draft-ietf-6lo-btle-17.txt   rfc7668.txt 
6Lo Working Group J. Nieminen Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) J. Nieminen
Internet-Draft T. Savolainen Request for Comments: 7668 TeliaSonera
Intended status: Standards Track M. Isomaki Category: Standards Track T. Savolainen
Expires: February 5, 2016 Nokia ISSN: 2070-1721 M. Isomaki
Nokia
B. Patil B. Patil
AT&T AT&T
Z. Shelby Z. Shelby
Arm ARM
C. Gomez C. Gomez
Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT
August 4, 2015 October 2015
IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy
draft-ietf-6lo-btle-17
Abstract Abstract
Bluetooth Smart is the brand name for the Bluetooth low energy Bluetooth Smart is the brand name for the Bluetooth low energy
feature in the Bluetooth specification defined by the Bluetooth feature in the Bluetooth specification defined by the Bluetooth
Special Interest Group. The standard Bluetooth radio has been widely Special Interest Group. The standard Bluetooth radio has been widely
implemented and available in mobile phones, notebook computers, audio implemented and available in mobile phones, notebook computers, audio
headsets and many other devices. The low power version of Bluetooth headsets, and many other devices. The low-power version of Bluetooth
is a specification that enables the use of this air interface with is a specification that enables the use of this air interface with
devices such as sensors, smart meters, appliances, etc. The low devices such as sensors, smart meters, appliances, etc. The low-
power variant of Bluetooth has been standardized since revision 4.0 power variant of Bluetooth has been standardized since revision 4.0
of the Bluetooth specifications, although version 4.1 or newer is of the Bluetooth specifications, although version 4.1 or newer is
required for IPv6. This document describes how IPv6 is transported required for IPv6. This document describes how IPv6 is transported
over Bluetooth low energy using IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal over Bluetooth low energy using IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal
Area Network (6LoWPAN) techniques. Area Network (6LoWPAN) techniques.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
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Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on February 5, 2016. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction ...................................................3
1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language .......................3
2. Bluetooth Low Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Bluetooth Low Energy ...........................................4
2.1. Bluetooth LE stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Bluetooth LE Stack .........................................4
2.2. Link layer roles and topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Roles and Topology for Link Layer ...........................5
2.3. Bluetooth LE device addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3. Bluetooth LE Device Addressing .............................6
2.4. Bluetooth LE packet sizes and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.4. Bluetooth LE Packet Sizes and MTU ...........................6
3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy . . . . . . . 7 3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy .................7
3.1. Protocol stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Protocol Stack .............................................8
3.2. Link model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Link Model .................................................8
3.2.1. IPv6 subnet model and Internet connectivity . . . . . 9 3.2.1. IPv6 Subnet Model and Internet Connectivity .........9
3.2.2. Stateless address autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.2. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration ................10
3.2.3. Neighbor discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2.3. Neighbor Discovery .................................12
3.2.4. Header compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.4. Header Compression .................................13
3.2.4.1. Remote destination example . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.4.1. Remote Destination Example ................14
3.2.4.2. Example of registration of multiple-addresses . . 15 3.2.4.2. Example of Registration of
3.2.5. Unicast and Multicast address mapping . . . . . . . . 16 Multiple Addresses ........................15
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.2.5. Unicast and Multicast Address Mapping ..............16
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. Security Considerations ........................................16
6. Additional contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5. References .....................................................17
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.1. Normative References ......................................17
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2. Informative References ....................................18
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Acknowledgements ..................................................20
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Contributors ......................................................20
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Authors' Addresses ................................................20
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Bluetooth Smart is the brand name for the Bluetooth low energy Bluetooth Smart is the brand name for the Bluetooth low energy
feature (hereinafter, Bluetooth LE) in the Bluetooth specification feature (hereinafter, "Bluetooth LE") in the Bluetooth specification
defined by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group. Bluetooth LE is a defined by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group [BTCorev4.1].
radio technology targeted for devices that operate with very low Bluetooth LE is a radio technology targeted for devices that operate
capacity (e.g., coin cell) batteries or minimalistic power sources, with very low-capacity (e.g., coin cell) batteries or minimalistic
which means that low power consumption is essential. Bluetooth LE is power sources, which means that low power consumption is essential.
especially attractive technology for Internet of Things applications, Bluetooth LE is an especially attractive technology for Internet of
such as health monitors, environmental sensing, proximity Things applications, such as health monitors, environmental sensing,
applications and many others. proximity applications, and many others.
Considering the potential for the exponential growth in the number of Considering the potential for the exponential growth in the number of
sensors and Internet connected devices, IPv6 is an ideal protocol for sensors and Internet connected devices, IPv6 is an ideal protocol for
communication with such devices due to the large address space it communication with such devices due to the large address space it
provides. In addition, IPv6 provides tools for stateless address provides. In addition, IPv6 provides tools for stateless address
autoconfiguration, which is particularly suitable for sensor network autoconfiguration, which is particularly suitable for sensor network
applications and nodes which have very limited processing power or applications and nodes that have very limited processing power or
lack a full-fledged operating system. lack a full-fledged operating system or a user interface.
This document describes how IPv6 is transported over Bluetooth LE This document describes how IPv6 is transported over Bluetooth LE
connections using IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks connections using IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network
(6LoWPAN) techniques. RFCs 4944, 6282, and 6775 (6LoWPAN) techniques. RFCs 4944 [RFC4944], 6282 [RFC6282], and 6775
[RFC4944][RFC6282][RFC6775] developed for 6LoWPAN specify the [RFC6775] were developed for 6LoWPAN and specify the transmission of
transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 [fifteendotfour]. The IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 [IEEE802.15.4]. The Bluetooth LE link, in
Bluetooth LE link in many respects has similar characteristics to many respects, has similar characteristics to that of IEEE 802.15.4,
that of IEEE 802.15.4 and many of the mechanisms defined for the IPv6 and many of the mechanisms defined for IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 can be
over IEEE 802.15.4 can be applied to the transmission of IPv6 on applied to the transmission of IPv6 on Bluetooth LE links. This
Bluetooth LE links. This document specifies the details of IPv6 document specifies the details of IPv6 transmission over Bluetooth LE
transmission over Bluetooth LE links. links.
1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language 1.1. Terminology and Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
The terms 6LoWPAN Node (6LN), 6LoWPAN Router (6LR) and 6LoWPAN Border The terms "6LoWPAN Node (6LN)", "6LoWPAN Router (6LR)", and "6LoWPAN
Router (6LBR) are defined as in [RFC6775], with an addition that Border Router (6LBR)" are defined as in [RFC6775], with an addition
Bluetooth LE central and Bluetooth LE peripheral (see Section 2.2) that Bluetooth LE central and Bluetooth LE peripheral (see
can both be either 6LN or 6LBR. Section 2.2) can both be either 6LN or 6LBR.
The acronyms "DAC", "DAM", "SAC", "SAM", and "CID" are used in this
document as defined in [RFC6282]. They are expanded as follows:
o Destination Address Compression (DAC)
o Destination Address Mode (DAM)
o Source Address Compression (SAC)
o Source Address Mode (SAM)
o Context Identifier (CID)
2. Bluetooth Low Energy 2. Bluetooth Low Energy
Bluetooth LE is designed for transferring small amounts of data Bluetooth LE is designed for transferring small amounts of data
infrequently at modest data rates with a very small energy infrequently at modest data rates with a very small energy
expenditure per bit. Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth expenditure per bit. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth
SIG) has introduced two trademarks, Bluetooth Smart for single-mode SIG) has introduced two trademarks: Bluetooth Smart for single-mode
devices (a device that only supports Bluetooth LE) and Bluetooth devices (a device that only supports Bluetooth LE) and Bluetooth
Smart Ready for dual-mode devices (devices that support both Smart Ready for dual-mode devices (devices that support both
Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE; note that Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE are Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE; note that Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE are
different, non-interoperable radio technologies). In the rest of the different, non-interoperable radio technologies). In the rest of
document, the term Bluetooth LE is used regardless of whether this this document, the term "Bluetooth LE" is used regardless of whether
technology is supported by a single-mode or dual-mode device. this technology is supported by a single-mode or dual-mode device.
Bluetooth LE was introduced in Bluetooth 4.0, enhanced in Bluetooth Bluetooth LE was introduced in Bluetooth 4.0, enhanced in Bluetooth
4.1 [BTCorev4.1], and developed even further in successive versions. 4.1 [BTCorev4.1], and developed even further in successive versions.
Bluetooth SIG has also published the Internet Protocol Support Bluetooth SIG has also published the Internet Protocol Support
Profile (IPSP) [IPSP], which includes the Internet Protocol Support Profile (IPSP) [IPSP], which includes the Internet Protocol Support
Service (IPSS). The IPSP enables discovery of IP-enabled devices and Service (IPSS). The IPSP enables discovery of IP-enabled devices and
establishment of a link layer connection for transporting IPv6 establishment of a link-layer connection for transporting IPv6
packets. IPv6 over Bluetooth LE is dependent on both Bluetooth 4.1 packets. IPv6 over Bluetooth LE is dependent on both Bluetooth 4.1
and IPSP 1.0 or more recent versions of either specification to and IPSP 1.0 or more recent versions of either specification to
provide necessary capabilities. provide necessary capabilities.
Devices such as mobile phones, notebooks, tablets and other handheld Devices such as mobile phones, notebooks, tablets, smartwatches, and
computing devices that incorporate chipsets implementing Bluetooth other handheld computing devices that incorporate chipsets
4.1 or later will also have the low-energy functionality of implementing Bluetooth 4.1 or later will also have the low energy
Bluetooth. Bluetooth LE is also expected to be included in many functionality of Bluetooth. Bluetooth LE is also expected to be
different types of accessories that collaborate with mobile devices included in many different types of accessories that collaborate with
such as phones, tablets and notebook computers. An example of a use mobile devices such as phones, tablets, and notebook computers. An
case for a Bluetooth LE accessory is a heart rate monitor that sends example of a use case for a Bluetooth LE accessory is a heart rate
data via the mobile phone to a server on the Internet. monitor that sends data via a mobile phone or smartwatch to a server
on the Internet or sends data directly to the device.
2.1. Bluetooth LE stack 2.1. Bluetooth LE Stack
The lower layer of the Bluetooth LE stack consists of the Physical The lower layer of the Bluetooth LE stack consists of the Physical
(PHY), the Link Layer (LL), and a test interface called the Direct Layer (PHY), the Link Layer (LL), and a test interface called the
Test Mode (DTM). The Physical Layer transmits and receives the Direct Test Mode (DTM). The Physical Layer transmits and receives
actual packets. The Link Layer is responsible for providing medium the actual packets. The Link Layer is responsible for providing
access, connection establishment, error control and flow control. medium access, connection establishment, error control, and flow
The Direct Test Mode is only used for testing purposes. The upper control. The Direct Test Mode is only used for testing purposes.
layer consists of the Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol The upper layer consists of the Logical Link Control and Adaptation
(L2CAP), Attribute Protocol (ATT), Security Manager (SM), Generic Protocol (L2CAP), Attribute Protocol (ATT), Security Manager (SM),
Attribute Profile (GATT) and Generic Access Profile (GAP) as shown in Generic Attribute Profile (GATT), and Generic Access Profile (GAP) as
Figure 1. The Host Controller Interface (HCI) separates the lower shown in Figure 1. The Host Controller Interface (HCI) separates the
layers, often implemented in the Bluetooth controller, from higher lower layers, often implemented in the Bluetooth controller, from
layers, often implemented in the host stack. GATT and Bluetooth LE higher layers, often implemented in the host stack. GATT and
profiles together enable the creation of applications in a Bluetooth LE profiles together enable the creation of applications in
standardized way without using IP. L2CAP provides multiplexing a standardized way without using IP. L2CAP provides multiplexing
capability by multiplexing the data channels from the above layers. capability by multiplexing the data channels from the above layers.
L2CAP also provides fragmentation and reassembly for large data L2CAP also provides fragmentation and reassembly for large data
packets. The Security Manager defines a protocol and mechanisms for packets. The Security Manager defines a protocol and mechanisms for
pairing, key distribution and a security toolbox for the Bluetooth LE pairing, key distribution, and a security toolbox for the Bluetooth
device. LE device.
+-------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------+
| Applications | | Applications |
+---------------------------------------+---------+ +---------------------------------------+---------+
| Generic Attribute Profile | Generic | | Generic Attribute Profile | Generic |
+--------------------+------------------+ Access | +--------------------+------------------+ Access |
| Attribute Protocol | Security Manager | Profile | | Attribute Protocol | Security Manager | Profile |
+--------------------+------------------+---------+ +--------------------+------------------+---------+
| Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol | | Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol |
- - -+-----------------------+-------------------------+- - - HCI - - -+-----------------------+-------------------------+- - - HCI
| Link Layer | Direct Test Mode | | Link Layer | Direct Test Mode |
+-------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------+
| Physical Layer | | Physical Layer |
+-------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------+
Figure 1: Bluetooth LE Protocol Stack Figure 1: Bluetooth LE Protocol Stack
As shown in Section 3.1, IPv6 over Bluetooth LE requires an adapted As shown in Section 3.1, IPv6 over Bluetooth LE requires an adapted
6LoWPAN layer which runs on top of Bluetooth LE L2CAP. 6LoWPAN layer that runs on top of Bluetooth LE L2CAP.
2.2. Link layer roles and topology 2.2. Roles and Topology for Link Layer
Bluetooth LE defines two GAP roles of relevance herein: the Bluetooth Bluetooth LE defines two GAP roles of relevance herein: the Bluetooth
LE central role and the Bluetooth LE peripheral role. A device in LE central role and the Bluetooth LE peripheral role. A device in
the central role, which is called central from now on, has the central role (called "central" from now on) has traditionally
traditionally been able to manage multiple simultaneous connections been able to manage multiple simultaneous connections with a number
with a number of devices in the peripheral role, called peripherals of devices in the peripheral role (called "peripherals" from now on).
from now on. A peripheral is commonly connected to a single central, A peripheral is commonly connected to a single central, but with
but with versions of Bluetooth from 4.1 onwards it can also connect versions of Bluetooth from 4.1 onwards, it can also connect to
to multiple centrals at the same time. In this document for IPv6 multiple centrals at the same time. In this document, for IPv6
networking purposes the Bluetooth LE network (i.e., a Bluetooth LE networking purposes, the Bluetooth LE network (i.e., a Bluetooth LE
piconet) follows a star topology shown in the Figure 2, where a piconet) follows a star topology shown in the Figure 2, where a
router typically implements the Bluetooth LE central role and the router typically implements the Bluetooth LE central role and the
rest of nodes implement the Bluetooth LE peripheral role. In the rest of nodes implement the Bluetooth LE peripheral role. In the
future mesh networking and/or parallel connectivity to multiple future, mesh networking and/or parallel connectivity to multiple
centrals at a time may be defined for IPv6 over Bluetooth LE. centrals at a time may be defined for IPv6 over Bluetooth LE.
Peripheral --. .-- Peripheral Peripheral --. .-- Peripheral
\ / \ /
Peripheral ---- Central ---- Peripheral Peripheral ---- Central ---- Peripheral
/ \ / \
Peripheral --' '-- Peripheral Peripheral --' '-- Peripheral
Figure 2: Bluetooth LE Star Topology Figure 2: Bluetooth LE Star Topology
In Bluetooth LE, direct wireless communication only takes place In Bluetooth LE, direct wireless communication only takes place
between a central and a peripheral. This means that inherently the between a central and a peripheral. This means that inherently the
Bluetooth LE star represents a hub and spokes link model. Bluetooth LE star represents a hub-and-spokes link model.
Nevertheless, two peripherals may communicate through the central by Nevertheless, two peripherals may communicate through the central by
using IP routing functionality per this specification. using IP routing functionality per this specification.
2.3. Bluetooth LE device addressing 2.3. Bluetooth LE Device Addressing
Every Bluetooth LE device is identified by a 48-bit device address. Every Bluetooth LE device is identified by a 48-bit device address.
The Bluetooth specification describes the device address of a The Bluetooth specification [BTCorev4.1] describes the device address
Bluetooth LE device as:"Devices are identified using a device of a Bluetooth LE device as follows: "Devices are identified using a
address. Device addresses may be either a public device address or a device address. Device addresses may be either a public device
random device address." [BTCorev4.1]. The public device addresses address or a random device address". The public device addresses are
are based on the IEEE 802-2001 standard [IEEE802-2001]. Random based on the IEEE 802 standard [IEEE802]. Random device addresses
device addresses and Bluetooth LE privacy feature are described in and the Bluetooth LE privacy feature are described in the Bluetooth
Bluetooth Generic Access Profile specification sections 10.8 and Generic Access Profile, Sections 10.8 and 10.7 of [BTCorev4.1],
10.7, respectively [BTCorev4.1]. There are two types of random respectively. There are two types of random device addresses: static
device addresses: static and private addresses. The private and private addresses. The private addresses are further divided
addresses are further divided into two sub-types: resolvable or non- into two sub-types: resolvable or non-resolvable addresses, which are
resolvable addresses, which are explained in depth in the referenced explained in depth in the referenced Bluetooth specification. Once a
Bluetooth specification. Once a static address is initialized, it static address is initialized, it does not change until the device is
does not change until the device is power cycled. The static address power cycled. The static address can be initialized to a new value
can be initialized to a new value after each power cycle, but that is after each power cycle, but that is not mandatory. The recommended
not mandatory. Recommended time interval before randomizing new time interval before randomizing new private address is 15 minutes,
private address is 15 minutes, as determined by timer as determined by timer T_GAP(private_addr_int) in Table 17.1 of the
T_GAP(private_addr_int) at Bluetooth Generic Access Profile Bluetooth Generic Access Profile [BTCorev4.1]. The selection of
Table 17.1. The selection of which device address types are used is which device address types are used is implementation and deployment
implementation and deployment specific. In random addresses first 46 specific. In random addresses, the first 46 bits are randomized, and
bits are randomized and last 2 bits indicate the random address type. the last 2 bits indicate the random address type. Bluetooth LE does
Bluetooth LE does not support device address collision avoidance or not support avoidance or detection of device address collisions.
detection. However, these 48 bit random device addresses have a very However, these 48-bit random device addresses have a very small
small probability of being in conflict within a typical deployment. probability of being in conflict within a typical deployment.
2.4. Bluetooth LE packet sizes and MTU 2.4. Bluetooth LE Packet Sizes and MTU
The optimal MTU defined for L2CAP fixed channels over Bluetooth LE is The optimal MTU defined for L2CAP fixed channels over Bluetooth LE is
27 octets including the L2CAP header of 4 octets. The default MTU 27 octets, including the L2CAP header of 4 octets. The default MTU
for Bluetooth LE is hence defined to be 27 octets. Therefore, for Bluetooth LE is hence defined to be 27 octets. Therefore,
excluding the L2CAP header of 4 octets, a protocol data unit (PDU) excluding the L2CAP header of 4 octets, a protocol data unit (PDU)
size of 23 octets is available for upper layers. In order to be able size of 23 octets is available for upper layers. In order to be able
to transmit IPv6 packets of 1280 octets or larger, a link layer to transmit IPv6 packets of 1280 octets or larger, a link-layer
fragmentation and reassembly solution is provided by the L2CAP layer. fragmentation and reassembly solution is provided by the L2CAP layer.
The IPSP defines means for negotiating up a link layer connection The IPSP defines means for negotiating up a link-layer connection
that provides an MTU of 1280 octets or higher for the IPv6 layer that provides an MTU of 1280 octets or higher for the IPv6 layer
[IPSP]. The link layer MTU is negotiated separately for each [IPSP]. The link-layer MTU is negotiated separately for each
direction. Implementations that require an equal link layer MTU for direction. Implementations that require an equal link-layer MTU for
the two directions SHALL use the smallest of the possibly different the two directions SHALL use the smallest of the possibly different
MTU values. MTU values.
3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy 3. Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy
Bluetooth LE technology sets strict requirements for low power Bluetooth LE technology sets strict requirements for low power
consumption and thus limits the allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN consumption and thus limits the allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN
standards [RFC6775], and [RFC6282] provide useful functionality for standards [RFC6775] [RFC6282] provide useful functionality for
reducing overhead, which are applied to Bluetooth LE. This reducing overhead, which is applied to Bluetooth LE. This
functionality is comprised of link-local IPv6 addresses and stateless functionality is comprised of link-local IPv6 addresses and stateless
IPv6 address autoconfiguration (see Section 3.2.2), Neighbor IPv6 address autoconfiguration (see Section 3.2.2), Neighbor
Discovery (see Section 3.2.3), and header compression (see Discovery (see Section 3.2.3), and header compression (see
Section 3.2.4). Fragmentation features from 6LoWPAN standards are Section 3.2.4). Fragmentation features from 6LoWPAN standards are
not used due to Bluetooth LE's link layer fragmentation support (see not used due to Bluetooth LE's link-layer fragmentation support (see
Section 2.4). Section 2.4).
A significant difference between IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth LE is A significant difference between IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth LE is
that the former supports both star and mesh topologies (and requires that the former supports both star and mesh topologies (and requires
a routing protocol), whereas Bluetooth LE does not currently support a routing protocol), whereas Bluetooth LE does not currently support
the formation of multihop networks at the link layer. However, the formation of multihop networks at the link layer. However,
inter-peripheral communication through the central is enabled by inter-peripheral communication through the central is enabled by
using IP routing functionality per this specification. using IP routing functionality per this specification.
In Bluetooth LE a central node is assumed to be less resource In Bluetooth LE, a central node is assumed to be less resource
constrained than a peripheral node. Hence, in the primary deployment constrained than a peripheral node. Hence, in the primary deployment
scenario central and peripheral will act as 6LoWPAN Border Router scenario, central and peripheral will act as 6LoWPAN Border Router
(6LBR) and a 6LoWPAN Node (6LN), respectively. (6LBR) and a 6LoWPAN Node (6LN), respectively.
Before any IP-layer communications can take place over Bluetooth LE, Before any IP-layer communications can take place over Bluetooth LE,
Bluetooth LE enabled nodes such as 6LNs and 6LBRs have to find each nodes enabled by Bluetooth LE such as 6LNs and 6LBRs have to find
other and establish a suitable link layer connection. The discovery each other and establish a suitable link-layer connection. The
and Bluetooth LE connection setup procedures are documented by the discovery and Bluetooth LE connection setup procedures are documented
Bluetooth SIG in the IPSP specification [IPSP]. by the Bluetooth SIG in the IPSP specification [IPSP].
In the rare case of Bluetooth LE random device address conflict, a In the rare case of Bluetooth LE random device address conflict, a
6LBR can detect multiple 6LNs with the same Bluetooth LE device 6LBR can detect multiple 6LNs with the same Bluetooth LE device
address, as well as a 6LN with the same Bluetooth LE address as the address, as well as a 6LN with the same Bluetooth LE address as the
6LBR. The 6LBR MUST ignore 6LNs with the same device address the 6LBR. The 6LBR MUST ignore 6LNs with the same device address the
6LBR has, and the 6LBR MUST have at most one connection for a given 6LBR has, and the 6LBR MUST have at most one connection for a given
Bluetooth LE device address at any given moment. This will avoid Bluetooth LE device address at any given moment. This will avoid
addressing conflicts within a Bluetooth LE network. addressing conflicts within a Bluetooth LE network.
3.1. Protocol stack 3.1. Protocol Stack
Figure 3 illustrates how the IPv6 stack works in parallel to the GATT Figure 3 illustrates how the IPv6 stack works in parallel to the GATT
stack on top of Bluetooth LE L2CAP layer. The GATT stack is needed stack on top of the Bluetooth LE L2CAP layer. The GATT stack is
herein for discovering nodes supporting the Internet Protocol Support needed herein for discovering nodes supporting the Internet Protocol
Service. UDP and TCP are provided as examples of transport Support Service. UDP and TCP are provided as examples of transport
protocols, but the stack can be used by any other upper layer protocols, but the stack can be used by any other upper-layer
protocol capable of running atop of IPv6. protocol capable of running atop of IPv6.
+---------+ +----------------------------+ +---------+ +----------------------------+
| IPSS | | UDP/TCP/other | | IPSS | | UDP/TCP/other |
+---------+ +----------------------------+ +---------+ +----------------------------+
| GATT | | IPv6 | | GATT | | IPv6 |
+---------+ +----------------------------+ +---------+ +----------------------------+
| ATT | | 6LoWPAN for Bluetooth LE | | ATT | | 6LoWPAN for Bluetooth LE |
+---------+--+----------------------------+ +---------+--+----------------------------+
| Bluetooth LE L2CAP | | Bluetooth LE L2CAP |
- - +-----------------------------------------+- - - HCI - - +-----------------------------------------+- - - HCI
| Bluetooth LE Link Layer | | Bluetooth LE Link Layer |
+-----------------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------+
| Bluetooth LE Physical | | Bluetooth LE Physical |
+-----------------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------+
Figure 3: IPv6 and IPSS on the Bluetooth LE Stack Figure 3: IPv6 and IPSS on the Bluetooth LE Stack
3.2. Link model 3.2. Link Model
The distinct concepts of the IPv6 link (layer 3) and the physical The distinct concepts of the IPv6 link (layer 3) and the physical
link (combination of PHY and MAC) need to be clear and their link (combination of PHY and Media Access Control (MAC)) need to be
relationship has to be well understood in order to specify the clear, and their relationship has to be well understood in order to
addressing scheme for transmitting IPv6 packets over the Bluetooth LE specify the addressing scheme for transmitting IPv6 packets over the
link. RFC 4861 [RFC4861] defines a link as "a communication facility Bluetooth LE link. RFC 4861 [RFC4861] defines a link as "a
or medium over which nodes can communicate at the link layer, i.e., communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at
the layer immediately below IPv6." the link layer, i.e., the layer immediately below IP".
In the case of Bluetooth LE, the 6LoWPAN layer is adapted to support In the case of Bluetooth LE, the 6LoWPAN layer is adapted to support
transmission of IPv6 packets over Bluetooth LE. The IPSP defines all transmission of IPv6 packets over Bluetooth LE. The IPSP defines all
steps required for setting up the Bluetooth LE connection over which steps required for setting up the Bluetooth LE connection over which
6LoWPAN can function [IPSP], including handling the link layer 6LoWPAN can function [IPSP], including handling the link-layer
fragmentation required on Bluetooth LE, as described in Section 2.4. fragmentation required on Bluetooth LE, as described in Section 2.4.
Even though MTUs larger than 1280 octets can be supported, use of a Even though MTUs larger than 1280 octets can be supported, use of a
1280 octet MTU is RECOMMENDED in order to avoid need for Path MTU 1280-octet MTU is RECOMMENDED in order to avoid need for Path MTU
discovery procedures. discovery procedures.
While Bluetooth LE protocols, such as L2CAP, utilize little-endian While Bluetooth LE protocols, such as L2CAP, utilize little-endian
byte orderering, IPv6 packets MUST be transmitted in big endian order byte ordering, IPv6 packets MUST be transmitted in big-endian order
(network byte order). (network byte order).
Per this specification, the IPv6 header compression format specified Per this specification, the IPv6 header compression format specified
in RFC 6282 MUST be used [RFC6282]. The IPv6 payload length can be in RFC 6282 [RFC6282] MUST be used. The IPv6 payload length can be
derived from the L2CAP header length and the possibly elided IPv6 derived from the L2CAP header length and the possibly elided IPv6
address can be reconstructed from the link layer address, used at the address can be reconstructed from the link-layer address, used at the
time of Bluetooth LE connection establishment, from the HCI time of Bluetooth LE connection establishment, from the HCI
Connection Handle during connection, compression context if any, and Connection Handle during connection, compression context if any, and
from address registration information (see Section 3.2.3). address registration information (see Section 3.2.3).
Bluetooth LE connections used to build a star topology are point-to- Bluetooth LE connections used to build a star topology are point-to-
point in nature, as Bluetooth broadcast features are not used for point in nature, as Bluetooth broadcast features are not used for
IPv6 over Bluetooth LE (except for discovery of nodes supporting IPv6 over Bluetooth LE (except for discovery of nodes supporting
IPSS). After the peripheral and central have connected at the IPSS). After the peripheral and central have connected at the
Bluetooth LE level, the link can be considered up and IPv6 address Bluetooth LE level, the link can be considered up, and IPv6 address
configuration and transmission can begin. configuration and transmission can begin.
3.2.1. IPv6 subnet model and Internet connectivity 3.2.1. IPv6 Subnet Model and Internet Connectivity
In the Bluetooth LE piconet model (see Section 2.2) peripherals each In the Bluetooth LE piconet model (see Section 2.2), peripherals each
have a separate link to the central and the central acts as an IPv6 have a separate link to the central and the central acts as an IPv6
router rather than a link layer switch. As discussed in [RFC4903], router rather than a link-layer switch. As discussed in [RFC4903],
conventional usage of IPv6 anticipates IPv6 subnets spanning a single conventional usage of IPv6 anticipates IPv6 subnets spanning a single
link at the link layer. As IPv6 over Bluetooth LE is intended for link at the link layer. As IPv6 over Bluetooth LE is intended for
constrained nodes, and for Internet of Things use cases and constrained nodes, and for Internet of Things use cases and
environments, the complexity of implementing a separate subnet on environments, the complexity of implementing a separate subnet on
each peripheral-central link and routing between the subnets appears each peripheral-central link and routing between the subnets appears
to be excessive. In the Bluetooth LE case, the benefits of treating to be excessive. In the Bluetooth LE case, the benefits of treating
the collection of point-to-point links between a central and its the collection of point-to-point links between a central and its
connected peripherals as a single multilink subnet rather than a connected peripherals as a single multilink subnet rather than a
multiplicity of separate subnets are considered to outweigh the multiplicity of separate subnets are considered to outweigh the
multilink model's drawbacks as described in [RFC4903]. multilink model's drawbacks as described in [RFC4903].
Hence a multilink model has been chosen, as further illustrated in Hence, a multilink model has been chosen, as further illustrated in
Figure 4. Because of this, link-local multicast communications can Figure 4. Because of this, link-local multicast communications can
happen only within a single Bluetooth LE connection, and thus 6LN-to- happen only within a single Bluetooth LE connection; thus, 6LN-to-6LN
6LN communications using link-local addresses are not possible. 6LNs communications using link-local addresses are not possible. 6LNs
connected to the same 6LBR have to communicate with each other by connected to the same 6LBR have to communicate with each other by
using the shared prefix used on the subnet. The 6LBR ensures address using the shared prefix used on the subnet. The 6LBR ensures address
collisions do not occur (see Section 3.2.3) and forwards packets sent collisions do not occur (see Section 3.2.3) and forwards packets sent
by one 6LN to another. by one 6LN to another.
In a typical scenario, the Bluetooth LE network is connected to the In a typical scenario, the Bluetooth LE network is connected to the
Internet as shown in the Figure 4. In this scenario, the Bluetooth Internet as shown in the Figure 4. In this scenario, the Bluetooth
LE star is deployed as one subnet, using one /64 IPv6 prefix, with LE star is deployed as one subnet, using one /64 IPv6 prefix, with
each spoke representing individual link. The 6LBR is acting as each spoke representing an individual link. The 6LBR is acting as
router and forwarding packets between 6LNs and to and from Internet. router and forwarding packets between 6LNs and to and from Internet.
/ /
.---------------. / .---------------. /
/ 6LN \ / / 6LN \ /
/ \ \ / / \ \ /
| \ | / | \ | /
| 6LN ----------- 6LBR ----- | Internet | 6LN ----------- 6LBR ----- | Internet
| <--Link--> / | \ | <--Link--> / | \
\ / / \ \ / / \
\ 6LN / \ \ 6LN / \
'---------------' \ '---------------' \
\ \
<------ Subnet -----><-- IPv6 connection --> <------ Subnet -----><-- IPv6 connection -->
to Internet to Internet
Figure 4: Bluetooth LE network connected to the Internet Figure 4: Bluetooth LE Network Connected to the Internet
In some scenarios, the Bluetooth LE network may transiently or In some scenarios, the Bluetooth LE network may transiently or
permanently be an isolated network as shown in the Figure 5. In this permanently be an isolated network as shown in the Figure 5. In this
case the whole star consist of a single subnet with multiple links, case, the whole star consists of a single subnet with multiple links,
where 6LBR is at central routing packets between 6LNs. In simplest where 6LBR is at central, routing packets between 6LNs. In the
case the isolated network has one 6LBR and one 6LN. simplest case, the isolated network has one 6LBR and one 6LN.
.-------------------. .-------------------.
/ \ / \
/ 6LN 6LN \ / 6LN 6LN \
/ \ / \ / \ / \
| \ / | | \ / |
| 6LN --- 6LBR --- 6LN | | 6LN --- 6LBR --- 6LN |
| / \ | | / \ |
\ / \ / \ / \ /
\ 6LN 6LN / \ 6LN 6LN /
\ / \ /
'-------------------' '-------------------'
<--------- Subnet ----------> <--------- Subnet ---------->
Figure 5: Isolated Bluetooth LE network Figure 5: Isolated Bluetooth LE Network
3.2.2. Stateless address autoconfiguration 3.2.2. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
At network interface initialization, both 6LN and 6LBR SHALL generate At network interface initialization, both 6LN and 6LBR SHALL generate
and assign to the Bluetooth LE network interface IPv6 link-local and assign to the Bluetooth LE network interface IPv6 link-local
addresses [RFC4862] based on the 48-bit Bluetooth device addresses addresses [RFC4862] based on the 48-bit Bluetooth device addresses
(see Section 2.3) that were used for establishing the underlying (see Section 2.3) that were used for establishing the underlying
Bluetooth LE connection. A 6LN and a 6LBR are RECOMMENDED to use Bluetooth LE connection. A 6LN and a 6LBR are RECOMMENDED to use
private Bluetooth device addresses. A 6LN SHOULD pick a different private Bluetooth device addresses. A 6LN SHOULD pick a different
Bluetooth device address for every Bluetooth LE connection with a Bluetooth device address for every Bluetooth LE connection with a
6LBR, and a 6LBR SHOULD periodically change its random Bluetooth 6LBR, and a 6LBR SHOULD periodically change its random Bluetooth
device address. Following the guidance of [RFC7136], a 64-bit device address. Following the guidance of [RFC7136], a 64-bit
Interface Identifier (IID) is formed from the 48-bit Bluetooth device Interface Identifier (IID) is formed from the 48-bit Bluetooth device
address by inserting two octets, with hexadecimal values of 0xFF and address by inserting two octets, with hexadecimal values of 0xFF and
0xFE in the middle of the 48-bit Bluetooth device address as shown in 0xFE in the middle of the 48-bit Bluetooth device address as shown in
Figure 6. In the Figure letter 'b' represents a bit from the Figure 6. In the figure, letter 'b' represents a bit from the
Bluetooth device address, copied as is without any changes on any Bluetooth device address, copied as is without any changes on any
bit. This means that no bit in the IID indicates whether the bit. This means that no bit in the IID indicates whether the
underlying Bluetooth device address is public or random. underlying Bluetooth device address is public or random.
|0 1|1 3|3 4|4 6| |0 1|1 3|3 4|4 6|
|0 5|6 1|2 7|8 3| |0 5|6 1|2 7|8 3|
+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
|bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb|bbbbbbbb11111111|11111110bbbbbbbb|bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb| |bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb|bbbbbbbb11111111|11111110bbbbbbbb|bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb|
+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
Figure 6: Formation of IID from Bluetooth device adddress Figure 6: Formation of IID from Bluetooth Device Address
The IID is then prepended with the prefix fe80::/64, as described in The IID is then prepended with the prefix fe80::/64, as described in
RFC 4291 [RFC4291] and as depicted in Figure 7. The same link-local RFC 4291 [RFC4291] and as depicted in Figure 7. The same link-local
address SHALL be used for the lifetime of the Bluetooth LE L2CAP address SHALL be used for the lifetime of the Bluetooth LE L2CAP
channel. (After a Bluetooth LE logical link has been established, it channel. (After a Bluetooth LE logical link has been established, it
is referenced with a Connection Handle in HCI. Thus possibly is referenced with a Connection Handle in HCI. Thus, possibly
changing device addresses do not impact data flows within existing changing device addresses do not impact data flows within existing
L2CAP channels. Hence there is no need to change IPv6 link-local L2CAP channels. Hence, there is no need to change IPv6 link-local
addresses even if devices change their random device addresses during addresses even if devices change their random device addresses during
L2CAP channel lifetime). L2CAP channel lifetime).
10 bits 54 bits 64 bits 10 bits 54 bits 64 bits
+----------+-----------------+----------------------+ +----------+-----------------+----------------------+
|1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier | |1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier |
+----------+-----------------+----------------------+ +----------+-----------------+----------------------+
Figure 7: IPv6 link-local address in Bluetooth LE Figure 7: IPv6 Link-Local Address in Bluetooth LE
A 6LN MUST join the all-nodes multicast address. There is no need A 6LN MUST join the all-nodes multicast address. There is no need
for 6LN to join the solicited-node multicast address, since 6LBR will for 6LN to join the solicited-node multicast address, since 6LBR will
know device addresses and hence link-local addresses of all connected know device addresses and hence link-local addresses of all connected
6LNs. The 6LBR will ensure no two devices with the same Bluetooth LE 6LNs. The 6LBR will ensure no two devices with the same Bluetooth LE
device address are connected at the same time. Detection of device address are connected at the same time. Detection of
duplicate link-local addresses is performed by the process on the duplicate link-local addresses is performed by the process on the
6LBR responsible for the discovery of IP-enabled Bluetooth LE nodes 6LBR responsible for the discovery of IP-enabled Bluetooth LE nodes
and for starting Bluetooth LE connection establishment procedures. and for starting Bluetooth LE connection establishment procedures.
This approach increases the complexity of 6LBR, but reduces power This approach increases the complexity of 6LBR, but reduces power
consumption on both 6LN and 6LBR in the link establishment phase by consumption on both 6LN and 6LBR in the link establishment phase by
reducing the number of mandatory packet transmissions. reducing the number of mandatory packet transmissions.
After link-local address configuration, the 6LN sends Router After link-local address configuration, the 6LN sends Router
Solicitation messages as described in [RFC4861] Section 6.3.7. Solicitation messages as described in [RFC4861], Section 6.3.7.
For non-link-local addresses, 6LNs SHOULD NOT be configured to embed For non-link-local addresses, 6LNs SHOULD NOT be configured to embed
the Bluetooth device address in the IID by default. Alternative the Bluetooth device address in the IID by default. Alternative
schemes such as Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA) schemes such as Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGAs)
[RFC3972], privacy extensions [RFC4941], Hash-Based Addresses (HBA, [RFC3972], privacy extensions [RFC4941], Hash-Based Addresses (HBAs)
[RFC5535]), DHCPv6 [RFC3315], or static, semantically opaque addreses [RFC5535], DHCPv6 [RFC3315], or static, semantically opaque addresses
[RFC7217] SHOULD be used by default. In situations where the [RFC7217] SHOULD be used by default. In situations where the
Bluetooth device address is known to be a private device address and/ Bluetooth device address is known to be a private device address and/
or the header compression benefits of embedding the device address in or the header compression benefits of embedding the device address in
the IID are required to support deployment constraints, 6LNs MAY form the IID are required to support deployment constraints, 6LNs MAY form
a 64-bit IID by utilizing the 48-bit Bluetooth device address. The a 64-bit IID by utilizing the 48-bit Bluetooth device address. The
non-link-local addresses that a 6LN generates MUST be registered with non-link-local addresses that a 6LN generates MUST be registered with
the 6LBR as described in Section 3.2.3. the 6LBR as described in Section 3.2.3.
The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the
Bluetooth LE network is out of scope of this document, but can be, Bluetooth LE network is out of scope of this document, but can be,
for example, accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation [RFC3633] or for example, accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation [RFC3633] or
by using Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses (ULA) [RFC4193]. Due to by using Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses (ULAs) [RFC4193]. Due
the link model of the Bluetooth LE (see Section 3.2.1) the 6LBR MUST to the link model of the Bluetooth LE (see Section 3.2.1) the 6LBR
set the "on-link" flag (L) to zero in the Prefix Information Option MUST set the "on-link" flag (L) to zero in the Prefix Information
in Neighbor Discovery messages[RFC4861] (see Section 3.2.3). This Option in Neighbor Discovery messages [RFC4861] (see Section 3.2.3).
will cause 6LNs to always send packets to the 6LBR, including the This will cause 6LNs to always send packets to the 6LBR, including
case when the destination is another 6LN using the same prefix. the case when the destination is another 6LN using the same prefix.
3.2.3. Neighbor discovery 3.2.3. Neighbor Discovery
'Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless 'Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)' [RFC6775] describes the neighbor Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)' [RFC6775] describes the neighbor
discovery approach as adapted for use in several 6LoWPAN topologies, discovery approach as adapted for use in several 6LoWPAN topologies,
including the mesh topology. Bluetooth LE does not support mesh including the mesh topology. Bluetooth LE does not support mesh
networks and hence only those aspects that apply to a star topology networks; hence, only those aspects that apply to a star topology are
are considered. considered.
The following aspects of the Neighbor Discovery optimizations The following aspects of the Neighbor Discovery optimizations
[RFC6775] are applicable to Bluetooth LE 6LNs: [RFC6775] are applicable to Bluetooth LE 6LNs:
1. A Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST NOT register its link-local address. A 1. A Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST NOT register its link-local address. A
Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST register its non-link-local addresses with the Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST register its non-link-local addresses with
6LBR by sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address the 6LBR by sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the
Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement (NA) Address Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor
accordingly. The NS with the ARO option MUST be sent irrespective of Advertisement (NA) accordingly. The NS with the ARO option MUST
the method used to generate the IID. If the 6LN registers for a same be sent irrespective of the method used to generate the IID. If
compression context multiple addresses that are not based on the 6LN registers multiple addresses that are not based on
Bluetooth device address, the header compression efficiency will Bluetooth device address for the same compression context, the
decrease (see Section 3.2.4). header compression efficiency will decrease (see Section 3.2.4).
2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router 2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
Advertisements the Bluetooth LE 6LNs MUST, respectively, follow Advertisements, the Bluetooth LE 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3
Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of the [RFC6775]. and 5.4 of [RFC6775], respectively.
3.2.4. Header compression 3.2.4. Header Compression
Header compression as defined in RFC 6282 [RFC6282], which specifies Header compression as defined in RFC 6282 [RFC6282], which specifies
the compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is the compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
REQUIRED as the basis for IPv6 header compression on top of Bluetooth REQUIRED as the basis for IPv6 header compression on top of Bluetooth
LE. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282 [RFC6282] LE. All headers MUST be compressed according to the encoding formats
encoding formats. described in RFC 6282 [RFC6282].
The Bluetooth LE's star topology structure and ARO can be exploited The Bluetooth LE's star topology structure and ARO can be exploited
in order to provide a mechanism for address compression. The in order to provide a mechanism for address compression. The
following text describes the principles of IPv6 address compression following text describes the principles of IPv6 address compression
on top of Bluetooth LE. on top of Bluetooth LE.
The ARO option requires use of an EUI-64 identifier [RFC6775]. In The ARO option requires use of a 64-bit Extended Unique Identifier
the case of Bluetooth LE, the field SHALL be filled with the 48-bit (EUI-64) [RFC6775]. In the case of Bluetooth LE, the field SHALL be
device address used by the Bluetooth LE node converted into 64-bit filled with the 48-bit device address used by the Bluetooth LE node
Modified EUI-64 format [RFC4291]. converted into 64-bit Modified EUI-64 format [RFC4291].
To enable efficient header compression, when the 6LBR sends a Router To enable efficient header compression, when the 6LBR sends a Router
Advertisement it MUST include a 6LoWPAN Context Option (6CO) Advertisement, it MUST include a 6LoWPAN Context Option (6CO)
[RFC6775] matching each address prefix advertised via a Prefix [RFC6775] matching each address prefix advertised via a Prefix
Information Option (PIO) [RFC4861] for use in stateless address Information Option (PIO) [RFC4861] for use in stateless address
autoconfiguration. autoconfiguration.
When a 6LN is sending a packet to a 6LBR, it MUST fully elide the When a 6LN is sending a packet to a 6LBR, it MUST fully elide the
source address if it is a link-local address. For other packets to source address if it is a link-local address. For other packets to
or through a 6LBR with a non-link-local source address that the 6LN or through a 6LBR with a non-link-local source address that the 6LN
has registered with ARO to the 6LBR for the indicated prefix, the has registered with ARO to the 6LBR for the indicated prefix, the
source address MUST be fully elided if it is the latest address that source address MUST be fully elided if it is the latest address that
the 6LN has registered for the indicated prefix. If a source non- the 6LN has registered for the indicated prefix. If a source non-
link-local address is not the latest registered, then the 64-bits of link-local address is not the latest registered, then the 64 bits of
the IID SHALL be fully carried in-line (SAM=01) or if the first the IID SHALL be fully carried in-line (SAM=01), or if the first 48
48-bits of the IID match with the latest registered address, then the bits of the IID match with the latest registered address, then the
last 16-bits of the IID SHALL be carried in-line (SAM=10). That is, last 16 bits of the IID SHALL be carried in-line (SAM=10). That is,
if SAC=0 and SAM=11 the 6LN MUST be using the link-local IPv6 address if SAC=0 and SAM=11, the 6LN MUST be using the link-local IPv6
derived from Bluetooth LE device address, and if SAC=1 and SAM=11 the address derived from the Bluetooth LE device address, and if SAC=1
6LN MUST have registered the source IPv6 address with the prefix and SAM=11, the 6LN MUST have registered the source IPv6 address with
related to the compression context and the 6LN MUST be referring to the prefix related to the compression context, and the 6LN MUST be
the latest registered address related to the compression context. referring to the latest registered address related to the compression
The IPv6 address MUST be considered to be registered only after the context. The IPv6 address MUST be considered to be registered only
6LBR has sent a Neighbor Advertisement with an ARO having its status after the 6LBR has sent a Neighbor Advertisement with an ARO having
field set to success. The destination IPv6 address MUST be fully its status field set to success. The destination IPv6 address MUST
elided if the destination address is 6LBR's link-local-address based be fully elided if the destination address is the 6LBR's link-local
on the 6LBR's Bluetooth device address (DAC=0, DAM=11). The address based on the 6LBR's Bluetooth device address (DAC=0, DAM=11).
destination IPv6 address MUST be fully or partially elided if context
has been set up for the destination address. For example, DAC=0 and The destination IPv6 address MUST be fully or partially elided if
DAM=01 when destination prefix is link-local, and DAC=1 and DAM=01 if context has been set up for the destination address, for example,
compression context has been configured for the destination prefix DAC=0 and DAM=01 when destination prefix is link-local, and DAC=1 and
used. DAM=01 if compression context has been configured for the destination
prefix used.
When a 6LBR is transmitting packets to a 6LN, it MUST fully elide the When a 6LBR is transmitting packets to a 6LN, it MUST fully elide the
source IID if the source IPv6 address is the link-local address based source IID if the source IPv6 address is the link-local address based
on the 6LBR's Bluetooth device address (SAC=0, SAM=11), and it MUST on the 6LBR's Bluetooth device address (SAC=0, SAM=11), and it MUST
elide the source prefix or address if a compression context related elide the source prefix or address if a compression context related
to the IPv6 source address has been set up. The 6LBR also MUST fully to the IPv6 source address has been set up. The 6LBR also MUST fully
elide the destination IPv6 address if it is the link-local-address elide the destination IPv6 address if it is the link-local address
based on the 6LN's Bluetooth device address (DAC=0, DAM=11), or if based on the 6LN's Bluetooth device address (DAC=0, DAM=11), or if
the destination address is the latest registered by the 6LN with ARO the destination address is the latest registered by the 6LN with ARO
for the indicated context (DAC=1, DAM=11). If the destination for the indicated context (DAC=1, DAM=11). If the destination
address is a non-link-local address and not the latest registered, address is a non-link-local address and not the latest registered,
then the 6LN MUST either include the IID part fully in-line (DAM=01) then the 6LN MUST either include the IID part fully in-line (DAM=01)
or, if the first 48-bits of the IID match to the latest registered or, if the first 48 bits of the IID match to the latest registered
address, then elide those 48-bits (DAM=10). address, then elide those 48 bits (DAM=10).
3.2.4.1. Remote destination example 3.2.4.1. Remote Destination Example
When a 6LN transmits an IPv6 packet to a remote destination using When a 6LN transmits an IPv6 packet to a remote destination using
global Unicast IPv6 addresses, if a context is defined for the 6LN's global Unicast IPv6 addresses, if a context is defined for the 6LN's
global IPv6 address, the 6LN has to indicate this context in the global IPv6 address, the 6LN has to indicate this context in the
corresponding source fields of the compressed IPv6 header as per corresponding source fields of the compressed IPv6 header as per
Section 3.1 of RFC 6282 [RFC6282], and has to elide the full IPv6 Section 3.1 of RFC 6282 [RFC6282] and has to elide the full IPv6
source address previously registered with ARO (if using the latest source address previously registered with ARO (if using the latest
registered address, otherwise part or all of the IID may have to be registered address; otherwise, part or all of the IID may have to be
transmitted in-line). For this, the 6LN MUST use the following transmitted in-line). For this, the 6LN MUST use the following
settings in the IPv6 compressed header: SAC=1 and SAM=11. The CID settings in the IPv6 compressed header: SAC=1 and SAM=11. The CID
may be set 0 or 1, depending on which context is used. In this case, may be set 0 or 1, depending on which context is used. In this case,
the 6LBR can infer the elided IPv6 source address since 1) the 6LBR the 6LBR can infer the elided IPv6 source address since 1) the 6LBR
has previously assigned the prefix to the 6LNs; and 2) the 6LBR has previously assigned the prefix to the 6LNs; and 2) the 6LBR
maintains a Neighbor Cache that relates the Device Address and the maintains a Neighbor Cache that relates the device address and the
IID the device has registered with ARO. If a context is defined for IID the device has registered with ARO. If a context is defined for
the IPv6 destination address, the 6LN has to also indicate this the IPv6 destination address, the 6LN has to also indicate this
context in the corresponding destination fields of the compressed context in the corresponding destination fields of the compressed
IPv6 header, and elide the prefix of or the full destination IPv6 IPv6 header, and elide the prefix of or the full destination IPv6
address. For this, the 6LN MUST set the DAM field of the compressed address. For this, the 6LN MUST set the DAM field of the compressed
IPv6 header as DAM=01 (if the context covers a 64-bit prefix) or as IPv6 header as DAM=01 (if the context covers a 64-bit prefix) or as
DAM=11 (if the context covers a full, 128-bit address). DAC MUST be DAM=11 (if the context covers a full 128-bit address). DAC MUST be
set to 1. Note that when a context is defined for the IPv6 set to 1. Note that when a context is defined for the IPv6
destination address, the 6LBR can infer the elided destination prefix destination address, the 6LBR can infer the elided destination prefix
by using the context. by using the context.
When a 6LBR receives an IPv6 packet sent by a remote node outside the When a 6LBR receives an IPv6 packet sent by a remote node outside the
Bluetooth LE network, and the destination of the packet is a 6LN, if Bluetooth LE network, and the destination of the packet is a 6LN, if
a context is defined for the prefix of the 6LN's global IPv6 address, a context is defined for the prefix of the 6LN's global IPv6 address,
the 6LBR has to indicate this context in the corresponding the 6LBR has to indicate this context in the corresponding
destination fields of the compressed IPv6 header. The 6LBR has to destination fields of the compressed IPv6 header. The 6LBR has to
elide the IPv6 destination address of the packet before forwarding elide the IPv6 destination address of the packet before forwarding
it, if the IPv6 destination address is inferable by the 6LN. For it, if the IPv6 destination address is inferable by the 6LN. For
this, the 6LBR will set the DAM field of the IPv6 compressed header this, the 6LBR will set the DAM field of the IPv6 compressed header
as DAM=11 (if the address is the latest 6LN has registered). DAC as DAM=11 (if the address is the latest 6LN has registered). DAC
needs to be set to 1. If a context is defined for the IPv6 source needs to be set to 1. If a context is defined for the IPv6 source
address, the 6LBR needs to indicate this context in the source fields address, the 6LBR needs to indicate this context in the source fields
of the compressed IPv6 header, and elide that prefix as well. For of the compressed IPv6 header and elide that prefix as well. For
this, the 6LBR needs to set the SAM field of the IPv6 compressed this, the 6LBR needs to set the SAM field of the IPv6 compressed
header as SAM=01 (if the context covers a 64-bit prefix) or SAM=11 header as SAM=01 (if the context covers a 64-bit prefix) or SAM=11
(if the context covers a full, 128-bit address). SAC is to be set to (if the context covers a full 128-bit address). SAC is to be set to
1. 1.
3.2.4.2. Example of registration of multiple-addresses 3.2.4.2. Example of Registration of Multiple Addresses
As described above, a 6LN can register multiple non-link-local As described above, a 6LN can register multiple non-link-local
addresses that map to a same compression context. From the multiple addresses that map to the same compression context. From the
address registered, only the latest address can be fully elided multiple address registered, only the latest address can be fully
(SAM=11, DAM=11), and the IIDs of previously registered addresses elided (SAM=11, DAM=11), and the IIDs of previously registered
have to be transmitted fully in-line (SAM=01, DAM=01) or in the best addresses have to be transmitted fully in-line (SAM=01, DAM=01) or,
case can be partially elided (SAM=10, DAM=10). This is illustred in in the best case, can be partially elided (SAM=10, DAM=10). This is
an example below. illustrated in the example below:
1) A 6LN registers first address 2001:db8::1111:2222:3333:4444 to a 1. The 6LN registers first address 2001:db8::1111:2222:3333:4444 to
6LBR. At this point the address can be fully elided using SAC=1/ a 6LBR. At this point the address can be fully elided using
SAM=11 or DAC=1/DAM=11. SAC=1/SAM=11 or DAC=1/DAM=11.
2) The 6LN registers second address 2001:db8::1111:2222:3333:5555 to 2. The 6LN registers second address 2001:db8::1111:2222:3333:5555 to
the 6LBR. As the second address is now the latest registered, it can the 6LBR. As the second address is now the latest registered, it
be fully elided using SAC=1/SAM=11 or DAC=1/DAM=11. The first can be fully elided using SAC=1/SAM=11 or DAC=1/DAM=11. The
address can now be partially elided using SAC=1/SAM=10 or DAC=1/ first address can now be partially elided using SAC=1/SAM=10 or
DAM=10, as the first 112 bits of the address are the same between the DAC=1/DAM=10, as the first 112 bits of the address are the same
first and the second registered addresses. between the first and the second registered addresses.
3) Expiration of registration time for the first or the second 3. Expiration of registration time for the first or the second
address has no impact on the compression. Hence even if the most address has no impact on the compression. Hence, even if the
recently registered address expires, the first address can only be most recently registered address expires, the first address can
partially elided (SAC=1/SAM=10, DAC=1/DAM=10). The 6LN can register only be partially elided (SAC=1/SAM=10, DAC=1/DAM=10). The 6LN
a new address, or re-register an expired address, to become able to can register a new address, or re-register an expired address, to
again fully elide an address. become able to again fully elide an address.
3.2.5. Unicast and Multicast address mapping 3.2.5. Unicast and Multicast Address Mapping
The Bluetooth LE link layer does not support multicast. Hence The Bluetooth LE Link Layer does not support multicast. Hence,
traffic is always unicast between two Bluetooth LE nodes. Even in traffic is always unicast between two Bluetooth LE nodes. Even in
the case where a 6LBR is attached to multiple 6LNs, the 6LBR cannot the case where a 6LBR is attached to multiple 6LNs, the 6LBR cannot
do a multicast to all the connected 6LNs. If the 6LBR needs to send do a multicast to all the connected 6LNs. If the 6LBR needs to send
a multicast packet to all its 6LNs, it has to replicate the packet a multicast packet to all its 6LNs, it has to replicate the packet
and unicast it on each link. However, this may not be energy- and unicast it on each link. However, this may not be energy
efficient and particular care must be taken if the central is efficient, and particular care must be taken if the central is
battery-powered. To further conserve power, the 6LBR MUST keep track battery powered. To further conserve power, the 6LBR MUST keep track
of multicast listeners at Bluetooth LE link level granularity (not at of multicast listeners at Bluetooth LE link-level granularity (not at
subnet granularity) and it MUST NOT forward multicast packets to 6LNs subnet granularity), and it MUST NOT forward multicast packets to
that have not registered as listeners for multicast groups the 6LNs that have not registered as listeners for multicast groups the
packets belong to. In the opposite direction, a 6LN always has to packets belong to. In the opposite direction, a 6LN always has to
send packets to or through 6LBR. Hence, when a 6LN needs to transmit send packets to or through the 6LBR. Hence, when a 6LN needs to
an IPv6 multicast packet, the 6LN will unicast the corresponding transmit an IPv6 multicast packet, the 6LN will unicast the
Bluetooth LE packet to the 6LBR. corresponding Bluetooth LE packet to the 6LBR.
4. IANA Considerations
There are no IANA considerations related to this document.
5. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
The transmission of IPv6 over Bluetooth LE links has similar The transmission of IPv6 over Bluetooth LE links and IPv6 over IEEE
requirements and concerns for security as for IEEE 802.15.4. 802.15.4 have similar requirements and concerns for security.
Bluetooth LE Link Layer security considerations are covered by the Security considerations for the Bluetooth LE Link Layer are covered
IPSP [IPSP]. by the IPSP [IPSP].
Bluetooth LE Link Layer supports encryption and authentication by Bluetooth LE Link Layer supports encryption and authentication by
using the Counter with CBC-MAC (CCM) mechanism [RFC3610] and a using the Counter with CBC-MAC (CCM) mechanism [RFC3610] and a
128-bit AES block cipher. Upper layer security mechanisms may 128-bit AES block cipher. Upper-layer security mechanisms may
exploit this functionality when it is available. (Note: CCM does not exploit this functionality when it is available. (Note: CCM does not
consume octets from the maximum per-packet L2CAP data size, since the consume octets from the maximum per-packet L2CAP data size, since the
link layer data unit has a specific field for them when they are link-layer data unit has a specific field for them when they are
used.) used.)
Key management in Bluetooth LE is provided by the Security Manager Key management in Bluetooth LE is provided by the Security Manager
Protocol (SMP), as defined in [BTCorev4.1]. Protocol (SMP), as defined in [BTCorev4.1].
The Direct Test Mode offers two setup alternatives: with and without The Direct Test Mode offers two setup alternatives: with and without
accessible HCI. In designs with accessible HCI, the so called upper accessible HCI. In designs with accessible HCI, the so-called upper
tester communicates through the HCI (which may be supported by tester communicates through the HCI (which may be supported by
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART), Universal Serial Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART), Universal Serial
Bus (USB) and Secure Digital transports), with the Physical and Link Bus (USB), and Secure Digital transports), with the Physical and Link
Layers of the Bluetooth LE device under test. In designs without Layers of the Bluetooth LE device under test. In designs without
accessible HCI, the upper tester communicates with the device under accessible HCI, the upper tester communicates with the device under
test through a two-wire UART interface. The Bluetooth specification test through a two-wire UART interface. The Bluetooth specification
does not provide security mechanisms for the communication between [BTCorev4.1] does not provide security mechanisms for the
the upper tester and the device under test in either case. communication between the upper tester and the device under test in
Nevertheless, an attacker needs to physically connect a device (via either case. Nevertheless, an attacker needs to physically connect a
one of the wired HCI types) to the device under test to be able to device (via one of the wired HCI types) to the device under test to
interact with the latter. be able to interact with the latter.
The IPv6 link-local address configuration described in Section 3.2.2 The IPv6 link-local address configuration described in Section 3.2.2
only reveals information about the 6LN to the 6LBR that the 6LBR only reveals information about the 6LN to the 6LBR that the 6LBR
already knows from the link layer connection. This means that a already knows from the link-layer connection. This means that a
device using Bluetooth privacy features reveals the same information device using Bluetooth privacy features reveals the same information
in its IPv6 link-local addresses as in its device addresses. in its IPv6 link-local addresses as in its device addresses.
Respectively, device not using privacy at Bluetooth level will not Respectively, a device not using privacy at the Bluetooth level will
have privacy at IPv6 link-local address either. For non-link local not have privacy at the IPv6 link-local address either. For non-
addresses implementations have a choice to support, for example, link-local addresses, implementations are recommended not to embed
[I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids], [RFC3315], [RFC3972], [RFC4941], the Bluetooth device address in the IID by default and instead
[RFC5535], or [RFC7217]. support, for example, [RFC3315], [RFC3972], [RFC4941], [RFC5535], or
[RFC7217].
A malicious 6LN may attempt to perform a denial of service attack on A malicious 6LN may attempt to perform a denial-of-service attack on
the Bluetooth LE network, for example, by flooding packets. This the Bluetooth LE network, for example, by flooding packets. This
sort of attack is mitigated by the fact that link-local multicast is sort of attack is mitigated by the fact that link-local multicast is
not bridged between Bluetooth LE links and by 6LBR being able to rate not bridged between Bluetooth LE links and by 6LBR being able to
limit packets sent by each 6LN by making smart use of Bluetooth LE rate-limit packets sent by each 6LN by making smart use of the
L2CAP credit-based flow control mechanism. Bluetooth LE L2CAP credit-based flow-control mechanism.
6. Additional contributors
Kanji Kerai, Jari Mutikainen, David Canfeng-Chen and Minjun Xi from
Nokia have contributed significantly to this document.
7. Acknowledgements
The Bluetooth, Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready marks are
registred trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
Carsten Bormann, Samita Chakrabarti, Niclas Comstedt, Alissa Cooper,
Elwyn Davies, Brian Haberman, Marcel De Kogel, Jouni Korhonen, Chris
Lonvick, Erik Nordmark, Erik Rivard, Dave Thaler, Pascal Thubert,
Xavi Vilajosana and Victor Zhodzishsky have provided valuable
feedback for this draft.
Authors would like to give special acknowledgements for Krishna
Shingala, Frank Berntsen, and Bluetooth SIG's Internet Working Group
for providing significant feedback and improvement proposals for this
document.
8. References 5. References
8.1. Normative References 5.1. Normative References
[BTCorev4.1] [BTCorev4.1]
Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Core Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Core
Specification Version 4.1", December 2013, Specification Version 4.1", December 2013,
<https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted- <https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-
specifications>. specifications>.
[IPSP] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Internet [IPSP] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Internet
Protocol Support Profile Specification Version 1.0.0", Protocol Support Profile Specification Version 1.0.0",
December 2014, <https://www.bluetooth.org/en- December 2014, <https://www.bluetooth.org/en-
skipping to change at page 19, line 5 skipping to change at page 18, line 30
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012, RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[RFC7136] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6 [RFC7136] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6
Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136, Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136,
February 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>. February 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>.
8.2. Informative References 5.2. Informative References
[fifteendotfour]
IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Std. 802.15.4-2011 IEEE
Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks--Part
15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-
WPANs)", June 2011.
[I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids] [IEEE802] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area
Gont, F., Cooper, A., Thaler, D., and S. LIU, Networks: Overview and Architecture", IEEE 802,
"Recommendation on Stable IPv6 Interface Identifiers", DOI 10.1109/ieeestd.2002.93395,
draft-ietf-6man-default-iids-05 (work in progress), July <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/opac?punumber=7732>.
2015.
[IEEE802-2001] [IEEE802.15.4]
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
"IEEE 802-2001 Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area networks--Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
Networks: Overview and Architecture", 2002. Networks (LR-WPANs)", IEEE 802.15.4,
DOI 10.1109/ieeestd.2011.6012487,
<http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/
opac?punumber=6012485>.
[RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, [RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>. 2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>.
[RFC3610] Whiting, D., Housley, R., and N. Ferguson, "Counter with [RFC3610] Whiting, D., Housley, R., and N. Ferguson, "Counter with
CBC-MAC (CCM)", RFC 3610, DOI 10.17487/RFC3610, September CBC-MAC (CCM)", RFC 3610, DOI 10.17487/RFC3610, September
2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3610>. 2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3610>.
skipping to change at page 20, line 25 skipping to change at page 20, line 5
[RFC5535] Bagnulo, M., "Hash-Based Addresses (HBA)", RFC 5535, [RFC5535] Bagnulo, M., "Hash-Based Addresses (HBA)", RFC 5535,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5535, June 2009, DOI 10.17487/RFC5535, June 2009,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5535>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5535>.
[RFC7217] Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque [RFC7217] Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque
Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217, Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>.
Acknowledgements
The Bluetooth, Bluetooth Smart, and Bluetooth Smart Ready marks are
registered trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
Carsten Bormann, Samita Chakrabarti, Niclas Comstedt, Alissa Cooper,
Elwyn Davies, Brian Haberman, Marcel De Kogel, Jouni Korhonen, Chris
Lonvick, Erik Nordmark, Erik Rivard, Dave Thaler, Pascal Thubert,
Xavi Vilajosana, and Victor Zhodzishsky provided valuable feedback
for this document.
The authors would like to give special acknowledgements to Krishna
Shingala, Frank Berntsen, and Bluetooth SIG's Internet Working Group
for providing significant feedback and improvement proposals for this
document.
Carles Gomez has been supported in part by the Spanish Government
Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad through project
TEC2012-32531, and FEDER.
Johanna Nieminen worked on this RFC in 2011-2012 while at Nokia and
would like to thank Nokia for supporting the project.
Contributors
Kanji Kerai, Jari Mutikainen, David Canfeng-Chen, and Minjun Xi from
Nokia contributed significantly to this document.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Johanna Nieminen Johanna Nieminen
Nokia TeliaSonera
Email: johannamaria.nieminen@gmail.com Email: johannamaria.nieminen@gmail.com
Teemu Savolainen Teemu Savolainen
Nokia Nokia
Visiokatu 3 Visiokatu 3
Tampere 33720 Tampere 33720
Finland Finland
Email: teemu.savolainen@nokia.com Email: teemu.savolainen@nokia.com
skipping to change at page 20, line 39 skipping to change at page 21, line 4
Email: johannamaria.nieminen@gmail.com Email: johannamaria.nieminen@gmail.com
Teemu Savolainen Teemu Savolainen
Nokia Nokia
Visiokatu 3 Visiokatu 3
Tampere 33720 Tampere 33720
Finland Finland
Email: teemu.savolainen@nokia.com Email: teemu.savolainen@nokia.com
Markus Isomaki Markus Isomaki
Nokia Nokia
Otaniementie 19 Karaportti 2-4
Espoo 02150 Espoo 02610
Finland Finland
Email: markus.isomaki@nokia.com Email: markus.isomaki@nokia.com
Basavaraj Patil Basavaraj Patil
AT&T AT&T
1410 E. Renner Road 1410 East Renner Road
Richardson, TX 75082 Richardson, TX 75082
USA United States
Email: basavaraj.patil@att.com Email: basavaraj.patil@att.com
Zach Shelby Zach Shelby
Arm ARM
Hallituskatu 13-17D 150 Rose Orchard Way
Oulu 90100 San Jose, CA 95134
Finland United States
Email: zach.shelby@arm.com Email: zach.shelby@arm.com
Carles Gomez Carles Gomez
Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT
C/Esteve Terradas, 7 C/Esteve Terradas, 7
Castelldefels 08860 Castelldefels 08860
Spain Spain
Email: carlesgo@entel.upc.edu Email: carlesgo@entel.upc.edu
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