< draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-25.txt   draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-26.txt >
ROLL Working Group M. Robles ROLL Working Group M. Robles
Internet-Draft Aalto Internet-Draft Aalto
Updates: 6553, 6550, 8138 (if approved) M. Richardson Updates: 6553, 6550, 8138 (if approved) M. Richardson
Intended status: Standards Track SSW Intended status: Standards Track SSW
Expires: September 12, 2019 P. Thubert Expires: November 16, 2019 P. Thubert
Cisco Cisco
March 11, 2019 May 15, 2019
Using RPL Option Type, Routing Header for Source Routes and IPv6-in-IPv6 Using RPL Option Type, Routing Header for Source Routes and IPv6-in-IPv6
encapsulation in the RPL Data Plane encapsulation in the RPL Data Plane
draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-25 draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-26
Abstract Abstract
This document looks at different data flows through LLN (Low-Power This document looks at different data flows through LLN (Low-Power
and Lossy Networks) where RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) where RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power
and Lossy Networks) is used to establish routing. The document and Lossy Networks) is used to establish routing. The document
enumerates the cases where RFC 6553 (RPL Option Type), RFC 6554 enumerates the cases where RFC 6553 (RPL Option Type), RFC 6554
(Routing Header for Source Routes) and IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation is (Routing Header for Source Routes) and IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation is
required in data plane. This analysis provides the basis on which to required in data plane. This analysis provides the basis on which to
design efficient compression of these headers. This document updates design efficient compression of these headers. This document updates
RFC 6553 adding a change to the RPL Option Type. Additionally, this RFC 6553 adding a change to the RPL Option Type. Additionally, this
document updates RFC 6550 to indicate about this change and updates document updates RFC 6550 defining a flag in the DIO Configuration
RFC8138 as well to consider the new Option Type when RPL Option is Option to indicate about this change and updates RFC8138 as well to
decompressed. consider the new Option Type when the RPL Option is decompressed.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 16, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Updates to RFC6553, RFC6550 and RFC 8138 . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Updates to RFC6553, RFC6550 and RFC8138 . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Updates to RFC 6553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Updates to RFC6553: Indicating the new RPI value. . . . . 6
3.2. Updates to RFC 8138 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Updates to RFC6550: Indicating the new RPI in the
3.3. Updates to RFC 6550: Indicating the new RPI in the DODAG Configuration Option Flag. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
DODAG Configuration Option Flag. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Updates to RFC8138: Indicating the way to decompress with
4. Sample/reference topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 the new RPI value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4. Sample/reference topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . . . 16 6. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.1. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . . . 17
6.1.1. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . 17 6.1.1. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . 17
6.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . . . 18 6.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . . . 19
6.1.3. SM: Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf . 18 6.1.3. SM: Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf . 19
6.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root . 19 6.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root . 20
6.2. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet. . . 20 6.2. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet. . . 21
6.2.1. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . 20 6.2.1. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . 21
6.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf . 21 6.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf . 22
6.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to 6.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware- 6.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL-aware-
leaf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 leaf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.3. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf . . . . . 24 6.3. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf . . . . . 25
6.3.1. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware- 6.3.1. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-
leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to non-RPL- 6.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-
aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL- 6.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-
aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not- 6.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-
RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7. Non Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7. Non Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . 30 7.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . 31
7.1.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . 31 7.1.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . 32
7.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . 31 7.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . 32
7.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware- 7.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-
leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to 7.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet . 34 7.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet . 35
7.2.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to 7.2.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to
Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware- 7.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-
leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to 7.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL- 7.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL-
aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.3. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leafs . . . . . . . 38
7.3.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-
aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7.3. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leafs . . . . . . . 39
7.3.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-
aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not- 7.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-
RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to 7.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
not-RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 not-RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8. Operational Considerations of supporting 8. Operational Considerations of supporting
not-RPL-aware-leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 not-RPL-aware-leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9. Operational considerations of introducing 0x23 . . . . . . . 43 9. Operational considerations of introducing 0x23 . . . . . . . 45
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks)
[RFC6550] is a routing protocol for constrained networks. RFC 6553 [RFC6550] is a routing protocol for constrained networks. RFC 6553
[RFC6553] defines the "RPL option" (RPI), carried within the IPv6 [RFC6553] defines the "RPL option" (RPI), carried within the IPv6
Hop-by-Hop header to quickly identify inconsistencies (loops) in the Hop-by-Hop header to quickly identify inconsistencies (loops) in the
routing topology. RFC 6554 [RFC6554] defines the "RPL Source Route routing topology. RFC 6554 [RFC6554] defines the "RPL Source Route
Header" (RH3), an IPv6 Extension Header to deliver datagrams within a Header" (RH3), an IPv6 Extension Header to deliver datagrams within a
RPL routing domain, particularly in non-storing mode. RPL routing domain, particularly in non-storing mode.
These various items are referred to as RPL artifacts, and they are These various items are referred to as RPL artifacts, and they are
seen on all of the data-plane traffic that occurs in RPL routed seen on all of the data-plane traffic that occurs in RPL routed
networks; they do not in general appear on the RPL control plane networks; they do not in general appear on the RPL control plane
traffic at all which is mostly hop-by-hop traffic (one exception traffic at all which is mostly hop-by-hop traffic (one exception
being DAO messages in non-storing mode). being DAO messages in non-storing mode).
It has become clear from attempts to do multi-vendor It has become clear from attempts to do multi-vendor
interoperability, and from a desire to compress as many of the above interoperability, and from a desire to compress as many of the above
artifacts as possible that not all implementors agree when artifacts artifacts as possible that not all implementers agree when artifacts
are necessary, or when they can be safely omitted, or removed. are necessary, or when they can be safely omitted, or removed.
An interim meeting went through the 24 cases defined here to discover The ROLL WG analysized how [RFC2460] rules apply to storing and non-
if there were any shortcuts, and this document is the result of that storing use of RPL. The result was 24 data plane use cases. They
discussion. This document clarifies examples that intend to are exhaustively outlined here in order to be completely unambiguous.
illustrate the result of the normative language in RFC8200 and During the processing of this document, new rules were published as
RFC6553. In other words, the examples are intended to be normative [RFC8200], and this document was updated to reflect the normative
explanation of the results of executing that language. changes in that document.
This document updates RFC6553, changing the RPI option value to make
RFC8200 routers ignore this option by default.
A Routing Header Dispatch for 6LoWPAN (6LoRH)([RFC8138]) defines a A Routing Header Dispatch for 6LoWPAN (6LoRH)([RFC8138]) defines a
mechanism for compressing RPL Option information and Routing Header mechanism for compressing RPL Option information and Routing Header
type 3 [RFC6554], as well as an efficient IPv6-in-IPv6 technique. type 3 (RH3) [RFC6554], as well as an efficient IPv6-in-IPv6
technique.
Since some of the uses cases here described, use IPv6-in-IPv6
encapsulation. It MUST take in consideration, when encapsulation is
applied, the RFC6040 [RFC6040], which defines how the explicit
congestion notification (ECN) field of the IP header should be
constructed on entry to and exit from any IPV6-in-IPV6 tunnel.
Additionally, it is recommended the reading of
[I-D.ietf-intarea-tunnels].
1.1. Overview 1.1. Overview
The rest of the document is organized as follows: Section 2 describes The rest of the document is organized as follows: Section 2 describes
the used terminology. Section 3 describes the updates to RFC6553, the used terminology. Section 3 describes the updates to RFC6553,
RFC6550 and RFC 8138. Section 4 provides the reference topology used RFC6550 and RFC 8138. Section 4 provides the reference topology used
for the uses cases. Section 5 describes the uses cases included. for the uses cases. Section 5 describes the uses cases included.
Section 6 describes the storing mode cases and section 7 the non- Section 6 describes the storing mode cases and section 7 the non-
storing mode cases. Section 8 describes the operational storing mode cases. Section 8 describes the operational
considerations of supporting not-RPL-aware-leaves. Section 9 depicts considerations of supporting not-RPL-aware-leaves. Section 9 depicts
skipping to change at page 5, line 18 skipping to change at page 5, line 32
RPL-not-capable: A device which does not implement RPL, thus the RPL-not-capable: A device which does not implement RPL, thus the
device is not-RPL-aware. Please note that the device can be found device is not-RPL-aware. Please note that the device can be found
inside the LLN. In this document a not-RPL-aware node which is a inside the LLN. In this document a not-RPL-aware node which is a
leaf of a DODAG is called not-RPL-aware-leaf (~Raf). leaf of a DODAG is called not-RPL-aware-leaf (~Raf).
6LN: [RFC6775] defines it as: "A 6LoWPAN node is any host or router 6LN: [RFC6775] defines it as: "A 6LoWPAN node is any host or router
participating in a LoWPAN. This term is used when referring to participating in a LoWPAN. This term is used when referring to
situations in which either a host or router can play the role situations in which either a host or router can play the role
described.". In this document, a 6LN acts as a leaf. described.". In this document, a 6LN acts as a leaf.
6LR, 6LBR are defined in [RFC6775]. 6LR: [RFC6775] defines it as:" An intermediate router in the LoWPAN
that is able to send and receive Router Advertisements (RAs) and
Router Solicitations (RSs) as well as forward and route IPv6 packets.
6LoWPAN routers are present only in route-over topologies."
6LBR: [RFC6775] defines it as:"A border router located at the
junction of separate 6LoWPAN networks or between a 6LoWPAN network
and another IP network. There may be one or more 6LBRs at the
6LoWPAN network boundary. A 6LBR is the responsible authority for
IPv6 prefix propagation for the 6LoWPAN network it is serving. An
isolated LoWPAN also contains a 6LBR in the network, which provides
the prefix(es) for the isolated network."
Flag Day: A transition that involves having a network with different Flag Day: A transition that involves having a network with different
values of RPL Option Type. Thus the network does not work correctly. values of RPL Option Type. Thus the network does not work correctly.
Hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6 headers: The term "hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6" Hop-by-hop re-encapsulation: The term "hop-by-hop re-encapsulation"
header refers to: adding a header that originates from a node to an header refers to adding a header that originates from a node to an
adjacent node, using the addresses (usually the GUA or ULA, but could adjacent node, using the addresses (usually the GUA or ULA, but could
use the link-local addresses) of each node. If the packet must use the link-local addresses) of each node. If the packet must
traverse multiple hops, then it must be decapsulated at each hop, and traverse multiple hops, then it must be decapsulated at each hop, and
then re-encapsulated again in a similar fashion. then re-encapsulated again in a similar fashion.
3. Updates to RFC6553, RFC6550 and RFC 8138 RPL defines the RPL Control messages (control plane), a new ICMPv6
[RFC4443] message with Type 155. DIS (DODAG Information
Solicitation), DIO (DODAG Information Object) and DAO (Destination
Advertisement Object) messages are all RPL Control messages but with
different Code values. A RPL Stack is shown in Figure 1.
3.1. Updates to RFC 6553 +--------------+
| Upper Layers |
| |
+--------------+
| RPL |
| |
+--------------+
| ICMPv6 |
| |
+--------------+
| IPv6 |
| |
+--------------+
| 6LoWPAN |
| |
+--------------+
| PHY-MAC |
| |
+--------------+
Figure 1: RPL Stack.
RPL supports two modes of Downward traffic: in storing mode (RPL-SM),
it is fully stateful; in non-storing mode (RPL-NSM), it is fully
source routed. A RPL Instance is either fully storing or fully non-
storing, i.e. a RPL Instance with a combination of storing and non-
storing nodes is not supported with the current specifications at the
time of writing this document.
3. Updates to RFC6553, RFC6550 and RFC8138
3.1. Updates to RFC6553: Indicating the new RPI value.
This modification is required to be able to send, for example, IPv6 This modification is required to be able to send, for example, IPv6
packets from a RPL-aware-leaf to a not-RPL-aware node through packets from a RPL-aware-leaf to a not-RPL-aware node through
Internet (see Section 6.2.1), without requiring IPv6-in-IPv6 Internet (see Section 6.2.1), without requiring IPv6-in-IPv6
encapsulation. encapsulation.
[RFC6553] states as shown below, that in the Option Type field of the [RFC6553] (Section 6, Page 7) states as shown in Figure 2, that in
RPL Option header, the two high order bits must be set to '01' and the Option Type field of the RPL Option header, the two high order
the third bit is equal to '1'. The first two bits indicate that the bits must be set to '01' and the third bit is equal to '1'. The
IPv6 node must discard the packet if it doesn't recognize the option first two bits indicate that the IPv6 node must discard the packet if
type, and the third bit indicates that the Option Data may change in it doesn't recognize the option type, and the third bit indicates
route. The remaining bits serve as the option type. that the Option Data may change in route. The remaining bits serve
as the option type.
Hex Value Binary Value Hex Value Binary Value
act chg rest Description Reference act chg rest Description Reference
--------- --- --- ------- ----------------- ---------- --------- --- --- ------- ----------------- ----------
0x63 01 1 00011 RPL Option [RFC6553] 0x63 01 1 00011 RPL Option [RFC6553]
Figure 1: Option Type in RPL Option. Figure 2: Option Type in RPL Option.
Recent changes in [RFC8200] (section 4, page 8), states: "it is now This document illustrates that is is not always possible to know for
expected that nodes along a packet's delivery path only examine and sure at the source that a packet will only travel within the RPL
process the Hop-by-Hop Options header if explicitly configured to do domain or may leave it.
so". Processing of the Hop-by-Hop Options header (by IPv6
intermediate nodes) is now optional, but if they are configured to
process the header, and if such nodes encounter an option with the
first two bits set to 01, they will drop the packet (if they conform
to [RFC8200]). Host systems should do the same, irrespective of the
configuration.
Based on that, if an IPv6 (intermediate) node (RPL-not-capable) At the time [RFC6553] was published, leaking a Hop-by-Hop header in
receives a packet with an RPL Option, it should ignore the HBH RPL the outer IPv6 header chain could potentially impact core routers in
option (skip over this option and continue processing the header). the internet. So at that time, it was decided to encapsulate any
This is relevant, as it was mentioned previously, in the case that packet with a RPL option using IPv6-in-IPv6 in all cases where it was
there is a flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet (see Section 6.2.1). unclear whether the packet would remain within the RPL domain. In
the exception case where a packet would still leak, the Option Type
would ensure that the first router in the Internet that does not
recognize the option would drop the packet and protect the rest of
the network.
Thus, this document updates the Option Type field to: the two high Even with [RFC8138] that compresses the IP-in-IP header, this
order bits MUST be set to '00' and the third bit is equal to '1'. approach yields extra bytes in a packet which means consuming more
The first two bits indicate that the IPv6 node MUST skip over this energy, more bandwidth, incurring higher chances of loss and possibly
option and continue processing the header ([RFC8200] Section 4.2) if causing a fragmentation at the 6LoWPAN level. This impacts the daily
it doesn't recognize the option type, and the third bit continues to operation of constrained devices for a case that generally does not
be set to indicate that the Option Data may change en route. The happen and would not heavily impact the core anyway.
remaining bits serve as the option type and remain as 0x3. This
ensures that a packet that leaves the RPL domain of an LLN (or that
leaves the LLN entirely) will not be discarded when it contains the
[RFC6553] RPL Hop-by-Hop option known as RPI.
This is a significant update to [RFC6553]. [RFCXXXX] represents this While intention was and remains that the Hop-by-Hop header with a RPL
document. option should be confined within the RPL domain, this specification
modifies this behavior in order to reduce the dependency on IP-in-IP
and protect the constrained devices. Section 4 of [RFC8200]
clarifies the behaviour of routers in the Internet as follows: "it is
now expected that nodes along a packet's delivery path only examine
and process the Hop-by-Hop Options header if explicitly configured to
do so". This means that while it should be avoided, the impact on
the Internet of leaking a Hop-by-Hop header is acceptable.
When unclear about the travel of a packet, it becomes preferable for
a source not to encapsulate, accepting the fact that the packet may
leave the RPL domain on its way to its destination. In that event,
the packet should reach its destination and should not be discarded
by the first node that does not recognize the RPL option. But with
the current value of the Option Type, if a node in the Internet is
configured to process the Hop-by-Hop header, and if such node
encounters an option with the first two bits set to 01 and conforms
to [RFC8200], it will drop the packet. Host systems should do the
same, irrespective of the configuration.
Thus, this document updates the Option Type field to (Figure 3): the
two high order bits MUST be set to '00' and the third bit is equal to
'1'. The first two bits indicate that the IPv6 node MUST skip over
this option and continue processing the header ([RFC8200]
Section 4.2) if it doesn't recognize the option type, and the third
bit continues to be set to indicate that the Option Data may change
en route. The remaining bits serve as the option type and remain as
0x3. This ensures that a packet that leaves the RPL domain of an LLN
(or that leaves the LLN entirely) will not be discarded when it
contains the [RFC6553] RPL Hop-by-Hop option known as RPI.
With the new Option Type, if an IPv6 (intermediate) node (RPL-not-
capable) receives a packet with an RPL Option, it should ignore the
Hop-by-Hop RPL option (skip over this option and continue processing
the header). This is relevant, as it was mentioned previously, in
the case that there is a flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet (see
Section 6.2.1).
This is a significant update to [RFC6553].
Hex Value Binary Value Hex Value Binary Value
act chg rest Description Reference act chg rest Description Reference
--------- --- --- ------- ----------------- ---------- --------- --- --- ------- ----------------- ----------
0x23 00 1 00011 RPL Option [RFCXXXX] 0x23 00 1 00011 RPL Option [RFCXXXX]
Figure 2: Revised Option Type in RPL Option. Figure 3: Revised Option Type in RPL Option.
This change creates a flag day for existing networks which are Without the signaling described below, this change would otherwise
currently using 0x63 as the RPI value. A move to 0x23 will not be create a flag day for existing networks which are currently using
understood by those networks. It is suggested that implementations 0x63 as the RPI value. A move to 0x23 will not be understood by
accept both 0x63 and 0x23 when processing. those networks. It is suggested that implementations accept both
0x63 and 0x23 when processing.
In the cases where a forwarding node is forwarding traffic that is When forwarding packets, implementations SHOULD use the same value as
not addressed directly to it (such as when the outer IPv6-in-IPv6 it was received (This is required because, RPI type code can not be
header is not a Link-Local address), then RFC8200 forbids changing changed by [RFC8200]). It allows to the network to be incrementally
the RPI type code when forwarding. upgraded, and for the DODAG root to know which parts of the network
are upgraded.
When forwarding traffic that is wrapped in Link-Local IPv6-in-IPv6 When originating new packets, implementations SHOULD have an option
headers, the forwarding node is in effect originating new packets, to determine which value to originate with, this option is controlled
and it MAY make a choice as to whether to use the old (0x63) RPI Type by the DIO option described below.
code, or the new (0x23) RPI Type code. In that situation,
implementations SHOULD use the same value as was received. This
allows to the network to be incrementally upgraded, and in some cases
may allow the DODAG root to know which parts of the network are
upgraded.
A network which is switching from straight 6lowpan compression A network which is switching from straight 6lowpan compression
mechanism to those described in [RFC8138] will experience a flag day mechanism to those described in [RFC8138] will experience a flag day
in the data compression anyway, and if possible this change can be in the data compression anyway, and if possible this change can be
deployed at the same time. deployed at the same time.
The change of RPI option type from 0x63 to 0x23, makes all [RFC8200] The change of RPI option type from 0x63 to 0x23, makes all [RFC8200]
Section 4.2 compliant nodes tolerant of the RPL artifacts. There is Section 4.2 compliant nodes tolerant of the RPL artifacts. There is
therefore no longer a necessity to remove the artifacts when sending therefore no longer a necessity to remove the artifacts when sending
traffic to the Internet. This change clarifies when to use an IPv6- traffic to the Internet. This change clarifies when to use an IPv6-
in-IPv6 header, and how to address them: The Hop-by-Hop Options in-IPv6 header, and how to address them: The Hop-by-Hop Options
Header containing the RPI option SHOULD always be added when 6LRs Header containing the RPI option MUST always be added when 6LRs
originate packets (without IPv6-in-IPv6 headers), and IPv6-in-IPv6 originate packets (without IPv6-in-IPv6 headers), and IPv6-in-IPv6
headers SHOULD always be added when a 6LR find that it needs to headers MUST always be added when a 6LR find that it needs to insert
insert a Hop-by-Hop Options Header containing the RPI option. The a Hop-by-Hop Options Header containing the RPI option. The IPv6-in-
IPv6-in-IPv6 header is to be addressed to the RPL root when on the IPv6 header is to be addressed to the RPL root when on the way up,
way up, and to the end-host when on the way down. and to the end-host when on the way down.
Non-constrained uses of RPL are not in scope of this document, and Non-constrained uses of RPL are not in scope of this document, and
applicability statements for those uses may provide different advice, applicability statements for those uses may provide different advice,
E.g. [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]. E.g. [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane].
In the non-storing case, dealing with non-RPL aware leaf nodes is In the non-storing case, dealing with not-RPL aware leaf nodes is
much easier as the 6LBR (DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the much easier as the 6LBR (DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the
connectivity of all DODAG nodes, and all traffic flows through the connectivity of all DODAG nodes, and all traffic flows through the
root node. root node.
The 6LBR can recognize non-RPL aware leaf nodes because it will The 6LBR can recognize not-RPL aware leaf nodes because it will
receive a DAO about that node from the 6LR immediately above that receive a DAO about that node from the 6LR immediately above that
non-RPL aware node. This means that the non-storing mode case can not-RPL aware node. This means that the non-storing mode case can
avoid ever using hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6 headers for traffic avoid ever using hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6 headers for traffic
originating from the root to leafs. originating from the root to leafs.
The non-storing mode case does not require the type change from 0x63 The non-storing mode case does not require the type change from 0x63
to 0x23, as the root can always create the right packet. The type to 0x23, as the root can always create the right packet. The type
change does not adversely affect the non-storing case. change does not adversely affect the non-storing case.
3.2. Updates to RFC 8138 3.2. Updates to RFC6550: Indicating the new RPI in the DODAG
RPI-6LoRH header provides a compressed form for the RPL RPI [RFC8138]
in section 6. A node that is decompressing this header MUST
decompress using the RPL RPI option type that is currently active:
that is, a choice between 0x23 (new) and 0x63 (old). The node will
know which to use based upon the presence of the DODAG Configuration
Option described in the next section. E.g. If the network is in
0x23 mode (by DIO option), then it should be decompressed to 0x23.
[RFC8138] section 7 documents how to compress the IPv6-in-IPv6
header.
There are potential significant advantages to having a single code
path that always processes IPv6-in-IPv6 headers with no options.
In Storing Mode, for the examples of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to non-
RPL-aware-leaf and non-RPL-aware-leaf to non-RPL-aware-leaf comprise
an IPv6-in-IPv6 and RPI compression headers. The use of the IPv6-in-
IPv6 header is MANDATORY in this case, and it SHOULD be compressed
with [RFC8138] section 7.
+--+-----+---+--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|1 | 0|0 |TSE| 6LoRH Type 6 | Hop Limit | RPI-6LoRH |LOWPAN IPHC|
+--+-----+---+--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
Figure 3: IPv6-in-IPv6 (RPI).
3.3. Updates to RFC 6550: Indicating the new RPI in the DODAG
Configuration Option Flag. Configuration Option Flag.
In order to avoid a Flag Day caused by lack of interoperation between In order to avoid a Flag Day caused by lack of interoperation between
new RPI (0x23) and old RPI (0x63) nodes, this section defines a flag new RPI (0x23) and old RPI (0x63) nodes, this section defines a flag
in the DIO Configuration Option, to indicate when then new RPI value in the DIO Configuration Option, to indicate when then new RPI value
can be safely used. Without this, there could be a mix of new nodes can be safely used. This means, the flag is going to indicate the
(which understand 0x23 and 0x63), and old nodes (which understand type of RPI that the network is using. Thus, when a node join to a
0x63 only). A new node would not know if it was safe to use 0x23. network will know which value to use. With this, RPL-capable nodes
know if it is safe to use 0x23 when creating a new RPI. A node that
forwards a packet with an RPI MUST not modify the option type of the
RPI.
This is done via a DODAG Configuration Option flag which will This is done via a DODAG Configuration Option flag which will
propagate through the network. If the flag is received with a value propagate through the network. If the flag is received with a value
zero (which is the default), then new nodes will remain in RFC6553 zero (which is the default), then new nodes will remain in RFC6553
Compatible Mode; originating traffic with the old-RPI (0x63) value. Compatible Mode; originating traffic with the old-RPI (0x63) value.
As stated in [RFC6550] the DODAG Configuration option is present in As stated in [RFC6550] the DODAG Configuration option is present in
DIO messages. The DODAG Configuration option distributes DIO messages. The DODAG Configuration option distributes
configuration information. It is generally static, and does not configuration information. It is generally static, and does not
change within the DODAG. This information is configured at the DODAG change within the DODAG. This information is configured at the DODAG
root and distributed throughout the DODAG with the DODAG root and distributed throughout the DODAG with the DODAG
Configuration option. Nodes other than the DODAG root do not modify Configuration option. Nodes other than the DODAG root do not modify
this information when propagating the DODAG Configuration option. this information when propagating the DODAG Configuration option.
The DODAG Configuration Option has a Flag field which is modified by The DODAG Configuration Option has a Flag field which is modified by
this document. Currently, the DODAG Configuration Option in this document. Currently, the DODAG Configuration Option in
[RFC6550] states: "the unused bits MUST be initialize to zero by the [RFC6550] states: "the unused bits MUST be initialize to zero by the
sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver". sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver".
Bit number three of the flag field in the DODAG Configuration option Bit number three of the flag field in the DODAG Configuration option
is to be used as follows: is to be used as shown in Figure 4 :
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| Bit number | Description | Reference | | Bit number | Description | Reference |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document | | 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
Figure 4: DODAG Configuration Option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag- Figure 4: DODAG Configuration Option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag-
day. day.
In case of rebooting, the node (6LN or 6LR) does not remember if the In case of rebooting, the node (6LN or 6LR) does not remember if the
flag is set, so DIO messages would be set with the flag unset until a flag is set, so DIO messages would be set with the flag unset until a
DIO is received with the flag set. DIO is received with the flag set.
3.3. Updates to RFC8138: Indicating the way to decompress with the new
RPI value.
This modification is required to be able to decompress the RPL RPI
option with the new value (0x23).
RPI-6LoRH header provides a compressed form for the RPL RPI [RFC8138]
in section 6. A node that is decompressing this header MUST
decompress using the RPL RPI option type that is currently active:
that is, a choice between 0x23 (new) and 0x63 (old). The node will
know which to use based upon the presence of the flag in the DODAG
Configuration Option defined in Section 3.2. E.g. If the network is
in 0x23 mode (by DIO option), then it should be decompressed to 0x23.
[RFC8138] section 7 documents how to compress the IPv6-in-IPv6
header.
There are potential significant advantages to having a single code
path that always processes IPv6-in-IPv6 headers with no conditional
branches.
In Storing Mode, for the examples of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-
RPL-aware-leaf and not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf comprise
an IPv6-in-IPv6 and RPI compression headers. The use of the IPv6-in-
IPv6 header is MANDATORY in this case, and it SHOULD be compressed
with [RFC8138] section 7. As exemplification of compressing the RPI,
section A.1 of [RFC8138] illustrates the case in Storing mode where
the packet is received from the Internet, then the root encapsulates
the packet to insert the RPI. The result is shown in Figure 5.
+-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+-- ... -+-+-+-+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+...
|11110001| RPI- | IP-in-IP | NH=1 |11110CPP| Compressed | UDP
|Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | LOWPAN_IPHC | UDP | UDP header | Payld
+-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+-- ... -+-+-+-+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+...
Figure 5: RPI Inserted by the Root in Storing Mode
4. Sample/reference topology 4. Sample/reference topology
A RPL network in general is composed of a 6LBR (6LoWPAN Border A RPL network in general is composed of a 6LBR (6LoWPAN Border
Router), Backbone Router (6BBR), 6LR (6LoWPAN Router) and 6LN Router), Backbone Router (6BBR), 6LR (6LoWPAN Router) and 6LN
(6LoWPAN Node) as leaf logically organized in a DODAG structure. (6LoWPAN Node) as leaf logically organized in a DODAG structure.
Figure 4 shows the reference RPL Topology for this document. The Figure 6 shows the reference RPL Topology for this document. The
letters above the nodes are there so that they may be referenced in letters above the nodes are there so that they may be referenced in
subsequent sections. In the figure, 6LR represents a full router subsequent sections. In the figure, 6LR represents a full router
node. The 6LN is a RPL aware router, or host (as a leaf). node. The 6LN is a RPL aware router, or host (as a leaf).
Additionally, for simplification purposes, it is supposed that the Additionally, for simplification purposes, it is supposed that the
6LBR has direct access to Internet, thus the 6BBR is not present in 6LBR has direct access to Internet, thus the 6BBR is not present in
the figure. the figure.
The 6LN leaves (Raf - "RPL aware leaf"-) marked as (F, H and I) are The 6LN leaves (Raf) marked as (F, H and I) are RPL nodes with no
RPL nodes with no children hosts. children hosts.
The leafs marked as ~Raf "not-RPL aware leaf" (G and J) are devices The leafs marked as ~Raf (G and J) are devices which do not speak RPL
which do not speak RPL at all (not-RPL-aware), but uses Router- at all (not-RPL-aware), but uses Router-Advertisements, 6LowPAN DAR/
Advertisements, 6LowPAN DAR/DAC and efficient-ND only to participate DAC and efficient-ND only to participate in the network [RFC6775].
in the network [RFC6775]. In the document these leafs (G and J) are In the document these leafs (G and J) are also referred to as an IPv6
also referred to as an IPv6 node. node.
The 6LBR ("A") in the figure is the root of the Global DODAG. The 6LBR ("A") in the figure is the root of the Global DODAG.
+------------+ +------------+
| INTERNET ----------+ | INTERNET ----------+
| | | | | |
+------------+ | +------------+ |
| |
| |
| |
skipping to change at page 11, line 24 skipping to change at page 13, line 24
|6LBR | |6LBR |
+-----------|(root) |-------+ +-----------|(root) |-------+
| +-------+ | | +-------+ |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| B |C | B |C
+---|---+ +---|---+ +---|---+ +---|---+
| 6LR | | 6LR | | 6LR | | 6LR |
+-------->| |--+ +--- ---+ +---------| |--+ +--- ---+
| +-------+ | | +-------+ | | +-------+ | | +-------+ |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| D | E | | | D | E | |
+-|-----+ +---|---+ | | +-|-----+ +---|---+ | |
| 6LR | | 6LR | | | | 6LR | | 6LR | | |
| | +------ | | | | | +------ | | |
+---|---+ | +---|---+ | | +---|---+ | +---|---+ | |
skipping to change at page 11, line 46 skipping to change at page 13, line 46
| | +--+ | | | | +--+ | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | I | J | | | | I | J |
F | | G | H | | F | | G | H | |
+-----+-+ +-|-----+ +---|--+ +---|---+ +---|---+ +-----+-+ +-|-----+ +---|--+ +---|---+ +---|---+
| Raf | | ~Raf | | Raf | | Raf | | ~Raf | | Raf | | ~Raf | | Raf | | Raf | | ~Raf |
| 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN | | 6LN |
+-------+ +-------+ +------+ +-------+ +-------+ +-------+ +-------+ +------+ +-------+ +-------+
Figure 5: A reference RPL Topology. Figure 6: A reference RPL Topology.
RPL defines the RPL Control messages (control plane), a new ICMPv6
[RFC4443] message with Type 155. DIS (DODAG Information
Solicitation), DIO (DODAG Information Object) and DAO (Destination
Advertisement Object) messages are all RPL Control messages but with
different Code values. A RPL Stack is shown in Figure 5.
+--------------+
| Upper Layers |
| |
+--------------+
| RPL |
| |
+--------------+
| ICMPv6 |
| |
+--------------+
| IPv6 |
| |
+--------------+
| 6LoWPAN |
| |
+--------------+
| PHY-MAC |
| |
+--------------+
Figure 6: RPL Stack.
RPL supports two modes of Downward traffic: in storing mode (RPL-SM),
it is fully stateful; in non-storing (RPL-NSM), it is fully source
routed. A RPL Instance is either fully storing or fully non-storing,
i.e. a RPL Instance with a combination of storing and non-storing
nodes is not supported with the current specifications at the time of
writing this document.
5. Use cases 5. Use cases
In the data plane a combination of RFC6553, RFC6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6 In the data plane a combination of RFC6553, RFC6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6
encapsulation are going to be analyzed for a number of representative encapsulation are going to be analyzed for a number of representative
traffic flows. traffic flows.
This document assumes that the LLN is using the no-drop RPI option This document assumes that the LLN is using the no-drop RPI option
(0x23). (0x23).
The uses cases describe the communication between RPL-aware-nodes, The uses cases describe the communication between RPL-aware-nodes,
with the root (6LBR), and with Internet. This document also describe with the root (6LBR), and with Internet. This document also
the communication between nodes acting as leaves that do not describes the communication between nodes acting as leaves that do
understand RPL, but are part of the LLN. these nodes are named as not understand RPL (~Raf nodes), but are part of the LLN. (e.g.
not-RPL-aware-leaf, mentioned previously. (e.g. Section 6.1.4 Flow Section 6.1.4 Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root) This document
from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root) This document describes also how is depicts as well the communication inside of the LLN when it has the
the communication inside of the LLN when it has the final destination final destination addressed outside of the LLN e.g. with destination
addressed outside of the LLN e.g. with destination to Internet. to Internet. For example, Section 6.2.3 Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf
(e.g. Section 6.2.3 Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet) to Internet
The uses cases comprise as follow: The uses cases comprise as follow:
Interaction between Leaf and Root: Interaction between Leaf and Root:
RPL-aware-leaf to root RPL-aware-leaf(Raf) to root
root to RPL-aware-leaf root to RPL-aware-leaf(Raf)
not-RPL-aware-leaf to root not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf) to root
root to not-RPL-aware-leaf root to not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf)
Interaction between Leaf and Internet: Interaction between Leaf and Internet:
RPL-aware-leaf to Internet RPL-aware-leaf(Raf) to Internet
Internet to RPL-aware-leaf Internet to RPL-aware-leaf(Raf)
not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf) to Internet
Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf)
Interaction between Leafs: Interaction between Leafs:
RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf (storing and non-storing) RPL-aware-leaf(Raf) to RPL-aware-leaf(Raf) (storing and non-
storing)
RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf (non-storing)
not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf (storing and non-storing) RPL-aware-leaf(Raf) to not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf) (non-storing)
not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf) to RPL-aware-leaf(Raf) (storing and non-
storing)
not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf (non-storing) not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf) to not-RPL-aware-leaf(~Raf) (non-storing)
This document is consistent with the rule that a Header cannot be This document is consistent with the rule that a Header cannot be
inserted or removed on the fly inside an IPv6 packet that is being inserted or removed on the fly inside an IPv6 packet that is being
routed. This is a fundamental precept of the IPv6 architecture as routed. This is a fundamental precept of the IPv6 architecture as
outlined in [RFC8200]. Extensions may not be added or removed except outlined in [RFC8200]. Extensions headers may not be added or
by the sender or the receiver. removed except by the sender or the receiver.
However, unlike [RFC6553], the Hop-by-Hop Option Header used for the However, unlike [RFC6553], the Hop-by-Hop Option Header used for the
RPI artifact has the first two bits set to '00'. This means that the RPI artifact has the first two bits set to '00'. This means that the
RPI artifact will be ignored when received by a host or router that RPI artifact will be ignored when received by a host or router that
does not understand that option ( Section 4.2 [RFC8200]). does not understand that option ( Section 4.2 [RFC8200]).
This means that when the no-drop RPI option code 0x23 is used, a This means that when the no-drop RPI option code 0x23 is used, a
packet that leaves the RPL domain of an LLN (or that leaves the LLN packet that leaves the RPL domain of an LLN (or that leaves the LLN
entirely) will not be discarded when it contains the [RFC6553] RPL entirely) will not be discarded when it contains the [RFC6553] RPL
Hop-by-Hop option known as RPI. Thus, the RPI Hop-by-Hop option is Hop-by-Hop option known as RPI. Thus, the RPI Hop-by-Hop option is
left in place even if the end host does not understand it. left in place even if the end host does not understand it.
NOTE: There is some possible security risk when the RPI information NOTE: No clear attack has been described when the RPI information is
is released to the Internet. At this point this is a theoretical released to the Internet. At a minimum, it is clear that the RPI
situation; no clear attack has been described. At worst, it is clear option would waste some network bandwidth when it escapes. This is
that the RPI option would waste some network bandwidth when it traded off against the savings in the LLN by not having to
escapes. This is traded off against the savings in the LLN by not encapsulate the packet in order to remove the artifact. Please check
having to encapsulate the packet in order to remove the artifact. the Security Considerations sections Section 11 for further details.
As the rank information in the RPI artifact is changed at each hop, As the rank information in the RPI artifact is changed at each hop,
it will typically be zero when it arrives at the DODAG root. The it will typically be zero when it arrives at the DODAG root. The
DODAG root SHOULD force it to zero when passing the packet out to the DODAG root MUST force it to zero when passing the packet out to the
Internet. The Internet will therefore not see any SenderRank Internet. The Internet will therefore not see any SenderRank
information. information.
Despite being legal to leave the RPI artifact in place, an Despite being legal to leave the RPI artifact in place, an
intermediate router that needs to add an extension header (RH3 or RPI intermediate router that needs to add an extension header (e.g. RH3
Option) MUST still encapsulate the packet in an (additional) outer IP or RPI Option) MUST still encapsulate the packet in an (additional)
header. The new header is placed after this new outer IP header. outer IP header. The new header is placed after this new outer IP
header.
A corollary is that an RH3 or RPI Option can only be removed by an A corollary is that an RH3 or RPI Option can only be removed by an
intermediate router if it is placed in an encapsulating IPv6 Header, intermediate router if it is placed in an encapsulating IPv6 Header,
which is addressed TO the intermediate router. When it does so, the which is addressed TO the intermediate router. When it does so, the
whole encapsulating header must be removed. (A replacement may be whole encapsulating header must be removed. (A replacement may be
added). This sometimes can result in outer IP headers being added). This sometimes can result in outer IP headers being
addressed to the next hop router using link-local address. addressed to the next hop router using link-local address.
Both RPI and RH3 headers may be modified in very specific ways by Both RPI and RH3 headers may be modified in very specific ways by
routers on the path of the packet without the need to add to remove routers on the path of the packet without the need to add and remove
an encapsulating header. Both headers were designed with this an encapsulating header. Both headers were designed with this
modification in mind, and both the RPL RH3 and the RPL option are modification in mind, and both the RPL RH3 and the RPL option are
marked mutable but recoverable: so an IPsec AH security header can be marked mutable but recoverable: so an IPsec AH security header can be
applied across these headers, but it can not secure the values which applied across these headers, but it can not secure the values which
mutate. mutate.
RPI MUST be present in every single RPL data packet. There is one RPI MUST be present in every single RPL data packet.
exception in non-storing mode: when a packet is going down from the
root the RPI MAY be omitted. The rational is that in a downward non-
storing mode, the entire route is written, so there can be no loops
by construction, nor any confusion about which forwarding table to
use (as the root has already made all routing decisions). However,
there are still cases, such as in 6tisch, where the instanceID
portion of the RPI header may still be needed [RFC8180] to pick an
appropriate priority or channel at each hop.
Prior to [RFC8138], there was significant interest in removing the Prior to [RFC8138], there was significant interest in removing the
RPI for downward flows in non-storing mode. The exception covered a RPI for downward flows in non-storing mode. The exception covered a
very small number of cases, and causes significant interoperability very small number of cases, and causes significant interoperability
challenges, yet costed significant code and testing complexity. The challenges, yet costed significant code and testing complexity. The
ability to compress the RPI down to three bytes or less removes much ability to compress the RPI down to three bytes or less removes much
of the pressure to optimize this any further of the pressure to optimize this any further
[I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]. [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane].
The earlier examples are more extensive to make sure that the process The earlier examples are more extensive to make sure that the process
is clear, while later examples are more concise. is clear, while later examples are more concise.
6. Storing mode 6. Storing mode
In storing mode (fully stateful), the sender can determine if the In storing mode (fully stateful), the sender can determine if the
destination is inside the LLN by looking if the destination address destination is inside the LLN by looking if the destination address
is matched by the DIO's Prefix Information Option (PIO) option. is matched by the DIO's Prefix Information Option (PIO) option.
The following table (Figure 7) itemizes which headers are needed in The following table (Figure 7) itemizes which headers are needed in
each of the following scenarios. It indicate if an IPv6-in-IPv6 each of the following scenarios. It indicates if the IPv6-in-IPv6
header must be inserted, and whether the destination address of the header that is added, must be addressed to the final destination (the
IPv6-in-IPv6 header is the next hop, or the final target address. Raf node that is the target(tgt)), to the "root" or if a hop-by-hop
There are these possible situations: hop-by-hop necessary (indicated header must be added (indicated by "hop").
by "hop"), or final target address possible (indicated by "tgt"). In
all cases hop by hop may be used rather than the final target
address.
In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed, the column states as In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed, the column states as
"No". "No". If the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed is a "must".
In all cases the RPI headers are needed, since it identifies In all cases the RPI headers are needed, since it identifies
inconsistencies (loops) in the routing topology. In all cases the inconsistencies (loops) in the routing topology. In all cases the
RH3 is not needed because it is not used in storing mode. RH3 is not needed because it is not used in storing mode.
In each case, 6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to In each case, 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to
destination. "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that destination. "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that
the packet go through from source (6LN) to destination. the packet goes through from source (6LN) to destination.
The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN (see The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN. The
Figure 5). root refers to the 6LBR (see Figure 6).
+---------------------+--------------+------------+--------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+------------------+
| Interaction between | Use Case |IPv6-in-IPv6| v6-in-v6 dst | | Interaction between | Use Case |IPv6-in-IPv6| IPv6-in-IPv6 dst |
+---------------------+--------------+------------+--------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+------------------+
| | Raf to root | No | No | | | Raf to root | No | No |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| Leaf - Root | root to Raf | No | No | | Leaf - Root | root to Raf | No | No |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| | root to ~Raf | No | No | | | root to ~Raf | No | No |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| | ~Raf to root | must | root | | | ~Raf to root | must | root |
+---------------------+--------------+------------+--------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+------------------+
| | Raf to Int | No | No | | | Raf to Int | No | No |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| Leaf - Internet | Int to Raf | must | tgt (Raf) | | Leaf - Internet | Int to Raf | must | Raf (tgt) |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| | ~Raf to Int | must | root | | | ~Raf to Int | must | root |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| | Int to ~Raf | must | hop | | | Int to ~Raf | must | hop |
+---------------------+--------------+------------+--------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+------------------+
| | Raf to Raf | No | No | | | Raf to Raf | No | No |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| | Raf to ~Raf | No | No | | | Raf to ~Raf | No | No |
+ Leaf - Leaf +--------------+------------+--------------+ + Leaf - Leaf +--------------+------------+------------------+
| | ~Raf to Raf | must | tgt (Raf) | | | ~Raf to Raf | must | Raf (tgt) |
+ +--------------+------------+--------------+ + +--------------+------------+------------------+
| | ~Raf to ~Raf | Yes | hop | | | ~Raf to ~Raf | must | ~Raf |
+---------------------+--------------+------------+--------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+------------------+
Figure 7: Table of IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation in Storing mode. Figure 7: Table of IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation in Storing mode.
6.1. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root 6.1. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root
In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode
(SM) between, (SM) between,
RPL-aware-leaf to root RPL-aware-leaf to root
skipping to change at page 17, line 21 skipping to change at page 18, line 16
generally issue DIO messages; a leaf node accepts DIO messages from generally issue DIO messages; a leaf node accepts DIO messages from
upstream. (When the inconsistency in routing occurs, a leaf node upstream. (When the inconsistency in routing occurs, a leaf node
will generate a DIO with an infinite rank, to fix it). It may issue will generate a DIO with an infinite rank, to fix it). It may issue
DAO and DIS messages though it generally ignores DAO and DIS DAO and DIS messages though it generally ignores DAO and DIS
messages. messages.
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR) RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node A root(6LBR) Node B --> Node A root(6LBR)
As it was mentioned in this document 6LRs, 6LBR are always full- As it was mentioned in this document 6LRs, 6LBR are always full-
fledged RPL routers. fledged RPL routers.
The 6LN (Node F) inserts the RPI header, and sends the packet to 6LR The 6LN (Node F) inserts the RPI header, and sends the packet to 6LR
(Node E) which decrements the rank in RPI and sends the packet up. (Node E) which decrements the rank in RPI and sends the packet up.
When the packet arrives at 6LBR (Node A), the RPI is removed and the When the packet arrives at 6LBR (Node A), the RPI is removed and the
packet is processed. packet is processed.
No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required.
The RPI header can be removed by the 6LBR because the packet is The RPI header can be removed by the 6LBR because the packet is
addressed to the 6LBR. The 6LN must know that it is communicating addressed to the 6LBR. The 6LN must know that it is communicating
with the 6LBR to make use of this scenario. The 6LN can know the with the 6LBR to make use of this scenario. The 6LN can know the
address of the 6LBR because it knows the address of the root via the address of the 6LBR because it knows the address of the root via the
DODAGID in the DIO messages. DODAGID in the DIO messages.
+-------------------+-----+-------+------+ The Table 1 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
| Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+-------------------+-----+-------+------+ +-------------------+---------+-------+----------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | | Header | 6LN src | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | +-------------------+---------+-------+----------+
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+-----+-------+------+ | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+
Table 1: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf Table 1: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf
to root to root
6.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf 6.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A root(6LBR) --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node A root(6LBR) -->
Node B --> Node D --> Node F Node B --> Node D --> Node F
In this case the 6LBR inserts RPI header and sends the packet down, In this case the 6LBR inserts RPI header and sends the packet down,
the 6LR is going to increment the rank in RPI (it examines the the 6LR is going to increment the rank in RPI (it examines the
instanceID to identify the right forwarding table), the packet is instanceID to identify the right forwarding table), the packet is
processed in the 6LN and the RPI removed. processed in the 6LN and the RPI removed.
No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required.
The Table 2 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-------------------+------+-------+------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | | Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+
skipping to change at page 19, line 5 skipping to change at page 19, line 48
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A root(6LBR) --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node A root(6LBR) -->
Node B --> Node E --> Node G Node B --> Node E --> Node G
As the RPI extension can be ignored by the not-RPL-aware leaf, this As the RPI extension can be ignored by the not-RPL-aware leaf, this
situation is identical to the previous scenario. situation is identical to the previous scenario.
+-------------------+------+-------+----------------+ The Table 3 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | IPv6 |
+-------------------+------+-------+----------------+ +-------------------+----------+-------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | | Header | 6LBR src | 6LR_i | IPv6 dst node |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | +-------------------+----------+-------+----------------+
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Removed headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+------+-------+----------------+ | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+----------+-------+----------------+
Table 3: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to not-RPL- Table 3: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to not-RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
6.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root 6.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A root(6LBR) Node B --> Node A root(6LBR)
When the packet arrives from IPv6 node (Node G) to 6LR_1 (Node E), When the packet arrives from IPv6 node (Node G) to 6LR_1 (Node E),
the 6LR_1 will insert a RPI header, encapsuladed in a IPv6-in-IPv6 the 6LR_1 will insert a RPI header, encapsulated in a IPv6-in-IPv6
header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 header can be addressed to the next hop header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 header can be addressed to the next hop
(Node B), or to the root (Node A). The root removes the header and (Node B), or to the root (Node A). The root removes the header and
processes the packet. processes the packet.
+---------+-----+---------------+------------------+----------------+ The Figure 8 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| | 6 | | | |
+---------+-----+---------------+------------------+----------------+
| Inserte | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| d | | IPv6(RPI) | IPv6(RPI)(1) | |
| headers | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| headers | | | | IPv6(RPI) |
| Re- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| added | | | IPv6(RPI)(1) | |
| headers | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| d | | | IPv6(RPI)(2) | |
| headers | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | |
| headers | | | | |
+---------+-----+---------------+------------------+----------------+
Table 4: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware- +-----------+------+--------------+-----------------+--------------------+
leaf to root. (1) Case where the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst |
the next hop (Node B). (2) Case where the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is | | src | | | |
addressed to the root (Node A) | | node | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+-----------------+--------------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | IP6-IP6(RPI)[1] | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+-----------------+--------------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI)[1][2] |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+-----------------+--------------------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI)[1] | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+-----------------+--------------------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI)[2] | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+-----------------+--------------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+-----------------+--------------------+
Figure 8: Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to root. [[1] Case where the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is
addressed to the next hop (Node B). [2] Case where the IPv6-in-IPv6
header is addressed to the root (Node A).
6.2. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet. 6.2. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet.
In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode
(SM) between, (SM) between,
RPL-aware-leaf to Internet RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
Internet to RPL-aware-leaf Internet to RPL-aware-leaf
skipping to change at page 21, line 12 skipping to change at page 22, line 12
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) --> Internet RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) --> Internet
For example, the communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, the communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node A root(6LBR) --> Internet Node B --> Node A root(6LBR) --> Internet
No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required.
Note: In this use case it is used a node as leaf, but this use case Note: In this use case it is used a node as leaf, but this use case
can be also applicable to any RPL-node type (e.g. 6LR) can be also applicable to any RPL-node type (e.g. 6LR)
+-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+ The Table 4 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
| Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
Table 5: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf +-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+
| Header | 6LN src | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet dst |
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+
Table 4: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf
to Internet to Internet
6.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf 6.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
root(6LBR) --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F root(6LBR) --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F
When the packet arrives from Internet to 6LBR the RPI header is added When the packet arrives from Internet to 6LBR the RPI header is added
in a outer IPv6-in-IPv6 header and sent to 6LR, which modifies the in a outer IPv6-in-IPv6 header (with the IPv6-in-IPv6 destination
rank in the RPI. When the packet arrives at 6LN the RPI header is address set to the 6LR) and sent to 6LR, which modifies the rank in
removed and the packet processed. the RPI. When the packet arrives at 6LN the RPI header is removed
and the packet processed.
+---------+--------+---------------+---------------+----------------+ The Figure 9 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | Intern | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| | et | | | |
+---------+--------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
| Inserte | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| d | | IPv6(RPI) | | |
| headers | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| headers | | | | IPv6(RPI) |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | |
| headers | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| d | | | IPv6(RPI) | |
| headers | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | |
| headers | | | | |
+---------+--------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
Table 6: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RPL- +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+------------------+
aware-leaf | Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN dst |
| | src | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+------------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+------------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+------------------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+------------------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+------------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+------------------+
Figure 9: Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers from Internet
to RPL-aware-leaf.
6.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet 6.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) -->
Internet Internet
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A root(6LBR) --> Internet Node B --> Node A root(6LBR) --> Internet
skipping to change at page 23, line 5 skipping to change at page 23, line 51
root cause less processing overhead. On the other hand, with hop-by- root cause less processing overhead. On the other hand, with hop-by-
hop the intermediate routers can check the routing tables for a hop the intermediate routers can check the routing tables for a
better routing path, thus it could be more efficient and faster. better routing path, thus it could be more efficient and faster.
Implementation should decide which approach to take. Implementation should decide which approach to take.
The originating node will ideally leave the IPv6 flow label as zero The originating node will ideally leave the IPv6 flow label as zero
so that the packet can be better compressed through the LLN. The so that the packet can be better compressed through the LLN. The
6LBR will set the flow label of the packet to a non-zero value when 6LBR will set the flow label of the packet to a non-zero value when
sending to the Internet. sending to the Internet.
+-------+----+-------------+---------------+---------------+--------+ The Figure 10 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Heade | IP | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Intern | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| r | v6 | | [i=2,..,n]_ | | et |
+-------+----+-------------+---------------+---------------+--------+
| Inser | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| ted h | | IPv6(RPI) | IPv6(RPI)(2) | | |
| eader | | | | | |
| s | | | | | |
| Remov | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| ed he | | | IPv6(RPI)(2) | IPv6(RPI)(1) | |
| aders | | | | | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| heade | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | |
| Modif | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| ied h | | | IPv6(RPI)(1) | | |
| eader | | | | | |
| s | | | | | |
| Untou | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ched | | | | | |
| heade | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | |
+-------+----+-------------+---------------+---------------+--------+
Table 7: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware- +---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
leaf to Internet. (1) Case when packet is addressed to the root. | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR |Internet|
(2) Case when the packet is addressed hop-by-hop. | | src | | [i=2,...,n] | | dst |
| | node | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| Inserted| -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)| IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | [2] | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- |
| headers | | | [2] | [1][2] | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| Re-added| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
| Modified| -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | [1] | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+--------+
6.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware-leaf. Figure 10: Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to Internet. [1] Case when packet is addressed to the
root. [2] Case when the packet is addressed hop-by-hop.
6.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf.
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
root(6LBR) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G root(6LBR) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G
The 6LBR will have to add an RPI header within an IPv6-in-IPv6 The 6LBR will have to add an RPI header within an IPv6-in-IPv6
header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 is addressed to the not-RPL-aware-leaf, header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 is addressed hop-by-hop.
leaving the RPI inside.
The final node should be able to remove one or more IPv6-in-IPv6 The final node should be able to remove one or more IPv6-in-IPv6
headers which are all addressed to it. Furhter details about this headers which are all addressed to it. The final node does not
are mentioned in [I-D.thubert-roll-unaware-leaves], which specifies process the RPI, the node ignores the RPI. Furhter details about
RPL routing for a 6LN acting as a plain host and not aware of RPL. this are mentioned in [I-D.thubert-roll-unaware-leaves], which
specifies RPL routing for a 6LN acting as a plain host and not aware
of RPL.
The 6LBR may set the flow label on the inner IPv6-in-IPv6 header to The 6LBR may set the flow label on the inner IPv6-in-IPv6 header to
zero in order to aid in compression. zero in order to aid in compression.
+--------+---------+---------------+---------------+----------------+ The Figure 11 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | Interne | 6LBR | 6LR_i | IPv6 | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| | t | | | |
+--------+---------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
| Insert | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| ed hea | | IPv6(RPI) | | |
| ders | | | | |
| Remove | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| d head | | | | IPv6(RPI)- RPI |
| ers | | | | (Ignored) |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | |
| header | | | | |
| s | | | | |
| Modifi | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| ed hea | | | IPv6(RPI) | |
| ders | | | | |
| Untouc | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| hed he | | | | |
| aders | | | | |
+--------+---------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
Table 8: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to non- +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
RPL-aware-leaf | Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i |IPv6 dst node |
| | src | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | | IP6-IP6(RPI)|
| headers | | | | RPI Ignored |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
Figure 11: Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers from Internet
to not-RPL-aware-leaf.
6.3. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf 6.3. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf
In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode
(SM) between, (SM) between,
RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
skipping to change at page 25, line 13 skipping to change at page 26, line 10
[RFC6550]. [RFC6550].
When the nodes are not directly connected, then in storing mode, the When the nodes are not directly connected, then in storing mode, the
flow comprises: flow comprises:
6LN --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> 6LR_id --> 6LN 6LN --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> 6LR_id --> 6LN
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node E --> Node H Node B --> Node E --> Node H
6LR_ia (Node D) are the intermediate routers from source to the 6LR_ia (Node D) is the intermediate router from source to the common
common parent (6LR_x) (Node B) In this case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the parent (6LR_x) (Node B) In this case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number
number of routers (6LR) that the packet go through from 6LN (Node F) of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from 6LN (Node F) to
to the common parent (6LR_x). the common parent (6LR_x).
6LR_id (Node E) are the intermediate routers from the common parent 6LR_id (Node E) is the intermediate router from the common parent
(6LR_x) (Node B) to destination 6LN (Node H). In this case, "1 <= id (6LR_x) (Node B) to destination 6LN (Node H). In this case, "1 <= id
<= m", m is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet go through <= m", m is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through
from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination 6LN. from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination 6LN.
It is assumed that the two nodes are in the same RPL Domain (that It is assumed that the two nodes are in the same RPL Domain (that
they share the same DODAG root). At the common parent (Node B), the they share the same DODAG root). At the common parent (Node B), the
direction of RPI is changed (from increasing to decreasing the rank). direction of RPI is changed (from increasing to decreasing the rank).
While the 6LR nodes will update the RPI, no node needs to add or While the 6LR nodes will update the RPI, no node needs to add or
remove the RPI, so no IPv6-in-IPv6 headers are necessary. This may remove the RPI, so no IPv6-in-IPv6 headers are necessary.
be done regardless of where the destination is, as the included RPI
will be ignored by the receiver. The Table 5 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+ +---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x (common | 6LR_id | 6LN | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x (common | 6LR_id | 6LN |
| | src | | parent) | | dst | | | src | | parent) | | dst |
+---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+ +---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+
| Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- | | Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+ +---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+
Table 9: Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to Table 5: Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to
RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf
6.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to non-RPL-aware-leaf 6.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
6LN --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware 6LN --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware
6LN (IPv6) 6LN (IPv6)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node E --> Node G Node B --> Node E --> Node G
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source (6LN) to the common 6LR_ia is the intermediate router from source (6LN) to the common
parent (6LR_x) In this case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of parent (6LR_x) In this case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of
routers (6LR) that the packet go through from 6LN to the common routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from 6LN to the common
parent (6LR_x). parent (6LR_x).
6LR_id (Node E) are the intermediate routers from the common parent 6LR_id (Node E) is the intermediate router from the common parent
(6LR_x) (Node B) to destination not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) (Node G). (6LR_x) (Node B) to destination not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) (Node G).
In this case, "1 <= id <= m", m is the number of routers (6LR) that In this case, "1 <= id <= m", m is the number of routers (6LR) that
the packet go through from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination the packet goes through from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination
6LN. 6LN.
This situation is identical to the previous situation Section 6.3.1 This situation is identical to the previous situation Section 6.3.1
The Table 6 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x(common | 6LR_id | IPv6 | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x(common | 6LR_id | IPv6 dst |
| | src | | parent) | | | | | src | | parent) | | node |
+-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+
| Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- | | Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI(Ignored) | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI(Ignored) |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+
Table 10: Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf Table 6: Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to
to non-RPL-aware-leaf not-RPL-aware-leaf
6.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 6.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) -->
6LR_id --> 6LN 6LR_id --> 6LN
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node D --> Node F Node B --> Node D --> Node F
6LR_ia (Node E) are the intermediate routers from source (not-RPL- 6LR_ia (Node E) is the intermediate router from source (not-RPL-aware
aware 6LN (IPv6)) (Node G) to the common parent (6LR_x) (Node B). In 6LN (IPv6)) (Node G) to the common parent (6LR_x) (Node B). In this
this case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source to the common parent. packet ges through from source to the common parent.
6LR_id (Node D) are the intermediate routers from the common parent 6LR_id (Node D) is the intermediate router from the common parent
(6LR_x) (Node B) to destination 6LN (Node F). In this case, "1 <= id (6LR_x) (Node B) to destination 6LN (Node F). In this case, "1 <= id
<= m", m is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet go through <= m", m is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through
from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination 6LN. from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination 6LN.
The 6LR_ia (ia=1) (Node E) receives the packet from the the IPv6 node The 6LR_ia (ia=1) (Node E) receives the packet from the the IPv6 node
(Node G) and inserts and the RPI header encapsulated in IPv6-in-IPv6 (Node G) and inserts and the RPI header encapsulated in IPv6-in-IPv6
header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the destination 6LN header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the destination 6LN
(Node F). (Node F).
+-------+----+------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+ The Figure 12 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Heade | IP | 6LR_ia | common | 6LR_id | 6LN | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| r | v6 | | parent | | |
| | | | (6LRx) | | |
+-------+----+------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
| Inser | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- | -- |
| ted h | | IPv6(RPI) | | | |
| eader | | | | | |
| s | | | | | |
| Remov | -- | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| ed he | | | | | IPv6(RPI) |
| aders | | | | | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| heade | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | |
| Modif | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| ied h | | | IPv6(RPI) | IPv6(RPI) | |
| eader | | | | | |
| s | | | | | |
| Untou | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ched | | | | | |
| heade | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | |
+-------+----+------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
Table 11: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware- +----------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------------+
leaf to RPL-aware-leaf | Header |IPv6 | 6LR_ia | Common | 6LR_id | 6LN |
| |src | | Parent | | dst |
| |node | | (6LRx) | | |
+----------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+----------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)|
| headers | | | | | |
+----------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+----------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+----------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------------+
|Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+----------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------------+
Figure 12: Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf.
6.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware- 6.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-
leaf leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src)--> 6LR_1--> 6LR_ia --> 6LR_id --> not- not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src)--> 6LR_1--> 6LR_ia --> 6LBR --> 6LR_id
RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 dst) --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 dst)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J
Internal nodes 6LR_ia (e.g: Node E or Node B) are the intermediate Internal nodes 6LR_ia (e.g: Node E or Node B) is the intermediate
routers from the not-RPL-aware source (Node G) to the root (6LBR) router from the not-RPL-aware source (Node G) to the root (6LBR)
(Node A). In this case, "1 < ia <= n", n is the number of routers (Node A). In this case, "1 < ia <= n", n is the number of routers
(6LR) that the packet go through from IPv6 src to the root. (6LR) that the packet goes through from IPv6 src to the root.
6LR_id (C) are the intermediate routers from the root (Node A) to the 6LR_id (C) is the intermediate router from the root (Node A) to the
destination Node J. In this case, "1 <= id <= m", m is the number of destination Node J. In this case, "1 <= id <= m", m is the number of
routers (6LR) that the packet go through from the root to destination routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from the root to
(IPv6 dst). destination (IPv6 dst).
Note that this flow is identical to Section 6.3.3, except for where Note that this flow is identical to Section 6.3.3, except that the
the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is inserted. RPI is ignored at the IPv6 dst node.
The 6LR_1 (Node E) receives the packet from the the IPv6 node (Node The 6LR_1 (Node E) receives the packet from the the IPv6 node (Node
G) and inserts the RPI header (RPI), encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6 G) and inserts the RPI header (RPI), encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6
header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the final header. The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the final
destination (Node J). destination (Node J).
+-------+----+------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+ The Figure 13 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Heade | IP | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LR_m | IPv6 dst | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| r | v6 | | | | |
| | sr | | | | |
| | c | | | | |
+-------+----+------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
| Inser | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- | -- |
| ted h | | IPv6(RPI) | | | |
| eader | | | | | |
| s | | | | | |
| Remov | -- | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| ed he | | | | | IPv6(RPI), |
| aders | | | | | RPI Ignored |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| heade | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | |
| Modif | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| ied h | | | IPv6(RPI) | IPv6(RPI) | |
| eader | | | | | |
| s | | | | | |
| Untou | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ched | | | | | |
| heade | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | |
+-------+----+------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
Table 12: Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware- +---------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
leaf to non-RPL-aware-leaf | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LR_m | IPv6 |
| | src | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | node |
+---------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Inserted| -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)|
| headers | | | | | RPI Ignored|
+---------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Re-added| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Modified| -- | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)|IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
Figure 13: Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
7. Non Storing mode 7. Non Storing mode
In Non Storing Mode (Non SM) (fully source routed), the 6LBR (DODAG In Non Storing Mode (Non SM) (fully source routed), the 6LBR (DODAG
root) has complete knowledge about the connectivity of all DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the connectivity of all DODAG
nodes, and all traffic flows through the root node. Thus, there is nodes, and all traffic flows through the root node. Thus, there is
no need for all nodes to know about the existence of non-RPL aware no need for all nodes to know about the existence of not-RPL aware
nodes. Only the 6LBR needs to act if compensation is necessary for nodes. Only the 6LBR needs to act if compensation is necessary for
non-RPL aware receivers. not-RPL aware receivers.
The following table (Figure 8) summarizes what headers are needed in The following table (Figure 14) summarizes what headers are needed in
the following scenarios, and indicates when the RPI, RH3 and IPv6-in- the following scenarios, and indicates when the RPI, RH3 and IPv6-in-
IPv6 header are to be inserted. There are these possible situations: IPv6 header are to be inserted. It depicts the target destination
target destination address possible (indicated by "tgt"), to a 6LR, address possible (indicated by "Raf"), to a 6LR (parent of a 6LN) or
to a 6LN or to the root. In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header is to the root. In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed, the
needed, the column states as "No". column states as "No". There is no expectation on RPL that RPI can
be omitted, because it is needed for routing, quality of service and
compression. This specification expects that is always a RPI
Present.
The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN
(Figure 3). In the Figure the (1) indicates a 6tisch case [RFC8180], (Figure 3). In the Figure the (1) indicates a 6tisch case [RFC8180],
where the instanceID portion of the RPI header may still be needed to where the RPI header may still be needed for the instanceID to be
pick an appropriate priority or channel at each hop. available for priority/channel selection at each hop.
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| Interaction | Use Case | RPI | RH3 | v6-in-v6 | v6-in-v6 |
| between | | | | | dst |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | Raf to root | Yes | No | No | No |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| Leaf - Root | root to Raf | Opt | Yes | No | No |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | root to ~Raf |No(1)| Yes | must | 6LR |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | ~Raf to root | Yes | No | must | root |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | Raf to Int | Yes | No | must | root |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| Leaf - Internet | Int to Raf |No(1)| Yes | must | tgt |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | ~Raf to Int | Yes | No | must | root |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | Int to ~Raf |No(1)| Yes | must | 6LR |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | Raf to Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/tgt |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | Raf to ~Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/6LR |
+ Leaf - Leaf +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | ~Raf to Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/6LN |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
| | ~Raf to ~Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/6LR |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+----------+----------+
(1)-6tisch networks may need the RPI information. +-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| Interaction | Use Case | RPI | RH3 |IPv6-in-IPv6|IPv6-in-IPv6|
| between | | | | | dst |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | Raf to root | Yes | No | No | No |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| Leaf - Root | root to Raf | Yes | Yes | No | No |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | root to ~Raf | Yes | Yes | must | 6LR |
| | | (1) | | | |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | ~Raf to root | Yes | No | must | root |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | Raf to Int | Yes | No | No | No |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| Leaf - Internet | Int to Raf | Yes | Yes | must | Raf |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | ~Raf to Int | Yes | No | must | root |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | Int to ~Raf | Yes | Yes | must | 6LR |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | Raf to Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/Raf |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | Raf to ~Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/6LR |
+ Leaf - Leaf +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | ~Raf to Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/Raf |
+ +--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
| | ~Raf to ~Raf | Yes | Yes | must | root/6LR |
+-----------------+--------------+-----+-----+------------+------------+
Figure 8: Table that shows headers needed in Non-Storing mode: RPI, Figure 14: Table that shows headers needed in Non-Storing mode: RPI,
RH3, IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation. RH3, IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation.
7.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root 7.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root
In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing
Mode (Non-SM) between, Mode (Non-SM) between,
RPL-aware-leaf to root RPL-aware-leaf to root
root to RPL-aware-leaf root to RPL-aware-leaf
skipping to change at page 31, line 17 skipping to change at page 32, line 16
In non-storing mode the leaf node uses default routing to send In non-storing mode the leaf node uses default routing to send
traffic to the root. The RPI header must be included since it traffic to the root. The RPI header must be included since it
contains the rank information, which is used to avoid/detect loops. contains the rank information, which is used to avoid/detect loops.
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR) RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node A (root) Node B --> Node A (root)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
this case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
packet go through from source (6LN) to destination (6LBR). goes through from source (6LN) to destination (6LBR).
This situation is the same case as storing mode. This situation is the same case as storing mode.
+-------------------+-----+-------+------+ The Table 7 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
| Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+-------------------+-----+-------+------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+-----+-------+------+
Table 13: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware- +-------------------+---------+-------+----------+
| Header | 6LN src | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst |
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+
Table 7: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-
leaf to root leaf to root
7.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf 7.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B
--> Node D --> Node F --> Node D --> Node F
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
this case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
packet go through from source (6LBR) to destination (6LN). goes through from source (6LBR) to destination (6LN).
The 6LBR inserts an RH3, and a RPI header. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is The 6LBR inserts an RH3, and a RPI header. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is
necessary as the traffic originates with an RPL aware node, the 6LBR. necessary as the traffic originates with an RPL aware node, the 6LBR.
The destination is known to RPL-aware because, the root knows the The destination is known to be RPL-aware because the root knows the
whole topology in non-storing mode. whole topology in non-storing mode.
+-------------------+-----------------+-------+------------------+ The Table 8 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN |
+-------------------+-----------------+-------+------------------+
| Inserted headers | (opt: RPI), RH3 | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RH3, (opt: RPI) |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RH3 | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+-----------------+-------+------------------+
Table 14: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to +-------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+
RPL-aware-leaf | Header | 6LBR src | 6LR_i | 6LN dst |
+-------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+
| Inserted headers | RPI, RH3 | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RH3, RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI, RH3 | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+
Table 8: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to RPL-
aware-leaf
7.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf 7.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B
--> Node E --> Node G --> Node E --> Node G
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
this case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
packet go through from source (6LBR) to destination (IPv6). goes through from source (6LBR) to destination (IPv6).
In 6LBR the RH3 is added, it is modified at each intermediate 6LR In 6LBR the RH3 is added, it is modified at each intermediate 6LR
(6LR_1 and so on) and it is fully consumed in the last 6LR (6LR_n), (6LR_1 and so on) and it is fully consumed in the last 6LR (6LR_n),
but left there. If RPI is left by the previous 6LR, then the IPv6 but left there. As the RPI is added, then the IPv6 node which does
node which does not understand the RPI, will ignore it (following not understand the RPI, will ignore it (following RFC8200), thus
RFC8200), thus encapsulation is not necessary. Due to the complete encapsulation is not necessary.
knowledge of the topology at the root, the 6LBR may optionally
address the IPv6-in-IPv6 header to the last 6LR, such that it is
removed prior to the IPv6 node. Please see Section 8 for
clarification of use of IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation.
+---------------+-------------+--------------+------------+---------+ The Figure 15 depicts the table that summarizes what headers are
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i(i=1) | 6LR_n(i=n) | IPv6 | needed for this use case.
+---------------+-------------+--------------+------------+---------+
| Inserted | (opt: RPI), | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | RH3 | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | RH3 | -- |
| headers | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
| Modified | -- | (opt: RPI), | (opt: RPI) | -- |
| headers | | RH3 | | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | opt: |
| headers | | | | RPI |
+---------------+-------------+--------------+------------+---------+
Table 15: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to +-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | IPv6 |
| | | i=(1,..,n-1) | | dst |
| | | | | node |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Inserted | RPI, RH3 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Removed | -- | -- | | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Modified | -- | RPI, RH3 | RPI, | -- |
| headers | | | RH3(consumed) | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI, RH3 |
| headers | | | | (both |
| | | | | ignored) |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
Figure 15: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to
not-RPL-aware-leaf not-RPL-aware-leaf
7.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root 7.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A (root) Node B --> Node A (root)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
this case, "1 < i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 < i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
packet go through from source (IPv6) to destination (6LBR). For goes through from source (IPv6) to destination (6LBR). For example,
example, 6LR_1 (i=1) is the router that receives the packets from the 6LR_1 (i=1) is the router that receives the packets from the IPv6
IPv6 node. node.
In this case the RPI is added by the first 6LR (6LR1) (Node E), In this case the RPI is added by the first 6LR (6LR1) (Node E),
encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header, and is modified in the encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header, and is modified in the
following 6LRs. The RPI and entire packet is consumed by the root. following 6LRs. The RPI and entire packet is consumed by the root.
+---------+-----+----------------+----------------+-----------------+ The Figure 16 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR | for this use case.
| | 6 | | | |
+---------+-----+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
| Inserte | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| d | | IPv6(RPI) | | |
| headers | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| headers | | | | IPv6(RPI) |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | |
| headers | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| d | | | IPv6(RPI) | |
| headers | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | |
| headers | | | | |
+---------+-----+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
Table 16: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL- +----------+------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
| Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst |
| | src | | | |
| | node | | | |
+----------+------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
| Inserted | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+----------+------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI)|
| headers | | | | |
+----------+------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+----------+------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI)| -- |
| headers | | | | |
+----------+------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
|Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+----------+------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
Figure 16: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to root aware-leaf to root
7.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet 7.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet
This section will describe the communication flow in Non Storing Mode This section will describe the communication flow in Non Storing Mode
(Non-SM) between: (Non-SM) between:
RPL-aware-leaf to Internet RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
Internet to RPL-aware-leaf Internet to RPL-aware-leaf
skipping to change at page 34, line 49 skipping to change at page 36, line 4
Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf
7.2.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet 7.2.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) --> Internet RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) --> Internet
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node A --> Internet Node B --> Node A --> Internet
6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
this case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the goes through from source (6LN) to 6LBR.
packet go through from source (6LN) to 6LBR.
This case is identical to storing-mode case. This case is identical to storing-mode case.
The IPv6 flow label should be set to zero to aid in compression, and The IPv6 flow label should be set to zero to aid in compression, and
the 6LBR will set it to a non-zero value when sending towards the the 6LBR will set it to a non-zero value when sending towards the
Internet. Internet.
+-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+ The Table 9 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
| Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
Table 17: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware- +-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+
| Header | 6LN src | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet dst |
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+
Table 9: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-
leaf to Internet leaf to Internet
7.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf 7.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
(root) --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F (root) --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
this case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 <= i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
packet go through from 6LBR to destination(6LN). goes through from 6LBR to destination(6LN).
The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and
address of the target node, it can address the IPv6-in-IPv6 header to address of the target node, it can address the IPv6-in-IPv6 header to
that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to
aid compression. aid compression.
The Table 10 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN | | Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN src |
| | dst | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Inserted | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- | | Inserted | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RH3,RPI) | | | | headers | | (RH3,RPI) | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 |
| headers | | | | (RH3,RPI) | | headers | | | | (RH3,RPI) |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Modified | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | | Modified | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| headers | | | (RH3,RPI) | | | headers | | | (RH3,RPI) | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
Table 18: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to Table 10: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to
RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf
7.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet 7.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) -->
Internet Internet
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A --> Internet Node B --> Node A --> Internet
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
this case, "1 < i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 < i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
packet go through from source(IPv6) to 6LBR. e.g 6LR_1 (i=1). goes through from source(IPv6) to 6LBR. e.g 6LR_1 (i=1).
In this case the flow label is recommended to be zero in the IPv6 In this case the flow label is recommended to be zero in the IPv6
node. As RPL headers are added in the IPv6 node packet, the first node. As RPL headers are added in the IPv6 node packet, the first
6LR (6LR_1) will add a RPI header inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header. 6LR (6LR_1) will add a RPI header inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header.
The IPv6-in-IPv6 header will be addressed to the root. This case is The IPv6-in-IPv6 header will be addressed to the root. This case is
identical to the storing-mode case (see Section 6.2.3). identical to the storing-mode case (see Section 6.2.3).
+---------+-----+------------+-------------+-------------+----------+ The Figure 17 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| | 6 | | [i=2,..,n]_ | | |
+---------+-----+------------+-------------+-------------+----------+
| Inserte | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- | -- |
| d | | IPv6 (RPI) | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| headers | | | | IPv6 (RPI) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| d | | | IPv6 (RPI) | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+-----+------------+-------------+-------------+----------+
Table 19: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL- +-----------+------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
| | src | | [i=2,..,n] | | dst |
| | node | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Inserted | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
Figure 17: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to Internet aware-leaf to Internet
7.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf 7.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
(root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In 6LR_i is the intermediate router from source to destination. In this
this case, "1 < i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 < i <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet
packet go through from 6LBR to not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6). goes through from 6LBR to not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6).
The 6LBR must add an RH3 header inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The The 6LBR must add an RH3 header inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The
6LBR will know the path, and will recognize that the final node is 6LBR will know the path, and will recognize that the final node is
not an RPL capable node as it will have received the connectivity DAO not an RPL capable node as it will have received the connectivity DAO
from the nearest 6LR. The 6LBR can therefore make the IPv6-in-IPv6 from the nearest 6LR. The 6LBR can therefore make the IPv6-in-IPv6
header destination be the last 6LR. The 6LBR will set to zero the header destination be the last 6LR. The 6LBR will set to zero the
flow label upon entry in order to aid compression. flow label upon entry in order to aid compression.
+---------+--------+------------+------------+---------------+------+ The Figure 18 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | Intern | 6LBR | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i(i=2,.., | IPv6 | for this use case.
| | et | | | n) | |
+---------+--------+------------+------------+---------------+------+
| Inserte | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- | -- |
| d | | IPv6 (RH3, | | | |
| headers | | RPI) | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| headers | | | | (RH3,RPI)(1) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| d | | | IPv6 | (RH3, RPI) | |
| headers | | | (RH3,RPI) | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+--------+------------+------------+---------------+------+
Table 20: NonStoring: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to +-----------+--------+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+
non-RPL-aware-leaf (1) The last 6LR before the IPv6 node. | Header |Internet| 6LBR | 6LR_1 | 6lR_i | IPv6 |
| | src | | | (i=2,...,n) | dst |
| | | | | | node |
+-----------+--------+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+
| Inserted | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RH3,RPI) | | | |
+-----------+--------+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| headers | | | | (RH3,RPI)[1] | |
+-----------+--------+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+--------+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| headers | | | (RH3,RPI) | (RH3,RPI) | |
+-----------+--------+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+--------+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+
Figure 18: Non-Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers from
Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf [1] The last 6LR before the IPv6 node.
7.3. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leafs 7.3. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leafs
In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing
Mode (Non-SM) between, Mode (Non-SM) between,
RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
skipping to change at page 38, line 49 skipping to change at page 40, line 4
not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
7.3.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 7.3.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
6LN src --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> 6LN dst 6LN src --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> 6LN dst
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node H Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node H
6LR_ia is the intermediate router from source to the root In this
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root In this
case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from 6LN to the root. packet goes through from 6LN to the root.
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination. 6LR_id is the intermediate router from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR). routers (6LR).
This case involves only nodes in same RPL Domain. The originating This case involves only nodes in same RPL Domain. The originating
node will add a RPI header to the original packet, and send the node will add a RPI header to the original packet, and send the
packet upwards. packet upwards.
The originating node should put the RPI into an IPv6-in-IPv6 header The originating node must put the RPI into an IPv6-in-IPv6 header
addressed to the root, so that the 6LBR can remove that header. If addressed to the root, so that the 6LBR can remove that header. If
it does not, then additional resources are wasted on the way down to it does not, then additional resources are wasted on the way down to
carry the useless RPI option. carry the useless RPI option.
The 6LBR will need to insert an RH3 header, which requires that it The 6LBR will need to insert an RH3 header, which requires that it
add an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. It should be able to remove the RPI, as add an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. It should be able to remove the RPI, as
it was contained in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to it. it was contained in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to it.
Otherwise, there may be a RPI header buried inside the inner IP Otherwise, there may be a RPI header buried inside the inner IP
header, which should get ignored. header, which should get ignored.
Networks that use the RPL P2P extension [RFC6997] are essentially Networks that use the RPL P2P extension [RFC6997] are essentially
non-storing DODAGs and fall into this scenario or scenario non-storing DODAGs and fall into this scenario or scenario
Section 7.1.2, with the originating node acting as 6LBR. Section 7.1.2, with the originating node acting as 6LBR.
+---------+------------+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+ The Figure 19 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | 6LN src | 6LR_i | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LN dst | for this use case.
| | | a | | | |
+---------+------------+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+
| Inserte | IPv6-in- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| d | IPv6 | | IPv6 | | |
| headers | (RPI1) | | (RH3->6LN, | | |
| | | | opt RPI2) | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| headers | | | IPv6 (RPI1) | | IPv6 (RH3, |
| | | | | | opt RPI2) |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | RPI1 | -- | RPI2 | -- |
| d | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+------------+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+
Table 21: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware- +---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
leaf to RPL-aware-leaf | Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LN |
| | src | | | | dst |
+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Inserted|IPv6-in-IPv6| |IPv6-in-IPv6| -- | -- |
| headers | (RPI1) | |(RH3-> 6LN, | | |
| | | | RPI2) | | |
+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Removed | -- | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6| -- |IPv6-in-IPv6|
| headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, |
| | | | | | RPI2) |
+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Re-added| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Modified| -- |IPv6-in-IPv | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6| -- |
| headers | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2) | |
+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
Figure 19: Non Storing mode: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-
aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
7.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware- 7.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-
leaf leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
6LN --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware (IPv6) 6LN --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware (IPv6)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root In this 6LR_ia is the intermediate router from source to the root In this
case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR) case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR)
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination. 6LR_id is the intermediate router from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR). routers (6LRs).
As in the previous case, the 6LN will insert a RPI (RPI_1) header As in the previous case, the 6LN will insert a RPI (RPI_1) header
which must be in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the root so that which must be in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the root so that
the 6LBR can remove this RPI. The 6LBR will then insert an RH3 the 6LBR can remove this RPI. The 6LBR will then insert an RH3
inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the 6LR_id. The RPI is inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the 6LR_id.
optional from 6LBR to 6LR_id (RPI_2).
+---------+-----------+-----------+------------+------------+-------+ The Figure 20 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | 6LN | 6LR_1 | 6LBR | 6LR_id | IPv6 | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
+---------+-----------+-----------+------------+------------+-------+
| Inserte | IPv6-in- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| d | IPv6 | | IPv6 (RH3, | | |
| headers | (RPI1) | | opt RPI_2) | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| headers | | | IPv6 | IPv6 (RH3, | |
| | | | (RPI_1) | opt RPI_2) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| d | | IPv6 | | IPv6 (RH3, | |
| headers | | (RPI_1) | | opt RPI_2) | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | opt |
| ed | | | | | RPI_2 |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+-----------+-----------+------------+------------+-------+
Table 22: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware- +-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf | Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LR_m | IPv6 |
| | src | | | | | dst |
| | | | | | | node |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Inserted | IP6-IP6 | | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | | |
| | | | RPI2) | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | | RPI2) | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Modified | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
Figure 20: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-
leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf.
7.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware- 7.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-
leaf leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) -->
6LN 6LR_id --> 6LN
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node H Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node H
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root. In this 6LR_ia is the intermediate router from source to the root. In this
case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR) case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR)
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination. 6LR_id is the intermediate router from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR). routers (6LR).
This scenario is mostly identical to the previous one. The RPI is This scenario is mostly identical to the previous one. The RPI is
added by the first 6LR (6LR_1) inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header added by the first 6LR (6LR_1) inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header
addressed to the root. The 6LBR will remove this RPI, and add it's addressed to the root. The 6LBR will remove this RPI, and add it's
own IPv6-in-IPv6 header containing an RH3 header and optional RPI own IPv6-in-IPv6 header containing an RH3 header and an RPI (RPI_2).
(RPI_2).
+---------+-----+------------+------------+------------+------------+ The Figure 21 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LN | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| | 6 | | | | |
+---------+-----+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Inserte | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in- | -- | -- |
| d | | IPv6 | IPv6 (RH3, | | |
| headers | | (RPI_1) | opt RPI_2) | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- | IPv6-in- |
| headers | | | IPv6 | | IPv6 (RH3, |
| | | | (RPI_1) | | opt RPI_2) |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in- | -- |
| d | | | | IPv6 (RH3, | |
| headers | | | | opt RPI_2) | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
+---------+-----+------------+------------+------------+------------+
Table 23: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL- +-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LN |
| | src | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Inserted | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Removed | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 |
| headers | | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, |
| | | | | | | RPI2) |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Re-added | -- | | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Modified | -- | | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | | RPI2) | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Untouched | -- | | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
Figure 21: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf.
7.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL- 7.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src)--> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) -->
not-RPL-aware (IPv6 dst) 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware (IPv6 dst)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root. In this 6LR_ia is the intermediate router from source to the root. In this
case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR) case, "1 <= ia <= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR)
6LR_id is the intermediate router from the root to the destination.
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate In this case, "1 <= ia <= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR). routers (6LR).
This scenario is the combination of the previous two cases. This scenario is the combination of the previous two cases.
+----------+-----+-------------+--------------+--------------+------+ The Figure 22 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
| Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LBR | 6LR_id | IPv6 | for this use case. In the figure, IP6-IP6 refers to IPv6-in-IPv6.
| | 6 | | | | dst |
| | src | | | | |
+----------+-----+-------------+--------------+--------------+------+
| Inserted | -- | IPv6-in- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | IPv6 | (RH3, opt | | |
| | | (RPI_1) | RPI_2) | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| headers | | | (RPI_1) | (RH3, opt | |
| | | | | RPI_2) | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
| Modified | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
| Untouche | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| d | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | |
+----------+-----+-------------+--------------+--------------+------+
Table 24: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL- +---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia| 6LBR |6LR_id | 6LR_m | IPv6 |
| | src | | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | | node |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Inserted| -- |IP6-IP6| -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1)| | (RH3, | | | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | | | RPI2) | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Re-added| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Modified| -- | -- |IP6-IP6| -- |IP6-IP6| -- | -- |
| headers | | | (RPI1)| | (RH3, | | |
| | | | | | RPI2)| | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
Figure 22: Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
8. Operational Considerations of supporting not-RPL-aware-leaves 8. Operational Considerations of supporting not-RPL-aware-leaves
Roughly half of the situations described in this document involve Roughly half of the situations described in this document involve
leaf ("host") nodes that do not speak RPL. These nodes fall into two leaf ("host") nodes that do not speak RPL. These nodes fall into two
further categories: ones that drop a packet that have RPI or RH3 further categories: ones that drop a packet that have RPI or RH3
headers, and ones that continue to process a packet that has RPI and/ headers, and ones that continue to process a packet that has RPI and/
or RH3 headers. or RH3 headers.
skipping to change at page 43, line 27 skipping to change at page 45, line 20
critical thing is that the artifacts have been inserted by the RPL critical thing is that the artifacts have been inserted by the RPL
root inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header, and that the header has been root inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header, and that the header has been
addressed to the 6LR immediately prior to the leaf node. In that addressed to the 6LR immediately prior to the leaf node. In that
case, in the process of removing the IPv6-in-IPv6 header, the case, in the process of removing the IPv6-in-IPv6 header, the
artifacts can also be removed. artifacts can also be removed.
The above case occurs whenever traffic originates from the outside The above case occurs whenever traffic originates from the outside
the LLN (the "Internet" cases above), and non-storing mode is used. the LLN (the "Internet" cases above), and non-storing mode is used.
In non-storing mode, the RPL root knows the exact topology (as it In non-storing mode, the RPL root knows the exact topology (as it
must be create the RH3 header), and therefore knows what the 6LR must be create the RH3 header), and therefore knows what the 6LR
prior to the leaf --- the 6LR_n. prior to the leaf. For example, in Figure 5, node E is the 6LR prior
to the leaf node G, or node C is the 6LR prior to the leaf node J.
Traffic originating from the RPL root (such as when the data Traffic originating from the RPL root (such as when the data
collection system is co-located on the RPL root), does not require an collection system is co-located on the RPL root), does not require an
IPv6-in-IPv6 header (in either mode), as the packet is originating at IPv6-in-IPv6 header (in either mode), as the packet is originating at
the root, and the root can insert the RPI and RH3 headers directly the root, and the root can insert the RPI and RH3 headers directly
into the packet, as it is formed. Such a packet is slightly smaller, into the packet, as it is formed. Such a packet is slightly smaller,
but only can be sent to nodes (whether RPL aware or not), that will but only can be sent to nodes (whether RPL aware or not), that will
tolerate the RPL artifacts. tolerate the RPL artifacts.
An operator that finds itself with a lot of traffic from the RPL root An operator that finds itself with a lot of traffic from the RPL root
skipping to change at page 44, line 5 skipping to change at page 45, line 46
As storing mode can not know the final path of the traffic, As storing mode can not know the final path of the traffic,
intolerant (that drop packets with RPL artifacts) leaf nodes can not intolerant (that drop packets with RPL artifacts) leaf nodes can not
be supported. be supported.
9. Operational considerations of introducing 0x23 9. Operational considerations of introducing 0x23
This section describes the operational considerations of introducing This section describes the operational considerations of introducing
the new RPI value of 0x23. the new RPI value of 0x23.
Related to the deployment of RPL, there are no known multivendor During bootstrapping the node gets the DIO with the information of
deployments outside of the research groups! All known deployments of RPL Option Type, indicating the new RPI in the DODAG Configuration
RPL are in market verticals, with a single vendor providing all Option Flag. The DODAG root is in charge to configure the current
components. Research groups typically are using Contiki, RiotOS, or network to the new value, through DIO messages and when all the nodes
OpenWSN, and these are easily adapted to 0x23 functionality. are set with the new value. The DODAG should change to a new DODAG
version. In case of rebooting, the node does not remember the RPL
Option Type. Thus, the DIO is sent with a flag indicating the new
RPI value.
During bootstrapping the node get the DIO with the information of RPL The DODAG Configuration option is contained in a RPL DIO message,
Option Type, indicating the new RPI in the DODAG Configuration Option which contains a unique DTSN counter. The leaf nodes respond to this
Flag. The DODAG root is in charge to configure the current network message with DAO messages containing the same DTSN. This is a normal
to the new value, through DIO messages and when all the nodes are set part of RPL routing; the RPL root therefore knows when the updated
with the new value. The DODAG should change to a new DODAG version. DODAG Configuration Option has been seen by all nodes.
In case of rebooting, the node does not remember the RPL Option Type.
Thus, the DIO is sent with a flag indicating the new RPI value.
The migration path to the change from 0x63 to 0x23 in networks that Before the migration happens, all the RPL-aware nodes should support
accepts both values is changed when the DIO is sent with the flag both values . The migration procedure it is triggered when the DIO
indicating the new RPI value. Namely, it remains at 0x63 until it is is sent with the flag indicating the new RPI value. Namely, it
sure that the network is capable of 0x23, then it abruptly change to remains at 0x63 until it is sure that the network is capable of 0x23,
0x23. This options allows to send packets to non-RPL nodes, which then it abruptly change to 0x23. This options allows to send packets
should ignore the option and continue processing the packets. to not-RPL nodes, which should ignore the option and continue
processing the packets.
In case that a node join to a network that only process 0x63, it In case that a node join to a network that only process 0x63, it
would produce a flag day as was mentioned previously. Indicating the would produce a flag day as was mentioned previously. Indicating the
new RPI in the DODAG Configuration Option Flag is a way to avoid the new RPI in the DODAG Configuration Option Flag is a way to avoid the
flag day in a network. It is recommended that a network process both flag day in a network. It is recommended that a network process both
options to enable interoperability. options to enable interoperability.
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
This document updates the registration made in [RFC6553] Destination This document updates the registration made in [RFC6553] Destination
Options and Hop-by-Hop Options registry from 0x63 to 0x23. Options and Hop-by-Hop Options registry from 0x63 to 0x23 as shown in
Figure 23.
[RFCXXXX] represents this document. [RFCXXXX] represents this document.
Hex Value Binary Value Hex Value Binary Value
act chg rest Description Reference act chg rest Description Reference
--------- --- --- ------- ----------------- ---------- --------- --- --- ------- ----------------- ----------
0x23 00 1 00011 RPL Option [RFCXXXX] 0x23 00 1 00011 RPL Option [RFCXXXX]
0x63 01 1 00011 RPL Option(DEPRECATED) [RFC6553][RFCXXXX] 0x63 01 1 00011 RPL Option(DEPRECATED) [RFC6553][RFCXXXX]
Figure 9: Option Type in RPL Option. Figure 23: Option Type in RPL Option.
The DODAG Configuration Option Flags in the DODAG Configuration DODAG Configuration option is updated as follows (Figure 24):
option is updated as follows:
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| Bit number | Description | Reference | | Bit number | Description | Reference |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document | | 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
Figure 10: DODAG Configuration Option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag- Figure 24: DODAG Configuration Option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag-
day. day.
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
The security considerations covered in [RFC6553] and [RFC6554] apply The security considerations covered in [RFC6553] and [RFC6554] apply
when the packets are in the RPL Domain. when the packets are in the RPL Domain.
The IPv6-in-IPv6 mechanism described in this document is much more The IPv6-in-IPv6 mechanism described in this document is much more
limited than the general mechanism described in [RFC2473]. The limited than the general mechanism described in [RFC2473]. The
willingness of each node in the LLN to decapsulate packets and willingness of each node in the LLN to decapsulate packets and
forward them could be exploited by nodes to disguise the origin of an forward them could be exploited by nodes to disguise the origin of an
attack. attack.
While a typical LLN may be a very poor origin for attack traffic (as While a typical LLN may be a very poor origin for attack traffic (as
the networks tend to be very slow, and the nodes often have very low the networks tend to be very slow, and the nodes often have very low
duty cycles) given enough nodes, they could still have a significant duty cycles) given enough nodes, they could still have a significant
impact, particularly if the attack was on another LLN! Additionally, impact, particularly if the target of the attack is targeting another
some uses of RPL involve large backbone ISP scale equipment LLN. Additionally, some uses of RPL involve large backbone ISP scale
[I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane], which may be equipped with equipment [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane], which may be
multiple 100Gb/s interfaces. equipped with multiple 100Gb/s interfaces.
Blocking or careful filtering of IPv6-in-IPv6 traffic entering the Blocking or careful filtering of IPv6-in-IPv6 traffic entering the
LLN as described above will make sure that any attack that is mounted LLN as described above will make sure that any attack that is mounted
must originate from compromised nodes within the LLN. The use of must originate from compromised nodes within the LLN. The use of
BCP38 filtering at the RPL root on egress traffic will both alert the BCP38 [BCP38] filtering at the RPL root on egress traffic will both
operator to the existence of the attack, as well as drop the attack alert the operator to the existence of the attack, as well as drop
traffic. As the RPL network is typically numbered from a single the attack traffic. As the RPL network is typically numbered from a
prefix, which is itself assigned by RPL, BCP38 filtering involves a single prefix, which is itself assigned by RPL, BCP38 filtering
single prefix comparison and should be trivial to automatically involves a single prefix comparison and should be trivial to
configure. automatically configure.
There are some scenarios where IPv6-in-IPv6 traffic should be allowed There are some scenarios where IPv6-in-IPv6 traffic should be allowed
to pass through the RPL root, such as the IPv6-in-IPv6 mediated to pass through the RPL root, such as the IPv6-in-IPv6 mediated
communications between a new Pledge and the Join Registrar/ communications between a new Pledge and the Join Registrar/
Coordinator (JRC) when using [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra] Coordinator (JRC) when using [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra]
and [I-D.ietf-6tisch-dtsecurity-secure-join]. This is the case for and [I-D.ietf-6tisch-dtsecurity-secure-join]. This is the case for
the RPL root to do careful filtering: it occurs only when the Join the RPL root to do careful filtering: it occurs only when the Join
Coordinator is not co-located inside the RPL root. Coordinator is not co-located inside the RPL root.
With the above precautions, an attack using IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels will With the above precautions, an attack using IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels can
be by a node within the LLN on another node within the LLN. Such an only be by a node within the LLN on another node within the LLN.
attack could, of course, be done directly. An attack of this kind is Such an attack could, of course, be done directly. An attack of this
meaningful only if the source addresses are either fake or if the kind is meaningful only if the source addresses are either fake or if
point is to amplify return traffic. Such an attack, could also be the point is to amplify return traffic. Such an attack, could also
done without the use of IPv6-in-IPv6 headers using forged source be done without the use of IPv6-in-IPv6 headers using forged source
addresses. If the attack requires bi-directional communication, then addresses. If the attack requires bi-directional communication, then
IPv6-in-IPv6 provides no advantages. IPv6-in-IPv6 provides no advantages.
[RFC2473] suggests that tunnel entry and exit points can be secured, Whenever IPv6-in-IPv6 headers are being proposed, there is a concern
via the "Use IPsec". The suggested solution has all the problems about creating security issues. In the security section of
that [RFC5406] goes into. In an LLN such a solution would degenerate [RFC2473], it was suggested that tunnel entry and exit points can be
into every node having a tunnel with every other node. It would secured, via "Use IPsec". This recommendation is not practical for
provide a small amount of origin address authentication at a very RPL networks. [RFC5406] goes into some detail on what additional
high cost; doing BCP38 at every node (linking layer-3 addresses to details would be needed in order to "Use IPsec". Use of ESP would
layer-2 addresses, and to already present layer-2 cryptographic prevent RFC8183 compression (compression must occur before
mechanisms) would be cheaper should RPL be run in an environment encryption), and RFC8183 compression is lossy in a way that prevents
where hostile nodes are likely to be a part of the LLN. use of AH. These are minor issues. The major issue is how to
establish trust enough such that IKEv2 could be used. This would
require a system of certificates to be present in every single node,
including any Internet nodes that might need to communicate with the
LLN. Thus, "Use IPsec" requires a global PKI in the general case.
More significantly, the use of IPsec tunnels to protect the IPv6-in-
IPv6 headers would in the general case scale with the square of the
number of nodes. This is a lot of resource for a constrained nodes
on a constrained network. In the end, the IPsec tunnels would be
providing only BCP38-like origin authentication! Just doing BCP38
origin filtering at the entry and exit of the LLN provides a similar
level amount of security without all the scaling and trust problems
of using IPsec as RFC2473 suggested. IPsec is not recommended.
An LLN with hostile nodes within it would not be protected against
impersonation with the LLN by entry/exit filtering.
The RH3 header usage described here can be abused in equivalent ways The RH3 header usage described here can be abused in equivalent ways
with an IPv6-in-IPv6 header to add the needed RH3 header. As such, (to disguise the origin of traffic and attack other nodes) with an
the attacker's RH3 header will not be seen by the network until it IPv6-in-IPv6 header to add the needed RH3 header. As such, the
attacker's RH3 header will not be seen by the network until it
reaches the end host, which will decapsulate it. An end-host should reaches the end host, which will decapsulate it. An end-host should
be suspicious about a RH3 header which has additional hops which have be suspicious about a RH3 header which has additional hops which have
not yet been processed, and SHOULD ignore such a second RH3 header. not yet been processed, and SHOULD ignore such a second RH3 header.
In addition, the LLN will likely use [RFC8138] to compress the IPv6- In addition, the LLN will likely use [RFC8138] to compress the IPv6-
in-IPv6 and RH3 headers. As such, the compressor at the RPL-root in-IPv6 and RH3 headers. As such, the compressor at the RPL-root
will see the second RH3 header and MAY choose to discard the packet will see the second RH3 header and MAY choose to discard the packet
if the RH3 header has not been completely consumed. A consumed if the RH3 header has not been completely consumed. A consumed
(inert) RH3 header could be present in a packet that flows from one (inert) RH3 header could be present in a packet that flows from one
LLN, crosses the Internet, and enters another LLN. As per the LLN, crosses the Internet, and enters another LLN. As per the
skipping to change at page 47, line 28 skipping to change at page 49, line 45
Nodes within the LLN can use the IPv6-in-IPv6 mechanism to mount an Nodes within the LLN can use the IPv6-in-IPv6 mechanism to mount an
attack on another part of the LLN, while disguising the origin of the attack on another part of the LLN, while disguising the origin of the
attack. The mechanism can even be abused to make it appear that the attack. The mechanism can even be abused to make it appear that the
attack is coming from outside the LLN, and unless countered, this attack is coming from outside the LLN, and unless countered, this
could be used to mount a Distributed Denial Of Service attack upon could be used to mount a Distributed Denial Of Service attack upon
nodes elsewhere in the Internet. See [DDOS-KREBS] for an example of nodes elsewhere in the Internet. See [DDOS-KREBS] for an example of
such attacks already seen in the real world. such attacks already seen in the real world.
If an attack comes from inside of LLN, it can be alleviated with SAVI If an attack comes from inside of LLN, it can be alleviated with SAVI
(Source Address Validation Improvement) using [RFC8505] with (Source Address Validation Improvement) using [RFC8505] with
[I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd]. The attacker will not be able to source with [I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd]. The attacker will not be able to source
an address that is not registered, and the registration checks for traffic with an address that is not registered, and the registration
topological correctness. Notice that there is an L2 authentication process checks for topological correctness. Notice that there is an
in most of the cases. If an attack comes from outside LLN IPv6-in- L2 authentication in most of the cases. If an attack comes from
IPv6 can be used to hide inner routing headers, but RH3 is protected outside LLN IPv6-in- IPv6 can be used to hide inner routing headers,
by its definition. but by construction, the RH3 can typically only address nodes within
the LLN. That is, a RH3 with a CmprI less than 8 , should be
considered an attack (see RFC6554, section 3).
Nodes outside of the LLN will need to pass IPv6-in-IPv6 traffic Nodes outside of the LLN will need to pass IPv6-in-IPv6 traffic
through the RPL root to perform this attack. To counter, the RPL through the RPL root to perform this attack. To counter, the RPL
root SHOULD either restrict ingress of IPv6-in-IPv6 packets (the root SHOULD either restrict ingress of IPv6-in-IPv6 packets (the
simpler solution), or it SHOULD do a deep packet inspection wherein simpler solution), or it SHOULD walk the IP header extension chain
it walks the IP header extension chain until it can inspect the until it can inspect the upper-layer-payload as described in
upper-layer-payload as described in [RFC7045]. In particular, the [RFC7045]. In particular, the RPL root SHOULD do [BCP38] processing
RPL root SHOULD do BCP38 ([RFC2827]) processing on the source on the source addresses of all IP headers that it examines in both
addresses of all IP headers that it examines in both directions. directions.
Note: there are some situations where a prefix will spread across Note: there are some situations where a prefix will spread across
multiple LLNs via mechanisms such as the one described in multiple LLNs via mechanisms such as the one described in
[I-D.ietf-6lo-backbone-router]. In this case the BCP38 filtering [I-D.ietf-6lo-backbone-router]. In this case the BCP38 filtering
needs to take this into account, either by exchanging detailed needs to take this into account, either by exchanging detailed
routing information on each LLN, or by moving the BCP38 filtering routing information on each LLN, or by moving the BCP38 filtering
further towards the Internet, so that the details of the multiple further towards the Internet, so that the details of the multiple
LLNs do not matter. LLNs do not matter.
12. Acknowledgments 12. Acknowledgments
We are very thankful to the grant by the Finnish Foundation for This work is done thanks to the grant by the Stand.ICT project.
Technology Promotion (Tekniikan Edistaemissaeaetioen - TES), and the
grant by the FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) METRICS
project (grant agreement No. 607728)
A special BIG thanks to C. M. Heard for the help with the A special BIG thanks to C. M. Heard for the help with the
Section 3. Much of the redaction in that section is based on his Section 3. Much of the redaction in that section is based on his
comments. comments.
Additionally, the authors would like to acknowledge the review, Additionally, the authors would like to acknowledge the review,
feedback, and comments of (alphabetical order): Robert Cragie, Simon feedback, and comments of (alphabetical order): Robert Cragie, Simon
Duquennoy, Ralph Droms, Cenk Guendogan, Rahul Jadhav, Matthias Duquennoy, Ralph Droms, Cenk Guendogan, Rahul Jadhav, Matthias
Kovatsch, Peter van der Stok, Xavier Vilajosana and Thomas Watteyne. Kovatsch, Peter van der Stok, Xavier Vilajosana and Thomas Watteyne.
13. References 13. References
13.1. Normative References 13.1. Normative References
[BCP38] Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, DOI 10.17487/RFC2827,
May 2000, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/bcp38>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2827] Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering: [RFC6040] Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Notification", RFC 6040, DOI 10.17487/RFC6040, November
Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, DOI 10.17487/RFC2827, 2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6040>.
May 2000, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2827>.
[RFC6550] Winter, T., Ed., Thubert, P., Ed., Brandt, A., Hui, J., [RFC6550] Winter, T., Ed., Thubert, P., Ed., Brandt, A., Hui, J.,
Kelsey, R., Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, Kelsey, R., Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur,
JP., and R. Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for JP., and R. Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for
Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 6550, Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 6550,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6550, March 2012, DOI 10.17487/RFC6550, March 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6550>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6550>.
[RFC6553] Hui, J. and JP. Vasseur, "The Routing Protocol for Low- [RFC6553] Hui, J. and JP. Vasseur, "The Routing Protocol for Low-
Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) Option for Carrying RPL Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) Option for Carrying RPL
skipping to change at page 49, line 35 skipping to change at page 52, line 14
[DDOS-KREBS] [DDOS-KREBS]
Goodin, D., "Record-breaking DDoS reportedly delivered by Goodin, D., "Record-breaking DDoS reportedly delivered by
>145k hacked cameras", September 2016, >145k hacked cameras", September 2016,
<http://arstechnica.com/security/2016/09/botnet-of-145k- <http://arstechnica.com/security/2016/09/botnet-of-145k-
cameras-reportedly-deliver-internets-biggest-ddos-ever/>. cameras-reportedly-deliver-internets-biggest-ddos-ever/>.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd] [I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd]
Thubert, P., Sarikaya, B., Sethi, M., and R. Struik, Thubert, P., Sarikaya, B., Sethi, M., and R. Struik,
"Address Protected Neighbor Discovery for Low-power and "Address Protected Neighbor Discovery for Low-power and
Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-6lo-ap-nd-11 (work in Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-6lo-ap-nd-12 (work in
progress), February 2019. progress), April 2019.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-backbone-router] [I-D.ietf-6lo-backbone-router]
Thubert, P., Perkins, C., and E. Levy-Abegnoli, "IPv6 Thubert, P., Perkins, C., and E. Levy-Abegnoli, "IPv6
Backbone Router", draft-ietf-6lo-backbone-router-11 (work Backbone Router", draft-ietf-6lo-backbone-router-11 (work
in progress), February 2019. in progress), February 2019.
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-dtsecurity-secure-join] [I-D.ietf-6tisch-dtsecurity-secure-join]
Richardson, M., "6tisch Secure Join protocol", draft-ietf- Richardson, M., "6tisch Secure Join protocol", draft-ietf-
6tisch-dtsecurity-secure-join-01 (work in progress), 6tisch-dtsecurity-secure-join-01 (work in progress),
February 2017. February 2017.
[I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane] [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]
Eckert, T., Behringer, M., and S. Bjarnason, "An Autonomic Eckert, T., Behringer, M., and S. Bjarnason, "An Autonomic
Control Plane (ACP)", draft-ietf-anima-autonomic-control- Control Plane (ACP)", draft-ietf-anima-autonomic-control-
plane-18 (work in progress), August 2018. plane-19 (work in progress), March 2019.
[I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra] [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra]
Pritikin, M., Richardson, M., Behringer, M., Bjarnason, Pritikin, M., Richardson, M., Behringer, M., Bjarnason,
S., and K. Watsen, "Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key S., and K. Watsen, "Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key
Infrastructures (BRSKI)", draft-ietf-anima-bootstrapping- Infrastructures (BRSKI)", draft-ietf-anima-bootstrapping-
keyinfra-19 (work in progress), March 2019. keyinfra-20 (work in progress), May 2019.
[I-D.ietf-intarea-tunnels]
Touch, J. and M. Townsley, "IP Tunnels in the Internet
Architecture", draft-ietf-intarea-tunnels-09 (work in
progress), July 2018.
[I-D.thubert-roll-unaware-leaves] [I-D.thubert-roll-unaware-leaves]
Thubert, P., "Routing for RPL Leaves", draft-thubert-roll- Thubert, P., "Routing for RPL Leaves", draft-thubert-roll-
unaware-leaves-06 (work in progress), November 2018. unaware-leaves-07 (work in progress), April 2019.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.
[RFC2473] Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in [RFC2473] Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473, IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473,
December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2473>. December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2473>.
[RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet [RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89, Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89,
RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006, RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>.
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