draft-ietf-6lo-btle-10.txt   draft-ietf-6lo-btle-11.txt 
6Lo Working Group J. Nieminen 6Lo Working Group J. Nieminen
Internet-Draft T. Savolainen Internet-Draft T. Savolainen
Intended status: Standards Track M. Isomaki Intended status: Standards Track M. Isomaki
Expires: August 27, 2015 Nokia Expires: October 29, 2015 Nokia
B. Patil B. Patil
AT&T AT&T
Z. Shelby Z. Shelby
Arm Arm
C. Gomez C. Gomez
Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT
February 23, 2015 April 27, 2015
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy
draft-ietf-6lo-btle-10 draft-ietf-6lo-btle-11
Abstract Abstract
Bluetooth Smart is the brand name for the Bluetooth low energy Bluetooth Smart is the brand name for the Bluetooth low energy
feature in the Bluetooth specification defined by the Bluetooth feature in the Bluetooth specification defined by the Bluetooth
Special Interest Group. The standard Bluetooth radio has been widely Special Interest Group. The standard Bluetooth radio has been widely
implemented and available in mobile phones, notebook computers, audio implemented and available in mobile phones, notebook computers, audio
headsets and many other devices. The low power version of Bluetooth headsets and many other devices. The low power version of Bluetooth
is a specification that enables the use of this air interface with is a specification that enables the use of this air interface with
devices such as sensors, smart meters, appliances, etc. The low devices such as sensors, smart meters, appliances, etc. The low
skipping to change at page 1, line 47 skipping to change at page 1, line 47
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 27, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 29, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 28 skipping to change at page 2, line 28
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Bluetooth Low Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Bluetooth Low Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. Bluetooth LE stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Bluetooth LE stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Link layer roles and topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Link layer roles and topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3. Bluetooth LE device addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. Bluetooth LE device addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4. Bluetooth LE packets sizes and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.4. Bluetooth LE packets sizes and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy . . . . . . . 6 3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Protocol stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Protocol stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2. Link model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Link model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2.1. Stateless address autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.1. Stateless address autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.2. Neighbor discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2.2. Neighbor discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.3. Header compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.3. Header compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.3.1. Remote destination example . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2.3.1. Remote destination example . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.4. Unicast and Multicast address mapping . . . . . . . . 12 3.2.4. Unicast and Multicast address mapping . . . . . . . . 12
3.3. Internet connectivity scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3. Subnets and Internet connectivity scenarios . . . . . . . 13
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Additional contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Additional contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Bluetooth low energy (LE) is a radio technology targeted for devices Bluetooth low energy (LE) is a radio technology targeted for devices
that operate with coin cell batteries or minimalistic power sources, that operate with coin cell batteries or minimalistic power sources,
which means that low power consumption is essential. Bluetooth LE is which means that low power consumption is essential. Bluetooth LE is
an especially attractive technology for Internet of Things especially attractive technology for Internet of Things applications,
applications, such as health monitors, environmental sensing, such as health monitors, environmental sensing, proximity
proximity applications and many others. applications and many others.
Considering the potential for the exponential growth in the number of Considering the potential for the exponential growth in the number of
sensors and Internet connected devices and things, IPv6 is an ideal sensors and Internet connected devices, IPv6 is an ideal protocol due
protocol due to the large address space it provides. In addition, to the large address space it provides. In addition, IPv6 provides
IPv6 provides tools for stateless address autoconfiguration, which is tools for stateless address autoconfiguration, which is particularly
particularly suitable for sensor network applications and nodes which suitable for sensor network applications and nodes which have very
have very limited processing power or lack a full-fledged operating limited processing power or lack a full-fledged operating system.
system.
RFC 4944 [RFC4944] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE RFC 4944 [RFC4944] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE
802.15.4. The Bluetooth LE link in many respects has similar 802.15.4. The Bluetooth LE link in many respects has similar
characteristics to that of IEEE 802.15.4. Many of the mechanisms characteristics to that of IEEE 802.15.4. Many of the mechanisms
defined in the RFC 4944 can be applied to the transmission of IPv6 on defined in the RFC 4944 can be applied to the transmission of IPv6 on
Bluetooth LE links. This document specifies the details of IPv6 Bluetooth LE links. This document specifies the details of IPv6
transmission over Bluetooth LE links. transmission over Bluetooth LE links.
1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language 1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language
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with a number of devices in the peripheral role, called peripherals with a number of devices in the peripheral role, called peripherals
from now on. A peripheral is commonly connected to a single central, from now on. A peripheral is commonly connected to a single central,
but since Bluetooth 4.1 can also connect to multiple centrals. In but since Bluetooth 4.1 can also connect to multiple centrals. In
this document for IPv6 networking purposes the Bluetooth LE network this document for IPv6 networking purposes the Bluetooth LE network
(i.e. a Bluetooth LE piconet) follows a star topology shown in the (i.e. a Bluetooth LE piconet) follows a star topology shown in the
Figure 2, where the router typically implements the Bluetooth LE Figure 2, where the router typically implements the Bluetooth LE
central role and nodes implement the Bluetooth LE peripheral role. central role and nodes implement the Bluetooth LE peripheral role.
In the future mesh networking may be defined for IPv6 over Bluetooth In the future mesh networking may be defined for IPv6 over Bluetooth
LE. LE.
Node --. .-- Node Peripheral --. .-- Peripheral
\ / \ /
Node ---- Router ---- Node Peripheral ---- Central ---- Peripheral
/ \ / \
Node --' '-- Node Peripheral --' '-- Peripheral
Figure 2: Bluetooth LE Star Topology Figure 2: Bluetooth LE Star Topology
In Bluetooth LE a central is assumed to be less constrained than a
peripheral. Hence, in the primary deployment scenario central and
peripheral will act as 6LoWPAN Border Router (6LBR) and a 6LoWPAN
Node (6LN), respectively.
In Bluetooth LE, direct communication only takes place between a In Bluetooth LE, direct communication only takes place between a
central and a peripheral. Hence, in a Bluetooth LE network using central and a peripheral. This means that inherently the Bluetooth
IPv6, a radio hop is equivalent to an IPv6 link and vice versa. LE star represents a hub and spokes link model.
2.3. Bluetooth LE device addressing 2.3. Bluetooth LE device addressing
Every Bluetooth LE device is identified by a 48-bit device address. Every Bluetooth LE device is identified by a 48-bit device address.
The Bluetooth specification describes the device address of a The Bluetooth specification describes the device address of a
Bluetooth LE device as:"Devices are identified using a device Bluetooth LE device as:"Devices are identified using a device
address. Device addresses may be either a public device address or a address. Device addresses may be either a public device address or a
random device address." [BTCorev4.1]. The public device addresses random device address." [BTCorev4.1]. The public device addresses
are based on the IEEE 802-2001 standard [IEEE802-2001]. The random are based on the IEEE 802-2001 standard [IEEE802-2001]. The random
device addresses are generated as defined in the Bluetooth device addresses are generated as defined in the Bluetooth
specification. In random addresses all 48 bits are randomized. specification. This typically happens at every power cycle of a
These random device addresses have a very small chance of being in device. In random addresses all 48 bits are randomized. Bluetooth
conflict, as Bluetooth LE does not support random device address LE does not support device address collision avoidance or detection.
collision avoidance or detection. However, these 48 bit random device addresses have a very small
probability of being in conflict within a typical deployment.
2.4. Bluetooth LE packets sizes and MTU 2.4. Bluetooth LE packets sizes and MTU
Optimal MTU defined for L2CAP fixed channels over Bluetooth LE is 27 Optimal MTU defined for L2CAP fixed channels over Bluetooth LE is 27
bytes including the L2CAP header of four bytes. Default MTU for bytes including the L2CAP header of four bytes. Default MTU for
Bluetooth LE is hence defined to be 27 bytes. Therefore, excluding Bluetooth LE is hence defined to be 27 bytes. Therefore, excluding
L2CAP header of four bytes, protocol data unit (PDU) size of 23 bytes L2CAP header of four bytes, protocol data unit (PDU) size of 23 bytes
is available for upper layers. In order to be able to transmit IPv6 is available for upper layers. In order to be able to transmit IPv6
packets of 1280 bytes or larger, link layer fragmentation and packets of 1280 bytes or larger, link layer fragmentation and
reassembly solution is provided by the L2CAP layer. The IPSP defines reassembly solution is provided by the L2CAP layer. The IPSP defines
means for negotiating up a link-layer connection that provides MTU of means for negotiating up a link-layer connection that provides MTU of
1280 bytes or higher for the IPv6 layer [IPSP]. The link-layer MTU 1280 bytes or higher for the IPv6 layer [IPSP]. The link-layer MTU
is negotiated separately for each direction. Implementations that is negotiated separately for each direction. Implementations that
require single link-layer MTU value SHALL use the smallest of the require single link-layer MTU value SHALL use the smallest of the
possibly different MTU values. possibly different MTU values.
3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy 3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy
Before any IP-layer communications can take place over Bluetooth LE,
Bluetooth LE enabled nodes such as 6LNs and 6LBRs have to find each
other and establish a suitable link-layer connection. The discovery
and Bluetooth LE connection setup procedures are documented by
Bluetooth SIG in the IPSP specification [IPSP]. In the rare case of
Bluetooth LE random device address conflict, the 6LBR can detect
multiple 6LNs with the same Bluetooth LE device address. The 6LBR
MUST have at most one connection for a given Bluetooth LE device
address at any given moment. This will avoid addressing conflicts
within a Bluetooth LE network. The IPSP depends on Bluetooth version
4.1, and hence both Bluetooth version 4.1, or newer, and IPSP version
1.0, or newer, are required for IPv6 communications.
Bluetooth LE technology sets strict requirements for low power Bluetooth LE technology sets strict requirements for low power
consumption and thus limits the allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN consumption and thus limits the allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN
standards [RFC6775], and [RFC6282] provide useful functionality for standards [RFC6775], and [RFC6282] provide useful functionality for
reducing overhead which can be applied to Bluetooth LE. This reducing overhead, which are applied to Bluetooth LE. This
functionality comprises of link-local IPv6 addresses and stateless functionality comprises of link-local IPv6 addresses and stateless
IPv6 address autoconfiguration (see Section 3.2.1), Neighbor IPv6 address autoconfiguration (see Section 3.2.1), Neighbor
Discovery (see Section 3.2.2) and header compression (see Discovery (see Section 3.2.2) and header compression (see
Section 3.2.3). Section 3.2.3). Fragmentation features from 6LoWPAN standards are
not used due Bluetooth LE's link layer fragmentation support (see
Section 2.4).
A significant difference between IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth LE is A significant difference between IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth LE is
that the former supports both star and mesh topology (and requires a that the former supports both star and mesh topology (and requires a
routing protocol), whereas Bluetooth LE does not currently support routing protocol), whereas Bluetooth LE does not currently support
the formation of multihop networks at the link layer. the formation of multihop networks at the link layer.
In Bluetooth LE a central node is assumed to be less constrained than
a peripheral node. Hence, in the primary deployment scenario central
and peripheral will act as 6LoWPAN Border Router (6LBR) and a 6LoWPAN
Node (6LN), respectively.
Before any IP-layer communications can take place over Bluetooth LE,
Bluetooth LE enabled nodes such as 6LNs and 6LBRs have to find each
other and establish a suitable link-layer connection. The discovery
and Bluetooth LE connection setup procedures are documented by
Bluetooth SIG in the IPSP specification [IPSP].
In the rare case of Bluetooth LE random device address conflict, a
6LBR can detect multiple 6LNs with the same Bluetooth LE device
address, as well as a 6LN with the same Bluetooth LE address as the
6LBR. The 6LBR MUST ignore 6LNs with the same device address the
6LBR has, and the 6LBR MUST have at most one connection for a given
Bluetooth LE device address at any given moment. This will avoid
addressing conflicts within a Bluetooth LE network. The IPSP depends
on Bluetooth version 4.1, and hence both Bluetooth version 4.1, or
newer, and IPSP version 1.0, or newer, are required for IPv6
communications.
3.1. Protocol stack 3.1. Protocol stack
Figure 3 illustrates IPv6 over Bluetooth LE stack including the Figure 3 illustrates IPv6 over Bluetooth LE stack including the
Internet Protocol Support Service. UDP and TCP are provided as Internet Protocol Support Service. UDP and TCP are provided as
examples of transport protocols, but the stack can be used by any examples of transport protocols, but the stack can be used by any
other upper layer protocol capable of running atop of IPv6. The other upper layer protocol capable of running atop of IPv6. The
6LoWPAN layer runs on top of Bluetooth LE L2CAP layer. 6LoWPAN layer runs on top of Bluetooth LE L2CAP layer.
+---------+ +----------------------------+ +---------+ +----------------------------+
| IPSS | | UDP/TCP/other | | IPSS | | UDP/TCP/other |
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IPv6 packets over the Bluetooth LE link. RFC 4861 [RFC4861] defines IPv6 packets over the Bluetooth LE link. RFC 4861 [RFC4861] defines
a link as "a communication facility or medium over which nodes can a link as "a communication facility or medium over which nodes can
communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer immediately below communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer immediately below
IPv6." IPv6."
In the case of Bluetooth LE, 6LoWPAN layer is adapted to support In the case of Bluetooth LE, 6LoWPAN layer is adapted to support
transmission of IPv6 packets over Bluetooth LE. The IPSP defines all transmission of IPv6 packets over Bluetooth LE. The IPSP defines all
steps required for setting up the Bluetooth LE connection over which steps required for setting up the Bluetooth LE connection over which
6LoWPAN can function [IPSP], including handling the link-layer 6LoWPAN can function [IPSP], including handling the link-layer
fragmentation required on Bluetooth LE, as described in Section 2.4. fragmentation required on Bluetooth LE, as described in Section 2.4.
Even though MTUs larger than 1280 bytes can be supported, use of 1280
byte is RECOMMENDED in order to avoid need for Path MTU discovery
procedures.
While Bluetooth LE protocols, such as L2CAP, utilize little-endian While Bluetooth LE protocols, such as L2CAP, utilize little-endian
byte orderering, IPv6 packets MUST be transmitted in big endian order byte orderering, IPv6 packets MUST be transmitted in big endian order
(network byte order). (network byte order).
This specification requires IPv6 header compression format specified This specification requires IPv6 header compression format specified
in RFC 6282 to be used [RFC6282]. It is assumed that the IPv6 in RFC 6282 to be used [RFC6282]. It is assumed that the IPv6
payload length can be inferred from the L2CAP header length and the payload length can be inferred from the L2CAP header length and the
possibly elided IPv6 address can be inferred from the link-layer possibly elided IPv6 address can be inferred from the link-layer
address, at the time of Bluetooth LE connection establishment, from address, at the time of Bluetooth LE connection establishment, from
the HCI Connection Handle during connection, and from context if any. the HCI Connection Handle during connection, and from context if any.
Bluetooth LE connections used to build a star topology are point-to- Bluetooth LE connections used to build a star topology are point-to-
point in nature, as Bluetooth broadcast features are not used for point in nature, as Bluetooth broadcast features are not used for
IPv6 over Bluetooth LE. 6LN-to-6LN communications, e.g. using link- IPv6 over Bluetooth LE. For Bluetooth LE multilink model has been
local addresses, need to be bridged by the 6LBR. The 6LBR ensures chosen. Because of this, link-local multicast communications can
address collisions do not occur (see Section 3.2.2). happen only within a single Bluetooth LE connection, and thus 6LN-to-
6LN communications using link-local addresses are not possible. 6LNs
connected to the same 6LBR has to communicate with each other by
using the shared prefix used on the subnet. The 6LBR ensures address
collisions do not occur (see Section 3.2.2).
After the peripheral and central have connected at the Bluetooth LE After the peripheral and central have connected at the Bluetooth LE
level, the link can be considered up and IPv6 address configuration level, the link can be considered up and IPv6 address configuration
and transmission can begin. and transmission can begin.
3.2.1. Stateless address autoconfiguration 3.2.1. Stateless address autoconfiguration
At network interface initialization, both 6LN and 6LBR SHALL generate At network interface initialization, both 6LN and 6LBR SHALL generate
and assign to the Bluetooth LE network interface IPv6 link-local and assign to the Bluetooth LE network interface IPv6 link-local
addresses [RFC4862] based on the 48-bit Bluetooth device addresses addresses [RFC4862] based on the 48-bit Bluetooth device addresses
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After link-local address configuration, 6LN sends Router Solicitation After link-local address configuration, 6LN sends Router Solicitation
messages as described in [RFC4861] Section 6.3.7. messages as described in [RFC4861] Section 6.3.7.
For non-link-local addresses a 64-bit IID MAY be formed by utilizing For non-link-local addresses a 64-bit IID MAY be formed by utilizing
the 48-bit Bluetooth device address. A 6LN can also use a randomly the 48-bit Bluetooth device address. A 6LN can also use a randomly
generated IID (see Section 3.2.2), for example, as discussed in generated IID (see Section 3.2.2), for example, as discussed in
[I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids], or use alternatice schemes such as [I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids], or use alternatice schemes such as
Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA) [RFC3972], privacy Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA) [RFC3972], privacy
extensions [RFC4941], Hash-Based Addresses (HBA, [RFC5535]), or extensions [RFC4941], Hash-Based Addresses (HBA, [RFC5535]), or
DHCPv6 [RFC3315]. The non-link-local addresses 6LN generates must be DHCPv6 [RFC3315]. The non-link-local addresses 6LN generates MUST be
registered with 6LBR as described in Section 3.2.2. registered with 6LBR as described in Section 3.2.2.
The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the
Bluetooth LE network is out of scope of this document, but can be, Bluetooth LE network is out of scope of this document, but can be,
for example, accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation [RFC3633] or for example, accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation [RFC3633] or
by using Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses (ULA) [RFC4193]. Due to by using Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses (ULA) [RFC4193]. Due to
the link model of the Bluetooth LE (see Section 2.2) the 6LBR MUST the link model of the Bluetooth LE (see Section 2.2) the 6LBR MUST
set the "on-link" flag (L) to zero in the Prefix Information Option set the "on-link" flag (L) to zero in the Prefix Information Option
[RFC4861]. This will cause 6LNs to always send packets to the 6LBR, [RFC4861]. This will cause 6LNs to always send packets to the 6LBR,
including the case when the destination is another 6LN using the same including the case when the destination is another 6LN using the same
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'Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless 'Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)' [RFC6775] describes the neighbor Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)' [RFC6775] describes the neighbor
discovery approach as adapted for use in several 6LoWPAN topologies, discovery approach as adapted for use in several 6LoWPAN topologies,
including the mesh topology. Bluetooth LE does not support mesh including the mesh topology. Bluetooth LE does not support mesh
networks and hence only those aspects that apply to a star topology networks and hence only those aspects that apply to a star topology
are considered. are considered.
The following aspects of the Neighbor Discovery optimizations The following aspects of the Neighbor Discovery optimizations
[RFC6775] are applicable to Bluetooth LE 6LNs: [RFC6775] are applicable to Bluetooth LE 6LNs:
1. A Bluetooth LE 6LN SHOULD NOT register its link-local address. A 1. A Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST NOT register its link-local address. A
Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST register its non-link-local addresses with the Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST register its non-link-local addresses with the
6LBR by sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address 6LBR by sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address
Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement (NA) Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement (NA)
accordingly. The NS with the ARO option MUST be sent irrespective of accordingly. The NS with the ARO option MUST be sent irrespective of
the method used to generate the IID. If the 6LN registers for a same the method used to generate the IID. If the 6LN registers for a same
compression context multiple addresses that are not based on compression context multiple addresses that are not based on
Bluetooth device address, the 6LN and 6LBR will be unable to compress Bluetooth device address, the 6LN and 6LBR will be unable to compress
IIDs and hence have to send IID bits inline. IIDs and hence have to send IID bits inline.
2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router 2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
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The Bluetooth LE link layer does not support multicast. Hence The Bluetooth LE link layer does not support multicast. Hence
traffic is always unicast between two Bluetooth LE nodes. Even in traffic is always unicast between two Bluetooth LE nodes. Even in
the case where a 6LBR is attached to multiple 6LNs, the 6LBR cannot the case where a 6LBR is attached to multiple 6LNs, the 6LBR cannot
do a multicast to all the connected 6LNs. If the 6LBR needs to send do a multicast to all the connected 6LNs. If the 6LBR needs to send
a multicast packet to all its 6LNs, it has to replicate the packet a multicast packet to all its 6LNs, it has to replicate the packet
and unicast it on each link. However, this may not be energy- and unicast it on each link. However, this may not be energy-
efficient and particular care must be taken if the master is battery- efficient and particular care must be taken if the master is battery-
powered. In the opposite direction, a 6LN always has to send packets powered. In the opposite direction, a 6LN always has to send packets
to or through 6LBR. Hence, when a 6LN needs to transmit an IPv6 to or through 6LBR. Hence, when a 6LN needs to transmit an IPv6
multicast packet, the 6LN will unicast the corresponding Bluetooth LE multicast packet, the 6LN will unicast the corresponding Bluetooth LE
packet to the 6LBR. The 6LBR will then forward the multicast packet packet to the 6LBR.
to other 6LNs. To avoid excess of unwanted multicast traffic being
sent to 6LNs, the 6LBR can implement MLD Snooping feature [RFC4541].
3.3. Internet connectivity scenarios 3.3. Subnets and Internet connectivity scenarios
In a typical scenario, the Bluetooth LE network is connected to the In a typical scenario, the Bluetooth LE network is connected to the
Internet as shown in the Figure 6. Internet as shown in the Figure 6. In this scenario, the Bluetooth
LE star is deployed as one subnet, using one /64 IPv6 prefix, with
each spoke representing individual link. The 6LBR is acting as
router and forwarding packets between 6LNs and to and from Internet.
6LN /
\ ____________ .---------------. /
\ / \ / 6LN \ /
6LN ---- 6LBR ----- | Internet | / \ \ /
/ \____________/ | \ | /
/ | 6LN ----------- 6LBR ----- | Internet
6LN | <--Link--> / | \
\ / / \
\ 6LN / \
'---------------' \
\
<-- Bluetooth LE --> <------ Subnet -----><-- IPv6 connection -->
to Internet
Figure 6: Bluetooth LE network connected to the Internet Figure 6: Bluetooth LE network connected to the Internet
In some scenarios, the Bluetooth LE network may transiently or In some scenarios, the Bluetooth LE network may transiently or
permanently be an isolated network as shown in the Figure 7. permanently be an isolated network as shown in the Figure 7. In this
case the whole star consist of a single subnet with multiple links,
6LN 6LN where 6LBR is at central routing packets between 6LNs.
\ /
\ /
6LN --- 6LBR --- 6LN
/ \
/ \
6LN 6LN
<--- Bluetooth LE ---> .-------------------.
/ \
/ 6LN 6LN \
/ \ / \
| \ / |
| 6LN --- 6LBR --- 6LN |
| / \ |
\ / \ /
\ 6LN 6LN /
\ /
'-------------------'
<--------- Subnet ---------->
Figure 7: Isolated Bluetooth LE network Figure 7: Isolated Bluetooth LE network
It is also possible to have point-to-point connection between two It is also possible to have point-to-point connection between two
6LNs, one of which being central and another being peripheral. 6LNs, one of which being central and another being peripheral.
Similarly, it is possible to have point-to-point connections between Similarly, it is possible to have point-to-point connections between
two 6LBRs, one of which being central and another being peripheral. two 6LBRs, one of which being central and another being peripheral.
At this point in time mesh networking with Bluetooth LE is not At this point in time mesh networking with Bluetooth LE is not
specified. specified.
skipping to change at page 14, line 22 skipping to change at page 15, line 10
6. Additional contributors 6. Additional contributors
Kanji Kerai, Jari Mutikainen, David Canfeng-Chen and Minjun Xi from Kanji Kerai, Jari Mutikainen, David Canfeng-Chen and Minjun Xi from
Nokia have contributed significantly to this document. Nokia have contributed significantly to this document.
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
The Bluetooth, Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready marks are The Bluetooth, Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready marks are
registred trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc. registred trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
Samita Chakrabarti, Brian Haberman, Marcel De Kogel, Erik Nordmark, Samita Chakrabarti, Brian Haberman, Marcel De Kogel, Jouni Korhonen,
Dave Thaler, and Victor Zhodzishsky have provided valuable feedback Erik Nordmark, Dave Thaler, Pascal Thubert, and Victor Zhodzishsky
for this draft. have provided valuable feedback for this draft.
Authors would like to give special acknowledgements for Krishna Authors would like to give special acknowledgements for Krishna
Shingala, Frank Berntsen, and Bluetooth SIG's Internet Working Group Shingala, Frank Berntsen, and Bluetooth SIG's Internet Working Group
for providing significant feedback and improvement proposals for this for providing significant feedback and improvement proposals for this
document. document.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
skipping to change at page 16, line 5 skipping to change at page 16, line 38
[RFC3633] Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic [RFC3633] Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633, Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
December 2003. December 2003.
[RFC3972] Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)", [RFC3972] Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
RFC 3972, March 2005. RFC 3972, March 2005.
[RFC4193] Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast [RFC4193] Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005. Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.
[RFC4541] Christensen, M., Kimball, K., and F. Solensky,
"Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping
Switches", RFC 4541, May 2006.
[RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy [RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007. IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.
[RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler, [RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
"Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
Networks", RFC 4944, September 2007. Networks", RFC 4944, September 2007.
[RFC5535] Bagnulo, M., "Hash-Based Addresses (HBA)", RFC 5535, June [RFC5535] Bagnulo, M., "Hash-Based Addresses (HBA)", RFC 5535, June
2009. 2009.
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