of application MPS: The Maximum Packet Size (MPS), the largest size of application
data block that may be sent unfragmented across a path. In data block that can be sent unfragmented across a path. In
PLPMTUD this quantity is derived from Effective PMTU by taking PLPMTUD this quantity is derived from Effective PMTU by taking
into consideration the size of the application and lower protocol into consideration the size of the application and lower protocol
layer headers, and may be limited by the application protocol. layer headers, and can be limited by the application protocol.
Packet: An IP header plus the IP payload. Packet: An IP header plus the IP payload.
Packetization Layer (PL): The layer of the network stack that places Packetization Layer (PL): The layer of the network stack that places
data into packets and performs transport protocol functions. data into packets and performs transport protocol functions.
Path: The set of link and routers traversed by a packet between a Path: The set of link and routers traversed by a packet between a
source node and a destination node. source node and a destination node.
Path MTU (PMTU): The minimum of the link MTU of all the links forming Path MTU (PMTU): The minimum of the link MTU of all the links forming
a path between a source node and a destination node. a path between a source node and a destination node.
PLPMTUD: Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery, the method described PLPMTUD: Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery, the method described
in this document for datagram PLs, which is an extension to in this document for datagram PLs, which is an extension to
Classical PMTU Discovery. Classical PMTU Discovery.
3. Features required to provide PLPMTUD at the Transport Layer Probe packet: A datagram sent with a purposely chosen size (typically
larger than the current Effective PMTU or MPS) to detect if
messages of this size can be successfully sent along the end-to-
end path.
3. Features required to provide Datagram PLPMTUD
TCP PLPMTUD has been defined using standard TCP protocol mechanisms. TCP PLPMTUD has been defined using standard TCP protocol mechanisms.
All of the requirements in [RFC4821] also apply to use of the All of the requirements in [RFC4821] also apply to use of the
technique with a datagram PL. Unlike TCP, some datagram PLs require technique with a datagram PL. Unlike TCP, some datagram PLs require
additional mechanisms to implement PLPMTUD. additional mechanisms to implement PLPMTUD.
There are ten requirements for performing the datagram PLPMTUD method There are nine requirements for performing the datagram PLPMTUD
described in this specification: method described in this specification:
1. PMTU parameters: A PLPMTUD sender is REQUIRED to provide 1. PMTU parameters: A PLPMTUD sender is REQUIRED to provide
information about the maximum size of packet that can be information about the maximum size of packet that can be
transmitted by the sender on the local link (the Link MTU and MAY transmitted by the sender on the local link (the Link MTU and MAY
utilize similar information about the receiver when this is utilize similar information about the receiver when this is
supplied (note this may be less than EMTU_R). Some applications supplied (note this could be less than EMTU_R). Some applications
also have a maximum transport protocol data unit (PDU) size, in also have a maximum transport protocol data unit (PDU) size, in
which case there may be no benefit from probing for a size larger which case there is no benefit from probing for a size larger
than this (unless a transport allows multiplexing multiple than this (unless a transport allows multiplexing multiple
applications PDUs into the same datagram.) applications PDUs into the same datagram).
2. Effective PMTU: A datagram application MUST be able to choose the 2. Effective PMTU: A datagram application MUST be able to choose the
size of datagrams sent to the network, up to the effective PMTU, size of datagrams sent to the network, up to the effective PMTU,
or a smaller value (such as the MPS) derived from this. This or a smaller value (such as the MPS) derived from this. This
value is managed by the PMTUD method. The effective PMTU value is managed by the PMTUD method. The effective PMTU
(specified in Section 1 of [RFC1191]) is equivalent to the EMTU_S (specified in Section 1 of [RFC1191]) is equivalent to the EMTU_S
(specified in [RFC1122]). (specified in [RFC1122]).
3. Probe packets: On request, a PLPMTUD sender is REQUIRED to be 3. Probe packets: On request, a PLPMTUD sender is REQUIRED to be
able to transmit a packet larger than the current effective PMTU able to transmit a packet larger than the current effective PMTU
(but always with a total size less than the link MTU), which the (but always with a total size less than the link MTU). The method
method can use as a probe packet. In IPv4, a probe packet is can use this as a probe packet. In IPv4, a probe packet is
always sent with the Don't Fragment (DF) bit set and without always sent with the Don't Fragment (DF) bit set and without
network layer endpoint fragmentation. network layer endpoint fragmentation. In IPv6, a probe packet is
always sent without source fragmentation (as specified in section
5.4 of [RFC8201]).
4. Processing PTB messages: A PLPMTUD sender MAY optionally utilize 4. Processing PTB messages: A PLPMTUD sender MAY optionally utilize
PTB messages received from the network layer to help identify PTB messages received from the network layer to help identify
when a path does not support the current size of packet probe. when a path does not support the current size of packet probe.
Any received PTB message SHOULD/MUST be verified before it is Any received PTB message SHOULD/MUST be verified before it is
used to update the PMTU discovery information [RFC8201]. This used to update the PMTU discovery information [RFC8201]. This
verification confirms that the PTB message was sent in response verification confirms that the PTB message was sent in response
to a packet originating by the sender, and needs to be performed to a packet originating by the sender, and needs to be performed
before the PMTU discovery method reacts to the PTB message. When before the PMTU discovery method reacts to the PTB message. When
the router link MTU is indicated in the PTB message this MAY be the router link MTU is indicated in the PTB message this MAY be
used by datagram PLPMTUD to reduce the size of a probe, but MUST used by datagram PLPMTUD to reduce the size of a probe, but MUST
NOT be used increase the effective PMTU. NOT be used increase the effective PMTU ([RFC8201]).
5. Reception feedback: The destination PL endpoint is REQUIRED to 5. Reception feedback: The destination PL endpoint is REQUIRED to
provide a feedback method that indicates when a probe packet has provide a feedback method that indicates when a probe packet has
been received by the destination endpoint. The local PL endpoint been received by the destination endpoint. The local PL endpoint
is REQUIRED to pass this feedback to the sender PLPMTUD method. at the sending node is REQUIRED to pass this feedback to the
sender-side PLPMTUD method.
6. Probing and congestion control: The isolated loss of a probe 6. Probing and congestion control: The isolated loss of a probe
packet SHOULD NOT be treated as an indication of congestion and packet SHOULD NOT be treated as an indication of congestion and
its loss not directly trigger a congestion control reaction. its loss does not directly trigger a congestion control reaction
[RFC4821].
7. Probe loss recovery: If the data block carried by a probe message 7. Probe loss recovery: If the data block carried by a probe message
needs to be sent reliably, the PL (or layers above) MUST arrange needs to be sent reliably, the PL (or layers above) MUST arrange
retransmission/repair of any resulting loss. This method MUST be retransmission/repair of any resulting loss. This method MUST be
robust in the case where paket probes are lost due to other robust in the case where probe packets are lost due to other
reasons (including link transmission error, congestion). The reasons (including link transmission error, congestion). The
PLPMTUD method treats isolated loss of a probe packet (with or PLPMTUD method treats isolated loss of a probe packet (with or
without an PTB message) as a potential indication of a PMTU limit without an PTB message) as a potential indication of a PMTU limit
on the path. The PL is permitted to retransmit any data included on the path. The PL MAY retransmit any data included in a lost
in a lost probe packet without adjusting its congestion window. probe packet without adjusting its congestion window [RFC4821].
8. Cached effective PMTU: The sender MUST cache the effective PMTU 8. Cached effective PMTU: The sender MUST cache the effective PMTU
value between probes and needs also to consider the disruption value used by an instance of the PL between probes and needs also
that could be incurred by an unsuccessful probe - both upon the to consider the disruption that could be incurred by an
flow that incurs a probe loss, and other flows that experience unsuccessful probe - both upon the flow that incurs a probe loss,
the effect of additional probe traffic. and other flows that experience the effect of additional probe
traffic.
9. Shared effective PMTU state: The specification of PLPMTUD 9. Shared effective PMTU state: The PMTU value could also be stored
[RFC4821] states: "If PLPMTUD updates the MTU for a particular with the corresponding entry in the destination cache and used by
path, all Packetization Layer sessions that share the path other PL instances. The specification of PLPMTUD [RFC4821]
representation (as described in Section 5.2 of [RFC4821]) SHOULD states: "If PLPMTUD updates the MTU for a particular path, all
be notified to make use of the new MTU and make the required Packetization Layer sessions that share the path representation
congestion control adjustments". Such methods need to robust to (as described in Section 5.2 of [RFC4821]) SHOULD be notified to
the wide variety of underlying network forwarding behaviours. make use of the new MTU and make the required congestion control
Considerations about caching have been noted [RFC8201]. adjustments". Such methods need to robust to the wide variety of
underlying network forwarding behaviours. Section 5.2 of
[RFC8201] provides guidance on the caching of PMTU information
and also the relation to IPv6 flow labels.
In addition the following design principles are stated: In addition the following design principles are stated:
o Suitable MPS: The PLPMTUD method SHOULD avoid forcing an o Suitable MPS: The PLPMTUD method SHOULD avoid forcing an
application to use an arbitrary small MPS (effective PMTU) for application to use an arbitrary small MPS (effective PMTU) for
transmission while the method is searching for the currently transmission while the method is searching for the currently
supported PMTU. Datagram PLs do not necessarily support supported PMTU. Datagram PLs do not necessarily support
fragmentation of PDUs larger than the PMTU. A reduced MPS can fragmentation of PDUs larger than the PMTU. A reduced MPS can
adversely impact the performance of a datagram application. adversely impact the performance of a datagram application.
o Path validation: The PLPMTUD method MUST be robust to path changes o Path validation: The PLPMTUD method MUST be robust to path changes
that could have occurred since the path characteristics were last that could have occurred since the path characteristics were last
confirmed. confirmed.
o Datagram reordering: A method MUST be robust to the possibility o Datagram reordering: A method MUST be robust to the possibility
that a flow encounters reordering, or has the traffic (inlcuding that a flow encounters reordering, or has the traffic (including
probe packets) is divided over more than one network path. probe packets) is divided over more than one network path.
o When to probe: The PLPMTUD method SHOULD determine whether the o When to probe: The PLPMTUD method SHOULD determine whether the
path capacity has increased since it last measured the path. This path capacity has increased since it last measured the path. This
determines when the path should again be probed. determines when the path should again be probed.
3.1. PMTU Probe Packets 3.1. PMTU Probe Packets
PMTU discovery relies upon the sender being able to generate probe PMTU discovery relies upon the sender being able to generate probe
messages with a specific size. TCP is able to generate probe packets messages with a specific size. TCP is able to generate probe packets
by choosing to appropriately segment data being sent [RFC4821]. by choosing to appropriately segment data being sent [RFC4821].
In contrast, datagram PLs either have to request an application to In contrast, a datagram PL that needs to construct a probe packet has
send a data block with a specified size, or to utilise padding to either request an application to send a data block that is larger
functions to extend the datagram beyond the size of the application than that generated by an application, or to utilise padding
functions to extend a datagram beyond the size of the application
data block. Protocols that permit exchange of control messages data block. Protocols that permit exchange of control messages
(without an application data block) could alternatively prefer to (without an application data block) could alternatively prefer to
generate a probe packet by extending a control message with padding generate a probe packet by extending a control message with padding
data. data.
When the method fails to validate the PMTU for the path, the required When the method fails to validate the PMTU for the path, it may be
size of probe packet can need to be less than the size of the data required to send a probe packet with a size less than the size of the
block generated by an application. In this case, the PL could data block generated by an application. In this case, the PL could
provide a wat to fragment a datagram at the PL, or could instead provide a way to fragment a datagram at the PL, or could instead
utilise a control packet with padding. utilise a control packet with padding.
A receiver needs to be able to be able to distinguish in-band data A receiver needs to be able to distinguish an in-band data block from
from any added padding, and ensure that any added padding is not any added padding. This is needed to ensure that any added padding
passed to an application at the receiver. is not passed on to an application at the receiver.
This results in three ways that a sender can create a probe packet: This results in three possible ways that a sender can create a probe
packet:
Probing using appication data: A probe packet that contains a data Probing using appication data: A probe packet that contains a data
block supplied by an application that matches the size required block supplied by an application that matches the size required
for the probe. This requires a method to request the application for the probe. This method requests the application to issue a
to issue a data block of the desired probe size. If the data block of the desired probe size. If the application/
application/transport needs protection from the loss of this probe transport needs protection from the loss of an unsuccessful probe
packet, the application/transport may perform transport-layer packet, the application/transport needs then to perform transport-
retransmission/repair of the data block (e.g., by retransmission layer retransmission/repair of the data block (e.g., by
after loss is detected or by duplicating the data block in a
datagram without the padding data).
Probing using appication data: A probe packet that contains a data
block supplied by an application that is combined with padding to
inflate the length of the datagram to the size required for the
probe. If the application/transport needs protection from the
loss of this probe packet, the application/transport may perform
transport-layer retransmission/repair of the data block (e.g., by
retransmission after loss is detected or by duplicating the data retransmission after loss is detected or by duplicating the data
block in a datagram without the padding data). block in a datagram without the padding).
Probing using appication data: A probe packet that contains only Probing using appication data and padding data: A probe packet that
control information and padding to inflate the packet to the size contains a data block supplied by an application that is combined
required for the probe. Since these probe packets do not carry with padding to inflate the length of the datagram to the size
any application-supplied data block,they do not typically require required for the probe. If the application/transport needs
retransmission, although they do still consume network capacity. protection from the loss of this probe packet, the application/
transport may perform transport-layer retransmission/repair of the
data block (e.g., by retransmission after loss is detected or by
duplicating the data block in a datagram without the padding
data).
Probing using padding data: A probe packet that contains only control
information together with any padding needed to inflate the packet
to the size required for the probe. Since these probe packets do
not carry an application-supplied data block,they do not typically
require retransmission, although they do still consume network
capacity and incur endpoint processing.
A datagram PLPMTUD MAY choose to use only one of these methods to
simplify the implementation.
3.2. Validation of the current effective PMTU 3.2. Validation of the current effective PMTU
The PL needs a method to determine when packet probes have been The PL needs a method to determine when probe packets have been
successfully received end-to-end across a network path. successfully received end-to-end across a network path.
Transport protocols can include end-to-end methods that detect and Transport protocols can include end-to-end methods that detect and
report reception of specific datagrams that they send (e.g., DCCP and report reception of specific datagrams that they send (e.g., DCCP and
SCTP provide keep-alive/heartbeat features). This can also be used by SCTP provide keep-alive/heartbeat features). When supported, this
PLPMTUD to acknowledge reception of a probe packet. mechanism SHOULD also be used by PLPMTUD to acknowledge reception of
a probe packet.
A PL that does not acknowledge data reception (e.g., UDP and UDP- A PL that does not acknowledge data reception (e.g., UDP and UDP-
Lite) is unable to detect when the packets it sends are discarded Lite) is unable to detect when the packets it sends are discarded
because their size is greater than the actual PMTUD. These PLs need because their size is greater than the actual PMTUD. These PLs need
to either reply on application protocol to detect this, or use of an to either rely on an application protocol to detect this, or make use
additional transport method such as UDP-Options [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-udp- of an additional transport method such as UDP-Options [I-D.ietf-
options], and then need to send a reachability probe (e.g., tsvwg-udp-options]. In addition, they might need to send
periodically solicit a response) to determine if the current reachability probes (e.g., periodically solicit a response from the
effective PMTU is still supported by the network path. destination) to determine whether the current effective PMTU is still
supported by the network path.
PMTU discovery can also utilise PTB messages to detect when the Section Section 4 specifies this function for a set of IETF-specified
actual PMTU supported by a network path is less than the current size protocols.
of datagrams that are being sent.
3.3. Reduction of the effective PMTU 3.3. Reduction of the effective PMTU
When the current effective PMTU is no longer supported by the network When the current effective PMTU is no longer supported by the network
path, the transport needs to detect this and reduce the effective path, the transport needs to detect this and reduce the effective
PMTU. PMTU.
o A PL that sends a datagram larger than the actual PMTU that o A PL that sends a datagram larger than the actual PMTU that
includes no application data block, or one that does not attempt includes no application data block, or one that does not attempt
to provide any retransmission, can send a new probe packet with an to provide any retransmission, can send a new probe packet with an
updated probe size. updated probe size.
o A PL that wishes to resend the application data block, may need to o A PL that wishes to resend the application data block, could then
re-fragment the data block to a smaller datagram size. This could need to re-fragment the data block to a smaller packet size that
utilise network-layer or PL fragmentation when these are is expected to traverse the end-to-end path. This could utilise
available. network-layer or PL fragmentation when these are available. A
fragmented datagram MUST NOT be used as a probe packet (see
[RFC8201]).
4. Datagram PLPMTUD A method can additionally utilise PTB messages to detect when the
actual PMTU supported by a network path is less than the current size
of datagrams (or probe messages) that are being sent.
4. Datagram Packetization Layer PMTUD
This section specifies Datagram PLPMTUD. This section specifies Datagram PLPMTUD.
The central idea of PLPMTU discovery is probing by a sender. Probe The central idea of PLPMTU discovery is probing by a sender. Probe
packets of increasing size are sent to find out the maximum size of a packets of increasing size are sent to find out the maximum size of a
user message that is completely transferred across the network path user message that is completely transferred across the network path
from the sender to the destination. If a PTB message is received from the sender to the destination.
from a router or middlebox, this information ought to be verified and
SHOULD used. The PTB messages can improve performance compared to
one that relies solely on probing.
4.1. Probing 4.1. Probing
The PLPMTUD method utilises a timer to trigger the generation of The PLPMTUD method utilises a timer to trigger the generation of
probe packets. The probe_timer is started each time a probe packet probe packets. The probe_timer is started each time a probe packet
is sent to the destination and is cancelled when receipt of the probe is sent to the destination and is cancelled when receipt of the probe
packet is acknowledged. Each time the probe_timer expires, the packet is acknowledged.
probe_error_counter is incremented, and the probe packet is
retransmitted. The counter is initialised to zero when a probe The PROBE_COUNT is initialised to zero when a probe packet is first
packet is first sent with a particular size. The maximum number of sent with a particular size. Each time the probe_timer expires, the
retransmissions per probing size is configured (MAX_PROBES). If the PROBE_COUNT is incremented, and a probe packet of the same size is
value of the PROBE_COUNT exceeds MAX_PROBES, probing will be stopped retransmitted. The maximum number of retransmissions per probing
and the last successfully probed PMTU is set as the effective PMTU. size is configured (MAX_PROBES). If the value of the PROBE_COUNT
reaches MAX_PROBES, probing will be stopped and the last successfully
probed PMTU is set as the effective PMTU.
Once probing is completed, the sender continues to use the effective Once probing is completed, the sender continues to use the effective
PMTU until either a PTB message is received or the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER PMTU until either a PTB message is received or the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER
expires. If the PL is unable to verify reachability to the expires. If the PL is unable to verify reachability to the
destination endpoint after probing has completed, the method uses a destination endpoint after probing has completed, the method uses a
REACHABILITY_TIMER to periodically repeat a probe packet for the REACHABILITY_TIMER to periodically repeat a probe packet for the
current effective PMTU size, while the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER is running. current effective PMTU size, while the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER is running.
If the resulting probe packet is not acknowledged (i.e. the If the resulting probe packet is not acknowledged (i.e. the
PROBE_TIMER expires), the method re-starts probing for the PMTU. PROBE_TIMER expires), the method re-starts probing for the PMTU.
4.2. Timers 4.2. Verication and use of PTB messages
XXX A decision on SHOULD/MUST needs to be made XXX
A node that receives a PTB message from a router or middlebox, SHOULD
/MUST verify the PTB message. The node checks the protocol
information in the quoted payload to verify that the message
originated from the sending node. The node also checks that the
reported MTU size is less than the size used by packet probes. PTB
messages are discarded if they fail to pass these checks, or where
there is insufficient ICMP payload to perform these checks. The
checks are intended to provide protection from packets that originate
from a node that is not on the network path or a node that attempts
to report a larger MTU than the current probe size.
PTB messages that have been verified can be utilised by the DPLPMTUD
algorithm. A method that utilises these PTB messages can improve
performance compared to one that relies solely on probing.
4.3. Timers
This method utilises three timers: This method utilises three timers:
PROBE_TIMER: Configured to expire after a period longer than the PROBE_TIMER: Configured to expire after a period longer than the
maximum time to receive an acknowledgment to a probe packet. maximum time to receive an acknowledgment to a probe packet. This
value MUST be larger than 1 second, and SHOULD be larger than 15
seconds. Guidance on selection of the timer value are provide in
section 3.1.1 of the UDP Usage Guidelines [RFC8085].
PMTU_RAISE_TIMER: Configured to the period a sender ought to continue PMTU_RAISE_TIMER: Configured to the period a sender ought to continue
use the current effective PMTU, after which it re-commences use the current effective PMTU, after which it re-commences
probing for a higher PMTU. This timer has a period of 600 secs, as probing for a higher PMTU. This timer has a period of 600 secs, as
recommended by [RFC4821]. recommended by PLPMTUD [RFC4821].
REACHABILITY_TIMER: Configured to the period a sender ought to wait REACHABILITY_TIMER: Configured to the period a sender ought to wait
before confirming the current effective PMTU is still supported. before confirming the current effective PMTU is still supported.
This is less than the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER. This is less than the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER.
An application that needs to employ keep-alive messages to deliver
useful service over UDP SHOULD NOT transmit them more frequently
than once every 15 seconds and SHOULD use longer intervals when
possible. DPLPMTUD ought to suspend reachability probes when no
application data has been sent since the previous probe packet.
Guidance on selection of the timer value are provide in section
3.1.1 of the UDP Usage Guidelines[RFC8085].
An implementation could implement the various timers using a single An implementation could implement the various timers using a single
timer process. timer process.
4.3. Constants 4.4. Constants
The following constants are defined: The following constants are defined:
MAX_PROBES: The maximum value of the PROBE_ERROR_COUNTER. MAX_PROBES: The maximum value of the PROBE_ERROR_COUNTER. The default
value of MAX_PROBES is 10.
MIN_PMTU: The smallest allowed probe packet size. This value is 1280 MIN_PMTU: The smallest allowed probe packet size. This value is 1280
bytes as specified in [RFC2460]. bytes, as specified in [RFC2460]. For IPv4, the minimum value is
68 bytes. (An IPv4 routed is required to be able to forward a
datagram of 68 octets without further fragmentation. This is the
combined size of an IPv4 header and the minimum fragment size of 8
octets.)
BASE_PMTU: The BASE_PMTU is a considered a size that should work in BASE_PMTU: The BASE_PMTU is a considered a size that ought to work in
most cases. The size equal to or larger than the minimum most cases. The size is equal to or larger than the minimum
permitted and smaller than the maximum allowed. In the case of permitted and smaller than the maximum allowed. In the case of
IPv6, this value is 1280 bytes as specified in [RFC2460]. When IPv6, this value is 1280 bytes [RFC2460]. When using IPv4, a size
using IPv4, a size of 1200 is RECOMMENDED. of 1200 is RECOMMENDED.
MAX_PMTU: This is the largest size of PMTU that is probed. It must MAX_PMTU: The MAX_PMTU is the largest size of PMTU that is probed.
be less than or equal to the minimum of the local MTU of the This has to be less than or equal to the minimum of the local MTU
outgoing interface and the destination effective MTU for of the outgoing interface and the destination effective MTU for
receiving. receiving. An application or PL may reduce this when it knows
there is no need to send packets above a specific size.
4.4. Variables 4.5. Variables
This method utilises a set of variables: This method utilises a set of variables:
effective PMTU: The effective PMTU is the maximum size of datagram effective PMTU: The effective PMTU is the maximum size of datagram
that the method has currently determined can be supported along that the method has currently determined can be supported along
the entire path. the entire path.
PROBED_SIZE: The PROBED_SIZE is the size of the current probe packet. PROBED_SIZE: The PROBED_SIZE is the size of the current probe packet.
This is a tentative value for the effective PMTU, which is This is a tentative value for the effective PMTU, which is
awaiting confirmation by an acknowledgment. awaiting confirmation by an acknowledgment.
PROBE_COUNT: This is a count of the number of unsuccessful probe PROBE_COUNT: This is a count of the number of unsuccessful probe
packets that have been sent with size PROBED_SIZE. The value is packets that have been sent with size PROBED_SIZE. The value is
initialised to zero when a particular size of PROBED_SIZE is first initialised to zero when a particular size of PROBED_SIZE is first
attempted. attempted.
PTB_SIZE: The PTB_Sizde is value returned by a verified PTB message PTB_SIZE: The PTB_Size is value returned by a verified PTB message
indicating the local MTU size of a router along the path. indicating the local MTU size of a router along the path.
4.5. State Machine 4.6. State Machine
A state machine for Datagram PLPMTUD is depicted in Figure 1. If A state machine for Datagram PLPMTUD is depicted in Figure 1. If
multihoming is supported, a state machine is needed for each active multihoming is supported, a state machine is needed for each active
path. path.
+------------+ PROBE_TIMER expiry
| PROBE_NONE | (PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBES)
+------------+ +-------------+ +--------------+
| Connectivity confirmed =->| PROBE_START |--------------->|PROBE_DISABLED|
PROBE_TIMER expiry | +-------------+ +--------------+
(PROBE_COUNT = | | |
MAX_PROBES) ------- | Connectivity confirmed
v v
---------- +------------+ -- PROBE_TIMER expiry ----------- +------------+ -- PROBE_TIMER expiry
MAX_PMTU acked | | PROBE_BASE | | (PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES) MAX_PMTU acked | | PROBE_BASE | | (PROBE_COUNT <
PTB (>= BASE_PMTU)| -----> +------------+ <- PTB (>= BASE_PMTU)| -----> +------------+ <- MAX_PROBES)
---------------- | /\ | | ---------------- | /\ | |
| | | | | PTB | | | | | PTB
| PMTU_RAISE_TIMER| | | | (PTB_SIZE < BASE_PMTU) | PMTU_RAISE_TIMER| | | | (PTB_SIZE < BASE_PMTU)
| or reachability | | | | or | or reachability | | | | or
| (PROBE_COUNT | | | | PROBE_TIMER expiry | (PROBE_COUNT | | | | PROBE_TIMER expiry
| = MAX_PROBES) | | | | (PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBES) | = MAX_PROBES) | | | | (PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBES)
| ------------- | | \ | ------------- | | \
| | PTB | | \ | | PTB | | \
| | (< PROBED_SIZE)| | \ | | (< PROBED_SIZE)| | \
| | | | --------------- | | | | ----------------
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | Probe | | | | | Probe |
| | | | acked | | | | | acked |
v | | v v v | | v v
+------------+ +--------------+ Probe +-------------+ +------------+ +--------------+ Probe +-------------+
| PROBE_DONE |<-------------- | PROBE_SEARCH |<-------| PROBE_ERROR | | PROBE_DONE |<-------------- | PROBE_SEARCH |<-------| PROBE_ERROR |
+------------+ MAX_PMTU acked +--------------+ acked +-------------+ +------------+ MAX_PMTU acked +--------------+ acked +-------------+
/\ | or /\ | /\ | or /\ |
| | PROBE_TIMER expiry | | | | PROBE_TIMER expiry | |
| |(PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBES) | | | |(PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBES) | |
| | | | | | | |
----- ------ ------ --------
Reachability probe acked PROBE_TIMER expiry Reachability probe acked PROBE_TIMER expiry
or PROBE_TIMER expiry (PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES) or PROBE_TIMER expiry (PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES)
(PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES) (PROBE_COUNT < MAX_PROBES) or
Probe acked
The following states are defined to reflect the probing process. The following states are defined to reflect the probing process:
PROBE_NONE: The PROBE_NONE state is the initial state before probing PROBE_START: The PROBE_START state is the initial state before
has started. PLPMTUD is not performed in this state. The state probing has started. PLPMTUD is not performed in this state. The
transitions to PROBE_BASE, when a path has been confirmed, i.e. state transitions to PROBE_BASE, when a path has been confirmed,
when a packet has arrived on this path. The effective PMTU is set i.e. when a sent packet has been acknowledged on this path. The
to the BASE_PMTU size. Probing ought to start immediately after effective PMTU is set to the BASE_PMTU size. Probing ought to
connection setup to prevent the loss of user data. start immediately after connection setup to prevent the loss of
user data.
PROBE_BASE: The PROBE_BASE state is the starting point for datagram PROBE_BASE: The PROBE_BASE state is the starting point for probing
PLPMTUD, and used to confirm whether the BASE_PMTU size is with datagram PLPMTUD. It is used to confirm whether the BASE_PMTU
supported by the network path. On entry, the PROBED_SIZE is set size is supported by the network path. On entry, the PROBED_SIZE
to the BASE_PMTU size and the PROBE_COUNT is set to zero. A probe is set to the BASE_PMTU size and the PROBE_COUNT is set to zero.
packet is sent, and the PROBE_TIMER is started. The state is left A probe packet is sent, and the PROBE_TIMER is started. The state
when the PROBE_COUNT reaches MAX_PROBES; a PTB message is is left when the PROBE_COUNT reaches MAX_PROBES; a PTB message is
received, or a probe packet is acknowledged. verified, or a probe packet is acknowledged.
PROBE_SEARCH: The PROBE_SEARCH state is the main probing state. This PROBE_SEARCH: The PROBE_SEARCH state is the main probing state. This
state is entered either when probing for the BASE_PMTU was state is entered either when probing for the BASE_PMTU was
successful or when there is a successful reachability test in the successful or when there is a successful reachability test in the
PROBE_ERROR state. On entry, the effective PMTU is set to the PROBE_ERROR state. On entry, the effective PMTU is set to the
last acknowledged PROBED_SIZE. last acknowledged PROBED_SIZE.
On the first probe packet for each probed size, the PROBE_COUNT is On the first probe packet for each probed size, the PROBE_COUNT is
set to zero. Each time a probe packet is acknowledged, the set to zero. Each time a probe packet is acknowledged, the
effective PMTU is set to the PROBED_SIZE, and then the PROBED_SIZE effective PMTU is set to the PROBED_SIZE, and then the PROBED_SIZE
skipping to change at page 13, line 43 skipping to change at page 15, line 47
probe packet is acknowledged. probe packet is acknowledged.
PROBE_DONE: The PROBE_DONE state indicates a successful end to a PROBE_DONE: The PROBE_DONE state indicates a successful end to a
probing phase. Datagram PLPMTUD remains in this state until probing phase. Datagram PLPMTUD remains in this state until
either the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER expires or a PTB message is verified. either the PMTU_RAISE_TIMER expires or a PTB message is verified.
When PLPMTUD uses an unacknowledged PL and is in the PROBE_DONE When PLPMTUD uses an unacknowledged PL and is in the PROBE_DONE
state, a REACHABILITY_TIMER periodically resets the PROBE_COUNT state, a REACHABILITY_TIMER periodically resets the PROBE_COUNT
and schedules a probe packet with the size of the effective PMTU. and schedules a probe packet with the size of the effective PMTU.
If the probe packet fails to be acknowledged after MAX_PROBES If the probe packet fails to be acknowledged after MAX_PROBES
attempts, the method enters the PROBE_BASE state. An acknowledged attempts, the method enters the PROBE_BASE state. When used with
PL SHOULD NOT continue to probe in this state. an acknowledged PL (e.g., SCTP), DPLPMTUD SHOULD NOT continue to
probe in this state.
PROBE_DISABLED: The PROBE_DISABLED state indicates that connectivity
could not be established. DPLPMTUD MUST NOT probe in this state.
Appendix Appendix A contains an informative description of key Appendix Appendix A contains an informative description of key
events: events.
5. Specification of Protocol-Specific Methods 5. Specification of Protocol-Specific Methods
This section specifies protocol-specific details for datagram PLPMTUD This section specifies protocol-specific details for datagram PLPMTUD
for IETF-specified transport protocols. for IETF-specified transports.
5.1. UDP and UDP-Lite 5.1. DPLPMTUD for UDP and UDP-Lite
The current specifications of UDP and UDP-LIte [RFC3828] do not
define a method in the RFC-series that supports PLPMTUD. In The current specifications of UDP [RFC0768] and UDP-LIte [RFC3828] do
particular, these transport do not provide the transport layer not define a method in the RFC-series that supports PLPMTUD. In
features needed to implement datagram PLPMTUD. particular, these transports do not provide the transport layer
features needed to implement datagram PLPMTUD, and any support for
Datagram PLPMTUD would therefore need to rely on higher-layer
protocol features [RFC8085].
5.1.1. UDP Options 5.1.1. UDP Options
UDP-Options [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-udp-options] supply the additional UDP-Options [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-udp-options] supply the additional
functionality required to implement datagram PLPMTUD. This enables functionality required to implement datagram PLPMTUD. This enables
padding to be added to UDP datagrams and can be used to provide padding to be added to UDP datagrams and can be used to provide
feedback acknowledgement of received probe packets. feedback acknowledgement of received probe packets.
5.1.2. UDP Options required for PLPMTUD 5.1.2. UDP Options required for PLPMTUD
This subsection proposes two new UDP-Options that add support for This subsection proposes two new UDP-Options that add support for
requesting a datagram response be sent and to mark this datagram as a requesting a datagram response be sent and to mark this datagram as a
response to a request. response to a request.
<< We may define a parameter in an Option to indicate the EMTU_R to XXX << Future versions of the spec may define a parameter in an
the peer.>> Option to indicate the EMTU_R to the peer.>>
5.1.2.1. Echo Request Option 5.1.2.1. Echo Request Option
The Echo Request Option allows a sending endpoint to solicit a The Echo Request Option allows a sending endpoint to solicit a
response from a destination endpoint. The Echo Request carries a response from a destination endpoint.
four byte token set by the sender.
The Echo Request carries a four byte token set by the sender. This
token can be set to a value that is likely to be known only to the
sender (and becomes known to nodes along the end-to-end path). The
sender can then check the value returned in the response to provide
additional protection from off-path insertion of data [RFC8085].
+---------+--------+-----------------+ +---------+--------+-----------------+
| Kind=9 | Len=6 | Token | | Kind=9 | Len=6 | Token |
+---------+--------+-----------------+ +---------+--------+-----------------+
1 byte 1 byte 4 bytes 1 byte 1 byte 4 bytes
5.1.2.2. Echo Response Option 5.1.2.2. Echo Response Option
The Echo Response Option is generated by the PL in response to The Echo Response Option is generated by the PL in response to
reception of a previously received Echo Request. The Token field is reception of a previously received Echo Request. The Token field
associates the response with the Token value carried in the most associates the response with the Token value carried in the most
recently-received Echo Request. The rate of generation of UDP recently-received Echo Request. The rate of generation of UDP
packets carrying an Echo Response Option MAY be rate-limited. packets carrying an Echo Response Option MAY be rate-limited.
+---------+--------+-----------------+ +---------+--------+-----------------+
| Kind=10 | Len=6 | Token | | Kind=10 | Len=6 | Token |
+---------+--------+-----------------+ +---------+--------+-----------------+
1 byte 1 byte 4 bytes 1 byte 1 byte 4 bytes
5.1.3. Sending UDP-Option Probe Packets 5.1.3. Sending UDP-Option Probe Packets
This method specifies a probe packet that does not carry an This method specifies a probe packet that does not carry an
application data block. The probe packet consists of a UDP datagram application data block. The probe packet consists of a UDP datagram
header followed by a UDP Option containing the ECHOREQ option, which header followed by a UDP Option containing the ECHOREQ option, which
is followed by NOP Options to pad the remainder of the datagram is followed by NOP Options to pad the remainder of the datagram
payload. The NOP padding is used to control the length of the probe payload to the probe size. NOP padding is used to control the length
packet. of the probe packet.
A UDP Option carrying the ECHORES option is used to provide feedback A UDP Option carrying the ECHORES option is used to provide feedback
when the probe packet is received at the destination endpoint. when a probe packet is received at the destination endpoint.
5.1.4. Validating the Path with UDP Options 5.1.4. Validating the Path with UDP Options
Since UDP is an unacknowledged PL, a sender that does not have Since UDP is an unacknowledged PL, a sender that does not have
higher-layer information confirming correct delivery of datagrams higher-layer information confirming correct delivery of datagrams
SHOULD implement the REACHABILITY_TIMER to periodically send probe SHOULD implement the REACHABILITY_TIMER to periodically send probe
packets while in the PROBE_DONE state. packets while in the PROBE_DONE state.
5.1.5. Handling of PTB Messages by UDP 5.1.5. Handling of PTB Messages by UDP
Normal ICMP verification MUST be performed as specified in Section Normal ICMP verification MUST be performed as specified in Section
5.2 of [RFC8085]. This requires that the PL verifies each received 5.2 of [RFC8085]. This requires that the PL verifies each received
PTB messages to verify these are received in response to transmitted PTB messages to verify these are received in response to transmitted
traffic. A verified PTB message MAY be used as input to the PLPMTUD traffic and that the reported LInk MTU is less than the current probe
size. A verified PTB message MAY be used as input to the PLPMTUD
algorithm. algorithm.
5.2. SCTP 5.2. DPLPMTUD for SCTP
Section 10.2 of [RFC4821] specifies a recommended PLPMTUD probing Section 10.2 of [RFC4821] specifies a recommended PLPMTUD probing
method for SCTP. It recommends the use of the PAD chunk, defined in method for SCTP. It recommends the use of the PAD chunk, defined in
[RFC4820] to be attached to a minimum length HEARTBEAT chunk to build [RFC4820] to be attached to a minimum length HEARTBEAT chunk to build
a probe packet. This enables probing without affecting the transfer a probe packet. This enables probing without affecting the transfer
of user messages and without interfering with congestion control. of user messages and without interfering with congestion control.
This is preferred to the use of DATA chunks (with padding as This is preferred to using DATA chunks (with padding as required) as
required) to serve as path probes. path probes.
<< We might define a parameter contained in the INIT and INIT ACK XXX << Future versions of this specification might define a parameter
chunk to indicate the MTU to the peer. However, multihoming makes contained in the INIT and INIT ACK chunk to indicate the MTU to the
this a bit complex, so it might not be worth doing.>> peer. However, multihoming makes this a bit complex, so it might not
be worth doing.>>
5.2.1. SCTP/IP4 and SCTP/IPv6 5.2.1. SCTP/IP4 and SCTP/IPv6
The base protocol is specified in [RFC4960]. The base protocol is specified in [RFC4960].
5.2.1.1. Sending SCTP Probe Packets 5.2.1.1. Sending SCTP Probe Packets
Probe packets consist of an SCTP common header followed by a Probe packets consist of an SCTP common header followed by a
HEARTBEAT chunk and a PAD chunk. The PAD chunk is used to control HEARTBEAT chunk and a PAD chunk. The PAD chunk is used to control
the length of the probe packet. The HEARTBEAT chunk is used to the length of the probe packet. The HEARTBEAT chunk is used to
skipping to change at page 16, line 5 skipping to change at page 18, line 21
HEARTBEAT ACK chunk acknowledges reception of a successful probe. HEARTBEAT ACK chunk acknowledges reception of a successful probe.
The HEARTBEAT chunk carries a Heartbeat Information parameter which The HEARTBEAT chunk carries a Heartbeat Information parameter which
should include, besides the information suggested in [RFC4960], the should include, besides the information suggested in [RFC4960], the
probing size, which is the MTU size the complete datagram will add up probing size, which is the MTU size the complete datagram will add up
to. The size of the PAD chunk is therefore computed by reducing the to. The size of the PAD chunk is therefore computed by reducing the
probing size by the IPv4 or IPv6 header size, the SCTP common header, probing size by the IPv4 or IPv6 header size, the SCTP common header,
the HEARTBEAT request and the PAD chunk header. The payload of the the HEARTBEAT request and the PAD chunk header. The payload of the
PAD chunk contains arbitrary data. PAD chunk contains arbitrary data.
To avoid the fragmentation of retransmitted data, probing starts To avoid fragmentation of retransmitted data, probing starts right
right after the handshake before data is sent. Assuming normal after the handshake, before data is sent. Assuming normal behaviour
behaviour (i.e., the PMTU is smaller than or equal to the interface (i.e., the PMTU is smaller than or equal to the interface MTU), this
MTU), this process will take a few RTTs depending on the number of process will take a few round trip time periods depending on the
PMTU sizes probed. The Heartbeat timer can be used to implement the number of PMTU sizes probed. The Heartbeat timer can be used to
PROBE_TIMER. implement the PROBE_TIMER.
5.2.1.2. Validating the Path with SCTP 5.2.1.2. Validating the Path with SCTP
Since SCTP provides an acknowledged PL, a sender does MUST NOT Since SCTP provides an acknowledged PL, a sender does MUST NOT
implement the REACHABILITY_TIMER while in the PROBE_DONE state. implement the REACHABILITY_TIMER while in the PROBE_DONE state.
5.2.1.3. PTB Message Handling by SCTP 5.2.1.3. PTB Message Handling by SCTP
Normal ICMP verification MUST be performed as specified in Appendix C Normal ICMP verification MUST be performed as specified in Appendix C
of [RFC4960]. This requires that the first 8 bytes of the SCTP of [RFC4960]. This requires that the first 8 bytes of the SCTP
common header are quoted in the payload of the PTB message , which common header are quoted in the payload of the PTB message, which can
can be the case for ICMPv4 and is normally the case for ICMPv6. When be the case for ICMPv4 and is normally the case for ICMPv6.
the verification is completed, the router Link MTU indicated in the
PTB message SHOULD be used with the PLPMTUD algorithm.
5.2.2. SCTP/UDP When a PTB mesage has been verified, the router Link MTU indicated in
the PTB message SHOULD be used with the PLPMTUD algorithm, providing
that the reported Link MTU is less than the current probe size.
5.2.2. DPLPMTUD for SCTP/UDP
The UDP encapsulation of SCTP is specified in [RFC6951]. The UDP encapsulation of SCTP is specified in [RFC6951].
5.2.2.1. Sending SCTP/UDP Probe Packets 5.2.2.1. Sending SCTP/UDP Probe Packets
Packet probing can be performed as specified in Section 5.2.1.1. The Packet probing can be performed as specified in Section 5.2.1.1. The
maximum payload is reduced by 8 bytes, which has to be considered maximum payload is reduced by 8 bytes, which has to be considered
when filling the PAD chunk. when filling the PAD chunk.
5.2.2.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/UDP 5.2.2.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/UDP
skipping to change at page 16, line 50 skipping to change at page 19, line 16
5.2.2.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/UDP 5.2.2.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/UDP
Normal ICMP verification MUST be performed for PTB messages as Normal ICMP verification MUST be performed for PTB messages as
specified in Appendix C of [RFC4960]. This requires that the first 8 specified in Appendix C of [RFC4960]. This requires that the first 8
bytes of the SCTP common header are contained in the PTB message, bytes of the SCTP common header are contained in the PTB message,
which can be the case for ICMPv4 (but note the UDP header also which can be the case for ICMPv4 (but note the UDP header also
consumes a part of the quoted packet header) and is normally the case consumes a part of the quoted packet header) and is normally the case
for ICMPv6. When the verification is completed, the router Link MTU for ICMPv6. When the verification is completed, the router Link MTU
size indicated in the PTB message SHOULD be used with the PLPMTUD size indicated in the PTB message SHOULD be used with the PLPMTUD
algorithm. algorithm providing that the reported LInk MTU is less than the
current probe size.
5.2.3. SCTP/DTLS 5.2.3. DPLPMTUD for SCTP/DTLS
The DTLS encapsulation of SCTP is specified in [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-sctp- The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) encapsulation of SCTP is
dtls-encaps]. It is used for data channels in WebRTC specified in [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-sctp-dtls-encaps]. It is used for data
implementations. channels in WebRTC implementations.
5.2.3.1. Sending SCTP/DTLS Probe Packets 5.2.3.1. Sending SCTP/DTLS Probe Packets
Packet probing can be done as specified in Section 5.2.1.1. Packet probing can be done as specified in Section 5.2.1.1.
5.2.3.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/DTLS 5.2.3.2. Validating the Path with SCTP/DTLS
Since SCTP provides an acknowledged PL, a sender does MUST NOT Since SCTP provides an acknowledged PL, a sender does MUST NOT
implement the REACHABILITY_TIMER while in the PROBE_DONE state. implement the REACHABILITY_TIMER while in the PROBE_DONE state.
5.2.3.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/DTLS 5.2.3.3. Handling of PTB Messages by SCTP/DTLS
It is not possible to perform normal ICMP verification as specified It is not possible to perform normal ICMP verification as specified
in [RFC4960], since even if the ICMP contains enough information, the in [RFC4960], since even if the ICMP message payload contains
reflected SCTP common header would be encrypted. Therefore it is not sufficient information, the reflected SCTP common header would be
possible to process PTB messages at the PL. encrypted. Therefore it is not possible to process PTB messages at
the PL.
5.3. Other IETF Transports 5.3. Other IETF Transports
QUIC is a UDP-based transport that provides reception feedback [I-D Quick UDP Internet Connection (QUIC( is a UDP-based transport that
.ietf-quic-transport]. provides reception feedback [I-D.ietf-quic-transport].
<< This section will be completed in a future revision of this ID >> XXX << This section will be completed in a future revision of this ID
>>
5.4. DPLPMTUD by Applications
Applications that use the Datagram API (e.g., applications built
directly or indirectly on UDP) can implement DPLPMTUD. Some
primitives used by DPLPMTUD might not be available via this interface
(e.g., the ability to access the PMTU cache, or interpret received
ICMP PTB messages).
In addition, it is important that PMTUD is not performed by multiple
protocol layers.
XXX << This section will be completed in a future revision of this ID
>>
6. Acknowledgements 6. Acknowledgements
This work was partially funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 This work was partially funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020
research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 644334 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 644334
(NEAT). The views expressed are solely those of the author(s). (NEAT). The views expressed are solely those of the author(s).
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This memo includes no request to IANA. This memo includes no request to IANA.
XXX << If new UDP Options are specified in this document, a request
to IANA will be included here.>>
If there are no requirements for IANA, the section will be removed If there are no requirements for IANA, the section will be removed
during conversion into an RFC by the RFC Editor. during conversion into an RFC by the RFC Editor.
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
The security considerations for the use of UDP and SCTP are provided The security considerations for the use of UDP and SCTP are provided
in the references RFCs. Security guidance for applications using UDP in the references RFCs. Security guidance for applications using UDP
is provided in the UDP-Guidelines [RFC8085]. is provided in the UDP-Guidelines [RFC8085].
PTB messages could potentially be used to cause a node to PTB messages could potentially be used to cause a node to
inappropriately reduce the effective PMTU. A node supporting PLPMTUD inappropriately reduce the effective PMTU. A node supporting PLPMTUD
SHOULD appropriately verify the payload of PTB messages to ensure SHOULD/MUST appropriately verify the payload of PTB messages to
these are received in response to transmitted traffic (i.e., a ensure these are received in response to transmitted traffic (i.e., a
reported error condition that corresponds to a datagram actually sent reported error condition that corresponds to a datagram actually sent
by the path layer. by the path layer.
XXX Determine if parallel forwarding paths needs to be considred XXX
A node performing PLPMTUD could experience conflicting information
about the size of supported probe packets. This could occur when
there are multiple paths are concurrently in use and these exhibit a
different PMTU. If not considered, this could result in data being
blackholed when the effective PMTU is larger than the smallest PMTU
across the current paths.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-quic-transport] [I-D.ietf-quic-transport]
Iyengar, J. and M. Thomson, "QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed Iyengar, J. and M. Thomson, "QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed
and Secure Transport", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-quic- and Secure Transport", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-quic-
transport-04, June 2017. transport-04, June 2017.
[I-D.ietf-tsvwg-sctp-dtls-encaps] [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-sctp-dtls-encaps]
Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., Jesup, R. and S. Loreto, "DTLS Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., Jesup, R. and S. Loreto, "DTLS
Encapsulation of SCTP Packets", Internet-Draft draft-ietf- Encapsulation of SCTP Packets", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-
tsvwg-sctp-dtls-encaps-09, January 2015. tsvwg-sctp-dtls-encaps-09, January 2015.
[I-D.ietf-tsvwg-udp-options] [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-udp-options]
Touch, J., "Transport Options for UDP", Internet-Draft Touch, J., "Transport Options for UDP", Internet-Draft
draft-ietf-tsvwg-udp-options-01, June 2017. draft-ietf-tsvwg-udp-options-01, June 2017.
[RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, DOI
10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/
info/rfc768>.
[RFC0792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
RFC 792, DOI 10.17487/RFC0792, September 1981, <https://
www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc792>.
[RFC1122] Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - [RFC1122] Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, DOI 10.17487/ Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, DOI 10.17487/
RFC1122, October 1989, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/ RFC1122, October 1989, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/
rfc1122>. rfc1122>.
[RFC1812] Baker, F., Ed., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
RFC 1812, DOI 10.17487/RFC1812, June 1995, <https://www
.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1812>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/ Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/
RFC2119, March 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/ RFC2119, March 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/
rfc2119>. rfc2119>.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460, (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>. December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.
[RFC3828] Larzon, L-A., Degermark, M., Pink, S., Jonsson, L-E.Ed., [RFC3828] Larzon, L-A., Degermark, M., Pink, S., Jonsson, L-E.Ed.,
skipping to change at page 19, line 38 skipping to change at page 22, line 48
[RFC4890] Davies, E. and J. Mohacsi, "Recommendations for Filtering [RFC4890] Davies, E. and J. Mohacsi, "Recommendations for Filtering
ICMPv6 Messages in Firewalls", RFC 4890, DOI 10.17487/ ICMPv6 Messages in Firewalls", RFC 4890, DOI 10.17487/
RFC4890, May 2007, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/ RFC4890, May 2007, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/
rfc4890>. rfc4890>.
Appendix A. Event-driven state changes Appendix A. Event-driven state changes
This appendix contains an informative description of key events: This appendix contains an informative description of key events:
Path Setup: When a new path is initiated, the state is set to Path Setup: When a new path is initiated, the state is set to
PROBE_NONE. As soon as the path is confirmed, the state changes to PROBE_START. As soon as the path is confirmed, the state changes
PROBE_BASE and the probing mechanism for this path is started. A to PROBE_BASE and the probing mechanism for this path is started.
probe packet with the size of the BASE_PMTU is sent. A probe packet with the size of the BASE_PMTU is sent.
Arrival of an Acknowledgment: Depending on the probing state, the Arrival of an Acknowledgment: Depending on the probing state, the
reaction differs according to Figure 4, which is just a reaction differs according to Figure 4, which is just a
simplification of Figure 1 focusing on this event. simplification of Figure 1 focusing on this event.
+--------------+ +--------------+ +----------------+
| PROBE_NONE | -------------- | PROBE_START | --3------------------------------->| PROBE_DISABLED |
+--------------+ \ +--------------+ --4-----------\ +----------------+
\ \
+--------------+ \ +--------------+ \
| PROBE_ERROR | --------------- \ | PROBE_ERROR | --------------- \
+--------------+ \ \ +--------------+ \ \
\ \ \ \
+--------------+ \ \ +--------------+ +--------------+ \ \ +--------------+
| PROBE_BASE | --1---------- \ ------------> | PROBE_BASE | | PROBE_BASE | --1---------- \ ------------> | PROBE_BASE |
+--------------+ --2----- \ \ +--------------+ +--------------+ --2----- \ \ +--------------+
\ \ \ \ \ \
+--------------+ \ \ ------------> +--------------+ +--------------+ \ \ ------------> +--------------+
| PROBE_SEARCH | --2--- \ -----------------> | PROBE_SEARCH | | PROBE_SEARCH | --2--- \ -----------------> | PROBE_SEARCH |
+--------------+ --1---\----\---------------------> +--------------+ +--------------+ --1---\----\---------------------> +--------------+
\ \ \ \
+--------------+ \ \ +--------------+ +--------------+ \ \ +--------------+
| PROBE_DONE | \ -------------------> | PROBE_DONE | | PROBE_DONE | \ -------------------> | PROBE_DONE |
+--------------+ -----------------------> +--------------+ +--------------+ -----------------------> +--------------+
Condition 1: The maximum PMTU size has not yet been reached. Condition 1: The maximum PMTU size has not yet been reached.
Condition 2: The maximum PMTU size has been reached. Condition 2: The maximum PMTU size has been reached. Conition 3:
Probe Timer expires and PROBE_COUNT = MAX_PROBEs. Condition 4:
PROBE_ACK received.
Probing timeout: The PROBE_COUNT is initialised to zero each time the Probing timeout: The PROBE_COUNT is initialised to zero each time the
value of PROBED_SIZE is changed. The PROBE_TIMER is started each value of PROBED_SIZE is changed. The PROBE_TIMER is started each
time a probe packet is sent. It is stopped when an acknowledgment time a probe packet is sent. It is stopped when an acknowledgment
arrives that confirms delivery of a probe packet. If the probe arrives that confirms delivery of a probe packet. If the probe
packet is not acknowledged before,the PROBE_TIMER expires, the packet is not acknowledged before,the PROBE_TIMER expires, the
PROBE_ERROR_COUNTER is incremented. When the PROBE_COUNT equals PROBE_ERROR_COUNTER is incremented. When the PROBE_COUNT equals
the value MAX_PROBES, the state is changed, otherwise a new probe the value MAX_PROBES, the state is changed, otherwise a new probe
packet of the same size (PROBED_SIZE) is resent. The state packet of the same size (PROBED_SIZE) is resent. The state
transitions are illustrated in Figure 5. This shows a transitions are illustrated in Figure 5. This shows a
simplification of Figure 1 with a focus only on this event. simplification of Figure 1 with a focus only on this event.
+--------------+ +--------------+ +----------------+
| PROBE_NONE | | PROBE_START |----------------------------------->| PROBE_DISABLED |
+--------------+ +--------------+ +----------------+
+--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+
| PROBE_ERROR | -----------------> | PROBE_ERROR | | PROBE_ERROR | -----------------> | PROBE_ERROR |
+--------------+ / +--------------+ +--------------+ / +--------------+
/ /
+--------------+ --2----------/ +--------------+ +--------------+ --2----------/ +--------------+
| PROBE_BASE | --1------------------------------> | PROBE_BASE | | PROBE_BASE | --1------------------------------> | PROBE_BASE |
+--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+
+--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+ +--------------+
skipping to change at page 22, line 40 skipping to change at page 25, line 40
o Comments and corrections are welcome directly to the authors or o Comments and corrections are welcome directly to the authors or
via the IETF TSVWG working group mailing list. via the IETF TSVWG working group mailing list.
o This update is proposed for WG comments. o This update is proposed for WG comments.
Individual draft -01: Individual draft -01:
o Contains the first representation of the algorithm, showing the o Contains the first representation of the algorithm, showing the
states and timers states and timers
o This update is proposed for WG comments.
Individual draft -02:
o Contains updated representation of the algorithm, and textual
corrections.
o The text describing when to set the effective PMTU has not yet o The text describing when to set the effective PMTU has not yet
been verified by the authors been verified by the authors
o The text describing how to handle a PTB message indicating a link o To determine security to off-path-attacks: We need to decide
MTU larger than the probe has yet not been verified by the authors whether a received PTB message SHOULD/MUST be verified? The text
on how to handle a PTB message indicating a link MTU larger than
the probe has yet not been verified by the authors
o No text currently describes how to handle inconsistent results o No text currently describes how to handle inconsistent results
from arbitrary re-routing along different parallel paths from arbitrary re-routing along different parallel paths
o Some middleboxes lie about the MTU they report in PTB messages.
o Some constants and times do not yet have recommended values
o To determine security to off-path-attacks: We need to decide
whether a received PTB message SHOULD be verified or MUST be
verified?
o This update is proposed for WG comments. o This update is proposed for WG comments.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Godred Fairhurst Godred Fairhurst
University of Aberdeen University of Aberdeen
School of Engineering School of Engineering
Fraser Noble Building Fraser Noble Building
Aberdeen, AB24 3UE Aberdeen, AB24 3U
UK UK
Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk
Tom Jones Tom Jones
University of Aberdeen University of Aberdeen
School of Engineering School of Engineering
Fraser Noble Building Fraser Noble Building
Aberdeen, AB24 3UE Aberdeen, AB24 3U
UK UK
Email: tom@erg.abdn.ac.uk Email: tom@erg.abdn.ac.uk
Michael Tuexen Michael Tuexen
Muenster University of Applied Sciences Muenster University of Applied Sciences
Stegerwaldstrasse 39 Stegerwaldstrasse 39
Steinfurt, 48565 Stein fart, 48565
DE DE
Email: tuexen@fh-muenster.de Email: tuexen@fh-muenster.de
Irene Ruengeler Irene Ruengeler
Muenster University of Applied Sciences Muenster University of Applied Sciences
Stegerwaldstrasse 39 Stegerwaldstrasse 39
Steinfurt, 48565 Stein fart, 48565
DE DE
Email: i.ruengeler@fh-muenster.de Email: i.ruengeler@fh-muenster.de
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