< draft-guerra-feminism-00.txt   draft-guerra-feminism-01.txt >
Network Working Group J. Guerra Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group J. Guerra
Internet-Draft Derechos Digitales Internet-Draft Derechos Digitales
Intended status: Informational M. Knodel Intended status: Informational M. Knodel
Expires: September 12, 2019 ARTICLE 19 Expires: January 9, 2020 ARTICLE 19
March 11, 2019 July 08, 2019
Feminism and protocols Feminism and protocols
draft-guerra-feminism-00 draft-guerra-feminism-01
Abstract Abstract
This document aims to describe how internet standrds and protocols This document aims to describe how internet standards, protocols and
and its implementations may impact diverse groups and communities. its implementations may impact diverse groups and communities. The
The research on how some protocol can be enabler for specific human research on how some protocol can be enabler for specific human
rights while possibly restricting others has been documented in rights while possibly restricting others has been documented in
[RFC8280]. Similar to how RFC 8280 has taken a human rights lens [RFC8280]. Similar to how RFC 8280 has taken a human rights lens
through which to view engineering and design choices by internet through which to view engineering and design choices by internet
standardisation, this document addreses the opportunities and standardisation, this document addresgses the opportunities and
vulnerabilities embedded within internet protocols for specific, vulnerabilities embedded within internet protocols for specific,
traditionally maginalised groups. traditionally maginalised groups.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Feminism and protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1. An intersectional perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Intersectional feminism and diversity . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.1. Internet as a matrix of domination . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Brief history of feminism and the internet . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Brief history of feminism and the internet . . . . . . . 5
1.4. 2. Expression as a framework of understanding . . . . . . 4 2. Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4.1. 2.1. Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Feminist Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4.2. 2.2. Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5. 3. Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.1. Internet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.1. 3.1. Access to information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.2. Access to information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.2. 3.2. Usage of technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.3. Usage of technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6. 4. Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Networked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6.1. 4.1. Free and open source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.1. Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6.2. 4.2. Power and centralisation . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.2. Movement building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.7. 5. Networked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.3. Internet governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7.1. 5.1. Freedom of assocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7.2. 5.2. Internet governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3.1. Business models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.8. 6. Embodiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3.2. Open source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.8.1. 6.1. Online violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4. Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.8.2. 6.2. Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4.1. Amplify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8.3. 6.3. Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4.2. Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8.4. 6.4. Privacy and data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4.3. Pornography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8.5. 6.5. Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4. Embodiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2. References not yet referenced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1. Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1.1. Privacy and data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1.2. Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1.3. Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.1.4. Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2. Online violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5. References not yet referenced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Feminism and protocols 1. Introduction
1.1. 1. Introduction This document aims to use a feminist framework to analyse the impacts
of internet protocols on society. It is based on a document called
The The Feminist Principles of the Internet [FPI], a series of 17
statements with a "gender and sexual rights lens on critical
internet-related rights" for the purpose of enabling women's rights
movements to explore issues related to internet technology.
The experiences and learnings of the feminist movement in the digital These Principles, as well as most of the experiences and learnings of
age have extrapolated feminist discourse towards building a more just the feminist movement in the digital age, have focused on invisioning
world to invisioning a more just internet, namely one that recognizes a more just internet as a necessary action in building a more just
differences across a variety of lived experience and identity. The society, namely one that recognizes differences across a variety of
framework that is used to analyse and research internet protocols and lived experience and identity.
standards through a feminist lens is a document called The Feminist
Principles of the Internet. In a series of 17 statements, drafted,
redrafted and revised by hundreds of activists, the Principles offer
a "gender and sexual rights lens on critical internet-related rights"
for the purpose of enabling women's rights movements to explore
issues related to internet technology. Likewise, this is an attempt
to bring a conversation on the intersection of feminism and internet
technology into the technical community.
Attempts have been made to highlight where terminology occurs in both This document must not be understood as a set of rules or
technical standards and feminist discourse and distinguish between recommendations, but as an articulation of key issues with feminist
the two in a meaningful way. A concept like 'security', for example, policies and approaches, in order to begin to investigate. That is
has differing contextual meanings in internet engineering and why this document has two main goals: to identify terminology, both
feminism. Coming to a shared understanding of concepts and in technical and feminist communities, that can be shared in order to
terminology is one goal of this document. With a better start a dialogue; and to analyze the Feminist Principles based on
understanding of concepts and terms, together the technical and some of the technical discussions that have been taken into account
feminist communities can attempt to recognize and discuss how the in the development of protocols.
technical decisions with regard to internet infraestructure,
standards and protocols, directly or indirectly may affect internet
users around the world.
The Principles, like this document, are not designed as a set of In what follows, this document first describes the feminist
rules or recommendations, but as an articulation of key issues with theoretical framework from which it proposes to analyze the impacts
feminist policies and approaches, in order to begin to investigate. of the protocols on marginalized and discriminated communities. In
They express the kind of internet that feminists would like to have, the second part, describes the methodology used to connect the
and with whom to collaborate and imagine. framework mentioned above with the Feminist Principles of the
internet. In the third part, characteristics of each principle, as
well as the harms on which they are based, the possible points where
they connect with IETF work and related rights, are described.
1.2. Intersectional feminism and diversity This is still a work in progress so many sections are yet to be done.
Coming soon will be added use cases as examples of how protocols and
standards can restrict the use of the internet by certain communities
and individuals.
Why feminism and not gender? The gender and sexual rights lens on 1.1. An intersectional perspective
critical internet-related rights has been built bottom up by the
feminist movement. Feminism treats most prominently people who are
negatively discriminated against on the basis of their gender and
sexuality, but not exclusively. Because the threats to women and
queer people, whose bodies and manifestations are already under
strong, albeit sometimes invisible, social, cultural and political
surveillance, a critical feminist analysis also applies to other
marginalised groups. Aiming to use a feminist framework to analyse
the impacts of internet protocols on society assumes that values are
inherent to technological design. What follows are specifics of how
those values can either support or create barriers for gender justice
and equity for internet users.
1.3. Brief history of feminism and the internet Imagine a highway that connects two big cities, one capable of
withstanding heavy traffic at high speeds. Driving there takes
experience and expertise, and just a few streets intersect it so as
not to hinder traffic. Imagine this highway as a robust body of
rights and those who travel along it as people who have traditionally
enjoyed these rights.
It is significant to highlight the ways in which feminists have If someone without enough experience is driving down a road that
understood, used and mobilised on the internet. Given myriad intersects the highway and wants to get there, that person will be at
expressions of feminism online and feminist movement building online, greater risk of crashing or having an accident. In addition, without
one thread is perhaps instructive to this exercise. More about the a valid license the person will also run the risk of being fined by
nature of the complex community that created the Feminist Principles the traffic authorities. In terms of rights, those intersecting
of the Internet can be found at feministinternet.org. roads are not robust and the risks of accident are forms of
discrimination experienced by those who drive on them. What if many
small streets intersect at the same point on the highway?
1.4. 2. Expression as a framework of understanding Arised in black feminist theory, the concept of intersectionality
serves to understand how multiple forms of discrimination overlap
[Collins]. As first pointed by [Crenshaw] in the United States,
"Black women can experience discrimination in ways that are both
similar to and different from those experienced by white women and
Black men", so an intersectional approach should be able to recognize
this type of discrimination by transcending the one-way perspective
with which the justice system, as well as feminist and anti-racist
movements, had traditionally operated.
With the popularization of the internet, the freedom of expression of From this proposal, the concept has meant a paradigm shift both in
both women and other gender identities traditionally marginalized feminist thinking [Collins] and movements [Lorde][Davis], and more
from public life and social acceptance (whom we will refer to as recently in the design and implementation of public policies
queer) has been greatly enhanced. In contexts where women do not [Mason][Hankivsky]. The intersectional approach is not focused on
have their rights fully guaranteed, or where sexual and gender the problem of equality but on difference; discrimination is not
diversity are socially condemned, the Web has served to meet, analyzed in terms of effective access to rights, but the conditions
organize and resist. and capacities that people have to access those rights.
By adding content in formats like text, audio and video, these groups Therefore, an intersectional feminist perspective focuses on social
have been able to connect with each other, as well as open spaces for location, the multiple layered identities people live, derived from
discussion and visibility of topics that previously seemed vetoed. social relations, history and structures of power through which
The web has become a space for activism, reclamation and protest people can experience both oppression and privilege. These
against injustice and gender inequality. It has allowed the oppressions can be structural and dynamic, determined by gender, race
construction of international networks of solidarity, support and or skin color, class, sexuality, ethnicity, age, language, geographic
mobilization, and with this, the strengthening of feminism and other location, abilities or health conditions, among other factors
movements that fight for equal rights and for a fair recognition of [Symington].
difference.
The political expression of gender has not been limited to voices, The concept _matrix of domination_, introduced by [Collins] as
but has made use of the body and its representation. However, the complementary to _intersectionality_, refers to the way in which the
use of body as a form of political expression on the internet implies powers that produce and reproduce intersecting oppression are
a series of risks and vulnerabilities for the people involved in organized. In summary, the concept _intersectionality_ has served to
these movements, especially if they do not understand how internet recognize people's different experiences and social locations and
technology works. In this sense, it is important to recognize that with this, the need of a bottom up understanding of discrimination
freedom of expression on the internet, and in general its use, is and oppression; in addition, the concept _matrix of domination_ turns
determined by gender, along with other social, economic, political the gaze on the context of power -institutional, political, economic
and cultural conditions. and symbolic- in which intersecting oppressions operate.
Where women and queer people have traditionally been marginalized, 1.1.1. Internet as a matrix of domination
their participation in the internet is rejected through different
forms of violence by other users, as well as institutions, platforms
and governments. But the effects of these violences, which are
nothing more than extensions of the traditional violence that these
groups and individuals face in social life, increase to the extent
that there is not enough technical knowledge to neutralize them, and
this is the case of most people who struggle for the recognition of
their gender difference.
These "use cases" must be known within the IETF, in order to join The gender and sexual rights lens on critical internet-related rights
efforts for the elimination of online gender-based violence, which contained in the Feminist Principles of the Internet has been built
today seems to be a rule in digital environments. In order to bottom up by the feminist movement [FPI], which treats most
identify ways and strategies to contribute to this purpose, we review prominently people who are negatively discriminated against on the
below the ways in which both _safety_ and _gender_ have been basis of their gender and sexuality, but not exclusively. Because
approached in IETF rfcs and drafts. The following sections consist the threats to women and queer people, whose bodies and
of a preliminary analysis of the terms used in the IETF drafts and manifestations are already under strong, albeit sometimes invisible,
RFCs archive. social, cultural and political surveillance, an intersectional
feminist analysis makes it possible to recognize how multiple
oppressions affect the ways people access, use and participate on the
internet.
By filtering from specific terms, the analysis consists of From now on, some of these experiences will be used to identify how
identifying patterns and regularities in the contexts in which these the Internet can enable or restrict the possibility of justice and
terms are used. For example, if they are used as an example in "use equity among its users. For this purpose, it is useful to understand
cases" or if they are part of a technical explanation, and if they the internet as a _matrix of domination_ in the sense pointed by
are normally accompanied by other terms. The analysis presented is [Collins]: as an institutional, political, symbolic and cultural
only an initial revision that must be completed and synthesized. context where different intersecting oppressions are shaped and
reinforced.
1.4.1. 2.1. Safety This document addresses the opportunities and vulnerabilities
incorporated into Internet protocols for specific, traditionally
discriminated groups, on the assumption that these values are
inherent in technological design. Through the proposed
intersectional perspective, a multilevel description of the factors,
processes and social structures that affect different experiences on
the Internet is presented below and, based on specific cases, an
analysis will be made of how the different protocols intervene in the
shaping and reinforcement of intersecting oppressions faced by users
on different social locations.
For the last years, there has been criticism of the way in which 1.2. Brief history of feminism and the internet
digital security accompaniments, advice and training are developed
for people who are not directly involved in the development of
information technology. It is worth mentioning that digital
security, unlike cybersecurity, is more geared towards internet users
[Comninos]. Some of these criticisms refer to the fact that the
approach to digital security is centred on tools and not on usage
practices, and "attacks", "adversaries" or "enemies" in a generic
way, without recognising the specific contexts in which different
information protection needs are generated.
Given the common incidents suffered by women and queer people, from a The ways in which feminists have understood, used and mobilised on
gender perspective it has been preferred to use the term _safety_ to the internet is significant for a baseline understanding of how
recognize their main need to be able to inhabit digital environments internet protocols and feminism intersect. Intersectional feminist
without being the target of attacks such as trolling, harassment, action and analysis can be collected into two strategies: addressing
stalking, threats, non-consensual dissemination of intimate images, the status quo and creating alternatives. Feminists on the early
among others. When speaking of _safety_ rather than _security_, internet embodied both.
their participation is recognized as users at the most surface level,
not as administrators, developers or generators of computer
knowledge. In recent years, feminist infrastructure projects have
begun to appear while the inclusion of women in developers
communities has been promoted. However, today there is still a huge
gender gap in the technical and political development of the
internet.
In [RFC4949] _safety_ is defined as "the property of a system being It is important to note here that there has always existed a gender
free from risk of causing harm (especially physical harm) to its gap in access to the internet, which is exacerbated by global wealth
system entities", which is compared to _security_ as the "system inequality.
condition in which system resources are free from unauthorized access
and from unauthorized or accidental change, destruction, or loss".
But _safety_ has traditionally, especially in the early years of the
IETF, been referred to human activities [RFC1244], [RFC2122],
[RFC2310] and human rights [RFC1746], [RFC1941], [RFC3694].
1.4.2. 2.2. Gender Since the 1980s, feminist movements have used the internet to
challenge power. Globalisation. Development. Cyberfeminism.
Internet governance. There is a deeper connection to the internet
and social justice struggles in which communication becomes the
primary strategy to address inequality. Indeed, in "A History of
Feminist Engagement with Development and Digital Technologies" Anita
Gurumurthy writes, "the history of the right to communicate reveals
the contestation between powerful status quoist forces and those who
seek transformative, global change for justice and equality."
At the same time, feminists were using the internet to create
feminist space.
As IETF is centered on "identifying, and proposing solutions to, Author Feminista Jones argues in "Reclaiming Our Space: How Black
pressing operational and technical problems in the Internet" and as Feminists Are Changing the World from the Tweets to the Streets" that
according to the Tao of the IETF, "we believe in rough consensus and the feminist alternative spaces have become mainstream and are
running code", it is not supposed to concentrate on the particular leading analysis and critique of the status quo, a merging and
characteristics of internet users, but on the proper functioning of strengthening of the two strategies that emerge from this particular
the systems [Tao]. In addition, due to the characteristics of the historical framing.
type of technologies that are designed in the IETF, many times the
the "use cases" or implementations refer to the way in which
companies arrange the infrastructure for their clients, not
necessarily to the way internet users interact with that
infrastructure.
In this sense, it seems not within the mandate of the IETF to imagine Given these myriad expressions of feminism online and feminist
the particular needs of users' gender, race or ethnicity. However, movement building online, one thread is perhaps most instructive to
in the drafts and RFCs archive there appear subjects with gender as this exercise, which we use as the basis for this document: Feminist
well as supposedly universal entities that sometimes represent Principles of the Internet. More about the nature of the complex
concrete functions of the systems, and other times the voluntary community that created the Feminist Principles of the Internet can be
actions of the operators. As a first step in imagining possible found at feministinternet.org. The principles, drafted and revised
gender considerations when designing internet protocols, below is a by hundreds of feminists mostly in the global south, highlight
very brief description of how gender appears in IETF documents. This historical feminist themes for the digital age in its main
is also a very preliminary analysis, which could later be categories: access, movements, economy, expression and embodiment.
complimented and added to the search for entities with cultural and
phenotypic characteristics that could make them vulnerable on the
internet.
1.5. 3. Access 2. Methodology
- Research: Archive review, HRPC-RG documents, Use cases (bottom-up,
participative process within feministinternet community (TODO))
- Presentation: principle, harm identified, related protocols and
rights.
TODO
3. Feminist Principles
3.1. Access
Internet access is recognized as a human right [UNGA], but its Internet access is recognized as a human right [UNGA], but its
effective guarantee depends on different and unequal social, effective guarantee depends on different and unequal social,
cultural, economic and political conditions. In 2018, barely half of cultural, economic and political conditions. In 2018, barely half of
the world's population has access to the internet and in 88% of the world's population has access to the internet and in 88% of
countries, men have more access than women [ITU]. Geographical countries, men have more access than women [ITU]. Geographical
location, age, educational and income level, as well as gender, location, age, educational and income level, as well as gender,
significantly determine how people access to the internet significantly determine how people access to the internet
[WebFoundation]. [WebFoundation].
The Feminist Principles of the Internet [FPI] enphasizes that access The Feminist Principles of the Internet [FPI] explore a broad
must be to a universal, acceptable, affordable, unconditional, open, understanding of the term beyond technicalities. It seeks to connect
meaningful and equal internet, which guarantees rights rather than the technical fact to gendered and socio-economic realities.
restricts them. As some bodies have always been subject to social
and cultural surveillance and violence because of their gender and
sexuallity, their access to internet is not satisfied with connected
devices, but with safety and useful digital enviroments [SmKee].
In this sense, access must be considered in several dimensions, in 3.1.1. Internet access
addition to internet access as a possibility of being connected:
1.5.1. 3.1. Access to information Access must be to a universal, acceptable, affordable, unconditional,
open, meaningful and equal internet, which guarantees rights rather
than restricts them [FPI]. As some bodies have always been subject
to social and cultural surveillance and violence because of their
gender and sexuallity, their access to internet will not be satisfied
with connected devices, but with safety and useful digital
enviroments [SmKee].
Information in one's own language is the first condition, as pointed Harms: Restricted connectivity. i.e. Middleboxes (which can be
out with the cencept of 'Localization' [RFC8280], referred to the act Content Delivery Networks, Firewalls, NATs or other intermediary
of tailoring an application for a different language, script, or nodes that provide 'services'besides routing). TODO
culture, and involves not only changing the language interaction but
also other relevant changes, such as display of numbers, dates,
currency, and so on.
But it is also necessary to be able to access relevant information, Related protocols: The end-to-end principle is important for the
related for example to sexual and reproductive health and rights, robustness of the network and innovation (RFC1958); Content
pleasure, safe abortion, access to justice, and LGBTIQ issues. Some agnosticism: Treating network traffic identically regardless of
goverments and ISPs block pages with this content or monitor online content.
activity by sexual and gender related terminology. Therefore the
considerations for anticensorship internet infrastructure
technologies also consider, and can possibly alleviate, a gendered
component to using the internet.
1.5.2. 3.2. Usage of technology Related rights: Freedom of expression, freedom of association.
Beyond content, access implies the possibility to use, which means 3.1.2. Access to information
code, design, adapt and critically and sustainably use ICTs. As
almost 75% of connected individuals are placed in the Global South
[WhoseKnowledge], technology is developped mainly in rich countries
where student quotas and jobs are filled mainly by men.
The concept of 'Internationalization' [RFC6365] refers to the Women and queer people have traditionally had restricted their
practice of making protocols, standards, and implementations usable reproductive and sexual rights. Today their rights are resticted in
in different languages. This is a first step to democratize the different levels and qualities in differents countries and regions.
development of technology, allowing its implementation in non- It is necessary to guarantee access to relevant information related
English-speaking countries. to sexual and reproductive health and rights, pleasure, safe
abortion, access to justice, and LGBTIQ+ issues.
Harms: Some goverments and ISPs block pages with this content or
monitor online activity by sexual and gender related terminology.
Therefore the considerations for anticensorship internet
infrastructure technologies also consider, and can possibly
alleviate, a gendered component to using the internet.
TODO. Blocked sites, Monitoring by content, identify users by IP or
type of traffic.
Related protocols: Information in one's own language is the first
condition, as pointed out with the cencept of 'Localization'
[RFC8280], referred to the act of tailoring an application for a
different language, script, or culture, and involves not only
changing the language interaction but also other relevant changes,
such as display of numbers, dates, currency, and so on.
TODO. Content agnosticism: Treating network traffic identically
regardless of content (but it refers to header content). Censorship
resistance.
Related rights: FoE, FoA, Right to political participation, Right to
participate in cultural life, arts and science.
3.1.3. Usage of technology
Beyond content, access implies the possibility to use, which means
code, design, adapt and critically and sustainably use ICTs. Even
though almost 75% of connected individuals are placed in the Global
South [WhoseKnowledge], technology is developped mainly in rich
countries where student quotas and jobs are filled mainly by men.
However, there is still a long way to go in terms of inclusion of However, there is still a long way to go in terms of inclusion of
more diverse populations in the spaces of technology development and more diverse populations in the spaces of technology development and
definition of protocoles and standards for the internet definition of protocoles and standards for the internet
infrastructure [RFC7704]. The presence of gendered subjects in the infrastructure [RFC7704]. Building and engineering critical internet
IETF RFCs and drafts archive demonstrates stereotyped male and technology is a component of 'usage' [Knodel], one which chllenges
feminine roles. On the other hand, the generalized mention of agents challenge the cultures of sexism and discrimination.
- as universal subjects - in those documents, ignores the existence
of other corporealities, which includes non binary identities or with
a marked physical difference.
Building and engineering critical internet technology is a component Harms: Gender and race bian in algorithms, digital gender gap.
of 'usage'. There are challenge the cultures of sexism and Necessary to know the charset, gap. The presence of gendered
discrimination in all spaces, some of which can be found in existing subjects in the IETF RFCs and drafts archive demonstrates stereotyped
RFCs. male and feminine roles.
1.6. 4. Economy Related protocols: The concept of 'Internationalization' [RFC6365]
refers to the practice of making protocols, standards, and
implementations usable in different languages. This is a first step
to democratize the development of technology, allowing its
implementation in non-English-speaking countries.
1.6.1. 4.1. Free and open source TODO. [RFC5646] descentralization, reliability. Adaptability
(permissionless innovation).
The digital gender gap has relegated women and other marginalized Related rights: Right to participate in cultural life, arts and
groups to be internet users, adding content for the benefit of the science
platform itself but without a deep understanding of how these
platforms work. Promoting transparency [RFC8280] and simplifying
technical terminology is necessary to bridge this gap. This requires
shared terminology upon which technology is created to enable
experimentation and values exchange. Not only that, but documenting,
promoting, disseminating, and sharing knowledge about technology is
at the heart of the long-standing free software community's ethos.
This aligns with a feminist approach to technology.
Given the established community of "free software", it is important 3.2. Networked
to note that freedom is not freedom for everyone, always. It is
important to identify different dimensions of freedom and how it is
expressed in different contexts.
1.6.2. 4.2. Power and centralisation In contexts where women do not have their rights fully guaranteed, or
where sexual and gender diversity are socially condemned, the Web has
served to meet, organize and resist. With the popularization of the
internet, the freedom of expression of both women and other gender
identities traditionally marginalized from public life and social
acceptance (whom we refer to as queer) has been greatly enhanced.
A feminist approach to technology requires a strong critique of By adding content in formats like text, audio and video, these groups
capitalist power, centralisation of services and the logic of have been able to connect with each other, as well as open spaces for
vertical integration while holding nuance for the tensions between discussion and visibility of topics that previously seemed vetoed.
trust, reliability and diversity. Centralisation of services is a The web has become a space for activism, reclamation and protest
current discussion in the IETF that should be informed by feminist against injustice and gender inequality. It has allowed the
critique of capitalist structures [Arkko]. construction of international networks of solidarity, support and
mobilization, and with this, the strengthening of feminism and other
movements that fight for equal rights and for a fair recognition of
difference.
1.7. 5. Networked 3.2.1. Resistance
1.7.1. 5.1. Freedom of assocation The internet is a space where social norms are negotiated, performed
and imposed. For users it increasingly functions as an extension of
offline spaces shaped by patriarchy and heteronormativity. Disident
content as well as widely accepted norms and values should have the
same possibilities to be added, flow and stay on the net.
Harms: content blocking, content monitoring and identification,
traffic monitoring
Related to protocols: Integrity
Related rights: Freedom of expression, Freedom of association.
3.2.2. Movement building
Given the shrinking of civic space offline, the internet provides a Given the shrinking of civic space offline, the internet provides a
global public space, albeit one that relies on private infrastructure global public space, albeit one that relies on private infrastructure
[tenOever]. For social causes that push for equality, it is [tenOever]. For social causes that push for equality, it is
therefore critical that the internet be maintained as a space for therefore critical that the internet be maintained as a space for
alignment, protest, dissent and escape. In the scope of this alignment, protest, dissent and escape. In the scope of this
document, this is a call to maintain and enable the creation of document, this is a call to maintain and enable the creation of
spaces for sustained feminist movement building. Elements of freedom spaces for sustained feminist movement building. Ihe internet
of assocation as explained in the UDHR include individual and provides new and novel ways for communities to come together across
collective rights to privacy and anonymity, as discussed in more borders and without limits of geolocation.
detail below. At the same time, the internet provides new and novel
ways for communities to come together across borders and without
limits of geolocation. However this positive aspect of internet
communications is threatened by centralised systems of control and
cooptation, specifically surveillance and other online repression.
Association of system architectures is a concept that overlaps neatly Harms: However this positive aspect of internet communications is
with the ideals of real-world associations of organisations and threatened by centralised systems of control and cooptation,
communities. "The ultimate model of P2P is a completely specifically surveillance and other online repression.
decentralized system, which is more resistant to speech regulation,
immune to single points of failure and have a higher performance and
scalability [tenOever]."
1.7.2. 5.2. Internet governance Related protocols: Association of system architectures is a concept
that overlaps neatly with the ideals of real-world associations of
organisations and communities. "The ultimate model of P2P is a
completely decentralized system, which is more resistant to speech
regulation, immune to single points of failure and have a higher
performance and scalability [tenOever]." It can be descussed in
terms of intersectionailty and what we mentioned about 'different
dimensions of freedom'. Maybe the 'solution' is not only P2P because
it doesn't take into account different distances from and capacities
related to this technology, maybe mixed with another feature?.
Integrity.
While there is no agreement regarding the ability of the internet to Related rights: Elements of freedom of assocation as explained in the
negatively or positively impact on social behaviors, or shape UDHR include individual and collective rights to privacy and
desirable practices [RFC8280], more women and diverse populations' anonymity, as discussed in more detail below.
participation in technical development and decision-making spaces
will lead to greater possibilities for ICTs to reflect greater 3.2.3. Internet governance
inclusiveness and enable less risky and harmful interactions
[RFC7704].
It is critical for groups who represent civil society interests, It is critical for groups who represent civil society interests,
social change and the larger public interest to challenge processes social change and the larger public interest to challenge processes
and institutions that govern the internet. This requires the and institutions that govern the internet. This requires the
inclusion of more feminists and queers at the decision-making table, inclusion of more feminists and queers at the decision-making table,
which can be achieved through democratic policy making. Greater which can be achieved through democratic policy making. Greater
effect will be possible through diffuse ownership of and power in effect will be possible through diffuse ownership of and power in
global and local networks. global and local networks.
1.8. 6. Embodiment Harms: Gender gap
Most of the threats women and non binary people face on line, occur Related to protocols: While there is no agreement regarding the
on the user levels of application and content. Most adversaries are ability of the internet to negatively or positively impact on social
other users, but also include institutions, platforms and behaviors, or shape desirable practices [RFC8280], more women and
governments. diverse populations' participation in technical development and
decision-making spaces will lead to greater possibilities for ICTs to
reflect greater inclusiveness and enable less risky and harmful
interactions [RFC7704].
Related rights: Right to participate in cultural life, arts and
science
3.3. Economy
From a feminist perspective, it is necessary to achieve the promise
of an internet that facilitates economic cooperation and
collaboration. One internet that can challenge models of economic
inequality and transcend into other forms where women and queer
people are not relegated or in economic dependence.
3.3.1. Business models
Interrogating the capitalist logic that drives technology towards
further privatisation, profit and corporate control implies open
discussions on centralisation of services and the logic of vertical
integration while holding nuance for the tensions between trust,
reliability and diversity.
Alternative forms of economic power can be grounded in principles of
cooperation, solidarity, commons, environmental sustainability and
openness.
Harms: TODO
Related protocols: Centralisation of services is a current discussion
in the IETF that should be informed by feminist critique of
capitalist structures [Arkko]. End user centered; W3C,
descentralization.
Related rights: TODO
3.3.2. Open source
The digital gender gap has relegated women and other marginalized
groups to be internet users, adding content for the benefit of the
platforms themselves but without a deep understanding of how these
platforms work. This requires shared terminology upon which
technology is created to enable experimentation and values exchange.
Not only that, but documenting, promoting, disseminating, and sharing
knowledge about technology is at the heart of the long-standing free
software community's ethos. This aligns with a feminist approach to
technology.
Given the established community of "free software", it is important
to note that freedom is not freedom for everyone, always. It is
important to identify different dimensions of freedom and how it is
expressed in different contexts.
Harms: TODO
Related protocols: Promoting transparency [RFC8280] and simplifying
technical terminology is necessary to bridge this gap.
Interoperabiliy, Open standards are important as they allow for
permissionless innovation. Freedom and ability to freely create and
deploy new protocols on top of the communications constructs that
currently exist. Open standards.
Related rights: Right to participate in cultural life, arts and
science
3.4. Expression
3.4.1. Amplify
The state, the religious right and other extremist forces who
monopolise discourses of morality have traditionally silence women's
voices and continue to silence feminist voices and persecute women's
human rights defenders.
Harms: Blocking and monitoring content, identifiyng site owners,
manipulating indexed content on search engines, Trolling, coordinated
attackes (DoS and DDoS).
Related protocols: Content agnosticism: Treating network traffic
identically regardless of content, anti censorship.
Related rights: Freedom of expression, Freedom of association, Access
to information
3.4.2. Expression
The political expression of gender has not been limited to voices,
but has made use of the body and its representation. However, the
use of body as a form of political expression on the internet implies
a series of risks and vulnerabilities for the people involved in
these movements, especially if they do not understand how internet
technology works.
Harms: Surveillance, content regulations or restrictions, content
blocking.
Related protocols: Confidentiality, keeping data secret from
unintended listeners [BCP72]. Data protection [RFC1984]. Encryption
Related rights: Freedom of expression
3.4.3. Pornography
Women's sexual expression online is socially condemned and punushed
with online gender based violence. On the other hand, queer people
online sexuality is usually labeld as "harmful content". These
practices evidence how overcontrolled are gendered bodies and tend to
confuse the differences between sexual expression and pornography.
Users build their own public digital identities while using private
communications to disseminate information, explore their sexuality in
text, image and video, share their initmity with others. Pornography
online, on the other hand, has to do with agency, consent, power and
labour.
Harms: In internet-connected devices, it has become much easier to
mix leisure and work, which implies different risks for users.
Related protocols: [RFC3675]
Related rights: Freedom of expression
4. Embodiment
Most of the threats women and queer people face on line, occur on the
user levels of application and content. Most adversaries are other
users, but also include institutions, platforms and governments.
For a long time, perhaps since the internet became popular, its use For a long time, perhaps since the internet became popular, its use
ceased to be a functional matter and became emotional. The access to ceased to be a functional matter and became emotional. The access to
chat rooms to connected with people at huge distances, the chat rooms to connect with people at huge distances, the possibility
possibility of having personal e-mails, the appearance of social of having personal e-mails, the appearance of social networks to
networks to share music, photos and then video, determined not only share music, photos and then video, determined not only the social
the social use of a new tool but also the configuration of digital use of a new tool but also the configuration of digital
sensitivities, understood by some as sensory extensions of the body. sensitivities, understood by some as sensory extensions of the body.
The internet connections embedded have also meant a radical The internet connections embedded have also meant a radical
transformation in the way people access the internet. Much more, transformation in the way people access the internet. Much more,
considering that today most internet connections, especially in the considering that today most internet connections, especially in the
global south, are mobile connections. People build their own public global south, are mobile connections.
digital identities, use private communications to disseminate
information, explore their sexuality in text, image and video, share
their initmity with others. In internet-connected devices, it has
become much easier for leisure and work to mix, which implies
different risks for users.
Sharing personal information, and often sensitive data, through Sharing personal information, and often sensitive data, through
platforms that are synchronized with email accounts and other platforms that are synchronized with email accounts and other
platforms where information considered non-sensitive is published, platforms where information considered non-sensitive is published,
implies losing control over such information. Much more, considering implies losing control over such information. Much more, considering
that each platform hosts the information of its users according to that each platform hosts the information of its users according to
their own terms and conditions in the treatment of data. For women their own terms and conditions in the treatment of data. For women
and other groups marginalized by race or gender, these risks are and other groups marginalized by race or gender, these risks are
greater. greater.
skipping to change at page 10, line 29 skipping to change at page 14, line 5
sometimes reconfigured. And once again, women, queers, racialized sometimes reconfigured. And once again, women, queers, racialized
people are the most vulnerable. Most of the threats they face on people are the most vulnerable. Most of the threats they face on
line, occur in the user level. Most of their "adversaries" are other line, occur in the user level. Most of their "adversaries" are other
users, who also act at the user level, with technical or social users, who also act at the user level, with technical or social
skills that threaten participation and expressions. Institutions, skills that threaten participation and expressions. Institutions,
platforms and governments who are adversarial have great advantage. platforms and governments who are adversarial have great advantage.
At this point, what level of autonomy do these people have as At this point, what level of autonomy do these people have as
internet users? internet users?
1.8.1. 6.1. Online violence 4.1. Consent
The security considerations to counter online violence are critical.
There is opportunity in a connected world for those who would
perpetuate violence against women and other marginalised groups
through the use of internet-enabled technologies, from the home to
the prison.
Privacy is a critical component of security for populations at risk.
The control of information is linked to privacy. Where some would
like privacy in order to live privately, others need privacy in order
to access information and circumvent censorship and surveillance.
The protection of privacy is critical for those at risk to prevent
vicimisation through extortion, doxxing, and myriad other threats.
Lack of privacy leads to risks such as stalking, monitoring and
persistent harrassment.
While making public otherwise private details about a person can
consitute a form of abuse, the converse is also a risk: Being erased
from society or having one's online identity controlled by another is
a form of control and manipulation. Censorship, misinformation and
coersion may consitute violence online. Other forms of non-
consensual manipulation of online content includes platform "real
name policies", sharing of intimate images and sexual abuse,
spreading false accusations, flamming and other tactics.
Key to mitigating these threats is the element of consent.
1.8.2. 6.2. Consent
Some elements of consent online include but are not limited to the Some elements of consent online include but are not limited to the
following list of issues, which should be elaborated on: following list of issues, which should be elaborated on:
- Data protection * Exposure of personal data - Data protection * Exposure of personal data
- Culture, design, policies and terms of service of internet - Culture, design, policies and terms of service of internet
platforms platforms
- Agency lies in informed decisions * Real name policies - Agency lies in informed decisions * Real name policies
- Public versus private information * Dissemination of personal or - Public versus private information * Dissemination of personal or
intimate information * Exposure of intimacy * Unauthorized use of intimate information * Exposure of intimacy * Unauthorized use of
photos photos
1.8.3. 6.3. Anonymity Harms: TODO
While anonymity is never just about technical issues but users
protection activities, it becomes more necessary to strenghten the
design and functionality of networks, by default. There are several
considerations for internet infrastructure related to enabling
anonymity for online users. This is particularly important for
marginalised groups and can be ennumerated, and expanded upon,
thusly:
- Right to anonymity
- Enables other rights like freedom of expression * Censorship *
Defamation, descredit * Affectations to expression channels
- Breaking social taboos and heteronormativity * Hate Speech, Related protocols: TODO
discriminatory expressions
- Discrimination and safety from discrimination Related rights: TODO
1.8.4. 6.4. Privacy and data 4.1.1. Privacy and data
While mentioned at the intersection of previous issues outlined While mentioned at the intersection of previous issues outlined
above, this section is particularly critical for women, queers and above, this section is particularly critical for women, queers and
marginalised populations who are already at greater risk of control marginalised populations who are already at greater risk of control
and surveillance: and surveillance:
- Right to privacy - Right to privacy
- Data protection - Data protection
- Profit models - Profit models
- Surveillance and patriarchy by states, individuals, private - Surveillance and patriarchy by states, individuals, private
sector, etc. Those that enable surveillance, eg spouseware. sector, etc. Those that enable surveillance, eg spouseware.
1.8.5. 6.5. Memory Harms: TODO
Related protocols: TODO
Related rights: TODO
4.1.2. Memory
One's consent and control of the information that is available to One's consent and control of the information that is available to
them and about them online is a key aspect of being a fully empowered them and about them online is a key aspect of being a fully empowered
individual and community in the digital age. There are several individual and community in the digital age. There are several
considerations that deserve deeper inspection, such as: considerations that deserve deeper inspection, such as:
- Right to be forgotten - Right to be forgotten
- Control over personal history and memory on the internet - Control over personal history and memory on the internet
- Access all our personal data and information online - Access all our personal data and information online
- Delete forever - Delete forever
2. References not yet referenced Harms: TODO
Related protocols: TODO
Related rights: TODO
4.1.3. Anonymity
While anonymity is never just about technical issues but users
protection activities, it becomes more necessary to strenghten the
design and functionality of networks, by default. There are several
considerations for internet infrastructure related to enabling
anonymity for online users. This is particularly important for
marginalised groups and can be ennumerated, and expanded upon,
thusly:
- Right to anonymity
- Enables other rights like freedom of expression * Censorship *
Defamation, descredit * Affectations to expression channels
- Breaking social taboos and heteronormativity * Hate Speech,
discriminatory expressions
- Discrimination and safety from discrimination
Harms: TODO
Related protocols: TODO
Related rights: TODO
4.1.4. Children
TODO
Harms: TODO
Related protocols: TODO
Related rights: TODO
4.2. Online violence
Where women and queer people have traditionally been marginalized,
their participation in the internet is rejected through different
forms of violence by other users, as well as institutions, platforms
and governments. But the effects of these violences, which are
nothing more than extensions of the traditional violence that these
groups and individuals face in social life, increase to the extent
that there is not enough technical knowledge to neutralize them, and
this is the case of most people who struggle for the recognition of
their gender difference.
The security considerations to counter online violence are critical.
There is opportunity in a connected world for those who would
perpetuate violence against women and other marginalised groups
through the use of internet-enabled technologies, from the home to
the prison.
Privacy is a critical component of security for populations at risk.
The control of information is linked to privacy. Where some would
like privacy in order to live privately, others need privacy in order
to access information and circumvent censorship and surveillance.
The protection of privacy is critical for those at risk to prevent
vicimisation through extortion, doxxing, and myriad other threats.
Lack of privacy leads to risks such as stalking, monitoring and
persistent harrassment.
While making public otherwise private details about a person can
consitute a form of abuse, the converse is also a risk: Being erased
from society or having one's online identity controlled by another is
a form of control and manipulation. Censorship, misinformation and
coersion may consitute violence online. Other forms of non-
consensual manipulation of online content includes platform "real
name policies", sharing of intimate images and sexual abuse,
spreading false accusations, flamming and other tactics.
Key to mitigating these threats is the element of consent.
Harms: TODO
Related protocols: TODO
Related rights: TODO
5. References not yet referenced
In plain sight, on sexuality, rights and the internet in India, Nepal In plain sight, on sexuality, rights and the internet in India, Nepal
and Sri Lanka https://www.genderit.org/articles/plain-sight- and Sri Lanka https://www.genderit.org/articles/plain-sight-
sexuality-rights-and-internet-india-nepal-and-sri-lanka sexuality-rights-and-internet-india-nepal-and-sri-lanka
Human Rights and Internet Protocols: Comparing Processes and Human Rights and Internet Protocols: Comparing Processes and
Principles https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/ Principles https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/
ISSUE_human_rights_2.pdf ISSUE_human_rights_2.pdf
Principles of Unity for Infraestructuras Feministas Principles of Unity for Infraestructuras Feministas
skipping to change at page 13, line 20 skipping to change at page 18, line 4
CODING RIGHTS; INTERNETLAB. Violencias de genero na internet: CODING RIGHTS; INTERNETLAB. Violencias de genero na internet:
diagnostico, solucoes e desafios. Contribuicao conjunta do Brasil diagnostico, solucoes e desafios. Contribuicao conjunta do Brasil
para a relatora especial da ONU sobre violencia contra a mulher. Sao para a relatora especial da ONU sobre violencia contra a mulher. Sao
Paulo, 2017. https://www.codingrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/ Paulo, 2017. https://www.codingrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/
Relatorio_ViolenciaGenero_v061.pdf Relatorio_ViolenciaGenero_v061.pdf
Barrera, L. y Rodriguez, C. La violencia en linea contra las mujeres Barrera, L. y Rodriguez, C. La violencia en linea contra las mujeres
en Mexico. Informe para la Relatora sobre Violencia contra las en Mexico. Informe para la Relatora sobre Violencia contra las
Mujeres Ms. Dubravka &#352;imonovi&#263;. 2017. Mujeres Ms. Dubravka &#352;imonovi&#263;. 2017.
https://luchadoras.mx/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/ https://luchadoras.mx/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/
Informe_ViolenciaEnLineaMexico_InternetEsNuestra.pdf Informe_ViolenciaEnLineaMexico_InternetEsNuestra.pdf
Sephard, N. Big Data and Sexual Surveillance. APC issue papers. Sephard, N. Big Data and Sexual Surveillance. APC issue papers.
2016. https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/ 2016. https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/
BigDataSexualSurveillance_0_0.pdf BigDataSexualSurveillance_0_0.pdf
3. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
As this document concerns a research document, there are no security As this document concerns a research document, there are no security
considerations. considerations.
4. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document has no actions for IANA. This document has no actions for IANA.
5. Informative References Crenshaw, K. (2018). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and
Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine,
Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics [1989]. In K. T. Bartlett
& R. Kennedy (Eds.), Feminist Legal Theory (1st ed., pp. 57-80; By
K. Bartlett). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429500480-5
8. Informative References
[Arkko] Arkko, J., "Considerations on Internet Consolidation and [Arkko] Arkko, J., "Considerations on Internet Consolidation and
the Internet Architecture.", 2018, the Internet Architecture.", 2018,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/ <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
draft-arkko-iab-internet-consolidation>. draft-arkko-iab-internet-consolidation>.
[BCP72] IETF, "Guidelines for Writing RFC Text on Security
Considerations", 2003,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/bcp72/>.
[Collins] Collins, P., "Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge,
consciousness and the politics of empowerment.", 2000.
[Comninos] [Comninos]
Alex Comninos, ., "A cyber security Agenda for civil Alex Comninos, ., "A cyber security Agenda for civil
society: What is at stake?", 2013, society: What is at stake?", 2013,
<https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/ <https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/
PRINT_ISSUE_Cyberseguridad_EN.pdf>. PRINT_ISSUE_Cyberseguridad_EN.pdf>.
[FPI] Association for Progressive Communications, "The Feminist [Crenshaw]
Principles of the Internet", n.d., Crenshaw, K., "Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race
and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination
Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics.",
1989, <https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429500480-5>.
[Davis] Davis, ., "unknown.", n.d..
[FPI] "The Feminist Principles of the Internet.", 2015,
<https://feministinternet.org>. <https://feministinternet.org>.
[Hankivsky]
Hankivsky, O., "Intersectionality 101.", 2014,
<http://vawforum-cwr.ca/sites/default/files/attachments/
intersectionallity_101.pdf>.
[ITU] International Telecommunications Union (ITU), [ITU] International Telecommunications Union (ITU),
"Statisctics. Global, Regional and Country ICT Data.", "Statisctics. Global, Regional and Country ICT Data.",
2018, <https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/ 2018, <https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/
default.aspx>. default.aspx>.
[Knodel] Knodel, M. and N. ten Oever, "Terminology, Power and
Offensive Language.", 2018,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
draft-knodel-terminology>.
[Lorde] Lorde, ., "unknown.", n.d..
[Mason] Mason, C., "Leading at the Intersections: An Introduction
to the Intersectional Approach Model for Policy and Social
Change.", 2010.
[RFC1244] Holbrook, J. and J. Reynolds, "Site Security Handbook", [RFC1244] Holbrook, J. and J. Reynolds, "Site Security Handbook",
RFC 1244, DOI 10.17487/RFC1244, July 1991, RFC 1244, DOI 10.17487/RFC1244, July 1991,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1244>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1244>.
[RFC1746] Manning, B. and D. Perkins, "Ways to Define User [RFC1746] Manning, B. and D. Perkins, "Ways to Define User
Expectations", RFC 1746, DOI 10.17487/RFC1746, December Expectations", RFC 1746, DOI 10.17487/RFC1746, December
1994, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1746>. 1994, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1746>.
[RFC1941] Sellers, J. and J. Robichaux, "Frequently Asked Questions [RFC1941] Sellers, J. and J. Robichaux, "Frequently Asked Questions
for Schools", FYI 22, RFC 1941, DOI 10.17487/RFC1941, May for Schools", FYI 22, RFC 1941, DOI 10.17487/RFC1941, May
1996, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1941>. 1996, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1941>.
[RFC1984] IAB and IESG, "IAB and IESG Statement on Cryptographic
Technology and the Internet", BCP 200, RFC 1984,
DOI 10.17487/RFC1984, August 1996,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1984>.
[RFC2122] Mavrakis, D., Layec, H., and K. Kartmann, "VEMMI URL [RFC2122] Mavrakis, D., Layec, H., and K. Kartmann, "VEMMI URL
Specification", RFC 2122, DOI 10.17487/RFC2122, March Specification", RFC 2122, DOI 10.17487/RFC2122, March
1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2122>. 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2122>.
[RFC2310] Holtman, K., "The Safe Response Header Field", RFC 2310, [RFC2310] Holtman, K., "The Safe Response Header Field", RFC 2310,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2310, April 1998, DOI 10.17487/RFC2310, April 1998,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2310>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2310>.
[RFC3675] Eastlake 3rd, D., ".sex Considered Dangerous", RFC 3675,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3675, February 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3675>.
[RFC3694] Danley, M., Mulligan, D., Morris, J., and J. Peterson, [RFC3694] Danley, M., Mulligan, D., Morris, J., and J. Peterson,
"Threat Analysis of the Geopriv Protocol", RFC 3694, "Threat Analysis of the Geopriv Protocol", RFC 3694,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3694, February 2004, DOI 10.17487/RFC3694, February 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3694>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3694>.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007, FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
[RFC5646] Phillips, A., Ed. and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for Identifying
Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646,
September 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.
[RFC6365] Hoffman, P. and J. Klensin, "Terminology Used in [RFC6365] Hoffman, P. and J. Klensin, "Terminology Used in
Internationalization in the IETF", BCP 166, RFC 6365, Internationalization in the IETF", BCP 166, RFC 6365,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6365, September 2011, DOI 10.17487/RFC6365, September 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6365>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6365>.
[RFC7704] Crocker, D. and N. Clark, "An IETF with Much Diversity and [RFC7704] Crocker, D. and N. Clark, "An IETF with Much Diversity and
Professional Conduct", RFC 7704, DOI 10.17487/RFC7704, Professional Conduct", RFC 7704, DOI 10.17487/RFC7704,
November 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7704>. November 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7704>.
[RFC8280] ten Oever, N. and C. Cath, "Research into Human Rights [RFC8280] ten Oever, N. and C. Cath, "Research into Human Rights
Protocol Considerations", RFC 8280, DOI 10.17487/RFC8280, Protocol Considerations", RFC 8280, DOI 10.17487/RFC8280,
October 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8280>. October 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8280>.
[SmKee] Jac Sm Kee, ., "Imagine a Feminist Internet.", 2018, [SmKee] Jac Sm Kee, ., "Imagine a Feminist Internet.", 2018,
<http://link.springer.com/10.1057/s41301-017-0137-2>. <http://link.springer.com/10.1057/s41301-017-0137-2>.
[Symington]
Symington, A., "Intersectionality: a Tool for Gender and
Economic Justice.", 2004,
<https://www.awid.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/inte
rsectionality_a_tool_for_gender_and_economic_justice.pdf>.
[Tao] Internet Engineering Task Force, "The Tao of the IETF.", [Tao] Internet Engineering Task Force, "The Tao of the IETF.",
n.d., <https://www.ietf.org/about/participate/tao>. n.d., <https://www.ietf.org/about/participate/tao>.
[tenOever] [tenOever]
ten Oever, N., "Freedom of Association on the Internet", ten Oever, N., "Freedom of Association on the Internet.",
n.d., <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/ 2017, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
draft-tenoever-hrpc-association-05.txt>. draft-irtf-hrpc-association>.
[UNGA] United Nations General Assembly, "The promotion, [UNGA] United Nations General Assembly, "The promotion,
protection and enjoyment of human rights on the protection and enjoyment of human rights on the
Internet.", 2012, <https://documents-dds- Internet.", 2012, <https://documents-dds-
ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/G12/147/10/PDF/ ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/G12/147/10/PDF/
G1214710.pdf?OpenElement>. G1214710.pdf?OpenElement>.
[WebFoundation] [WebFoundation]
Web Foundation, "Advancing Women's Rights Online: Gaps and Web Foundation, "Advancing Women's Rights Online: Gaps and
Opportunities in Policy and Research.", 2018, Opportunities in Policy and Research.", 2018,
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