< draft-xie-bier-ipv6-encapsulation-00.txt   draft-xie-bier-ipv6-encapsulation-01.txt >
Network Working Group J. Xie Network Working Group J. Xie
Internet-Draft Huawei Technologies Internet-Draft Huawei Technologies
Intended status: Standards Track L. Geng Intended status: Standards Track L. Geng
Expires: September 9, 2019 China Mobile Expires: December 21, 2019 China Mobile
M. McBride M. McBride
Futurewei
S. Dhanaraj S. Dhanaraj
G. Yan G. Yan
Y. Xia Y. Xia
Huawei Huawei
March 8, 2019 June 19, 2019
Encapsulation for BIER in Non-MPLS IPv6 Networks Encapsulation for BIER in Non-MPLS IPv6 Networks
draft-xie-bier-ipv6-encapsulation-00 draft-xie-bier-ipv6-encapsulation-01
Abstract Abstract
This document proposes a BIER IPv6 (BIERv6) encapsulation for Non- This document proposes a BIER IPv6 (BIERv6) encapsulation for Non-
MPLS IPv6 Networks using the IPv6 Destination Option extension MPLS IPv6 Networks using the IPv6 Destination Option extension
header. header.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 9, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on December 21, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. BIER IPv6 Encapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. BIER IPv6 Encapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. BIER Option in IPv6 Destination Options Header . . . . . 3 3.1. BIER Option in IPv6 Destination Options Header . . . . . 3
3.2. Multicast and Unicast Destination Address . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Multicast and Unicast Destination Address . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. BIERv6 Packet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3. BIERv6 Packet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. BIERv6 Packet Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. BIERv6 Packet Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.1. BIER Option Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1. BIER Option Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2. BIER Multicast Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.2. BIER Multicast Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.3. End.BIER Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) [RFC8279] is an architecture Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) [RFC8279] is an architecture
that provides optimal multicast forwarding without requiring that provides optimal multicast forwarding without requiring
intermediate routers to maintain any per-flow state by using a intermediate routers to maintain any per-flow state by using a
multicast-specific BIER header. multicast-specific BIER header.
[RFC8296] defines a common BIER Header format for MPLS and Non-MPLS [RFC8296] defines a common BIER Header format for MPLS and Non-MPLS
networks. It has defined two types of encapsulation methods using networks. It has defined two types of encapsulation methods using
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This document proposes a BIER IPv6 encapsulation for Non-MPLS IPv6 This document proposes a BIER IPv6 encapsulation for Non-MPLS IPv6
Networks, defining a method to carry the standard Non-MPLS BIER Networks, defining a method to carry the standard Non-MPLS BIER
header (as defined in [RFC8296]) in the native IPv6 header. A new header (as defined in [RFC8296]) in the native IPv6 header. A new
IPv6 Option type - BIER Option is defined to encode the standard Non- IPv6 Option type - BIER Option is defined to encode the standard Non-
MPLS BIER header and this newly defined BIER Option is carried under MPLS BIER header and this newly defined BIER Option is carried under
the Destination Options header of the native IPv6 Header [RFC8200]. the Destination Options header of the native IPv6 Header [RFC8200].
This document details one of the proposed solutions for transporting This document details one of the proposed solutions for transporting
BIER packets in an IPv6 network. To better understand the overall BIER packets in an IPv6 network. To better understand the overall
BIER IPv6 problem space, use cases and proposed solutions, refer to BIER IPv6 problem space, use cases and proposed solutions, refer to
[I-D.mcbride-bier-ipv6-problem-statement]. [I-D.ietf-bier-ipv6-requirements].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
Readers of this document are assumed to be familiar with the Readers of this document are assumed to be familiar with the
terminology and concepts of the documents listed as Normative terminology and concepts of the documents listed as Normative
References. References.
The following new terms are used throughout this document: The following new terms are used throughout this document:
o BIERv6 - BIER IPv6. o BIERv6 - BIER IPv6.
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a Differentiated Services Codepoint [RFC2474]. a Differentiated Services Codepoint [RFC2474].
Proto: SHOULD be set to 0 upon transmission and MUST be ignored Proto: SHOULD be set to 0 upon transmission and MUST be ignored
upon reception. In IPv6 BIER encapsulation, the functionality upon reception. In IPv6 BIER encapsulation, the functionality
of this 6-bit Proto field is replaced by the Next Header field of this 6-bit Proto field is replaced by the Next Header field
in Destination Options header, which is the last IPv6 extension in Destination Options header, which is the last IPv6 extension
header, to indicate the BIER payload, which is also IPv6 header, to indicate the BIER payload, which is also IPv6
payload. payload.
For BIER Proto 1, indicating a Downstream-assigned MPLS For BIER Proto 1, indicating a Downstream-assigned MPLS
payload, use Next Header value 139. payload, use Next Header value 137.
For BIER Proto 2, indicating an Upstream-assigned MPLS For BIER Proto 2, indicating an Upstream-assigned MPLS
payload, there is no Next Header code currently. An payload, there is no Next Header code currently. An
upstream-assigned MPLS label within the context of special upstream-assigned MPLS label within the context of special
BFIR router, which in turn is represented by the BFIR-id and BFIR router, which in turn is represented by the BFIR-id and
the Sub-domain indirectly indicated by the BIFT-id in a BIER- the Sub-domain indirectly indicated by the BIFT-id in a BIER-
MPLS or BIER-ETH packet, can be replaced by an IPv6 source MPLS or BIER-ETH packet, can be replaced by an IPv6 source
address in a BIER IPv6 encapsulation packet in a direct address in a BIER IPv6 encapsulation packet in a direct
manner. In this case, use Next Header value 4 for IPv4 manner. In this case, use Next Header value 4 for IPv4
payload, or value 41 for IPv6 payload. payload, or value 41 for IPv6 payload.
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the BIERv6 packet, as this scope zone is exactly the BIERv6 Domain. the BIERv6 packet, as this scope zone is exactly the BIERv6 Domain.
The use of other scopes is outside the scope of this document. The use of other scopes is outside the scope of this document.
Use of a Unicast Address as a IPv6 Destination Address is permissible Use of a Unicast Address as a IPv6 Destination Address is permissible
and useful in certain cases. and useful in certain cases.
1. Tunneling a BIERv6 packet over a non-BIER capable router. 1. Tunneling a BIERv6 packet over a non-BIER capable router.
2. Fast rerouting a BIERv6 packet using a unicast by-pass tunnel. 2. Fast rerouting a BIERv6 packet using a unicast by-pass tunnel.
3. Forwarding a BIERv6 packet to one of the BFR neighbor connected 3. Forwarding a BIERv6 packet to one of the many BFR neighbors
on a shared-media LAN. connected on a LAN.
4. Connecting BIER domains, for example Data Center domains, in an
overlay manner.
The unicast address used in BIERv6 packet targeting a BFR SHOULD be The unicast address used in BIERv6 packet targeting a BFR SHOULD be
the IPv6 BFR-Prefix advertised from this BFR. When a BFR advertises the IPv6 BFR-Prefix advertised from this BFR. When a BFR advertises
the BIER information with BIERv6 encapsulation capability, the IPv6 the BIER information with BIERv6 encapsulation capability, the IPv6
BFR-prefix of this BFR MUST be allowed using in BIERv6 packet. All BFR-prefix of this BFR MUST be selected specifically for BIERv6
the IPv6 BFR-Prefixes used in different sub-domains MUST all be packet forwarding. Locally this "BIER Specific" IPv6 address is
allowed using in BIERv6 packet. BIERv6 packet with unicast address initialized in FIB with a flag of "BIER specific handling",
other than the IPv6 BFR-Prefixes as destination address SHOULD be represented as End.BIER function. For convenience, the indication in
dropped. FIB share the same space as SRv6 Endpoints Behaviors defined in
[I-D.ietf-spring-srv6-network-programming]. Apart from this sharing
of code space, there is nothing dependent on SRv6. The co-existance
of BIERv6 and SRv6 is outside the scope of this document.
Compared to Multicast Destination Address, use of Unicast Destination BFR Prefix is used only in control plane in BIER MPLS encapsulation
Address suffers from the additional cost of modification of but not used in data plane. While in BIERv6, BFR prefix is used in
Destination Address at each hop of replication. Implementations MUST both control plane and data plane. The "BIER Specific" IPv6 address
support use of Multicast Destination Address for BIERv6 packets and can be used for BIER MPLS in control plane too. So it is RECOMMENDED
is RECOMMENDED to be the default behavior to forward BIERv6 packets to use a "BIER specific" IPv6 address as BFR prefix when deploying
to a directly connected BFR neighbor. BIER in IPv6 network from the scratch. One should be careful not use
the IPv6 address selected as BFR prefix for other purpose like BGP
session until the "BIER specific handling" can do more general
process.
The following is an example of configuring a BIER specific IPv6
address and using this address as BFR prefix:
# Config a BIER specific IPv6 address with 128-bit mask on loopback0.
interface loopback0
ipv6 address 2019::AB37 128 End.BIER
# Config the BIER-specific IPv6 address on loopback0 as BFR Prefix.
bier sub-domain 6 ipv6-underlay
bfr-prefix interface loopback0
3.3. BIERv6 Packet Format 3.3. BIERv6 Packet Format
As a multicast packet enters the BIER domain in a Non-MPLS IPv6 As a multicast packet enters the BIER domain in a Non-MPLS IPv6
network, the multicast packet will be encapsulated with BIERv6 network, the multicast packet will be encapsulated with BIERv6
Header. Header.
Typically a BIERv6 header would contain the Destination Options Typically a BIERv6 header would contain the Destination Options
Header as the only Extensions Header besides IPv6 Header. However, Header as the only Extensions Header besides IPv6 Header. However,
it is allowed and possible for other extension headers to appear it is allowed and possible for other extension headers to appear
along with the Destination Options Header as long as the requirements along with the Destination Options Header as long as the requirements
listed in section 3.1 of this document is met. Scenarios where-in listed in section 3.1 of this document is met.
the BFIR may encode other extension headers along with the
Destination Options header is outside the scope of this document.
Format of the multicast packet with BIERv6 encapsulation carrying Format of the multicast packet with BIERv6 encapsulation carrying
only the Destination Options header is depicted in the below figure. only the Destination Options header is depicted in the below figure.
+---------------+--------------+------------ +---------------+--------------+------------
| IPv6 header | Dest Options | X type of | IPv6 header | Dest Options | X type of
| | Header with | multicast | | Header with | multicast
| | BIER Option | packet | | BIER Option | packet
| | | | | |
| Next Hdr = 60 | Nxt Hdr = X | | Next Hdr = 60 | Nxt Hdr = X |
+---------------+--------------+------------ +---------------+--------------+------------
Format of the multicast packet with BIERv6 encapsulation carrying Format of the multicast packet with BIERv6 encapsulation carrying
other extension headers along with Destination Options extension other extension headers along with Destination Options extension
header is depicted in the below figure. header is required to follow general recommendations of [RFC8200] and
examples in other RFCs. [RFC6275] introduces how the order should be
when other extension headers carries along with Home address option
in a destination options header. Similar to this example, this
document requires the Destination Options Header carrying the BIER
option MUST be placed as follows:
+---------------+--------------+--------------+------------ o After the routing header, if that header is present
| IPv6 header | Y Extension | Dest Options | X type of
| | Header | Header with | multicast o Before the Fragment Header, if that header is present
| | | BIER Option | packet
| | | | o Before the AH Header or ESP Header, if either one of those headers
| Next Hdr = Y | Nxt Hdr = 60 | Next Hdr = X | is present
+---------------+--------------+--------------+------------
Source Address field in the IPv6 header MUST be a routable IPv6 Source Address field in the IPv6 header MUST be a routable IPv6
unicast address of the BFIR in any case. unicast address of the BFIR in any case.
BFIR encodes the Non-MPLS BIER header in the above mentioned BFIR encodes the Non-MPLS BIER header in the above mentioned
encapsulation format and forwards the BIERv6 packet to the nexthop encapsulation format and forwards the BIERv6 packet to the nexthop
BFR following the local BIFT table. BFR following the local BIFT table.
BFRs in the IPv6 network, processes and replicates the packets BFRs in the IPv6 network, processes and replicates the packets
towards the BFERs using the local BIFT table. The bit-string field towards the BFERs using the local BIFT table. The bit-string field
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Source Address field in the IPv6 header MUST be set to a routable Source Address field in the IPv6 header MUST be set to a routable
IPv6 unicast address of the BFIR. Destination Address field in the IPv6 unicast address of the BFIR. Destination Address field in the
IPv6 header is set to a BIER multicast address, FF0X::AB37, if the IPv6 header is set to a BIER multicast address, FF0X::AB37, if the
next-hop BFR is directly connected, or MAY be set to a unicast next-hop BFR is directly connected, or MAY be set to a unicast
address in case of the scenarios discussed in section 3.2. address in case of the scenarios discussed in section 3.2.
On the BIER layer, upon receiving an BIERv6 packet, the BFR processes On the BIER layer, upon receiving an BIERv6 packet, the BFR processes
the IPv6 header first. This is the general procedure of IPv6. the IPv6 header first. This is the general procedure of IPv6.
If the IPv6 Destination address is the BIER multicast address, a If the IPv6 Destination address is the BIER multicast address, a
'BIER valid' flag will be obtained by the preceding Multicast DA 'BIER Specific Handling' indication will be obtained by the preceding
lookup. The BIER option, if exists, will be checked to decide which Multicast DA lookup (MFIB lookup). The BIER option, if exists, will
neighbor(s) to replicate the BIERv6 packet to. If the BIER option be checked to decide which neighbor(s) to replicate the BIERv6 packet
does not exist, the packet MUST be dropped. to.
If the IPv6 Destination address is a multicast address other than the
BIER multicast address, a 'BIER valid' flag will not be obtained by
the preceding Multicast DA lookup. If the BIER option exist, the
packet MUST be dropped.
If the IPv6 Destination address is an IPv6 BFR-Prefix unicast address If the IPv6 Destination address is an IPv6 BFR-Prefix unicast address
of this BFR, a 'BIER valid' flag will be obtained by the preceding of this BFR, a 'BIER Specific Handling' indication will be obtained
Unicast DA lookup. The BIER option, if exists, will be checked to by the preceding Unicast DA lookup (FIB lookup). The BIER option, if
decide which neighbor(s) to replicate the BIERv6 packet to. If the exists, will be checked to decide which neighbor(s) to replicate the
BIER option does not exist, the normal unicast forwarding applies. BIERv6 packet to.
If the IPv6 Destination address is a unicast address other than the It is a local behavior to handle the combination of extension
IPv6 BFR-Prefix unicast address(es) of this BFR, a 'BIER valid' flag headers, options and the BIER option(s) in destination options header
will not be obtained by the preceding Unicast DA lookup. If the BIER when a 'BIER Specific Handling' indication is got by the preceding
option exist, the packet MUST be dropped. MFIB or FIB lookup. Early deployment of BIERv6 may require there is
only one BIER option TLV in the destination options header followed
the IPv6 header. How other extension headers or more BIER option
TLVs in a BIERv6 packet is handled is outside the scope of this
document.
A packet having a 'BIER Specific Handling' indication but not having
a BIER option MAY be processed normally as normal multicast or
unicast forwarding procedures do, or MAY be dropped.
A packet not having a 'BIER Specific Handling' indication but having
a BIER option SHOULD be processed normally as normal multicast or
unicast forwarding procedures, which may be a behavior of drop, or
send to CPU, or other behaviors in existing implementations.
The Destination Address field in the IPv6 Header MUST change to the
nexthop BFR's BFR Prefix if Unicast address is used in BIERv6.
The Hop Limit field of IPv6 header MUST decrease by 1 when sending The Hop Limit field of IPv6 header MUST decrease by 1 when sending
packets to a BFR neighbor, while the TTL in the BIER header MUST be packets to a BFR neighbor, while the TTL in the BIER header MUST be
unchanged. unchanged.
The BitString in the BIER header in the Destination Options Header The BitString in the BIER header in the Destination Options Header
may change when sending packets to a neighbor. Such change of may change when sending packets to a neighbor. Such change of
BitString MUST be aligned with the procedure defined in RFC8279. BitString MUST be aligned with the procedure defined in RFC8279.
Because of the requirement to change the content of the option when Because of the requirement to change the content of the option when
forwarding BIERv6 packet, the BIER option type should have chg flag 1 forwarding BIERv6 packet, the BIER option type should have chg flag 1
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+-----------------------+---------------------+------------+ +-----------------------+---------------------+------------+
| Address(es) | Description | Reference | | Address(es) | Description | Reference |
| | | | | | | |
+-----------------------+---------------------+------------+ +-----------------------+---------------------+------------+
| FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:AB37 | ALL_BIER_FORWARDERS | This draft | | FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:AB37 | ALL_BIER_FORWARDERS | This draft |
+-----------------------+---------------------+------------+ +-----------------------+---------------------+------------+
Figure 2: Multicast Address Suggested Figure 2: Multicast Address Suggested
6.3. End.BIER Function
Allocation is expected from IANA for an End.BIER function codepoint
from the "SRv6 Endpoint Behaviors" sub-registry. The value 60 is
suggested.
+-------+--------+--------------------------+------------+
| Value | Hex | Endpoint function | Reference |
+-------+--------+--------------------------+------------+
| TBD | TBD | End.BIER | This draft |
+-------+--------+--------------------------+------------+
Figure 3: End.BIER Function
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Stig Venaas for his valuable The authors would like to thank Stig Venaas for his valuable
comments. comments.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July
2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6275>.
[RFC7346] Droms, R., "IPv6 Multicast Address Scopes", RFC 7346, [RFC7346] Droms, R., "IPv6 Multicast Address Scopes", RFC 7346,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7346, August 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7346, August 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7346>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7346>.
[RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200, (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.
[RFC8279] Wijnands, IJ., Ed., Rosen, E., Ed., Dolganow, A., [RFC8279] Wijnands, IJ., Ed., Rosen, E., Ed., Dolganow, A.,
skipping to change at page 11, line 24 skipping to change at page 12, line 24
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8279>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8279>.
[RFC8296] Wijnands, IJ., Ed., Rosen, E., Ed., Dolganow, A., [RFC8296] Wijnands, IJ., Ed., Rosen, E., Ed., Dolganow, A.,
Tantsura, J., Aldrin, S., and I. Meilik, "Encapsulation Tantsura, J., Aldrin, S., and I. Meilik, "Encapsulation
for Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) in MPLS and Non- for Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) in MPLS and Non-
MPLS Networks", RFC 8296, DOI 10.17487/RFC8296, January MPLS Networks", RFC 8296, DOI 10.17487/RFC8296, January
2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8296>. 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8296>.
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[I-D.mcbride-bier-ipv6-problem-statement] [I-D.ietf-bier-ipv6-requirements]
McBride, M. and J. Xie, "Problem Statement of BIER IPv6 McBride, M., Xie, J., Dhanaraj, S., and R. Asati, "BIER
Encapsulation", draft-mcbride-bier-ipv6-problem- IPv6 Requirements", draft-ietf-bier-ipv6-requirements-00
statement-00 (work in progress), January 2019. (work in progress), May 2019.
[I-D.ietf-spring-srv6-network-programming]
Filsfils, C., Camarillo, P., Leddy, J.,
daniel.voyer@bell.ca, d., Matsushima, S., and Z. Li, "SRv6
Network Programming", draft-ietf-spring-srv6-network-
programming-00 (work in progress), April 2019.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
skipping to change at page 11, line 44 skipping to change at page 13, line 4
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jingrong Xie Jingrong Xie
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
Email: xiejingrong@huawei.com Email: xiejingrong@huawei.com
Liang Geng Liang Geng
China Mobile China Mobile
Beijing 10053 Beijing 10053
Email: gengliang@chinamobile.com Email: gengliang@chinamobile.com
Mike McBride Mike McBride
Huawei Futurewei
Email: mmcbride7@gmail.com Email: mmcbride7@gmail.com
Senthil Dhanaraj Senthil Dhanaraj
Huawei Huawei
Email: senthil.dhanaraj@huawei.com Email: senthil.dhanaraj@huawei.com
Gang Yan Gang Yan
Huawei Huawei
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