< draft-knodel-terminology-00.txt   draft-knodel-terminology-01.txt >
Network Working Group M. Knodel Network Working Group M. Knodel
Internet-Draft ARTICLE 19 Internet-Draft ARTICLE 19
Intended status: Best Current Practice N. ten Oever Intended status: Best Current Practice N. ten Oever
Expires: April 25, 2019 University of Amsterdam Expires: September 12, 2019 University of Amsterdam
October 22, 2018 March 11, 2019
Terminology, Power and Oppressive Language Terminology, Power and Offensive Language
draft-knodel-terminology-00 draft-knodel-terminology-01
Abstract Abstract
This document argues for and describes alternatives that shift This document argues for and describes alternatives that shift
specific language conventions used by RFC Authors and RFC Editors to specific language conventions used by RFC Authors and RFC Editors to
avoid oppressive terminology in the technical documentation of the avoid offensive terminology in the technical documentation of the RFC
RFC series. Specifically, this document details two sets of terms series. Specifically, this document details two sets of terms that
that are normalised on the technical level but oppressive on a are normalised on the technical level but offensive on a societal
societal level. First, arguments are presented for why any level. First, arguments are presented for why any offensive terms
oppressive terms should be avoided by the IETF/IRTF. Second, problem should be avoided by the IETF/IRTF. Second, problem statements for
statements for both sets of terms are presented and alternatives are both sets of terms are presented and alternatives are referenced and
proposed. There is a third section on additional considerations and proposed. There is a third section on additional considerations and
general action points to address the RFC series, past and future. general action points to address the RFC series, past and future.
Lastly, a summary of recommendations is presented. Lastly, a summary of recommendations is presented.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents
1. Terminology and power at the IETF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Master-slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.1. Suggested alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. Blacklist-whitelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.1. Suggested alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3. Other considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. Summary of recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1. Terminology and power at the IETF 1. Terminology and power at the IETF
The primary function of the IETF is to publish documents that are The primary function of the IETF is to publish documents that are
"readable, clear, consistent, and reasonably uniform" and one "readable, clear, consistent, and reasonably uniform" and one
function of the RFC Editor is to "[c]orrect larger content/clarity function of the RFC Editor is to "[c]orrect larger content/clarity
issues; flag any unclear passages for author review" [RFC7322]. issues; flag any unclear passages for author review [RFC7322]. Given
Given the importance of communication at the IETF, it is worth the importance of communication at the IETF, it is worth considering
considering the effects of terminology that has been identified as the effects of terminology that has been identified as offensive,
oppressive, racist and sexist. Furthermore, we argue that certain racist and sexist. Furthermore, this document argues that certain
obviously oppressive terms be avoided and suggest alternatives. obviously offensive terms be avoided and replaced with alternatives.
These sets of terms are "master-slave" and "white-blacklist" for These sets of terms are "master-slave" and "white-blacklist" for
their racist and race-based meanings. Since the IETF is dedicated to their racist and race-based meanings.
a "culture of open participation and diverse collaboration"
[RFC7704], terms that can create a hostile work environment should be
avoided.
According to the work of scholar Heather Brodie Graves from 1993, According to the work of scholar Heather Brodie Graves from 1993,
"one goal of the application of rhetorical theory in the technical "one goal of the application of rhetorical theory in the technical
communication classroom is to assess the appropriateness of communication classroom is to assess the appropriateness of
particular terms and to evaluate whether these terms will facilitate particular terms and to evaluate whether these terms will facilitate
or hinder the readers' understanding of the technical material" or hinder the readers' understanding of the technical material"
[BrodieGravesGraves]. This implies that in order to effectively [BrodieGravesGraves]. This implies that in order to effectively
communicate the content of RFCs to all readers, it is important for communicate the content of RFCs to all readers, it is important for
Authors to consider the kinds of terms or language conventions that Authors to consider the kinds of terms or language conventions that
may inadvertently get in the way of effective communication. She may inadvertently get in the way of effective communication. She
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ethnocentric language use in technical documents can derail or ethnocentric language use in technical documents can derail or
interfere with readers' ability and desire to comprehend and follow interfere with readers' ability and desire to comprehend and follow
important information." important information."
Indeed, problems of language are problems of everyday speech. Racist Indeed, problems of language are problems of everyday speech. Racist
and sexist language is rampant and similarly counter-productive in and sexist language is rampant and similarly counter-productive in
other sectors, notably social work [Burgest]. The terms "master- other sectors, notably social work [Burgest]. The terms "master-
slave," treated in detail below are present in other realms of slave," treated in detail below are present in other realms of
technology, notably "automotive clutch and brake systems, clocks, technology, notably "automotive clutch and brake systems, clocks,
flip-flop circuits, computer drives, and radio transmitters" flip-flop circuits, computer drives, and radio transmitters"
[Eglash]. And the ubiquitous word "robot" is the Czech word for [Eglash]. And the ubiquitous word "robot" is the Czech word for
"slave" [Kurfess]. "slave" [Kurfess].
However as noted in the research by Ron Eglash, this seemingly However as noted in the research by Ron Eglash, this seemingly
entrenched technical terminology is relatively recent and can be entrenched technical terminology is relatively recent. It is not too
replaced with alternative metaphors that are more accurate, clearer, late for these terms to be replaced with alternative metaphors that
less distracting, and that do not offend their readers. Language are more accurate, clearer, less distracting, and that do not offend
matters and metaphors matter. Indeed, metaphors can be incredibly their readers. Language matters and metaphors matter. Indeed,
useful devices to make more human the complex technical concepts metaphors can be incredibly useful devices to make more human the
presented in RFCs. Metaphors should not be avoided but rather taken complex technical concepts presented in RFCs. Metaphors should not
seriously. Renowned linguist George Lakoff argued in 1980 that the be avoided but rather taken seriously. Renowned linguist George
ubiquitous use of metaphors in our everyday speech indicates a Lakoff argued in 1980 that the ubiquitous use of metaphors in our
fundamental instinct to "structure our most basic understandings of everyday speech indicates a fundamental instinct to "structure our
experience" [Lakoff]. Metaphors structure relationships, and they most basic understandings of experience" [Lakoff]. Metaphors
frame possibilities and impossibilities [Wyatt]. structure relationships, and they frame possibilities and
impossibilities [Wyatt].
Like Graves, this document recognises the monumental challenge of Like Graves, this document recognises the monumental challenge of
addressing linguistics and power and attempts to "promote awareness addressing linguistics and power and attempts to "promote awareness
that may lead to eventual wide-spread change" [BrodieGravesGraves]. that may lead to eventual wide-spread change" [BrodieGravesGraves].
To that effect, below is a tersely written list of IETF-specific To that effect, below is a tersely written list of IETF-specific
arguments as to why the RFC Editor should be encouraged to correct arguments as to why the RFC Editor should be encouraged to correct
larger content and clarity issues with respect to oppressive larger content and clarity issues with respect to offensive
metaphors: metaphors:
- The RFC series is intended to remain online in perpetuity. o The RFC series is intended to remain online in perpetuity.
Societal attitudes to oppressive language shift over time in the Societal attitudes to offensive language shift over time in the
direction of more empathy, not less. direction of more empathy, not less.
- That oppressive terms in RFCs are largely hidden from the larger o That offensive terms in RFCs are largely hidden from the larger
public, or read only by engineers, is no excuse to ignore social- public, or read only by engineers, is no excuse to ignore social-
level reactions to the terms. If the terms would be a poor choice level reactions to the terms. If the terms would be a poor choice
for user-facing application features, the terms should be avoided for user-facing application features, the terms should be avoided
in technical documentation and specifications, too. in technical documentation and specifications, too.
- The digital technology community has a problem with monoculture. o At the time of this drafting, the digital technology community has
And because the diversity of the technical community is already a a problem with monoculture. And because the diversity of the
problem, a key strategy to breaking monoculture is to ensure that technical community is already a problem, a key strategy to
technical documentation is addressed to a wide audience and breaking monoculture is to ensure that technical documentation is
multiplicity of readers. addressed to a wide audience and multiplicity of readers.
- And yet the technical community is not entirely comprised of only o And yet the technical community already includes members who take
white men. Eradicating the use of oppressive terminology in offense to these terms. Eradicating the use of offensive
official RFCs recognises the presence of and acknowledges the terminology in official RFCs recognises the presence of and
requests from black and brown engineers and from women and gender- acknowledges the requests from black and brown engineers and from
non-conforming engineers to avoid the use of oppressive women and gender-non-conforming engineers to avoid the use of
terminology. offensive terminology.
What follow are specific alternative suggestions to "master-slave" This document does not try to prescribe terminology shifts for any
and "white-blacklist" and the rationale for the use of the and all language that could be deemed offensive. Instead what follow
alternatives. are specific alternative suggestions to "master-slave" and "white-
blacklist" and the rationale for the use of the alternatives.
Additional considerations are presented in a subsequent section.
1.1. Master-slave 1.1. Master-slave
Master-slave is an oppressive metaphor that will and should never Master-slave is an offensive metaphor that will and should never
become fully detached from history. Aside from being unprofessional become fully detached from history. Aside from being unprofessional
and oppressive it stifles participation according to Eglash: "If the and offensive it stifled the participation of students whom Eglash
master-slave metaphor affected these tough-minded engineers who had interviewed for his research. He asks: "If the master-slave metaphor
the gumption to make it through a technical career back in the days affected these tough-minded engineers who had the gumption to make it
when they may have been the only black persons in their classes, what through a technical career back in the days when they may have been
impact might it have on black students who are debating whether or the only black persons in their classes, what impact might it have on
not to enter science and technology careers at all?" [Eglash]. black students who are debating whether or not to enter science and
technology careers at all?" [Eglash]
Aside from the arguably most important reason outlined above, the Aside from the arguably most important reason outlined above, the
term set is becoming less used and therefore increasingly less term set is becoming less used and therefore increasingly less
compatible as more communities move away from its use (eg [Python], compatible as more communities move away from its use (eg [Python],
[Drupal], and [Django]. The usage of 'master' and 'slave' in [Drupal], and [Django]. The usage of 'master' and 'slave' in
hardware and software has been halted by the Los Angeles County hardware and software has been halted by the Los Angeles County
Office of Affirmative Action, the Django community, the Python Office of Affirmative Action, the Django community, the Python
community and several other programming languages. This was done community and several other programming languages. This was done
because the language is oppressive and hurts people in the community because the language is offensive and hurts people in the community
[Django2]. It is also no longer in use at the IEEE. [Django2]. It is also no longer in use at the IEEE.
In addition to being inappropriate and arcane, the master-slave In addition to being inappropriate and arcane, the master-slave
metaphor is both technically and historically inaccurate. For metaphor is both technically and historically inaccurate. For
instance, in DNS the 'slave' is able to refuse zone transfers on the instance, in DNS the 'slave' is able to refuse zone transfers on the
ground that it is malformed. The metaphor is incorrect historically ground that it is malformed. The metaphor is incorrect historically
given the most recent centuries during which "the role of the master given the most recent centuries during which "the role of the master
was to abdicate and the role of the slave was to revolt" was to abdicate and the role of the slave was to revolt"
[McClelland]. Yet in another sense slavery is also not 'just an [McClelland]. Yet in another sense slavery is also not 'just an
historic term', whereas freedom from slavery is a human-rights issue historic term', whereas freedom from slavery is a human-rights issue
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1.1.1. Suggested alternatives 1.1.1. Suggested alternatives
There are also many other relationships that can be used as There are also many other relationships that can be used as
metaphors, Eglash's research calls into question the accuracy of the metaphors, Eglash's research calls into question the accuracy of the
master-slave metaphor. Fortunately, there are ample alternatives for master-slave metaphor. Fortunately, there are ample alternatives for
the master-slave relationship. Several options are suggested here the master-slave relationship. Several options are suggested here
and should be chosen based on the pairing that is most clear in and should be chosen based on the pairing that is most clear in
context: context:
- Primary-secondary o Primary-secondary
- Leader-follower o Leader-follower
- Active-standby o Active-standby
- Primary-replica o Primary-replica
- Writer-reader o Writer-reader
- Coordinator-worker o Coordinator-worker
- Parent-helper o Parent-helper
Since the use of master-slave is becoming less common in other Since the use of master-slave is becoming less common in other
technical communities, it is best to simply duplicate the metaphor technical communities, it is best to simply duplicate the metaphor
being used by comparable or interoperable technologies. Likewise, being used by comparable or interoperable technologies. Likewise,
the IETF can show positive leadership in the technical community by the IETF can show positive leadership in the technical community by
setting standards without using oppressive metaphors. setting standards without using offensive metaphors.
For the DNS, RFC 7719 defines the current best practise for DNS
terminology and uses the term pair 'primary' and 'secondary'.
1.2. Blacklist-whitelist 1.2. Blacklist-whitelist
Like master-slave, the metaphorical use of white-black to connote The metaphorical use of white-black to connote good-evil is
good-evil is oppressive. While master-slave might seem like a more offensive. While master-slave might seem like a more egregious
egregious example of racism, white-black is arguably worse because it example of racism, white-black is arguably worse because it is more
is more pervasive and therefore more sinister. While recent pervasive and therefore more insidious. While recent headlines have
headlines have decried the technical community's use of master-slave, decried the technical community's use of master-slave, there is far
there is far less discussion about white-black despite its less discussion about white-black despite its importance. There is
importance. There is even a name for this pervasive language even a name for this pervasive language pitfall: the association of
pitfall: the association of white with good and black with evil is white with good and black with evil is known as the "bad is black
known as the "bad is black effect" [Grewal]. effect" [Grewal].
Indeed, there is an entire book on the subject, written by renowned Indeed, there is an entire book on the subject, written by renowned
authority on race, Franz Fanon. In his book "Black Skin, White authority on race, Frantz Fanon. In his book "Black Skin, White
Masks," Fanon makes several persuasive arguments that standard Masks," Fanon makes several persuasive arguments that standard
language encodes subconscious in-group, out-group preferences language encodes subconscious in-group, out-group preferences
[Fanon]. [Fanon].
In the case of blacklist-whitelist in the technical documentation of In the case of blacklist-whitelist in the technical documentation of
the IETF/IRTF, it is entirely a term of art and an arbitrary the IETF/IRTF, it is entirely a term of art and an arbitrary
metaphorical construct with no technical merit. There are scientific metaphorical construct with no technical merit. There are scientific
uses of black that are related to light- blackholes are black because uses of black that are related to light- blackholes are black because
light cannot escape them; a spectrographic blackbox is used as a light cannot escape them; a spectrographic blackbox is used as a
metaphor for things that cannot be seen (e.g., blackbox is really a metaphor for things that cannot be seen (e.g., blackbox is really a
riff on the metaphor for light as visibility). Blacklist-whitelist riff on the metaphor for light as visibility). Blacklist-whitelist
is not a metaphor for lightness or darkness, it is a good-evil is not a metaphor for lightness or darkness, it is a good-evil
metaphor and therefore entirely based in racism. This trope has metaphor and therefore this trope has significant impact on how
significant impact on how people are seen and treated. As we've seen people are seen and treated. As we've seen with metaphors, its use
with metaphors, its use is pervasive and, though not necessarily is pervasive and, though not necessarily conscious, perceptions do
conscious, perceptions do get promulgated through culture and get promulgated through culture and repetition.
repetition.
As with master-slave, we save our technical argument for last, As with master-slave, we save our technical argument for last,
referencing and presenting first the reasons for the use of non- referencing and presenting first the reasons for the use of non-
oppressive, alternative terminology for the sake of our humanity. offensive, alternative terminology for the sake of our humanity.
Indeed, our technical argument is incredibly succinct: Why use a Indeed, our technical argument is incredibly succinct: Why use a
metaphor when a direct description is both succinct and clear? There metaphor when a direct description is both succinct and clear? There
can be absolutely no ambiguity if one uses the terms, as suggested can be absolutely no ambiguity if one uses the terms, as suggested
below, allow-block rather than white-black. below, allow-block rather than white-black.
1.2.1. Suggested alternatives 1.2.1. Suggested alternatives
There are alternatives to this terminology set that vastly improve There are alternatives to this terminology set that vastly improve
clarity because they are not even metaphors without adding a single clarity because they are not even metaphors without adding a single
additional character. The alternatives proposed here say exactly additional character. The alternatives proposed here say exactly
what they mean: what they mean:
- Blocklist-allowlist o Blocklist-allowlist
- Block-permit
o Block-permit
1.3. Other considerations 1.3. Other considerations
As we have seen, the language used in technical documentation, like As we have seen, the language used in technical documentation, like
all written text, creates and reinforces expectations and all written text, creates and reinforces expectations and
stereotypes. We propose nothing more than additional care in the stereotypes. We propose nothing more than additional care in the
choice of language just as care is taken in defining standards and choice of language just as care is taken in defining standards and
protocols themselves. The above two examples are not exhaustive, nor protocols themselves. The above two examples are not exhaustive, nor
are they mere examples. However, we use this section to broaden the are they mere examples and require action. However, we use this
context of other oppressive terminologies to encompass additional section to broaden the context of other offensive terminologies to
concerns. encompass additional concerns.
There are many other metaphors present in technical documentation There are many other metaphors present in technical documentation
that are "terms of art" but that have no technical basis whatsoever. that are "terms of art" but that have no technical basis whatsoever.
That some of these metaphors are oppressive leaves no excuses for That some of these metaphors are offensive leaves no excuses for
their continued use. A term like "man-in-the-middle" is not their continued use. A term like "man-in-the-middle" is not
technically useful. It is not a standard term, not as clear as its technically useful. It is not a standard term, not as clear as its
alternative "on-path attacker", and should therefore be avoided. alternative "on-path attacker", and should therefore be avoided.
When presented with the opportunity to employ the use of metaphors or When presented with the opportunity to employ the use of metaphors or
to parrot terms of art that connote gender or race, Authors should to parrot terms of art that connote gender or race, Authors should
simply find a better way to explain themselves. A fun read on the simply find a better way to explain themselves. A fun read on the
politics of colloquial speech by George Orwell should dissuade any politics of colloquial speech by George Orwell should dissuade any
clever Author from using tired explanatory metaphors [Orwell]. clever Author from using tired explanatory metaphors [Orwell].
Up until recently, strict English grammatists like Orwell decried the Up until recently, strict English grammatists like Orwell decried the
use of the neuter pronoun "they". Without a neuter singular pronoun, use of the neutral pronoun "they". Without a neutral singular
"he" is assumed as the default singular pronoun when the gender of pronoun, "he" is assumed as the default singular pronoun when the
the person is unknown or ambiguous. However, that has changed, and gender of the person is unknown or ambiguous. However, that has
it is now widely accepted that "they" can be used as a neuter changed, and it is now widely accepted that "they" can be used as a
singular pronoun. Since it is unlikely that all implementers and neutral singular pronoun. Since it is unlikely that all implementers
infrastructure operators are of any particular gender, "he" should and infrastructure operators are of any particular gender, "he"
never be used to refer to a person in IETF/IRTF documents. An Author should never be used to refer to a person in IETF/IRTF documents. An
who uses male examples sets male-ness as a standard. Author who uses male examples sets male-ness as a standard.
Militarised metaphors are also a pervasive problem in language, Militarised metaphors are also a pervasive problem in language,
perhaps even more so in technical communities because of the perhaps even more so in technical communities because of the
historical and actual relationship between technology and war. We historical and actual relationship between technology and war. We
welcome additional examples of terminology that might be avoided welcome additional examples of terminology that might be avoided
through more awareness and thoughtfulness. through more awareness and thoughtfulness.
2. Summary of recommendations 2. Summary of recommendations
To summarise this document, we have bulleted some very concrete To summarise this document, we have bulleted some very concrete
action points that can be taken by Editors, reviewers and Authors, action points that can be taken by Editors, reviewers and Authors,
both present and future. both present and future.
Authors SHOULD: Authors SHOULD: * Replace the offensive term "master-slave" with more
accurate alternatives, for instance from the list of Section 1.1. *
- Replace the oppressive term "master-slave" with more accurate Replace the offensive term "blacklist-whitelist" with more accurate
alternatives, for instance from the list of Section 1.1. alternative, for instance from the list of suggested alternatives at
Section 1.2. * Reflect on their use of metaphors generally * Use the
- Replace the oppressive term "blacklist-whitelist" with more neutral "they" as the singular pronoun and * Consider rolling back
accurate alternative, for instance from the list of suggested technical hard coding of their standards implementations with the
alternatives at Section 1.2. documented knowledge available online [socketwench].
- Reflect on their use of metaphors generally
- Use the neuter "they" as the singular pronoun and
- Consider to roll back technical hard coding of their code and
protocols with the documented knowledge available online
[socketwench].
RFC Editor and Reviewers SHOULD: * Offer alternatives for oppressive RFC Editor and Reviewers SHOULD: * Offer alternatives for offensive
terminology as an important act of correcting larger editorial issues terminology as an important act of correcting larger editorial issues
and clarifying technical concepts and * Suggest to Authors that even and clarifying technical concepts and * Suggest to Authors that even
when referencing other specifications that have not replaced when referencing other specifications that have not replaced
oppressive terminology they could provide another term with a note offensive terminology they could provide another term with a note
that the term is original and not being suggested by the Author. that the term is original and not being suggested by the Author.
3. Security Considerations 3. Additional references not cited above
''Anyone can edit', not everyone does: Wikipedia and the gender gap'
by Ford, Heather and Wajcman, Judy (2017) Social Studies of Science.
ISSN 0306-3127
Grant, Barbara M. "Master--slave dialogues in humanities
supervision...https://doi.org/10.1177/1474022207084880
Miller, Carolyn. "A Humanistic Rationale for Technical Writing"
4. Security Considerations
As this document concerns a research document, there are no security As this document concerns a research document, there are no security
considerations. considerations.
4. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document has no actions for IANA. This document has no actions for IANA.
5. References 6. References
5.1. Normative References 6.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
5.2. Informative References 6.2. Informative References
[BrodieGravesGraves] [BrodieGravesGraves]
Heather Brodie Graves, . and . Roger Graves, "Masters, Heather Brodie Graves, . and . Roger Graves, "Masters,
slaves, and infant mortality: Language challenges for slaves, and infant mortality: Language challenges for
technical editing", Technical Communication Quarterly, technical editing", Technical Communication Quarterly,
7:4, 389-414 , 1998, 7:4, 389-414 , 1998,
<https://doi.org/10.1080/10572259809364639>. <https://doi.org/10.1080/10572259809364639>.
[Burgest] Burgest, David., ""Racism in Everyday Speech and Social [Burgest] Burgest, David., ""Racism in Everyday Speech and Social
Work Jargon."", Social Work, vol. 18, no. 4, 1973, pp. Work Jargon."", Social Work, vol. 18, no. 4, 1973, pp.
skipping to change at page 9, line 24 skipping to change at page 9, line 16
master-slave terminology with leader/follower #2692", master-slave terminology with leader/follower #2692",
2014, <https://github.com/django/django/ 2014, <https://github.com/django/django/
pull/2692#issuecomment-44221563>. pull/2692#issuecomment-44221563>.
[Drupal] Xano, ., "Replace 'master-slave' terminology with [Drupal] Xano, ., "Replace 'master-slave' terminology with
'primary/replica'", 2014, 'primary/replica'", 2014,
<https://www.drupal.org/project/drupal/issues/2275877>. <https://www.drupal.org/project/drupal/issues/2275877>.
[Eglash] Ron Eglash, ., "Broken Metaphor: The Master-Slave Analogy [Eglash] Ron Eglash, ., "Broken Metaphor: The Master-Slave Analogy
in Technical Literature.", Technology and Culture, vol. 48 in Technical Literature.", Technology and Culture, vol. 48
no. 2, 2007, pp. 360-369. , 2007, <doi:10.1353/ no. 2, 2007, pp. 360-369. , 2007,
tech.2007.0066>. <https://doi.org/10.1353/tech.2007.0066>.
[Fanon] Fanon, F., "Black skin, white masks", 1952. [Fanon] Fanon, F., "Black skin, white masks", 1952.
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<https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ <https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/
the-bad-is-black-effect/>. the-bad-is-black-effect/>.
[Jansens] Bart Jansens, ., "I don't believe in PC", 2008, [Jansens] Bart Jansens, ., "I don't believe in PC", 2008,
<https://www.drupal.org/project/project_issue_file_review/ <https://www.drupal.org/project/project_issue_file_review/
issues/343414#comment-1164514>. issues/343414#comment-1164514>.
skipping to change at page 10, line 15 skipping to change at page 10, line 5
[Python] Daniel Oberhaus, ., "'master-slave' Terminology Was [Python] Daniel Oberhaus, ., "'master-slave' Terminology Was
Removed from Python Programming Language", 2018, Removed from Python Programming Language", 2018,
<https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/8x7akv/ <https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/8x7akv/
masterslave-terminology-was-removed-from-python- masterslave-terminology-was-removed-from-python-
programming-language>. programming-language>.
[RFC7322] Flanagan, H. and S. Ginoza, "RFC Style Guide", RFC 7322, [RFC7322] Flanagan, H. and S. Ginoza, "RFC Style Guide", RFC 7322,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7322, September 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7322, September 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7322>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7322>.
[RFC7704] Crocker, D. and N. Clark, "An IETF with Much Diversity and [RFC7719] Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS
Professional Conduct", RFC 7704, DOI 10.17487/RFC7704, Terminology", RFC 7719, DOI 10.17487/RFC7719, December
November 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7704>. 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7719>.
[socketwench] [socketwench]
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[UDHR] United Nations General Assembly, "The Universal [UDHR] United Nations General Assembly, "The Universal
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[Wikipedia] [Wikipedia]
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[Wyatt] Sally Wyatt, ., "Danger! Metaphors at Work in Economics, [Wyatt] Sally Wyatt, ., "Danger! Metaphors at Work in Economics,
Geophysiology, and the Internet", Science, Technology, & Geophysiology, and the Internet", Science, Technology, and
Human Values, Volume: 29 issue: 2, page(s): 242-261 , Human Values, Volume: 29 issue: 2, page(s): 242-261 ,
2004. 2004.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mallory Knodel Mallory Knodel
ARTICLE 19 ARTICLE 19
EMail: mallory@article19.org Email: mallory@article19.org
Niels ten Oever Niels ten Oever
University of Amsterdam University of Amsterdam
EMail: mail@nielstenoever.net Email: mail@nielstenoever.net
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