< draft-loffredo-regext-rdap-reverse-search-03.txt   draft-loffredo-regext-rdap-reverse-search-04.txt >
Registration Protocols Extensions M. Loffredo Registration Protocols Extensions M. Loffredo
Internet-Draft M. Martinelli Internet-Draft M. Martinelli
Intended status: Standards Track IIT-CNR/Registro.it Intended status: Standards Track IIT-CNR/Registro.it
Expires: April 19, 2019 October 16, 2018 Expires: August 4, 2019 January 31, 2019
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Reverse search capabilities Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Reverse search capabilities
draft-loffredo-regext-rdap-reverse-search-03 draft-loffredo-regext-rdap-reverse-search-04
Abstract Abstract
The Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) does not include query The Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) does not include query
capabilities to find the list of domains related to a set of entities capabilities to find the list of domains related to a set of entities
matching a given search pattern. Even if such capabilities, commonly matching a given search pattern. Even if such capabilities, commonly
referred to as reverse search, respond to some needs not yet readily referred as reverse search, respond to some needs not yet readily
fulfilled by the current Whois protocol, they have raised concern fulfilled by the current Whois protocol, they have raised concerns
from two perspectives: server processing impact and data privacy. from two perspectives: server processing impact and data privacy.
Anyway, the impact of the reverse queries on RDAP servers processing Anyway, the impact of the reverse queries on RDAP servers processing
is the same of the standard searches and it can be reduced by is the same as the standard searches and it can be reduced by
implementing policies to deal with big result sets, while data implementing policies to deal with large result sets, while data
privacy risks can be mitigated by RDAP access control privacy risks can be prevented by RDAP access control
functionalities. This document describes RDAP query extensions that functionalities. This document describes RDAP query extensions that
allows clients to request a reverse search based on the domains- allow clients to request a reverse search based on the domains-
entities relationship. entities relationship.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 19, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 4, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. RDAP Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. RDAP Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. JSON in URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. JSON in URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. IIT-CNR/Registro.it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. IIT-CNR/Registro.it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Reverse Whois is a service provided by many web applications that Reverse Whois is a service provided by many web applications that
allows users to find domain names owned by an individual person or allow users to find domain names owned by an individual or a company
company starting from the owner details (like name, email). Even if starting from the owner details, such as name and email. Even if it
the availability of this service might raise some objections due to has been considered useful for some legal purposes (e.g. uncovering
potential privacy risks, ICANN itself, in its report about Next-Gen trademark infringements, detecting cybercrime cases), its
Registration Directory Service (RDS) [ICANN-RDS], states that it is availability as a standardised Whois capability has been objected for
allowed when driven by some permissible purposes (e.g. legal actions, two main reasons, which now don't seem to conflict with an RDAP
criminal investigations) and if it provides adequate policies to implementation.
enforce the requestor accreditation, authentication, authorization,
and terms and conditions of data use.
It is well known that such policies are not implemented in Whois The first objection has been caused by the potential risks of privacy
[RFC3912], while they are in RDAP. In fact, RDAP relies on security violation. However, TLDs community is considering a new generation
features, available in the HTTP protocol, to support access control of Registration Directory Services ([ICANN-RDS1],[ICANN-RDS2]), which
based on local policy [RFC7481]. provide access to sensitive data under some permissible purposes and
according to adequate policies to enforce the requestor
accreditation, authentication, authorization, and terms and
conditions of data use. It is well known that such security policies
are not implemented in Whois ([RFC3912]), while they are in RDAP
([RFC7481]). Therefore, RDAP permits a reverse search implementation
complying with privacy protection principles.
Another objection to the implementation of Reverse Whois is connected Another objection to the implementation of a reverse search
with its impact on server processing. Since RDAP supports search capability has been connected with its impact on server processing.
queries, the impact of both standard and reverse searches can be Since RDAP supports search queries, the impact of both standard and
mitigated by servers adopting ad hoc strategies. Furthermore, reverse searches is equivalent and can be mitigated by servers
reverse search is almost always performed by specifying an entity adopting ad hoc strategies. Furthermore, reverse search is almost
role (e.g. registrant, technical contact) and this can contribute to always performed by specifying an entity role (e.g. registrant,
restrict the result set. technical contact) and this can contribute to restricting the result
set.
Reverse searches, such as finding the list of domain names associated Reverse searches, such as finding the list of domain names associated
to contacts, nameservers or DNSSEC keys, may be useful to registrars with contacts, nameservers or DNSSEC keys, may be useful to
as well. Usually, registries adopt out-of-band mechanisms to provide registrars as well. Usually, registries adopt out-of-band mechanisms
results to registrars asking for reverse searches on their domains. to provide results to registrars asking for reverse searches on their
Possible reasons of such requests are: domains. Possible reasons of such requests are:
o the loss of synchronization between the registrar database and the o the loss of synchronization between the registrar database and the
registry database; registry database;
o the need of such data to perform massive EPP updates (i.e. o the need of such data to perform massive EPP ([RFC5730]) updates
changing the contacts of a set of domains, etc.). (e.g. changing the contacts of a set of domains, etc.).
Currently, RDAP does not provide any way for a client to search for Currently, RDAP does not provide any way for a client to search for
the collection of domains associated to an entity [RFC7482]. A query the collection of domains associated with an entity ([RFC7482]). A
(lookup or search) on domains can return the array of entities query (lookup or search) on domains can return the array of entities
related to a domain with different roles (registrant, registrar, related to a domain with different roles (registrant, registrar,
administrative, technical, reseller, etc.), but the reverse operation administrative, technical, reseller, etc.), but the reverse operation
is not allowed. Only reverse searches to find the collection of is not allowed. Only reverse searches to find the collection of
domains related to a nameserver (ldhName or ip) can be requested. domains related to a nameserver (ldhName or ip) can be requested.
Since entities can be in relationship with all RDAP objects Since entities can be in relation with all RDAP objects ([RFC7483]),
[RFC7483], the availability of a reverse search can be common to all the availability of a reverse search can be common to all RDAP query
RDAP query paths. paths.
The protocol described in this specification aims to extend the RDAP The protocol described in this specification aims to extend the RDAP
query capabilities to enable reverse search based on the domains- query capabilities to enable reverse search based on the domains-
entities relationship (the classic Reverse Whois scenario). The entities relationship (the classic Reverse Whois scenario). The
extension is implemented by adding new path segments (i.e. search extension is implemented by adding new path segments (i.e. search
paths) and using a RESTful web service [REST]. The service is paths) and using a RESTful web service ([REST]). The service is
implemented using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) [RFC7230] implemented using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) ([RFC7230])
and the conventions described in RFC 7480 [RFC7480]. and the conventions described in RFC 7480 ([RFC7480]).
1.1. Conventions Used in This Document 1.1. Conventions Used in This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
2. RDAP Path Segment Specification 2. RDAP Path Segment Specification
The new search paths are OPTIONAL extensions of path segments defined The new search paths are OPTIONAL extensions of path segments defined
in RFC 7482 [RFC7482]. The search paths are: in RFC 7482 ([RFC7482]). The search paths are:
Syntax: domains?entityHandle=<reverse search pattern> Syntax: domains?entityHandle=<reverse search pattern>
Syntax: domains?entityFn=<reverse search pattern> Syntax: domains?entityFn=<reverse search pattern>
Syntax: domains?entityEmail=<reverse search pattern> Syntax: domains?entityEmail=<reverse search pattern>
Syntax: domains?entityAddr=<reverse search pattern> Syntax: domains?entityAddr=<reverse search pattern>
The reverse search pattern is a JSON [RFC8259] object including two The reverse search pattern is a JSON ([RFC8259]) object including two
members: "value" and "role". The "value" member represents the members: "value" and "role". The "value" member represents the
search pattern to be applied to the corresponding entity field and search pattern to be applied to the corresponding entity field and
can be a JSON type primitive or object. The "role" member is a can be a JSON type primitive or object. The "role" member is a
string whose possible values are those detailed in Section 10.2.4 of string whose possible values are those detailed in Section 10.2.4 of
RFC 7483 [RFC7483]. The former is REQUIRED while the latter is RFC 7483 ([RFC7483]). The former is REQUIRED while the latter is
OPTIONAL to allow RDAP servers to provide reverse search capabilities OPTIONAL to allow RDAP servers to provide reverse search capabilities
without specifying any role. without specifying any role.
The search patterns corresponding to the "value" in the first two The search patterns corresponding to the "value" in the first two
cases are the same as specified in paragraph Section 3.2.3 of RFC cases (Figure 1) are the same as specified in paragraph Section 3.2.3
7482 [RFC7482] (Figure 1). of RFC 7482 ([RFC7482]).
domains?entityHandle={"value":"CID-40*","role":"registrant"} domains?entityHandle={"value":"CID-40*","role":"registrant"}
domains?entityFn={"value":"Bobby*","role":"registrant"} domains?entityFn={"value":"Bobby*","role":"registrant"}
Figure 1: Examples of RDAP queries to find all domains related to a Figure 1: Examples of RDAP queries to find all domains related to a
registrant whose handle matches "CID-40*" and whose formatted name registrant whose handle matches "CID-40*" and whose formatted name
matches "Bobby*" matches "Bobby*"
The last two reverse searches are considered by ICANN very useful to The last two reverse searches are considered by gTLD stakeholders
improve searchability capabilities of the Registry Directory Services very useful to improve RDS searchability ([ICANN-RDS1], [ICANN-RA]).
([ICANN-RDS], [ICANN-RA]).
Searches for domains by related entity email are specified using this Searches for domains by related entity email are specified using this
form: form:
domains?entityEmail={"value":"XXXX","role":"ZZZZ"} domains?entityEmail={"value":"XXXX","role":"ZZZZ"}
where XXXX is a search pattern representing an email address as where XXXX is a search pattern representing an email address as
defined in RFC 5322 [RFC5322]. defined in RFC 5322 ([RFC5322]).
Searches for domains by related entity postal address are specified Searches for domains by related entity postal address are specified
using this form: using this form:
domains?entityAddr={"value":YYYY,"role":"ZZZZ"} domains?entityAddr={"value":YYYY,"role":"ZZZZ"}
where YYYY is a JSON object containing the information described in where YYYY is a JSON object containing the information described in
Section 2.4 of RFC 5733 [RFC5733], respectively: "street", "city", Section 2.4 of RFC 5733 ([RFC5733]), respectively: "street", "city",
"sp", "pc" and "cc" (Figure 2). All the members of the postal "sp", "pc" and "cc" (Figure 2). All the members of the postal
address object are OPTIONAL but at least one is REQUIRED. The address object are OPTIONAL but at least one is REQUIRED. The
constraints on the members are implicitly joined by AND. constraints on the members are implicitly joined by AND.
domains?entityAddr={"value":{"cc":"CA","city":"Sydney"},"role":"registrant"} domains?entityAddr={"value":{"cc":"CA","city":"Sydney"},"role":"registrant"}
Figure 2: Example of a RDAP query to find all domains related to a Figure 2: Example of a RDAP query to find all domains related to a
registrant whose postal address contains the country code equals to registrant whose postal address contains the country code equals to
"CA" and the city equals to "Sydney" "CA" and the city equals to "Sydney"
3. Implementation Considerations 3. Implementation Considerations
The implementation of the proposed extension is technically feasible. The implementation of the proposed extension is technically feasible.
The search paths "handle" and "fn" are used as standard paths to The search paths "handle" and "fn" are used as standard paths to
search for entities. With regards to the last two reverse searches, search for entities. With regards to the last two reverse searches,
both email and postal address information are usually required by the both email and postal address information are usually required by the
registries but, while the former is usually mapped on a DBMS indexed registries but, while the former is usually mapped onto a DBMS
field, the latter is mapped on a combination of non-indexed fields. indexed field, the latter is mapped onto a combination of non-indexed
As a consequence while the former should not significantly decrease fields. As a consequence while the former should not significantly
the performance, the latter might have an impact on server decrease the performance, the latter might have an impact on server
processing. Anyway, this impact is evaluated to be the same as other processing. Anyway, this impact is evaluated to be the same as other
query capabilities already presented in RDAP (e.g. wildcard prefixed query capabilities already presented in RDAP (e.g. wildcard prefixed
search pattern) so the risks to generate huge result sets are the search pattern) so the risks to generate huge result sets are the
same existing for the other standard searches and can be mitigated by same as those related to other standard searches and can be mitigated
adopting the same policies (e.g. restricting search functionalities, by adopting the same policies (e.g. restricting search
limiting the rate of search requests according to the user profile, functionalities, limiting the rate of search requests according to
truncating and paging the results, returning partial responses). the user profile, truncating and paging the results, returning
partial responses).
3.1. JSON in URLs 3.1. JSON in URLs
Many web services, including RDAP, rely on the HTTP GET method to Many web services, including RDAP, rely on the HTTP GET method to
take advantage from some of its features: take advantage from some of its features:
o GET requests can be cached; o GET requests can be cached;
o GET requests remain in the browser history; o GET requests remain in the browser history;
o GET requests can be bookmarked. o GET requests can be bookmarked.
Sometimes it happens that such advantages should be combined with the Sometimes, it happens that such advantages should be combined with
requirement to pass objects and arrays in the query string. JSON is the requirement to pass objects and arrays in the query string. JSON
the best candidate as data interchange format but it contains some is the best candidate as data interchange format, but it contains
characters that are forbidden from appearing in a URL. Anyway, some characters that are forbidden from appearing in a URL. Anyway,
escaping the invalid characters is not an issue because, on client escaping the invalid characters is not an issue because, on the
side, modern browsers automatically encode URLs and, on server side, client side, modern browsers automatically encode URLs and, on the
a lot of URL encoding/decoding libraries for all web development server side, several URL encoding/decoding libraries for all web
programming languages are available. The downside of URL encoding is development programming languages are available. The downside of URL
that it can make a URL rather long which, depending on the initial encoding is that it can make a pretty long URL, which, depending on
length and the number of invalid characters, might exceed the the initial length and the number of invalid characters, might exceed
practical limit of web browsers (i.e. 2,000 characters). the practical limit of web browsers (i.e. 2,000 characters).
Other solutions to pass a JSON expression in a URL could be: Other solutions to pass a JSON expression in a URL could be:
o converting JSON to Base64 ([RFC4648]) but binary data are o converting JSON to Base64 ([RFC4648]), but binary data are
unreadable; unreadable;
o using a JSON variation that complies with URL specifications and o using a JSON variation that complies with URL specifications and
mantains readability like Rison ([RISON]), URLON ([URLON]) or maintains readability like Rison ([RISON]), URLON ([URLON]) or
JSURL ([JSURL]). JSURL ([JSURL]).
The extensions proposed in this document rely on URL encoding because The extensions proposed in this document rely on URL encoding because
it is widely supported and the risk to exceed the maximum URL length it is widely supported and the risk to exceed the maximum URL length
is considered to be very unlikely in RDAP. is considered to be very unlikely in RDAP.
4. Implementation Status 4. Implementation Status
NOTE: Please remove this section and the reference to RFC 7942 prior NOTE: Please remove this section and the reference to RFC 7942 prior
to publication as an RFC. to publication as an RFC.
This section records the status of known implementations of the This section records the status of known implementations of the
protocol defined by this specification at the time of posting of this protocol defined by this specification at the time of posting of this
Internet-Draft, and is based on a proposal described in RFC 7942 Internet-Draft, and is based on a proposal described in RFC 7942
[RFC7942]. The description of implementations in this section is ([RFC7942]). The description of implementations in this section is
intended to assist the IETF in its decision processes in progressing intended to assist the IETF in its decision processes in progressing
drafts to RFCs. Please note that the listing of any individual drafts to RFCs. Please note that the listing of any individual
implementation here does not imply endorsement by the IETF. implementation here does not imply endorsement by the IETF.
Furthermore, no effort has been spent to verify the information Furthermore, no effort has been spent to verify the information
presented here that was supplied by IETF contributors. This is not presented here that was supplied by IETF contributors. This is not
intended as, and must not be construed to be, a catalog of available intended as, and must not be construed to be, a catalog of available
implementations or their features. Readers are advised to note that implementations or their features. Readers are advised to note that
other implementations may exist. other implementations may exist.
According to RFC 7942, "this will allow reviewers and working groups According to RFC 7942, "this will allow reviewers and working groups
skipping to change at page 7, line 5 skipping to change at page 7, line 11
and feedback that have made the implemented protocols more mature. and feedback that have made the implemented protocols more mature.
It is up to the individual working groups to use this information as It is up to the individual working groups to use this information as
they see fit". they see fit".
4.1. IIT-CNR/Registro.it 4.1. IIT-CNR/Registro.it
Responsible Organization: Institute of Informatics and Telematics Responsible Organization: Institute of Informatics and Telematics
of National Research Council (IIT-CNR)/Registro.it of National Research Council (IIT-CNR)/Registro.it
Location: https://rdap.pubtest.nic.it/ Location: https://rdap.pubtest.nic.it/
Description: This implementation includes support for RDAP queries Description: This implementation includes support for RDAP queries
using data from the public test environment of .it ccTLD. The using data from the public test environment of .it ccTLD.
RDAP server does not implement any security policy because data
returned by this server are only for experimental testing
purposes.
Level of Maturity: This is a "proof of concept" research Level of Maturity: This is a "proof of concept" research
implementation. implementation.
Coverage: This implementation includes all of the features Coverage: This implementation includes all of the features
described in this specification. described in this specification.
Contact Information: Mario Loffredo, mario.loffredo@iit.cnr.it Contact Information: Mario Loffredo, mario.loffredo@iit.cnr.it
5. Security Considerations 5. Privacy Considerations
Security services for the operations specified in this document are The use of the capability described in this document SHOULD be
described in RFC 7481 [RFC7481]. It is quite easy to imagine that, compliant with the rules about privacy protection each RDAP provider
in order to be compliant with ICANN recommendations about its use, is subject to. Sensitive registration data SHOULD be protected and
RDAP servers will provide reverse search, like other query accessible for permissible purposes only. Therefore, it is
capabilities, only to restricted communities. One realistic scenario recommended that RDAP servers provide reverse search only to those
for servers is to provide reverse search only for registrars requestors who are authorized according to a lawful basis. Some
searching for their own domains. Another one is to prevent users to potential users of this capability include registrars searching for
start a reverse search from a registrant detail, by removing their own domains and operators in the exercise of an official
"registrant" from the possible "role" values. authority or performing a specific task in the public interest that
is set out in law. Another scenario consists of permitting reverse
searches, which take into account only those entities that have
previously given the explicit consent for publishing and processing
their personal data.
6. IANA Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Security services required to provide controlled access to the
operations specified in this document are described in RFC 7481
([RFC7481]).
7. IANA Considerations
This document has no actions for IANA. This document has no actions for IANA.
7. Acknowledgements 8. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge Scott Hollenbeck, Francisco The authors would like to acknowledge Scott Hollenbeck, Francisco
Arias, Gustavo Lozano and Eduardo Alvarez for their contribution to Arias, Gustavo Lozano and Eduardo Alvarez for their contribution to
this document. this document.
8. References 9. References
8.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3912] Daigle, L., "WHOIS Protocol Specification", RFC 3912, [RFC3912] Daigle, L., "WHOIS Protocol Specification", RFC 3912,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3912, September 2004, DOI 10.17487/RFC3912, September 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3912>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3912>.
[RFC5322] Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5322, October 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5322>.
[RFC5730] Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)",
STD 69, RFC 5730, DOI 10.17487/RFC5730, August 2009,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5730>.
[RFC5733] Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) [RFC5733] Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
Contact Mapping", STD 69, RFC 5733, DOI 10.17487/RFC5733, Contact Mapping", STD 69, RFC 5733, DOI 10.17487/RFC5733,
August 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5733>. August 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5733>.
[RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer [RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014, RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.
[RFC7480] Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP Usage in the [RFC7480] Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP Usage in the
skipping to change at page 8, line 39 skipping to change at page 9, line 15
[RFC7483] Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the [RFC7483] Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", RFC 7483, Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", RFC 7483,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7483, March 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7483, March 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7483>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7483>.
[RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259, Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>.
8.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[ICANN-RA] [ICANN-RA]
Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers, Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers,
"Registry Agreement", July 2017, "Registry Agreement", July 2017,
<https://newgtlds.icann.org/sites/default/files/ <https://newgtlds.icann.org/sites/default/files/
agreements/agreement-approved-31jul17-en.pdf>. agreements/agreement-approved-31jul17-en.pdf>.
[ICANN-RDS] [ICANN-RDS1]
Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers, Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers,
"Final Report from the Expert Working Group on gTLD "Final Report from the Expert Working Group on gTLD
Directory Services: A Next-Generation Registration Directory Services: A Next-Generation Registration
Directory Service (RDS)", June 2014, Directory Service (RDS)", June 2014,
<https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/files/ <https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/files/
final-report-06jun14-en.pdf>. final-report-06jun14-en.pdf>.
[JSURL] "JSURL", 2016, <https://github.com/Sage/jsurl>. [ICANN-RDS2]
Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers,
"Final Issue Report on a Next-Generation gTLD RDS to
Replace WHOIS", October 2015,
<http://whois.icann.org/sites/default/files/files/
final-issue-report-next-generation-rds-07oct15-en.pdf>.
[JSURL] github.com, "JSURL", 2016,
<https://github.com/Sage/jsurl>.
[REST] Fielding, R., "Architectural Styles and the Design of [REST] Fielding, R., "Architectural Styles and the Design of
Network-based Software Architectures", 2000, Network-based Software Architectures", 2000,
<http://www.restapitutorial.com/media/ <http://www.restapitutorial.com/media/
RESTful_Best_Practices-v1_1.pdf>. RESTful_Best_Practices-v1_1.pdf>.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006, Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>.
[RFC7942] Sheffer, Y. and A. Farrel, "Improving Awareness of Running [RFC7942] Sheffer, Y. and A. Farrel, "Improving Awareness of Running
Code: The Implementation Status Section", BCP 205, Code: The Implementation Status Section", BCP 205,
RFC 7942, DOI 10.17487/RFC7942, July 2016, RFC 7942, DOI 10.17487/RFC7942, July 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7942>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7942>.
[RISON] "Rison - Compact Data in URIs", 2017, [RISON] github.com, "Rison - Compact Data in URIs", 2017,
<https://github.com/Nanonid/rison>. <https://github.com/Nanonid/rison>.
[URLON] "URL Object Notation", 2017, [URLON] github.com, "URL Object Notation", 2017,
<https://github.com/cerebral/urlon>. <https://github.com/cerebral/urlon>.
Appendix A. Change Log Appendix A. Change Log
00: Initial version. 00: Initial version.
01: Revised some sentences and references. 01: Revised some sentences and references.
02: Added "entityEmail" and "entityAddr" path segments. Removed 02: Added "entityEmail" and "entityAddr" path segments. Removed
"entityRole" path segment. Revised "Acknowledgements" section "entityRole" path segment. Revised "Acknowledgements" section.
03: Added "JSON in URLs" section 03: Added "JSON in URLs" section.
04: Revised some sentences in "Introduction" section. Added
"Privacy Considerations" section.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mario Loffredo Mario Loffredo
IIT-CNR/Registro.it IIT-CNR/Registro.it
Via Moruzzi,1 Via Moruzzi,1
Pisa 56124 Pisa 56124
IT IT
Email: mario.loffredo@iit.cnr.it Email: mario.loffredo@iit.cnr.it
 End of changes. 46 change blocks. 
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