< draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-07.txt   draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-08.txt >
ALTO WG W. Roome ALTO WG W. Roome
Internet-Draft S. Randriamasy Internet-Draft S. Randriamasy
Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Bell Labs Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Bell Labs
Expires: September 12, 2019 Y. Yang Expires: January 9, 2020 Y. Yang
Yale University Yale University
J. Zhang J. Zhang
Tongji University Tongji University
March 11, 2019 July 8, 2019
Unified Properties for the ALTO Protocol Unified Properties for the ALTO Protocol
draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-07 draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-08
Abstract Abstract
This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization This document extends the Application-Layer Traffic Optimization
(ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint (ALTO) Protocol [RFC7285] by generalizing the concept of "endpoint
properties" to domains of other entities, and by presenting those properties" to domains of other entities, and by presenting those
properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in ALTO. properties as maps, similar to the network and cost maps in
[RFC7285].
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
skipping to change at page 1, line 43 skipping to change at page 1, line 44
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Definitions and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Overview: Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3. Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4. Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.4. Information Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5. Property Type and Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.5. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.5.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.7. Relationship with Other ALTO Resources . . . . . . . . . 7 2.5.2. Relationship between Entity and Entity Domain . . . . 7
3. Entity Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.5.3. Aggregated Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. Internet Address Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.5.4. Resource-Specific Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.6. Scope of Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.7. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of ipv4/ipv6 Domains . . . 9 3. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1. Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1. Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1.2. Entity Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1.3. Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 11 3.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 11 3.2. Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2.1. Entity Property Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2.2. Entity Property Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3. Information Resource Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export . . . . . . . 13
4.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3.2. Entity Property Mapping Export . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. Entity Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1. Internet Address Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Filtered Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1.1. IPv4 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1.2. IPv6 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains 15
5.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2. PID Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2.1. Entity Domain Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers . . . . . . . . . 16
5.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 17 4.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains . . . . . 17
6.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties . . . . . 17
6.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 17 5. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources 17
6.3. Impact on the pid Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.1. Network Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.4. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.1.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2. Endpoint Property Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.2.2. Entity Property Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.4. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.3. Property Map Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6. Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 6.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 6.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7. Filtered Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type 7.1. Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Registry and ALTO Entity Domain Registry . . . . . . 29 7.2. HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registration Process . . . . . . . 30 7.3. Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7.4. Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
9.4. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7.5. Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
10. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7.6. Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients . . . . . . . 24
8.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties . . . . . . . . . 24
8.3. Impact on the pid Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.4. Impact on Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.2. Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . . 27
9.4. Property Map Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
9.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
11.1. application/alto-* Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
11.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
11.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type
Registry and ALTO Entity Domain Registry . . . . . . 37
11.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registration Process . . . . . . 38
11.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 39
11.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries . . . . 40
11.4.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11.4.2. Endpoint Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries . . . . 40
11.5.1. Network Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
13. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduces the concept of "properties" The ALTO protocol [RFC7285] introduces the concept of "properties"
attached to "endpoint addresses", and defines the Endpoint Property attached to "endpoint addresses", and defines the Endpoint Property
Service (EPS) to allow ALTO clients to retrieve those properties. Service (EPS) to allow ALTO clients to retrieve those properties.
While useful, the EPS, as defined in [RFC7285], has at least two While useful, the EPS, as defined in [RFC7285], has at least two
limitations. limitations.
First, it only allows properties to be associated with a particular First, it allows properties to be associated with only a particular
domain of entities, namely individual IP addresses. It is reasonable domain of entities, namely individual IP addresses. It is reasonable
to think that collections of endpoints, as defined by CIDRs [RFC4632] to think that collections of endpoints, as defined by CIDRs [RFC4632]
or PIDs, may also have properties. Since the EPS cannot be extended or PIDs, may also have properties. Since the EPS cannot be extended
to new entity domains, new services, with new request and response to new entity domains, new services, with new request and response
messages, would have to be defined for new entity domains. messages, would have to be defined for new entity domains.
Second, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must Second, the EPS is only defined as a POST-mode service. Clients must
request the properties for an explicit set of endpoint addresses. By request the properties for an explicit set of endpoint addresses. By
contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode cost map resource which contrast, [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode cost map resource which
returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs returns all available costs, so a client can get a full set of costs
once, and then processes costs lookups without querying the ALTO once, and then processes costs lookups without querying the ALTO
server. [RFC7285] does not define an equivalent service for endpoint server. [RFC7285] does not define an equivalent service for endpoint
properties. At first a map of endpoint properties might seem properties. At first a map of endpoint properties might seem
impractical, because it could require enumerating the property value impractical, because it could require enumerating the property value
for every possible endpoint. But in practice, it is highly unlikely for every possible endpoint. But in practice, it is highly unlikely
that properties will be defined for every endpoint address. It is that properties will be defined for every endpoint address. It is
much more likely that properties will only be defined for a subset of much more likely that properties may be defined for only a subset of
endpoint addresses, and that subset would be small enough to be endpoint addresses, and the specification of properties uses an
enumerated. This is particularly true if blocks of endpoint aggregation representation to allow enumeration. This is
addresses with a common prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for particularly true if blocks of endpoint addresses with a common
a property. Furthermore, entities in other domains may very well be prefix (e.g., a CIDR) have the same value for a property. Entities
enumerable. in other domains may very well allow aggregated representation and
hence be enumerable as well.
This document proposes a new approach to retrieve ALTO properties.
Specifically, it defines two new types of resources, namely Property
Map (see Section 4) and Filtered Property Map (see Section 5). The
former is a GET-mode resource which returns the property values for
all entities in a domain, and is analogous to a network map or a cost
map in [RFC7285]. The latter is a POST-mode resource which returns
the values for a set of properties and entities requested by the
client, and is analogous to a filtered network map or a filtered cost
map.
Additionally, this document introduces ALTO Entity Domains, where an This document specifies a new approach for defining and retrieving
entity is a generalization of an endpoint to also represent, a PID, a ALTO properties to address the two limitations. Specifically, this
network element, or a cell in a cellular network, etc. As a document addresses the first limitation by introducing a generic
consequence, ALTO Entity Domains defined in this document are a concept called ALTO Entity Domains, where an entity is a
super-set of ALTO Address Types defined in [RFC7285]. Their exact generalization of an endpoint to also represent, a PID, a network
relationship is specified in Section 9.2.1. element, or a cell in a cellular network, etc. As a consequence,
ALTO Entity Domains defined in this document are a super-set of ALTO
Address Types defined in [RFC7285]. Their exact relationship is
specified in Section 11.2.1.
Entity domains and property names are extensible. New entity domains Entity domains and property names are extensible. New entity domains
can be defined without revising the messages defined in this can be defined without revising the messages defined in this
document, in the same way that new cost metrics and new endpoint document, in the same way that new cost metrics and new endpoint
properties can be defined without revising the messages defined in properties can be defined without revising the messages defined in
[RFC7285]. [RFC7285].
This proposal subsumes the Endpoint Property Service defined in Additional, this document addresses the second limitation by defining
two new types of resources, namely Property Map (see Section 6) and
Filtered Property Map (see Section 7). The former is a GET-mode
resource which returns the property values for all entities in a
domain, and is analogous to a network map or a cost map in [RFC7285].
The latter is a POST-mode resource which returns the values for a set
of properties and entities requested by the client, and is analogous
to a filtered network map or a filtered cost map.
This document subsumes the Endpoint Property Service defined in
[RFC7285], although that service may be retained for legacy clients [RFC7285], although that service may be retained for legacy clients
(see Section 6). (see Section 8).
2. Definitions and Concepts 2. Overview: Basic Concepts
Before we define the specification of unified properties, there are
several basic concepts which we need to introduce.
2.1. Entity 2.1. Entity
The entity generalizes the concept of the endpoint defined in The entity concept generalizes the concept of the endpoint defined in
Section 2.1 of [RFC7285]. An entity is an object that can be an Section 2.1 of [RFC7285]. An entity is an object that can be an
endpoint and is identified by its network address, but can also be an endpoint and is identified by its network address, but can also be an
object that has a defined mapping to a set of one or more network object that has a defined mapping to a set of one or more network
addresses or is even not related to any network address. addresses or is even not related to any network address.
Examples of eligible entities are: Examples of eligible entities are:
o a PID, defined in [RFC7285], that has a provider defined human o a PID, defined in [RFC7285], that has a provider defined human
readable abstract identifier and maps to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 readable abstract identifier defined by a ALTO network map, which
addresses, maps a PID to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses;
o an ASN number, that has a specified identifier and direct mapping o an autonomous system (AS), that has an AS number (ASN) as its
to network addresses, identifier and maps to a set of ipv4 and ipv6 addresses;
o a country code, that specified in ISO 3166 format and that can be o a region representing a country, that is identified by its country
retrieved from an IP of cellular address. As a consequence, all code defined by ISO 3166 and maps to a set of cellular addresses;
endpoints are entities while not all entities are endpoints,
o a TCP/IP network flow, that has a server defined identifier and o a TCP/IP network flow, that has a server defined identifier
represents in a TCP/IP 5-Tuple, consisting of the defining TCP/IP 5-Tuple, , which is an example
that all endpoints are entities while not all entities are
endpoints;
o a routing element, that specified in [RFC7921] and includes o a routing element, that is specified in [RFC7921] and includes
routing capability information, routing capability information;
o an abstract network element, that has a server defined identifier o an abstract network element, that has a server defined identifier
and represents a network node, link or their aggregation. and represents a network node, link or their aggregation.
2.2. Entity Domain 2.2. Entity Property
Each entity MUST be in one and only one entity domain. An entity An entity property defines a property of an entity. It is similar to
domain is a class of entities. Examples of entity domains are the the endpoint property defined by Section 7.1 of [RFC7285], but can be
Internet address domains (see Section 3.1 and the PID domain (see general besides network-aware.
Section 3.2). The future documents can define new entity domains to
satisfy the additional requirements such as cellular network
information and routing capability exposure. But they are not in the
scope of this document.
2.3. Domain Name For example,
Each entity domain has a unique name. A domain name MUST be no more o an "ipv4" entity may have a property whose value is an Autonomous
than 32 characters, and MUST NOT contain characters other than US- System (AS) number indicating the AS which this IPv4 address is
ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and owned by;
U+0061-U+007A), hyphen ("-", U+002D), and low line ("_", U+005F).
For example, the names "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify entities in the
Internet address domains (see Section 3.1).
The type DomainName is used in this document to denote a JSON string o a "pid" entity may have a property which indicates the central
with a domain name in this format. geographical location of endpoints included by it.
Domain names MUST be registered with the IANA, and the format of the 2.3. Property Map
entity addresses (see Section 2.4) in that entity domain, as well as
any hierarchical or inheritance rules (see Section 2.6) for those
entities, MUST be specified at the same time.
2.4. Entity Identifier An ALTO property map provides a set of properties for a set of
entities. These entities may be in different types. For example, an
ALTO property map may define the ASN property for both "ipv4" and
"ipv6" entities.
Each entity has an identifier of the format: 2.4. Information Resource
EntityId ::= DomainName : DomainSpecificEntityId This document uses the same definition of the information resource as
defined by [RFC7285]. Each information resource usually has a JSON
format representation following a specific schema defined by its
media type.
An entity identifier uniquely identifies a particular entity within For example, an ALTO network map resource is represented by a JSON
an ALTO property map resource (see Section 4). objectof type InfoResourceNetworkMap defined by the media type
"application/alto-networkmap+json".
Examples from the IP domains include individual IP addresses such as 2.5. Entity Domain
"ipv4:192.0.2.14" and "ipv6:2001:db8::12", as well as address blocks
such as "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" and "ipv6:2001:db8::1/48".
The type EntityId is used in this document to denote a JSON string An entity domain defines a set of entities in the same type. This
with an entity identifier in this format. type is also called the type of this entity domain.
Using entity domains, an ALTO property map can indicate which
entities the ALTO client can query to get their properties.
2.5.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain
To define an entity domain, one naive solution is to enumerate all
entities in this entity domain. But it is inefficient when the size
of the entity domain is large.
To avoid enumerating all entities, this document introduces an
approach called "Resource-Specific Entity Domain" to define entity
domains:
Each information resource may define several types of entity domains.
And for each type of entity domain, an information resource can
define at most one entity domain. For example, an ALTO netowrk map
resource can define an IPv4 domain, an IPv6 domain and a pid domain.
In this document, these entity domains are called resource-specific
entity domains. An ALTO property map only need to indicate which
types of entity domain defined by which information resources can be
queried, the ALTO client will know which entities are effective to be
queried.
2.5.2. Relationship between Entity and Entity Domain
In this document, an entity is owned by exact one entity domain. It
requires that when an ALTO client or server references an entity, it
must indicate its entity domain explicitly. Even two entities in two
different entity domains may reflect to the same physical or logical
object, we treat them as different entities.
Because of this rule, although the resource-specific entity domain
approach has no ambiguity, it may introduce redundancy.
2.5.3. Aggregated Entity Domain
Two entities in two different resource-specific entity domains may
reflect to the same physical or logical object. For example, the
IPv4 entity "192.0.2.34" in the IPv4 domain of the network map
"netmap1" and the IPv4 entity "192.0.2.34" in the IPv4 domain of the
network map "netmap2" should indicate the same Internet endpoint
addressed by the IPv4 address "192.0.2.34".
Each entity in each resource-specific entity domain may only have
part of properties of its associated physical or logical object. For
example, the IPv4 entity in the IPv4 domain of the network map
"netmap1" only has the PID property defined by "netmap1"; same to the
IPv4 entity in the IPv4 domain of the network map "netmap2". If the
ALTO client wants to get the complete properties, using the resource-
specific entity domain, the ALTO client has to query the IPv4 entity
"192.0.2.34" twice.
To simplify the query process of the ALTO client, this document
introduces the concept "Aggregated Entity Domain". An aggregated
entity domain defines an aggregated set of entities coming from
multiple resource-specific entity domains in the same type. An
entity in the aggregated entity domain includes all properties
defined for the associated entity in each associated resource-
specific entity domains. For example, the IPv4 entity "192.0.2.34"
in the aggregated entity domain between the IPv4 domain of "netmap1"
and the IPv4 domain of "netmap2" has PID properties defined by both
"netmap1" and "netmap2".
2.5.4. Resource-Specific Entity Property
According to the example of the aggregated entity domain, an entity
may have multiple properties in the same type but associated to
different information resources. To distinguish them, this document
uses the same approach proposed by Section 10.8.1 of [RFC7285], which
is called "Resource-Specific Entity Property".
2.6. Scope of Property Map
Using entity domains to organize entities, an ALTO property map
resource actually provides a set of properties for some entity
domains. If we ignore the syntax sugar of the aggregated entity
domain, we can consider an ALTO property map resource just provides a
set of (ri, di) => (ro, po) mappings, where (ri, di) means a
resource-specific entity domain of type di defined by the information
resource ri, and (ro, po) means a resource-specific entity property
po defined by the information resource ro.
For each (ri, di) => (ro, po) mapping, the scope of an ALTO property
map resource must be one of cases in the following diagram:
domain.resource domain.resource
(ri) = r (ri) = this
+-----------------|-----------------+
prop.resource | Export | Non-exist |
(ro) = r | | |
+-----------------|-----------------+
prop.resource | Extend | Define |
(ro) = this | | |
+-----------------|-----------------+
where "this" points to the resulting property map resource, "r"
presents an existing ALTO information resource other the resulting
property map resource.
o ri = ro = r ("export" mode): the property map resource just
transforms the property mapping di => po defined by r into the
unified representation format and exports it. For example: r =
"netmap1", di = "ipv4", po = "pid". The property map resource
exports the "ipv4 => pid" mapping defined by "netmap1".
o ri = r, ro = this ("extend" mode): the property map extends
properties of entities in the entity domain (r, di) and defines a
new property po on them. For example: the property map resource
("this") defines a "geolocation" property on domain "netmap1.pid".
o ri = ro = this ("define" mode): the property map defines a new
intrinsic entity domain and defines property po for each entities
in this domain. For example: the property map resource ("this")
defines a new entity domain "asn" and defines a property
"ipprefixes" on this domain.
o ri = this, ro = r: in the scope of a property map resource, it
does not make sense that another existing ALTO information
resource defines a property for this property map resource.
2.7. Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance
Enumerating all individual effective entities are inefficient. Some
types of entities have the hierarchy format, e.g., cidr, which stand
for sets of individual entities. Many entities in the same
hierarchical format entity sets may have the same proprety values.
To reduce the size of the property map representation, this document
introduces an approach called "Property Inheritance". Individual
entities can inherit the property from its hierarchical format entity
set.
3. Protocol Specification: Basic Data Type
3.1. Entity Domain
3.1.1. Entity Domain Type
An entity domain has a type, which is defined by a string that MUST
be no more than 64 characters, and MUST NOT contain characters other
than US-ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A,
and U+0061-U+007A), hyphen ("-", U+002D), and low line ("_", U+005F).
For example, the strings "ipv4", "ipv6", and "pid" are valid entity
domain types.
The type EntityDomainType is used in this document to denote a JSON
string confirming to the preceding requirement.
An entity domain type defines the semantics of a type of entity
domains. Each entity domain type MUST be registered with the IANA.
The format of the entity identifiers (see Section 3.1.3) in that type
of entity domains, as well as any hierarchical or inheritance rules
(see Section 3.1.4) for those entities, MUST be specified at the same
time.
3.1.2. Entity Domain Name
Each entity domain is identified by an entity domain name, a string
of the following format:
EntityDomainName ::= [ [ ResourceID ] '.' ] EntityDomainType
This document distinguish three types of entity domains: resource-
specific entity domains, self-defined entity domain and aggregated
entity domains. Their entity domain names are derived as follows.
Each ALTO information resource MAY define a resource-specific entity
domain (which could be empty) in a given entity domain type. A
resource-specific entity domain is identified by an entity domain
name derived as follows. It MUST start with a resource ID using the
ResourceID type defined in [RFC7285], followed by the "." separator
(U+002E), followed by an EntityDomainType typed string. For example,
if an ALTO server provides two network maps "netmap-1" and "netmap-
2", they can define two different "pid" domains identified by
"netmap-1.pid" and "netmap-2.pid" respectively. To be simplified, in
the scope of a specific information resource, the resource-specific
entity domain defined by itself can be identified by the "."
EntityDomainTyep without the ResourceID.
When the associated information resource of a resource-specific
entity domain is the current information resource itself, this
resource-specific entity domain is a self-defined entity domain, and
its ResourceID SHOULD be ignored from its entity domain name.
Given a set of ALTO information resources, there MAY be an aggregated
entity domain in a given entity domain type amongst them. An
aggregated entity domain is simply identified by its entity domain
type. For example, given two network maps "net-map-1" and "net-map-
2", "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify two aggregated Internet address entity
domains (see Section 4.1) between them.
Note that the "." separator is not allowed in EntityDomainType and
hence there is no ambiguity on whether an entity domain name refers
to a global entity domain or a resource-specific entity domain.
3.1.3. Entity Identifier
Entities in an entity domain are identified by entity identifiers
(EntityID) of the following format:
EntityID ::= EntityDomainName ':' DomainTypeSpecificEntityID
Examples from the Internet address entity domains include individual
IP addresses such as "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.14" and
"net1.ipv6:2001:db8::12", as well as address blocks such as
"net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" and "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::1/48".
The format of the second part of an entity identifier depends on the The format of the second part of an entity identifier depends on the
entity domain, and MUST be specified when registering a new entity entity domain type, and MUST be specified when registering a new
domain. Identifiers MAY be hierarchical, and properties MAY be entity domain type. Identifiers MAY be hierarchical, and properties
inherited based on that hierarchy. Again, the rules defining any MAY be inherited based on that hierarchy. Again, the rules defining
hierarchy or inheritance MUST be defined when the entity domain is any hierarchy or inheritance MUST be defined when the entity domain
registered. type is registered.
Note that an entity address MAY have different textual The type EntityID is used in this document to denote a JSON string
representations, for a given entity domain. For example, the strings representing an entity identifier in this format.
"ipv6:2001:db8::1" and "ipv6:2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:1" refer to the same
entity.
2.5. Property Type and Property Name Note that two entity identifiers with different textual
representations may refer to the same entity, for a given entity
domain. For example, the strings "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::1" and
"net1.ipv6:2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:1" refer to the same entity in the
"ipv6" entity domain.
Every entity in some domain MAY have one or more properties. Every 3.1.4. Hierarchy and Inheritance
property is identified by a Property Type and is specific to a
domain. Every property MUST have a unique Property Type.
This document defines property types in the domain-specific To make the representation efficient, some types of entity domains
semantics. Multiple property types with similar semantics MAY share MAY allow the ALTO client/server to use a hierarchical format entity
the same Property Name in different entity domains. But each identifier to represent a block of individual entities. e.g., In an
property type MUST be registered for a single specific entity domain IPv4 domain "net1.ipv4", a cidr "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" represents
for the following reasons: 64 individual IPv4 entities. In this case, the corresponding
property inheritance rule MUST be defined for the entity domain type.
The hierarchy and inheritance rule MUST have no ambiguity.
o Some properties may only be applicable for particular entity 3.2. Entity Property
domains, not all. For example, the "pid" property is not
applicable for entities in the "pid" domain.
o The interpretation of the value of a property may depend on the Each entity property has a type to indicate the encoding and the
entity domain. For different entity domains, not only the semantics of the value of this entity property, and has a name to be
intended semantics but also the dependent resource types may be identified. One entity MAY have multiple properties in the same
totally different. For example, suppose that the "geo-location" type.
property is defined as the coordinates of a point, encoded as
(say) "latitude longitude [altitude]." When applied to an entity
that represents a specific host computer, identified by an address
in the ipv4 or ipv6 domain, the property defines the host's
location and has no required dependency. However, when applied to
an entity in the "pid" domain, the property would indicate the
location of the center of all hosts in this "pid" entity and
depend on the Network Map defining this "pid" entity.
Therefore, each property type has a unique identifier encoded with 3.2.1. Entity Property Type
the following format:
PropertyType ::= DomainName : PropertyName The type EntityPropertyType is used in this document to indicate a
string denoting an entity property type. The string MUST be no more
than 32 characters, and it MUST NOT contain characters other than US-
ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and
U+0061-U+007A), the hyphen ("-", U+002D), the colon (":", U+003A), or
the low line ('_', U+005F).
o The "DomainName" indicates which entity domain the property type Each entity property type MUST be registered with the IANA. The
applies to. intended semantics of the entity property type MUST be specified at
the same time.
o The "PropertyName" SHOULD relate to the semantics of this property To distinguish with the endpoint property type, the entity property
type. It does not have to be globally unique. In other words, type has the following features.
different property types could have the same property name applied
to different entity domains, if they have the similar semantics.
For example, the property types "ipv4:pid" and "ipv6:pid" have the
same property name "pid" applied to both "ipv4" and "ipv6"
domains.
Property types MUST be registered with the IANA, and the intended o Some entity property types may be applicable to entities in only
semantics, as well as the media types of dependent resources and the particular types of entity domains, not all. For example, the
interpretation, MUST be specified at the same time. "pid" property is not applicable to entities in a "pid" typed
entity domain, but is applicable to entities in the "ipv4" or
"ipv6" domains.
2.6. Hierarchy and Inheritance o The intended semantics of the value of a entity property may also
depend on the the entity domain type of this entity. For example,
suppose that the "geo-location" property is defined as the
coordinates of a point, encoded as (say) "latitude longitude
[altitude]." When applied to an entity that represents a specific
host computer, identified by an address in the "ipv4" or "ipv6"
entity domain, the property defines the host's location. However,
when applied to an entity in a "pid" domain, the property would
indicate the location of the center of all hosts in this "pid"
entity.
Entities in a given domain MAY form a hierarchy based on entity 3.2.2. Entity Property Name
identifiers, and introducing hierarchy allows the introduction of
inheritance. Each entity domain MUST define its own hierarchy and
inheritance rules when registered. The hierarchy and inheritance
rule makes it possible for an entity to inherit a property value from
another entity in the same domain.
2.7. Relationship with Other ALTO Resources Each entity property is identified by an entity property name, which
is a string of the following format:
[RFC7285] recognizes that some properties for some entity domains MAY EntityPropertyName ::= [ ResourceID ] '.' EntityPropertyType
be specific to an ALTO resource, such as a network map. Accordingly
Section 10.8.1 of [RFC7285] defines the concept of "resource-specific
endpoint properties", and indicates that dependency by prefixing the
property name with the ID of the resource on which it depends. That
document defines one resource-specific property, namely the "pid"
property, whose value is the name of the PID containing that endpoint
in the associated network map.
Because a property may be associated to more than one information Similar to the endpoint property type defined in Section 10.8 of
resources within an entity domain, this document takes a different [RFC7285], each entity property may be defined by either the property
approach as follows: map itself (self-defined) or some other specific information resource
(resource-specific).
o Firstly, instead of defining the dependency by prefixing the The entity property name of a resource-specific entity property
property name with a specific dependent resource identifier, this starts with a string of the type ResourceID defined in [RFC7285],
document introduces a Property Type that appends a property name followed by the "." separator (U+002E) and a EntityDomainType typed
to an entity domain name, and registers the dependency types for string. For example, the "pid" properties of an "ipv4" entity
this Property Type. This gives a hint on the types of dependent defined by two different maps "net-map-1" and "net-map-2" are
resources. For example, the fictitious property "pid:region" identified by "net-map-1.pid" and "net-map-2.pid" respectively.
applying to entities in the PID domain depends on the network map
in which the input PID entities have been defined; but the
fictitious property "ipv4:region" does not depend on any
information resource.
o Secondly, it sets a rule saying that in a property map, all When the associated information resource of the entity property is
provided property types MUST have the same dependency types. For the current information resource itself, the ResourceID in the
example, "pid:region" and "ipv4:region" cannot be provided by an property name SHOULD be ignored. For example, the ".asn" property of
individual property map. an "ipv4" entity indicates the AS number of the AS which this IPv4
address is owned by.
o Finally, it identifies, in the IRD and Server responses, the 3.3. Information Resource Export
sequence of information resources associated to all provided
properties in a particular property map. If a property depends on
some different information resources from other properties, the
ALTO server should define a different property map to provide it.
For example, the property "ipv4:pid" provided by a particular
property map MUST depend on one and only one network map. If an
ALTO server wants to provide "ipv4:pid" for PIDs defined in both
network maps "net1" and "net2", it MUST define two individual
property maps.
To specify the aforementionned dependencies, this document uses the Each information resource MAY export a set of entity domains and
"uses" and "dependent-vtags" fields defined respectively in Sections entity property mappings.
9.1.5 and 11.1 of [RFC7285].
o the "uses" field is included in the IRD entry of a resources- 3.3.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain Export
dependent information resource and specifies the dependent IRD
resource.
o the "dependent-vtags" member is used in a Server response message Each type of information resource MAY export several types of entity
to specify the dependent resource. domains. For example, a network map resource defines a "pid" domain,
a "ipv4" domain and a "ipv6" domain (which may be empty).
3. Entity Domains When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an existing type of entity domain,
the corresponding document MUST define how to export such type of
entity domain from such type of information resource.
This document defines three entity domains. The definition of each When a new entity domain type is defined, if an existing type of
entity domain below includes the following: (1) domain name, (2) information resource can export an entity domain in this entity
domain-specific entity identifiers, and (3) hierarchy and inheritance domain type, the corresponding document MUST define how to export
semantics. such type of entity domain from such type of information resource.
3.1. Internet Address Domains 3.3.2. Entity Property Mapping Export
The document defines two entity domains (IPv4 and IPv6) for Internet For each entity domain which could be exported by an information
addresses. Both entity domains include individual addresses and resource, this information resource MAY also export some mapping from
blocks of addresses. Since the two domains use the same hierarchy this entity domain to some entity property. For example, a network
and inheritance semantics, we define the semantics together, instead map resource can map an "ipv4" entity to its "pid" property.
of repeating for each.
3.1.1. IPv4 Domain When a new ALTO information resource type is registered, if this type
of information resource can export an entity domain in an existing
entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to an
existing type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST
define how to export such type of an entity property.
3.1.1.1. Domain Name When a new ALTO entity domain type or a new entity property type is
defined, if an existing type of resource can export an entity domain
in this entity domain type, and map entities in this entity domain to
this type of entity property, the corresponding document MUST define
how to export such type of an entity property.
4. Entity Domain Types
This document defines three entity domain types. The definition of
each entity domain type below includes the following: (1) entity
domain type name, (2) entity domain-specific entity identifiers, and
(3) hierarchy and inheritance semantics. Since a global entity
domain type defines a single global entity domain, we say entity
domain instead of entity domain type.
4.1. Internet Address Domain Types
The document defines two entity domain types (IPv4 and IPv6) for
Internet addresses. Both types are global entity domain types and
hence define a corresponding global entity domain as well. Since the
two domains use the same hierarchy and inheritance semantics, we
define the semantics together, instead of repeating for each.
4.1.1. IPv4 Domain
4.1.1.1. Entity Domain Type
ipv4 ipv4
3.1.1.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 4.1.1.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
Individual addresses are strings as specified by the IPv4Addresses Individual addresses are strings as specified by the IPv4Addresses
rule of Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986]; blocks of addresses are prefix- rule of Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986]; blocks of addresses are prefix-
match strings as specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC4632]. For the match strings as specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC4632]. For the
purpose of defining properties, an individual Internet address and purpose of defining properties, an individual Internet address and
the corresponding full-length prefix are considered aliases for the the corresponding full-length prefix are considered aliases for the
same entity. Thus "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" are same entity. Thus "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" are
equivalent. equivalent.
3.1.2. IPv6 Domain 4.1.2. IPv6 Domain
3.1.2.1. Domain Name 4.1.2.1. Entity Domain Type
ipv6 ipv6
3.1.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 4.1.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
Individual addresses are strings as specified by Section 4 of Individual addresses are strings as specified by Section 4 of
[RFC5952]; blocks of addresses are prefix-match strings as specified [RFC5952]; blocks of addresses are prefix-match strings as specified
in Section 7 of [RFC5952]. For the purpose of defining properties, in Section 7 of [RFC5952]. For the purpose of defining properties,
an individual Internet address and the corresponding 128-bit prefix an individual Internet address and the corresponding 128-bit prefix
are considered aliases for the same entity. That is, are considered aliases for the same entity. That is,
"ipv6:2001:db8::1" and "ipv6:2001:db8::1/128" are equivalent, and "ipv6:2001:db8::1" and "ipv6:2001:db8::1/128" are equivalent, and
have the same set of properties. have the same set of properties.
3.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of ipv4/ipv6 Domains 4.1.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains
Both Internet address domains allow property values to be inherited. Both Internet address domains allow property values to be inherited.
Specifically, if a property P is not defined for a specific Internet Specifically, if a property P is not defined for a specific Internet
address I, but P is defined for some block C which prefix-matches I, address I, but P is defined for some block C which prefix-matches I,
then the address I inherits the value of P defined for block C. If then the address I inherits the value of P defined for block C. If
more than one such block defines a value for P, I inherits the value more than one such block defines a value for P, I inherits the value
of P in the block with the longest prefix. It is important to notice of P in the block with the longest prefix. It is important to notice
that this longest prefix rule will ensure no multiple inheritance, that this longest prefix rule will ensure no multiple inheritance,
and hence no ambiguity. and hence no ambiguity.
skipping to change at page 11, line 10 skipping to change at page 16, line 38
o If the entity would not inherit a value, then the ALTO server MAY o If the entity would not inherit a value, then the ALTO server MAY
return "null" or just omit the property. In this case, the ALTO return "null" or just omit the property. In this case, the ALTO
client cannot infer the value for this property of this entity client cannot infer the value for this property of this entity
from the Inheritance rules. So the client MUST interpret that from the Inheritance rules. So the client MUST interpret that
this property has no value. this property has no value.
If the ALTO server does not define any properties for an entity, then If the ALTO server does not define any properties for an entity, then
the server MAY omit that entity from the response. the server MAY omit that entity from the response.
3.2. PID Domain 4.2. PID Domain
The PID domain associates property values with the PIDs in a network The PID domain associates property values with the PIDs in a network
map. Accordingly, this entity domain always depends on a network map. Accordingly, this entity domain always depends on a network
map. map.
3.2.1. Domain Name 4.2.1. Entity Domain Type
pid pid
3.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers 4.2.2. Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers
The entity identifiers are the PID names of the associated network The entity identifiers are the PID names of the associated network
map. map.
3.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance 4.2.3. Hierarchy and Inheritance
There is no hierarchy or inheritance for properties associated with There is no hierarchy or inheritance for properties associated with
PIDs. PIDs.
3.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains 4.2.4. Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains
The PID domain and the Internet address domains are completely The PID domain and the Internet address domains are completely
independent; the properties associated with a PID have no relation to independent; the properties associated with a PID have no relation to
the properties associated with the prefixes or endpoint addresses in the properties associated with the prefixes or endpoint addresses in
that PID. An ALTO server MAY choose to assign some or all properties that PID. An ALTO server MAY choose to assign some or all properties
of a PID to the prefixes in that PID. of a PID to the prefixes in that PID.
For example, suppose "PID1" consists of the prefix For example, suppose "PID1" consists of the prefix
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", and has the property "P" with value "v1". The "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", and has the property "P" with value "v1". The
Internet address entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24", Internet address entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24",
in the IPv4 domain MAY have a value for the property "P", and if they in the IPv4 domain MAY have a value for the property "P", and if they
do, it is not necessarily "v1". do, it is not necessarily "v1".
3.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties 4.3. Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties
Because the Internet address and PID domains are completely separate, Because the Internet address and PID domains are completely separate,
the question may arise as to which entity domain is the best for a the question may arise as to which entity domain is the best for a
property. In general, the Internet address domains are RECOMMENDED property. In general, the Internet address domains are RECOMMENDED
for properties that are closely related to the Internet address, or for properties that are closely related to the Internet address, or
are associated with, and inherited through, blocks of addresses. are associated with, and inherited through, blocks of addresses.
The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the The PID domain is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the
definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes
in that PID. in that PID.
For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service
providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best
associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a associated with the Internet address domain. On the other hand, a
property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates a property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates a
provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain. provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain.
4. Property Map 5. Entity Domains and Property Mappings in Information Resources
5.1. Network Map Resource
The ALTO network map resource defined by the media type "application/
alto-networkmap+json" exports the following types of entity domains
and entity property mappings.
5.1.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain
An ALTO network map resource defines a "pid" domain, an "ipv4" domain
and an "ipv6" domain by follows:
o The defined "pid" domain includes all PIDs in keys of the
"network-map" object.
o The defined "ipv4" domain includes all IPv4 addresses appearing in
the "ipv4" field of the endpoint address group of each PID.
o The defined "ipv6" domain includes all IPv6 addresses appearing in
the "ipv6" field of the endpoint address group of each PID.
5.1.2. Entity Property Mapping
For each of the preceding entity domains, an ALTO network map
resource provides the properties mapping as follows:
ipv4 -> pid: An "networkmap" typed resource can map an "ipv4" entity
to a "pid" property whose value is a PID defined by this
"networkmap" resource and including the IPv4 address of this
entity.
ipv6 -> pid: An "networkmap" typed resource can map an "ipv6" entity
to a "pid" property whose value is a PID defined by this
"networkmap" resource and including the IPv6 address of this
entity.
5.2. Endpoint Property Resource
The ALTO endpoint property resource defined by the media type
"application/alto-endpointprop+json" exports the following types of
entity domains and entity property mappings.
5.2.1. Resource-Specific Entity Domain
An ALTO endpoint property resource defined an "ipv4" domain and an
"ipv6" domain by follows:
o The defined "ipv4" domain includes all IPv4 addresses appearing in
keys of the "endpoint-properties" object.
o The defined "ipv6" domain includes all IPv6 addresses appearing in
keys of the "endpoint-properties" object.
5.2.2. Entity Property Mapping
For each of the preceding entity domains, an ALTO endpoint property
resource exports the properties mapping from it to each supported
global endpoint property. The property value is the corresponding
global endpoint property value in the "endpiont-properties" object.
5.3. Property Map Resource
To avoid the nested reference and its potential complexity, this
document does not specify the export rule of resource-specific entity
domain and entity property mapping for the ALTO property map resource
defined by the media type "application/alto-propmap+json" (see
Section 6.1).
6. Property Map
A property map returns the properties defined for all entities in one A property map returns the properties defined for all entities in one
or more domains, e.g., the "location" property of entities in "pid" or more domains, e.g., the "location" property of entities in "pid"
domain, and the "ASN" property of entities in "ipv4" and "ipv6" domain, and the "ASN" property of entities in "ipv4" and "ipv6"
domains. domains.
Section 7.4 gives an example of a property map request and its Section 9.4 gives an example of a property map request and its
response. response.
4.1. Media Type 6.1. Media Type
The media type of a property map is "application/alto-propmap+json". The media type of a property map is "application/alto-propmap+json".
4.2. HTTP Method 6.2. HTTP Method
The property map is requested using the HTTP GET method. The property map is requested using the HTTP GET method.
4.3. Accept Input Parameters 6.3. Accept Input Parameters
None. None.
4.4. Capabilities 6.4. Capabilities
The capabilities are defined by an object of type The capabilities are defined by an object of type
PropertyMapCapabilities: PropertyMapCapabilities:
object { object {
DomainName entity-domains<1..*>; EntityPropertyMapping mappings;
PropertyName properties<1..*>;
} PropertyMapCapabilities; } PropertyMapCapabilities;
where "entity-domains" is an array specifying the entity domains, and object-map {
"properties" is an array specifying the property names returned for EntityDomainName -> EntityPropertyName<1..*>;
entities in those domains. The semantics is that this property map } EntityPropertyMapping
provides all property types generated by the cross product of
"entity-domains" and "properties". If a property in "properties" is
NOT supported by a domain in "entity-domains", the server can declare
different property maps to conform to the semantics.
For example, the capability {"entity-domains": ["ipv4", "ipv6"],
"properties": ["pid"]} means the property map provides both property
types "ipv4:pid" and "ipv6:pid".
4.5. Uses with fields:
The "uses" field of a property map resource in an IRD entry specifies mappings: A JSON object whose keys are names of entity domains and
dependencies as discussed in Section 2.7. It is an array of the values are the supported entity properties of the corresponding
resource ID(s) of the resource(s) that properties of entities in entity domains.
domains specified in "entity-domains" depend on.
In a single property map, every property value of every entity 6.5. Uses
depends on the same array of resources. Thus, if properties
depending on different resources arrays would be provided, they MUST
be split into different property maps.
Note that according to [RFC7285], a legacy ALTO server with two The "uses" field of a property map resource in an IRD entry specifies
network maps, with resource IDs "net1" and "net2", could offer a dependent resources of this property map. It is an array of the
single Endpoint Property Service for the two properties "net1.pid" resource ID(s) of the resource(s).
and "net2.pid". An ALTO server which supports the property map
resource defined in this document, would, instead, offer two
different property maps for the "pid" property, one depending on
"net1", and the other on "net2".
4.6. Response 6.6. Response
If the entity domains in this property map depend on other resources, If the entity domains in this property map depend on other resources,
the "dependent-vtags" field in the "meta" field of the response MUST the "dependent-vtags" field in the "meta" field of the response MUST
be an array that includes the version tags of those resources, and be an array that includes the version tags of those resources, and
the order MUST be consistent with the "uses" field of this property the order MUST be consistent with the "uses" field of this property
map resource. The data component of a property map response is named map resource. The data component of a property map response is named
"property-map", which is a JSON object of type PropertyMapData, "property-map", which is a JSON object of type PropertyMapData,
where: where:
object { object {
PropertyMapData property-map; PropertyMapData property-map;
} InfoResourceProperties : ResponseEntityBase; } InfoResourceProperties : ResponseEntityBase;
object-map { object-map {
EntityId -> EntityProps; EntityID -> EntityProps;
} PropertyMapData; } PropertyMapData;
object { object {
PropertyName -> JSONValue; EntityPropertyName -> JSONValue;
} EntityProps; } EntityProps;
The ResponseEntityBase type is defined in Section 8.4 of [RFC7285]. The ResponseEntityBase type is defined in Section 8.4 of [RFC7285].
Specifically, a PropertyMapData object has one member for each entity Specifically, a PropertyMapData object has one member for each entity
in the property map. The entity's properties are encoded in the in the property map. The entity's properties are encoded in the
corresponding EntityProps object. EntityProps encodes one name/value corresponding EntityProps object. EntityProps encodes one name/value
pair for each property, where the property names are encoded as pair for each property, where the property names are encoded as
strings of type PropertyName. A protocol implementation SHOULD strings of type PropertyName. A protocol implementation SHOULD
assume that the property value is either a JSONString or a JSON assume that the property value is either a JSONString or a JSON
"null" value, and fail to parse if it is not, unless the "null" value, and fail to parse if it is not, unless the
implementation is using an extension to this document that indicates implementation is using an extension to this document that indicates
when and how property values of other data types are signaled. when and how property values of other data types are signaled.
For each entity in the Property Map, the ALTO server returns the For each entity in the property map:
value defined for each of the properties specified in this resource's
"capabilities" list. For efficiency, the ALTO server SHOULD omit
property values that are inherited rather than explicitly defined; if
a client needs inherited values, the client SHOULD use the entity
domain's inheritance rules to deduce those values.
5. Filtered Property Map o If the entity is in a resource-specific entity domain, the ALTO
server SHOULD only return self-defined properties and resource-
specific properties which depend on the same resource as the
entity does. The ALTO client SHOULD ignore the resource-specific
property in this entity if their mapping is not registered in the
ALTO Resource Entity Property Transfer Registry of the type of the
corresponding resource.
o If the entity is in a shared entity domain, the ALTO server SHOULD
return self-defined properties and all resource-specific
properties defined for all resource-specific entities which have
the same domain-specific entity identifier as this entity does.
For efficiency, the ALTO server SHOULD omit property values that are
inherited rather than explicitly defined; if a client needs inherited
values, the client SHOULD use the entity domain's inheritance rules
to deduce those values.
7. Filtered Property Map
A filtered property map returns the values of a set of properties for A filtered property map returns the values of a set of properties for
a set of entities selected by the client. a set of entities selected by the client.
Section 7.5, Section 7.6, Section 7.7 and Section 7.8 give examples Section 9.5, Section 9.6, Section 9.7 and Section 9.8 give examples
of filtered property map requests and responses. of filtered property map requests and responses.
5.1. Media Type 7.1. Media Type
The media type of a property map resource is "application/alto- The media type of a property map resource is "application/alto-
propmap+json". propmap+json".
5.2. HTTP Method 7.2. HTTP Method
The filtered property map is requested using the HTTP POST method. The filtered property map is requested using the HTTP POST method.
5.3. Accept Input Parameters 7.3. Accept Input Parameters
The input parameters for a filtered property map request are supplied The input parameters for a filtered property map request are supplied
in the entity body of the POST request. This document specifies the in the entity body of the POST request. This document specifies the
input parameters with a data format indicated by the media type input parameters with a data format indicated by the media type
"application/alto-propmapparams+json", which is a JSON object of type "application/alto-propmapparams+json", which is a JSON object of type
ReqFilteredPropertyMap: ReqFilteredPropertyMap:
object { object {
EntityId entities<1..*>; EntityID entities<1..*>;
PropertyName properties<1..*>; EntityPropertyName properties<1..*>;
} ReqFilteredPropertyMap; } ReqFilteredPropertyMap;
with fields: with fields:
entities: List of entity identifiers for which the specified entities: List of entity identifiers for which the specified
properties are to be returned. The ALTO server MUST interpret properties are to be returned. The ALTO server MUST interpret
entries appearing multiple times as if they appeared only once. entries appearing multiple times as if they appeared only once.
The domain of each entity MUST be included in the list of entity The domain of each entity MUST be included in the list of entity
domains in this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 5.4). domains in this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 7.4).
properties: List of properties to be returned for each entity. Each properties: List of properties to be returned for each entity. Each
specified property MUST be included in the list of properties in specified property MUST be included in the list of properties in
this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 5.4). The ALTO this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 7.4). The ALTO
server MUST interpret entries appearing multiple times as if they server MUST interpret entries appearing multiple times as if they
appeared only once. appeared only once.
Note that the "entities" and "properties" fields MUST have at Note that the "entities" and "properties" fields MUST have at
least one entry each. least one entry each.
5.4. Capabilities 7.4. Capabilities
The capabilities are defined by an object of type The capabilities are defined by an object of type
PropertyMapCapabilities, as defined in Section 4.4. PropertyMapCapabilities, as defined in Section 6.4.
5.5. Uses 7.5. Uses
The "uses" field of a filtered property map is an array with the Same to the "uses" field of the Property Map resource (see
resource ID(s) of resource(s) that each domain in "entity-domains" Section 6.5).
depends on, in order to provide the properties specified in the
"properties" capability. The same "uses" rule as defined by the
property map resource applies (see Section 4.5).
5.6. Response 7.6. Response
The response MUST indicate an error, using ALTO protocol error The response MUST indicate an error, using ALTO protocol error
handling, as defined in Section 8.5 of [RFC7285], if the request is handling, as defined in Section 8.5 of [RFC7285], if the request is
invalid. invalid.
Specifically, a filtered property map request can be invalid as Specifically, a filtered property map request can be invalid as
follows: follows:
o An entity identifiers in "entities" in the request is invalid if: o An entity identifier in "entities" in the request is invalid if:
* The domain of this entity is not defined in the "entity-domain- * The domain of this entity is not defined in the "entity-
types" capability of this resource in the IRD; domains" capability of this resource in the IRD;
* The entity identifier is an invalid identifier in the entity * The entity identifier is an invalid identifier in the entity
domain. domain.
A valid entity identifier is never an error, even if this filtered A valid entity identifier is never an error, even if this filtered
property map resource does not define any properties for it. property map resource does not define any properties for it.
If an entity identifier in "entities" in the request is invalid, If an entity identifier in "entities" in the request is invalid,
the ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE" error the ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE" error
defined in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285], and the "value" field of defined in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285], and the "value" field of
the error message SHOULD indicate this entity identifier. the error message SHOULD indicate this entity identifier.
o A property name in "properties" in the request is invalid if this o A property name in "properties" in the request is invalid if this
property name is not defined in the "property-types" capability of property name is not defined in the "properties" capability of
this resource in the IRD. this resource in the IRD.
It is not an error that a filtered property map resource does not It is not an error that a filtered property map resource does not
define a requested property's value for a particular entity. In define a requested property's value for a particular entity. In
this case, the ALTO server MUST omit that property from the this case, the ALTO server MUST omit that property from the
response for that endpoint. response for that endpoint.
If a property name in "properties" in the request is invalid, the If a property name in "properties" in the request is invalid, the
ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE" error defined ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE" error defined
in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285]. The "value" field of the error in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285]. The "value" field of the error
message SHOULD indicate the property name. message SHOULD indicate the property name.
The response to a valid request is the same as for the Property Map The response to a valid request is the same as for the Property Map
(see Section 4.6), except that: (see Section 6.6), except that:
o The "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta" field only includes the o If the requested entities include entities in the shared entity
version tags of resources on which the requested properties of the domain, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta" field MUST
entity domains depend, and the order MUST be consistent with the include version tags of all dependent resources appearing in the
"uses" field of this filtered property map resource. "uses" field.
o It only includes the entities and properties requested by the o If the requested entities only include entities in resource-
client. If an entity in the request is an identifier block (e.g., specific entity domains, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta"
an "ipv4" or "ipv6" entity), the response MUST cover properties field MUST include version tags of resources which requested
for all identifiers in this block. resource-specific entity domains and requested resource-specific
properties are dependent on.
o The response only includes the entities and properties requested
by the client. If an entity in the request is identified by a
hierarchical identifier (e.g., an "ipv4" or "ipv6" address block),
the response MUST cover properties for all identifiers in this
hierarchical identifier.
It is important that the filtered property map response MUST include It is important that the filtered property map response MUST include
all inherited property values for the requested entities and all the all inherited property values for the requested entities and all the
entities which are able to inherit property values from them. To entities which are able to inherit property values from them. To
achieve this goal, the ALTO server MAY follow three rules: achieve this goal, the ALTO server MAY follow three rules:
o If a property for a requested entity is inherited from another o If a property for a requested entity is inherited from another
entity not included in the request, the response SHOULD include entity not included in the request, the response SHOULD include
this property for the requested entity. For example, A full this property for the requested entity. For example, A full
property map may skip a property P for an entity A (e.g., property map may skip a property P for an entity A (e.g.,
skipping to change at page 17, line 22 skipping to change at page 24, line 33
o If an entity in the response is already covered by some other o If an entity in the response is already covered by some other
entities in the same response, it SHOULD be removed from the entities in the same response, it SHOULD be removed from the
response for compactness. For example, in the previous example, response for compactness. For example, in the previous example,
the entity A=ipv4:192.0.2.0/31 SHOULD be removed because A1 and A2 the entity A=ipv4:192.0.2.0/31 SHOULD be removed because A1 and A2
cover all the addresses in A. cover all the addresses in A.
An ALTO client should be aware that the entities in the response MAY An ALTO client should be aware that the entities in the response MAY
be different from the entities in its request. be different from the entities in its request.
6. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients 8. Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients
6.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service 8.1. Impact on Endpoint Property Service
Since the property map and the filtered property map defined in this Since the property map and the filtered property map defined in this
document provide the functionality of the Endpoint Property Service document provide the functionality of the Endpoint Property Service
(EPS) defined in Section 11.4 of [RFC7285], it is RECOMMENDED that (EPS) defined in Section 11.4 of [RFC7285], it is RECOMMENDED that
the EPS be deprecated in favor of Property Map and Filtered Property the EPS be deprecated in favor of Property Map and Filtered Property
Map. However, ALTO servers MAY provide an EPS for the benefit of Map. However, ALTO servers MAY provide an EPS for the benefit of
legacy clients. legacy clients.
6.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties 8.2. Impact on Resource-Specific Properties
Section 10.8 of [RFC7285] defines two categories of endpoint Section 10.8 of [RFC7285] defines two categories of endpoint
properties: "resource-specific" and "global". Resource-specific properties: "resource-specific" and "global". Resource-specific
property names are prefixed with the ID of the resource they depend property names are prefixed with the ID of the resource they depend
upon, while global property names have no such prefix. The property upon, while global property names have no such prefix. The property
map and the filtered property map defined in this document do not map and the filtered property map defined in this document do not
distinguish between those two types of properties. Instead, if there distinguish between those two types of properties. Instead, if there
is a dependency, it is indicated by the "uses" capability of a is a dependency, it is indicated by the "uses" capability of a
property map, and is shared by all properties and entity domains in property map, and is shared by all properties and entity domains in
that map. Accordingly, it is RECOMMENDED that resource-specific that map. Accordingly, it is RECOMMENDED that resource-specific
endpoint properties be deprecated, and no new resource-specific endpoint properties be deprecated, and no new resource-specific
endpoint properties be defined. endpoint properties be defined.
6.3. Impact on the pid Property 8.3. Impact on the pid Property
Section 7.1.1 of [RFC7285] defines the resource-specific endpoint Section 7.1.1 of [RFC7285] defines the resource-specific endpoint
property name "pid", whose value is the name of the PID containing property name "pid", whose value is the name of the PID containing
that endpoint. For compatibility with legacy clients, an ALTO server that endpoint. For compatibility with legacy clients, an ALTO server
which provides the "pid" property via the EPS MUST use that which provides the "pid" property via the EPS MUST use that
definition, and that syntax. definition, and that syntax.
However, when used with property maps, this document amends the However, when used with property maps, this document amends the
definition of the "pid" property as follows. definition of the "pid" property as follows.
First, the name of the property is simply "pid"; the name is not First, the name of the property is simply "pid"; the name is not
prefixed with the resource ID of a network map. The "uses" prefixed with the resource ID of a network map. The "uses"
capability of the property map indicates the associated network map. capability of the property map indicates the associated network map.
This implies that a property map can only return the "pid" property This implies that a property map can only return the "pid" property
for one network map; if an ALTO server provides several network maps, for one network map; if an ALTO server provides several network maps,
it MUST provide a Property Map for each of the network maps. it MUST provide a Property Map for each of the network maps.
Second, a client MAY request the "pid" property for a block of Second, a client MAY request the "pid" property for a block of
Internet addresses. An ALTO server determines the value of "pid" for Internet addresses. An ALTO server determines the value of "pid" for
an address block C as the rules defined in Section 5.6. an address block C as the rules defined in Section 7.6.
Note that although an ALTO server MAY provide a GET-mode property map Note that although an ALTO server MAY provide a GET-mode property map
which returns the entire map for the "pid" property, there is no need which returns the entire map for the "pid" property, there is no need
to do so, because that map is simply the inverse of the network map. to do so, because that map is simply the inverse of the network map.
6.4. Impact on Other Properties 8.4. Impact on Other Properties
In general, there should be little or no impact on other previously In general, there should be little or no impact on other previously
defined properties. The only consideration is that properties can defined properties. The only consideration is that properties can
now be defined on blocks of identifiers, rather than just individual now be defined on blocks of identifiers, rather than just individual
identifiers, which might change the semantics of a property. identifiers, which might change the semantics of a property.
7. Examples 9. Examples
7.1. Network Map 9.1. Network Map
The examples in this section use a very simple default network map: The examples in this section use a very simple default network map:
defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0 defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0
pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/25 pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/25
pid2: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28 pid2: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28
pid3: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28 pid3: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28
pid4: ipv4:192.0.3.16/28 pid4: ipv4:192.0.3.16/28
Figure 3: Example Network Map Figure 3: Example Default Network Map
7.2. Property Definitions And another simple alternative network map:
defaultpid: ipv4:0.0.0.0/0 ipv6:::0/0
pid1: ipv4:192.0.2.0/28 ipv4:192.0.2.16/28
pid2: ipv4:192.0.3.0/28 ipv4:192.0.3.16/28
Figure 4: Example Alternative Network Map
9.2. Property Definitions
Beyond "pid", the examples in this section use four additional Beyond "pid", the examples in this section use four additional
properties for Internet address domains, "ISP", "ASN", "country" and properties for Internet address domains, "ISP", "ASN", "country" and
"state", with the following values: "state", with the following values:
ISP ASN country state ISP ASN country state
ipv4:192.0.2.0/23: BitsRus - us - ipv4:192.0.2.0/23: BitsRus - us -
ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: - 12345 - NJ ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: - 12345 - NJ
ipv4:192.0.2.16/28: - 12345 - CT ipv4:192.0.2.16/28: - 12345 - CT
ipv4:192.0.2.0: - - - PA ipv4:192.0.2.0: - - - PA
ipv4:192.0.3.0/28: - 12346 - TX ipv4:192.0.3.0/28: - 12346 - TX
ipv4:192.0.3.16/28: - 12346 - MN ipv4:192.0.3.16/28: - 12346 - MN
Figure 4: Example Property Values for Internet Address Domains Figure 5: Example Property Values for Internet Address Domains
And the examples in this section use the property "region" for PID And the examples in this section use the property "region" for the
domain with the following values: PID domain of the default network map with the following values:
region region
pid:defaultpid: - pid:defaultpid: -
pid:pid1: west pid:pid1: us-west
pid:pid2: east pid:pid2: us-east
pid:pid3: south pid:pid3: us-south
pid:pid4: north pid:pid4: us-north
Figure 5: Example Property Values for PID Domain Figure 6: Example Property Values for Default Network Map's PID
Domain
Note that "-" means the value of the property for the entity is Note that "-" means the value of the property for the entity is
"undefined". So the entity would inherit a value for this property "undefined". So the entity would inherit a value for this property
by the inheritance rule if possible. For example, the value of the by the inheritance rule if possible. For example, the value of the
"ISP" property for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is "BitsRus" because of "ISP" property for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is "BitsRus" because of
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/24". But the "region" property for "pid:defaultpid" "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24". But the "region" property for "pid:defaultpid"
has no value because no entity from which it can inherit. has no value because no entity from which it can inherit.
7.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD) Similar to the PID domain of the default network map, the examples in
this section use the property "ASN" for the PID domain of the
alternative network map with the following values:
ASN
pid:defaultpid: -
pid:pid1: 12345
pid:pid2: 12346
Figure 7: Example Property Values for Alternative Network Map's PID
Domain
9.3. Information Resource Directory (IRD)
The following IRD defines the relevant resources of the ALTO server. The following IRD defines the relevant resources of the ALTO server.
It provides two property maps, one for the "ISP" and "ASN" It provides two property maps, one for the "ISP" and "ASN"
properties, and another for the "country" and "state" properties. properties, and another for the "country" and "state" properties.
The server could have provided a single property map for all four The server could have provided a single property map for all four
properties, but did not, presumably because the organization that properties, but did not, presumably because the organization that
runs the ALTO server believes any given client is not interested in runs the ALTO server believes any given client is not interested in
all four properties. all four properties.
The server provides two filtered property maps. The first returns The server provides two filtered property maps. The first returns
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"state" properties do not depend on the default network map (it does "state" properties do not depend on the default network map (it does
not have a "uses" capability), because the definitions of those not have a "uses" capability), because the definitions of those
properties do not depend on the default network map. The Filtered properties do not depend on the default network map. The Filtered
Property Map for the "pid" property does have a "uses" capability for Property Map for the "pid" property does have a "uses" capability for
the default network map, because that defines the values of the "pid" the default network map, because that defines the values of the "pid"
property. property.
Note that for legacy clients, the ALTO server provides an Endpoint Note that for legacy clients, the ALTO server provides an Endpoint
Property Service for the "pid" property for the default network map. Property Service for the "pid" property for the default network map.
"meta" : { "meta" : {
... ...
"default-alto-network-map" : "default-network-map" "default-alto-network-map" : "default-network-map"
}, },
"resources" : { "resources" : {
"default-network-map" : { "default-network-map" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap", "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap/default",
"media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json" "media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json"
}, },
.... property map resources .... "alt-network-map" : {
"country-state-property-map" : { "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap/alt",
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/full/inet-cs", "media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json"
"media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json", },
"capabilities" : { .... property map resources ....
"entity-domains": [ "ipv4", "ipv6" ], "ia-property-map" : {
"properties" : [ "country", "state" ]
}
},
"isp-asn-property-map" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/full/inet-ia", "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/full/inet-ia",
"media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json", "media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json",
"uses": [ "default-network-map", "alt-network-map" ],
"capabilities" : { "capabilities" : {
"entity-domains": [ "ipv4", "ipv6" ], "mappings": {
"properties" : [ "ISP", "ASN" ] "ipv4": [ ".ISP", ".ASN" ],
"ipv6": [ ".ISP", ".ASN" ]
}
} }
}, },
"iacs-property-map" : { "iacs-property-map" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/lookup/inet-iacs", "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/full/inet-iacs",
"media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json", "media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json",
"accepts" : "application/alto-propmapparams+json", "accepts": "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
"uses": [ "default-network-map", "alt-network-map" ],
"capabilities" : { "capabilities" : {
"entity-domains": [ "ipv4", "ipv6" ], "mappings": {
"properties" : [ "ISP", "ASN", "country", "state" ] "ipv4": [ ".ISP", ".ASN", ".country", ".state" ],
"ipv6": [ ".ISP", ".ASN", ".country", ".state" ]
}
} }
}, },
"pid-property-map" : { "region-property-map": {
"uri": "http://alto.exmaple.com/propmap/region",
"media-type": "application/alto-propmap+json",
"accepts": "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
"uses" : [ "default-network-map", "alt-network-map" ],
"capabilities": {
"mappings": {
"default-network-map.pid": [ ".region" ],
"alt-network-map.pid": [ ".ASN" ],
}
}
},
"ip-pid-property-map" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/lookup/pid", "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/lookup/pid",
"media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json", "media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json",
"accepts" : "application/alto-propmapparams+json", "accepts" : "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
"uses" : [ "default-network-map" ] "uses" : [ "default-network-map", "alt-network-map" ],
"capabilities" : {
"entity-domains" : [ "ipv4", "ipv6" ],
"properties" : [ "pid" ]
}
},
"region-property-map": {
"uri": "http://alto.exmaple.com/propmap/region",
"media-type": "application/alto-propmap+json",
"accepts": "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
"uses" : [ "default-network-map" ],
"capabilities": {
"domain-types": [ "pid" ],
"properties": [ "region" ]
}
},
"legacy-pid-property" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/legacy/eps-pid",
"media-type" : "application/alto-endpointprop+json",
"accepts" : "application/alto-endpointpropparams+json",
"capabilities" : { "capabilities" : {
"properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid" ] "mappings": {
"ipv4": [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid" ],
"ipv6": [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid" ]
}
} }
} },
} "legacy-endpoint-property" : {
"uri" : "http://alto.example.com/legacy/eps-pid",
"media-type" : "application/alto-endpointprop+json",
"accepts" : "application/alto-endpointpropparams+json",
"capabilities" : {
"properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid",
"alt-network-map.pid" ]
}
}
}
Figure 6: Example IRD Figure 8: Example IRD
7.4. Property Map Example 9.4. Property Map Example
The following example uses the properties and IRD defined above to The following example uses the properties and IRD defined above to
retrieve a Property Map for entities with the "ISP" and "ASN" retrieve a Property Map for entities with the "ISP" and "ASN"
properties. properties.
Note that, to be compact, the response does not includes the entity Note that, to be compact, the response does not includes the entity
"ipv4:192.0.2.0", because values of all those properties for this "ipv4:192.0.2.0", because values of all those properties for this
entity are inherited from other entities. entity are inherited from other entities.
Also note that the entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and Also note that the entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
skipping to change at page 22, line 9 skipping to change at page 30, line 9
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/23". "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23".
GET /propmap/full/inet-ia HTTP/1.1 GET /propmap/full/inet-ia HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"meta": {
"dependent-vtags": [
{"resource-id": "default-network-map",
"tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
{"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
"tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
]
},
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/23": {"ISP": "BitsRus"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23": {".ISP": "BitsRus"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {"ASN": "12345"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {".ASN": "12345"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/27": {"ASN": "12346"} "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27": {".ASN": "12346"}
} }
} }
7.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1 9.5. Filtered Property Map Example #1
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4 request the "ISP", "ASN" and "state" properties for several IPv4
addresses. addresses.
Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is the only Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.0" is the only
explicitly defined property; the other values are all derived by the explicitly defined property; the other values are all derived by the
inheritance rules for Internet address entities. inheritance rules for Internet address entities.
POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json
{ {
"entities" : [ "ipv4:192.0.2.0", "entities" : [ "ipv4:192.0.2.0",
"ipv4:192.0.2.1", "ipv4:192.0.2.1",
"ipv4:192.0.2.17" ], "ipv4:192.0.2.17" ],
"properties" : [ "ISP", "ASN", "state" ] "properties" : [ ".ISP", ".ASN", ".state" ]
} }
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"meta": {
"dependent-vtags": [
{"resource-id": "default-network-map",
"tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
{"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
"tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
]
},
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0": "ipv4:192.0.2.0":
{"ISP": "BitsRus", "ASN": "12345", "state": "PA"}, {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "PA"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.1": "ipv4:192.0.2.1":
{"ISP": "BitsRus", "ASN": "12345", "state": "NJ"}, {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "NJ"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.17": "ipv4:192.0.2.17":
{"ISP": "BitsRus", "ASN": "12345", "state": "CT"} {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "12345", ".state": "CT"}
} }
} }
7.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2 9.6. Filtered Property Map Example #2
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "ASN", "country" and "state" properties for several IPv4 request the "ASN", "country" and "state" properties for several IPv4
prefixes. prefixes.
Note that the property values for both entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" Note that the property values for both entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26"
and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26" are not explicitly defined. They are and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26" are not explicitly defined. They are
inherited from the entity "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23". inherited from the entity "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23".
Also note that some entities like "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and Also note that some entities like "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
skipping to change at page 23, line 49 skipping to change at page 32, line 15
POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json
{ {
"entities" : [ "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26", "entities" : [ "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26",
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/26", "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26",
"ipv4:192.0.4.0/26" ], "ipv4:192.0.4.0/26" ],
"properties" : [ "ASN", "country", "state" ] "properties" : [ ".ASN", ".country", ".state" ]
} }
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"meta": {
"dependent-vtags": [
{"resource-id": "default-network-map",
"tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
{"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
"tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
]
},
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/26": {"country": "us"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26": {".country": "us"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/28": {"ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28": {".ASN": "12345",
"state": "NJ"}, ".state": "NJ"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.16/28": {"ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.2.16/28": {".ASN": "12345",
"state": "CT"}, ".state": "CT"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0": {"state": "PA"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0": {".state": "PA"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/26": {"country": "us"}, "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26": {".country": "us"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {"ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {".ASN": "12345",
"state": "TX"}, ".state": "TX"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"ASN": "12345", "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {".ASN": "12345",
"state": "MN"} ".state": "MN"}
} }
} }
7.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3 9.7. Filtered Property Map Example #3
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "pid" property for several IPv4 addresses and prefixes. request the "pid" property for several IPv4 addresses and prefixes.
Note that the entity "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" is redundant in the Note that the entity "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" is redundant in the
response. Although it can inherit a value of "defaultpid" for the response. Although it can inherit a value of "defaultpid" for the
"pid" property from the entity "ipv4:0.0.0.0/0", none of addresses in "pid" property from the entity "ipv4:0.0.0.0/0", none of addresses in
it is in "defaultpid". Because blocks "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and it is in "defaultpid". Because blocks "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28" have already cover all addresses in that block. "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28" have already cover all addresses in that block.
So an ALTO server who wants a compact response can omit this entity. So an ALTO server who wants a compact response can omit this entity.
skipping to change at page 24, line 46 skipping to change at page 33, line 19
POST /propmap/lookup/pid HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/pid HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json
{ {
"entities" : [ "entities" : [
"ipv4:192.0.2.128", "ipv4:192.0.2.128",
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" ], "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" ],
"properties" : [ "pid" ] "properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid" ]
} }
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"meta" : { "meta": {
"dependent-vtags" : [ "dependent-vtags": [
{"resource-id": "default-network-map", {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
"tag": "7915dc0290c2705481c491a2b4ffbec482b3cf62"} "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
{"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
"tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
] ]
}, },
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"ipv4:192.0.2.128": {"pid": "defaultpid"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.128": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"},
"ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {"pid": "defaultpid"}, "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27": {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {"pid": "pid3"}, "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid3"},
"ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"pid": "pid4"} "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid4"}
} }
} }
7.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4 9.8. Filtered Property Map Example #4
The following example uses the filtered property map resource to The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
request the "region" property for several PIDs defined in "default- request the "region" property for several PIDs defined in "default-
network-map". The value of the "region" property for each PID is not network-map". The value of the "region" property for each PID is not
defined by "default-network-map", but the reason why the PID is defined by "default-network-map", but the reason why the PID is
defined by the network operator. defined by the network operator.
POST /propmap/lookup/region HTTP/1.1 POST /propmap/lookup/region HTTP/1.1
Host: alto.example.com Host: alto.example.com
Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json
{ {
"entities" : ["pid:pid1", "entities" : ["default-network-map.pid:pid1",
"pid:pid2"], "default-network-map.pid:pid2"],
"properties" : [ "region" ] "properties" : [ ".region" ]
} }
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: ### Content-Length: ###
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"meta" : { "meta" : {
"dependent-vtags" : [ "dependent-vtags" : [
{"resource-id": "default-network-map", {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
"tag": "7915dc0290c2705481c491a2b4ffbec482b3cf62"} "tag": "7915dc0290c2705481c491a2b4ffbec482b3cf62"}
] ]
skipping to change at page 26, line 16 skipping to change at page 34, line 29
Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json
{ {
"meta" : { "meta" : {
"dependent-vtags" : [ "dependent-vtags" : [
{"resource-id": "default-network-map", {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
"tag": "7915dc0290c2705481c491a2b4ffbec482b3cf62"} "tag": "7915dc0290c2705481c491a2b4ffbec482b3cf62"}
] ]
}, },
"property-map": { "property-map": {
"pid:pid1": { "default-network-map.pid:pid1": {
"region": "west" ".region": "us-west"
}, },
"pid:pid2": { "default-network-map.pid:pid2": {
"region": "east" ".region": "us-east"
} }
} }
} }
8. Security Considerations 10. Security Considerations
Both Property Map and Filtered Property Map defined in this document Both Property Map and Filtered Property Map defined in this document
fit into the architecture of the ALTO base protocol, and hence the fit into the architecture of the ALTO base protocol, and hence the
Security Considerations (Section 15 of [RFC7285]) of the base Security Considerations (Section 15 of [RFC7285]) of the base
protocol fully apply: authenticity and integrity of ALTO information protocol fully apply: authenticity and integrity of ALTO information
(i.e., authenticity and integrity of Property Maps), potential (i.e., authenticity and integrity of Property Maps), potential
undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO information (e.g., undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO information (e.g.,
potentially imprecise or even wrong value of a property such as geo- potentially imprecise or even wrong value of a property such as geo-
location), confidentiality of ALTO information (e.g., exposure of a location), confidentiality of ALTO information (e.g., exposure of a
potentially sensitive entity property such as geo-location), privacy potentially sensitive entity property such as geo-location), privacy
skipping to change at page 27, line 5 skipping to change at page 35, line 17
can access what properties for which entities. Security mechanisms can access what properties for which entities. Security mechanisms
such as authentication and confidentiality mechanisms then should be such as authentication and confidentiality mechanisms then should be
applied to enforce the policy. For example, a policy can be that a applied to enforce the policy. For example, a policy can be that a
property P can be accessed only by its owner (e.g., the customer who property P can be accessed only by its owner (e.g., the customer who
is allocated a given IP address). Then, the ALTO server will need to is allocated a given IP address). Then, the ALTO server will need to
deploy corresponding mechanisms to realize the policy. The policy deploy corresponding mechanisms to realize the policy. The policy
may allow non-owners to access a coarse-grained value of the property may allow non-owners to access a coarse-grained value of the property
P. In such a case, the ALTO server may provide a different URI to P. In such a case, the ALTO server may provide a different URI to
provide the information. provide the information.
9. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
This document defines additional application/alto-* media types, and This document defines additional application/alto-* media types, and
extends the ALTO endpoint property registry. extends the ALTO endpoint property registry.
9.1. application/alto-* Media Types 11.1. application/alto-* Media Types
This document registers two additional ALTO media types, listed in This document registers two additional ALTO media types, listed in
Table 1. Table 1.
+--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+ +--------------+--------------------------+------------------------+
| Type | Subtype | Specification | | Type | Subtype | Specification |
+--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+ +--------------+--------------------------+------------------------+
| application | alto-propmap+json | Section 4.1 | | application | alto-propmap+json | Section 6.1 |
| application | alto-propmapparams+json | Section 5.3 | | application | alto-propmapparams+json | Section 7.3 |
+--------------+--------------------------+-----------------------+ +--------------+--------------------------+------------------------+
Table 1: Additional ALTO Media Types. Table 1: Additional ALTO Media Types.
Type name: application Type name: application
Subtype name: This document registers multiple subtypes, as listed Subtype name: This document registers multiple subtypes, as listed
in Table 1. in Table 1.
Required parameters: n/a Required parameters: n/a
skipping to change at page 28, line 24 skipping to change at page 36, line 36
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Restrictions on usage: n/a Restrictions on usage: n/a
Author: See Authors' Addresses section. Author: See Authors' Addresses section.
Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force
(mailto:iesg@ietf.org). (mailto:iesg@ietf.org).
9.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registry 11.2. ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry
This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity
Domain Registry", listed in Table 2. Domain Type Registry", listed in Table 2.
+------------+----------------+------------------+------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
| Identifier | Entity | Hierarchy & | Mapping to ALTO | | Identifier | Entity Identifier | Hierarchy & Inheritance |
| | Identifier | Inheritance | Address Type | | | Encoding | |
| | Encoding | | | +-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
+------------+----------------+------------------+------------------+ | ipv4 | See Section 4.1.1 | See Section 4.1.3 |
| ipv4 | See | See | Yes | | ipv6 | See Section 4.1.2 | See Section 4.1.3 |
| | Section 3.1.1 | Section 3.1.3 | | | pid | See Section 4.2 | None |
| ipv6 | See | See | Yes | +-------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
| | Section 3.1.2 | Section 3.1.3 | |
| pid | See | None | No |
| | Section 3.2 | | |
+------------+----------------+------------------+------------------+
Table 2: ALTO Entity Domains. Table 2: ALTO Entity Domains.
This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of This registry serves two purposes. First, it ensures uniqueness of
identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the identifiers referring to ALTO entity domains. Second, it states the
requirements for allocated entity domains. requirements for allocated entity domains.
9.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Registry and 11.2.1. Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Registry and
ALTO Entity Domain Registry ALTO Entity Domain Registry
One potential issue of introducing the "ALTO Entity Domain Registry" One potential issue of introducing the "ALTO Entity Domain Registry"
is its relationship with the "ALTO Address Types Registry" already is its relationship with the "ALTO Address Types Registry" already
defined in Section 14.4 of [RFC7285]. In particular, the entity defined in Section 14.4 of [RFC7285]. In particular, the entity
identifier of an entity domain registered in the "ALTO Entity Domain identifier of an entity domain registered in the "ALTO Entity Domain
Registry" MAY match an address type defined in "ALTO Address Type Registry" MAY match an address type defined in "ALTO Address Type
Registry". It is necessary to precisely define and guarantee the Registry". It is necessary to precisely define and guarantee the
consistency between "ALTO Address Type Registry" and "ALTO Entity consistency between "ALTO Address Type Registry" and "ALTO Entity
Domain Registry". Domain Registry".
skipping to change at page 30, line 4 skipping to change at page 38, line 7
ALTO Address Type Registry MUST be ensured by the following ALTO Address Type Registry MUST be ensured by the following
procedure: procedure:
o Test: Do corresponding entity identifiers match a known "network" o Test: Do corresponding entity identifiers match a known "network"
address type? address type?
* If yes (e.g., cell, MAC or socket addresses): * If yes (e.g., cell, MAC or socket addresses):
+ Test: Is such an address type present in the ALTO Address + Test: Is such an address type present in the ALTO Address
Type Registry? Type Registry?
- If yes: Set the new ALTO entity domain identifier to be - If yes: Set the new ALTO entity domain identifier to be
the found ALTO address type identifier. the found ALTO address type identifier.
- If no: Define a new ALTO entity domain identifier and use - If no: Define a new ALTO entity domain identifier and use
it to register a new address type in the ALTO Address it to register a new address type in the ALTO Address
Type Registry following Section 14.4 of [RFC7285]. Type Registry following Section 14.4 of [RFC7285].
+ Use the new ALTO entity domain identifier to register a new + Use the new ALTO entity domain identifier to register a new
ALTO entity domain in the ALTO Entity Domain Registry ALTO entity domain in the ALTO Entity Domain Registry
following Section 9.2.2 of this document. following Section 11.2.2 of this document.
* If no (e.g., pid name, ane name or country code): Proceed with * If no (e.g., pid name, ane name or country code): Proceed with
the ALTO Entity Domain registration as described in the ALTO Entity Domain registration as described in
Section 9.2.2. Section 11.2.2.
9.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registration Process 11.2.2. ALTO Entity Domain Registration Process
New ALTO entity domains are assigned after IETF Review [RFC5226] to New ALTO entity domains are assigned after IETF Review [RFC5226] to
ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO entity ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO entity
domains and their security considerations has been provided. RFCs domains and their security considerations has been provided. RFCs
defining new entity domains SHOULD indicate how an entity in a defining new entity domains SHOULD indicate how an entity in a
registered domain is encoded as an EntityId, and, if applicable, the registered domain is encoded as an EntityId, and, if applicable, the
rules defining the entity hierarchy and property inheritance. rules defining the entity hierarchy and property inheritance.
Updates and deletions of ALTO entity domains follow the same Updates and deletions of ALTO entity domains follow the same
procedure. procedure.
Registered ALTO entity domain identifiers MUST conform to the Registered ALTO entity domain identifiers MUST conform to the
syntactical requirements specified in Section 2.3. Identifiers are syntactical requirements specified in Section 3.1.2. Identifiers are
to be recorded and displayed as strings. to be recorded and displayed as strings.
Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include
the following information: the following information:
o Identifier: The name of the desired ALTO entity domain. o Identifier: The name of the desired ALTO entity domain.
o Entity Identifier Encoding: The procedure for encoding the o Entity Identifier Encoding: The procedure for encoding the
identifier of an entity of the registered type as an EntityId (see identifier of an entity of the registered type as an EntityId (see
Section 2.4). If corresponding entity identifiers of an entity Section 3.1.3). If corresponding entity identifiers of an entity
domain match a known "network" address type, the Entity Identifier domain match a known "network" address type, the Entity Identifier
Encoding of this domain identifier MUST include both Address Encoding of this domain identifier MUST include both Address
Encoding and Prefix Encoding of the same identifier registered in Encoding and Prefix Encoding of the same identifier registered in
the ALTO Address Type Registry [RFC7285]. For the purpose of the ALTO Address Type Registry [RFC7285]. For the purpose of
defining properties, an individual entity identifier and the defining properties, an individual entity identifier and the
corresponding full-length prefix MUST be considered aliases for corresponding full-length prefix MUST be considered aliases for
the same entity. the same entity.
o Hierarchy: If the entities form a hierarchy, the procedure for o Hierarchy: If the entities form a hierarchy, the procedure for
determining that hierarchy. determining that hierarchy.
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o Security Considerations: In some usage scenarios, entity o Security Considerations: In some usage scenarios, entity
identifiers carried in ALTO Protocol messages may reveal identifiers carried in ALTO Protocol messages may reveal
information about an ALTO client or an ALTO service provider. information about an ALTO client or an ALTO service provider.
Applications and ALTO service providers using addresses of the Applications and ALTO service providers using addresses of the
registered type should be made aware of how (or if) the addressing registered type should be made aware of how (or if) the addressing
scheme relates to private information and network proximity. scheme relates to private information and network proximity.
This specification requests registration of the identifiers "ipv4", This specification requests registration of the identifiers "ipv4",
"ipv6" and "pid", as shown in Table 2. "ipv6" and "pid", as shown in Table 2.
9.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry 11.3. ALTO Entity Property Type Registry
This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity This document requests IANA to create and maintain the "ALTO Entity
Property Type Registry", listed in Table 3. Property Type Registry", listed in Table 3.
To distinguish with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry", each To distinguish with the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry", each
entry in this registry is an ALTO entity property type defined in entry in this registry is an ALTO entity property type defined in
Section 2.5. Thus, registered ALTO entity property type identifier Section 3.2.1. Thus, registered ALTO entity property type identifier
MUST conform to the syntactical requirements specified in that MUST conform to the syntactical requirements specified in that
section. section.
The initial registered ALTO entity property types are listed in The initial registered ALTO entity property types are listed in
Table 3. Table 3.
+------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+ +-------------+---------------------------------+
| Identifier | Intended | Dependencies and Interpretation | | Identifier | Intended Semantics |
| | Semantics | | +-------------+---------------------------------+
+------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+ | pid | See Section 7.1.1 of [RFC7285] |
| ipv4:pid | PID for the IPv4 | application/alto-networkmap+json, | +-------------+---------------------------------+
| | entity | where the PID names are defined |
| ipv6:pid | PID for the IPv6 | application/alto-networkmap+json, |
| | entity | where the PID names are defined |
+------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
Table 3: ALTO Entity Property Types. Table 3: ALTO Entity Property Types.
Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include
the following information: the following information:
o Identifier: The unique id for the desired ALTO entity property o Identifier: The unique id for the desired ALTO entity property
type. The format MUST be as defined in Section 2.5 of this type. The format MUST be as defined in Section 3.2.1 of this
document. It includes the information of the applied ALTO entity document. It includes the information of the applied ALTO entity
domain and the property name. domain and the property name.
o Intended Semantics: ALTO entity properties carry with them o Intended Semantics: ALTO entity properties carry with them
semantics to guide their usage by ALTO clients. Hence, a document semantics to guide their usage by ALTO clients. Hence, a document
defining a new type SHOULD provide guidance to both ALTO service defining a new type SHOULD provide guidance to both ALTO service
providers and applications utilizing ALTO clients as to how values providers and applications utilizing ALTO clients as to how values
of the registered ALTO entity property should be interpreted. of the registered ALTO entity property should be interpreted.
o Dependencies and Interpretation: Dependent ALTO resources MAY be This document requests registration of the identifier "pid", as shown
required by ALTO clients to interpret ALTO entity properties. in Table 3.
Hence, a document defining a new type SHOULD provide a sequence of
media types in which the dependent ALTO resources are and the
guidance how ALTO clients use them to interpret the property.
This specification requests registration of the identifiers 11.4. ALTO Resource-Specific Entity Domain Registries
"ipv4:pid" and "ipv6:pid", as shown in Table 3.
9.4. Acknowledgments 11.4.1. Network Map
Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json
+---------------------+---------------------+
| Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics |
+---------------------+---------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 5.1.1 |
| ipv6 | See Section 5.1.1 |
| pid | See Section 5.1.1 |
+---------------------+---------------------+
Table 4: ALTO Network Map Resource-Specific Entity Domain.
11.4.2. Endpoint Property
Media-type: application/alto-endpointprop+json
+---------------------+---------------------+
| Entity Domain Type | Intended Semantics |
+---------------------+---------------------+
| ipv4 | See Section 5.2.1 |
| ipv6 | See Section 5.2.1 |
+---------------------+---------------------+
Table 5: ALTO Endpoint Property Resource-Specific Entity Domain.
11.5. ALTO Resource Entity Property Mapping Registries
11.5.1. Network Map
Media-type: application/alto-networkmap+json
+----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+
| Mapping | Entity Domain | Property | Intended |
| Descriptor | Type | Type | Semantics |
+----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+
| ipv4 -> pid | ipv4 | pid | See |
| | | | Section 5.1.2 |
| ipv6 -> pid | ipv6 | pid | See |
| | | | Section 5.1.2 |
+----------------+-----------------+-------------+------------------+
Table 6: ALTO Network Map Entity Property Mapping.
12. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank discussions with Kai Gao, Qiao Xiang, The authors would like to thank discussions with Kai Gao, Qiao Xiang,
Shawn Lin, Xin Wang, Danny Perez, and Vijay Gurbani. The authors Shawn Lin, Xin Wang, Danny Perez, and Vijay Gurbani. The authors
thank Dawn Chen (Tongji University), and Shenshen Chen (Tongji/Yale thank Dawn Chen (Tongji University), and Shenshen Chen (Tongji/Yale
University) for their contributions to earlier drafts. University) for their contributions to earlier drafts.
10. Normative References 13. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005, RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.
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