draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-00.txt   draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-01.txt 
6Lo Working Group Y-G. Hong 6Lo Working Group Y-G. Hong
Internet-Draft Y-H. Choi Internet-Draft Y-H. Choi
Intended status: Standards Track ETRI Intended status: Standards Track ETRI
Expires: September 3, 2015 J-S. Youn Expires: January 6, 2016 J-S. Youn
DONG-EUI Univ DONG-EUI Univ
D-K. Kim D-K. Kim
KNU KNU
J-H. Choi J-H. Choi
Samsung Electronics Co., Samsung Electronics Co.,
March 2, 2015 July 5, 2015
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication
draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-00 draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-01
Abstract Abstract
Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones
and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other
by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no
more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and
data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency
identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa. identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa.
The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 3, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 6, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 4 3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode for IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Protocol Stacks in IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. NFC Packet Size and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1. Protocol Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.4. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.5. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.5. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.6. Fragmentation and Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.6. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.7. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.7. Fragmentation and Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.8. Multicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.8. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.9. Multicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet . . . . . . 11 5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet . . . . . . 13
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically
requiring a distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on requiring a distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on
ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to
424 kbit/s. NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the 424 kbit/s. NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the
initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive
target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors
such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require
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10 cm with a maximum communication speed of 424 kbps. Users can 10 cm with a maximum communication speed of 424 kbps. Users can
share business cards, make transactions, access information from a share business cards, make transactions, access information from a
smart poster or provide credentials for access control systems with a smart poster or provide credentials for access control systems with a
simple touch. simple touch.
NFC's bidirectional communication ability is ideal for establishing NFC's bidirectional communication ability is ideal for establishing
connections with other technologies by the simplicity of touch. In connections with other technologies by the simplicity of touch. In
addition to the easy connection and quick transactions, simple data addition to the easy connection and quick transactions, simple data
sharing is also available. sharing is also available.
3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode for IPv6 over NFC 3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC
NFC-enabled devices are unique in that they can support three modes NFC-enabled devices are unique in that they can support three modes
of operation: card emulation, peer-to-peer, and reader/writer. Peer- of operation: card emulation, peer-to-peer, and reader/writer. Peer-
to-peer mode enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each to-peer mode enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each
other to exchange information and share files, so that users of NFC- other to exchange information and share files, so that users of NFC-
enabled devices can quickly share contact information and other files enabled devices can quickly share contact information and other files
with a touch. Therefore, a NFC-enabled device can securely send IPv6 with a touch. Therefore, a NFC-enabled device can securely send IPv6
packets to any corresponding node on the Internet when a NFC-enabled packets to any corresponding node on the Internet when a NFC-enabled
gateway is linked to the Internet. gateway is linked to the Internet.
3.2. Protocol Stacks in IPv6 over NFC 3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC
The IP protocol can use the services provided by Logical Link Control The IP protocol can use the services provided by Logical Link Control
Protocol (LLCP) in the NFC stack to provide reliable, two-way Protocol (LLCP) in the NFC stack to provide reliable, two-way
transport of information between the peer devices. Figure 1 depicts transport of information between the peer devices. Figure 1 depicts
the NFC P2P protocol stack with IPv6 bindings to the LLCP. the NFC P2P protocol stack with IPv6 bindings to the LLCP.
For data communication in IPv6 over NFC, an IPv6 packet SHALL be For data communication in IPv6 over NFC, an IPv6 packet SHALL be
received at LLCP of NFC and transported to an Information Field in received at LLCP of NFC and transported to an Information Field in
Protocol Data Unit (I PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. Protocol Data Unit (I PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device.
Since LLCP does not support fragmentation and reassembly, Upper Since LLCP does not support fragmentation and reassembly, upper
Layers SHOULD support fragmentation and reassembly. For IPv6 layers SHOULD support fragmentation and reassembly. For IPv6
addressing or address configuration, LLCP SHALL provide related addressing or address configuration, LLCP SHALL provide related
information, such as link layer addresses, to its upper layer. LLCP information, such as link layer addresses, to its upper layer. LLCP
to IPv6 protocol Binding SHALL transfer the SSAP and DSAP value to to IPv6 protocol Binding SHALL transfer the SSAP and DSAP value to
the IPv6 over NFC protocol. SSAP stands for Source Service Access the IPv6 over NFC protocol. SSAP stands for Source Service Access
Point, which is 6-bit value meaning a kind of Logical Link Control Point, which is 6-bit value meaning a kind of Logical Link Control
(LLC) address, while DSAP means a LLC address of destination NFC- (LLC) address, while DSAP means a LLC address of destination NFC-
enabled device. enabled device.
| | | |
| | Application Layer | | Application Layer
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| | | | | |
| Activities | | | Activities | |
| Digital Protocol | NFC | Digital Protocol | NFC
| | Physical | | Physical
+----------------------------------------+ Layer +----------------------------------------+ Layer
| | | | | |
| RF Analog | | | RF Analog | |
| | | | | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
Figure 1: Protocol Stack of NFC Figure 1: Protocol Stacks of NFC
The LLCP consists of Logical Link Control (LLC) and MAC Mapping. The
MAC Mapping integrates an existing RF protocol into the LLCP
architecture. The LLC contains three components, such as Link
Management, Connection-oriented Transport, and Connection-less
Transport. The Link Management component is responsible for
serializing all connection-oriented and connectionless LLC PDU
(Protocol Data Unit) exchanges and for aggregation and disaggregation
of small PDUs. This component also guarantees asynchronous balanced
mode communication and provides link status supervision by performing
the symmetry procedure. The Connection-oriented Transport component
is responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data exchanges
including connection set-up and termination. The Connectionless
Transport component is responsible for handling unacknowledged data
exchanges.
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing
NFC-enabled devices are identified by 6-bit LLC address. In other NFC-enabled devices are identified by 6-bit LLC address. In other
words, Any address SHALL be usable as both an SSAP and a DSAP words, Any address SHALL be usable as both an SSAP and a DSAP
address. According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.1 [3], address values address. According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.1 [3], address values
between 0 and 31 (00h - 1Fh) SHALL be reserved for well-known service between 0 and 31 (00h - 1Fh) SHALL be reserved for well-known service
access points for Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). Address values access points for Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). Address values
between 32 and 63 (20h - 3Fh) inclusively, SHALL be assigned by the between 32 and 63 (20h - 3Fh) inclusively, SHALL be assigned by the
local LLC as the result of an upper layer service request. local LLC as the result of an upper layer service request.
3.4. NFC Packet Size and MTU 3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU
As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet SHALL be received at LLCP As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet SHALL be received at LLCP
of NFC and transported to an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol Data
(I PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. The format of the I Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I PDU)
PDU SHALL be as shown in Figure 2. of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. The format of the UI PDU and
I PDU SHALL be as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.
0 0 1 1
0 6 0 6
+------+----+------+-------------------------------------------+
|DDDDDD|1100|SSSSSS| Service Data Unit |
+------+----+------+-------------------------------------------+
| <-- 2 bytes ---> | |
| <------------------- 128 ~ 2176 bytes ---------------------> |
| |
Figure 2: Format of the UI PDU in NFC
0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2
0 6 0 6 0 4 0 6 0 6 0 4
+------+----+------+----+----+---------------------------------+ +------+----+------+----+----+---------------------------------+
|DDDDDD|1100|SSSSSS|N(S)|N(R)| Service Data Unit | |DDDDDD|1100|SSSSSS|N(S)|N(R)| Service Data Unit |
+------+----+------+----+----+---------------------------------+ +------+----+------+----+----+---------------------------------+
| <------- 3 bytes --------> | | | <------- 3 bytes --------> | |
| <------------------- 128 bytes (default) ------------------> | | <------------------- 128 ~ 2176 bytes ---------------------> |
| | | |
Figure 2: Format of the I PDU in NFC Figure 3: Format of the I PDU in NFC
The I PDU sequence field SHALL contain two sequence numbers: The send The I PDU sequence field SHALL contain two sequence numbers: The send
sequence number N(S) and the receive sequence number N(R). The send sequence number N(S) and the receive sequence number N(R). The send
sequence number N(S) SHALL indicate the sequence number associated sequence number N(S) SHALL indicate the sequence number associated
with this I PDU. The receive sequence number N(R) value SHALL with this I PDU. The receive sequence number N(R) value SHALL
indicate that I PDUs numbered up through N(R) - 1 have been received indicate that I PDUs numbered up through N(R) - 1 have been received
correctly by the sender of this I PDU and successfully passed to the correctly by the sender of this I PDU and successfully passed to the
senders SAP identified in the SSAP field. These I PDUs SHALL be senders SAP identified in the SSAP field. These I PDUs SHALL be
considered as acknowledged. considered as acknowledged.
The information field of an I PDU SHALL contain a single service data The information field of an I PDU SHALL contain a single service data
unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field SHALL be unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field SHALL be
determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link
connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs SHALL be 128 connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs SHALL be 128
octets. The local and remote LLCs each establish and maintain octets. The local and remote LLCs each establish and maintain
distinct MIU values for each data link connection endpoint. Also, An distinct MIU values for each data link connection endpoint. Also, An
LLC MAY announce a larger MIU for a data link connection by LLC MAY announce a larger MIU for a data link connection by
transmitting an MIUX extension parameter within the information transmitting an MIUX extension parameter within the information
field. field. If no MIUX parameter is transmitted, the default MIU value of
128 SHALL be used. Otherwise, the MTU size in NFC LLCP SHALL
calculate the MIU value as follows:
MIU = 128 + MIUX.
According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.1 [3], format of the MIUX parameter
TLV is as shown in Figure 4.
0 0 1 2 3
0 8 6 2 1
+--------+--------+----------------+
| Type | Length | Value |
+--------+--------+----+-----------+
|00000010|00000010|1011| MIUX |
+--------+--------+----+-----------+
| <-------> |
0x000 ~ 0x7FF
Figure 4: Format of the MIUX Parameter TLV
When the MIUX parameter is encoded as a TLV, the TLV Type field SHALL
be 0x02 and the TLV Length field SHALL be 0x02. The MIUX parameter
SHALL be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the TLV Value
field. The unused bits in the TLV Value field SHALL be set to zero
by the sender and SHALL be ignored by the receiver. However, a
maximun value of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size
of the MTU in NFC LLCP SHALL calculate 2176 bytes.
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC
NFC technology sets also has considerations and requirements owing to NFC technology sets also has considerations and requirements owing to
low power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN low power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN
standards RFC4944 [1], RFC6775 [4], and RFC6282 [5] provide useful standards RFC4944 [1], RFC6775 [4], and RFC6282 [5] provide useful
functionality for reducing overhead which can be applied to BT-LE. functionality for reducing overhead which can be applied to BT-LE.
This functionality comprises of link-local IPv6 addresses and This functionality comprises of link-local IPv6 addresses and
stateless IPv6 address auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor stateless IPv6 address auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor
Discovery (see Section 4.4) and header compression (see Section 4.5). Discovery (see Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.6).
One of the differences between IEEE 802.15.4 and NFC is that the One of the differences between IEEE 802.15.4 and NFC is that the
former supports both star and mesh topology (and requires a routing former supports both star and mesh topology (and requires a routing
protocol), whereas NFC can support direct peer-to-peer connection and protocol), whereas NFC can support direct peer-to-peer connection and
simple mesh-like topology depending on NFC application scenarios simple mesh-like topology depending on NFC application scenarios
because of very short RF distance of 10 cm or less. because of very short RF distance of 10 cm or less.
4.1. Protocol Stack 4.1. Protocol Stacks
Figure 3 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be Figure 5 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be
transport protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer, and the others transport protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer, and the others
capable running on the top of IPv6. capable running on the top of IPv6.
| | Transport & | | Transport &
| Upper Layer Protocols | Application Layer | Upper Layer Protocols | Application Layer
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
| | | | | |
| IPv6 | | | IPv6 | |
| | Network | | Network
+----------------------------------------+ Layer +----------------------------------------+ Layer
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| Logical Link Control Protocol | NFC Link Layer | Logical Link Control Protocol | NFC Link Layer
| (LLCP) | | | (LLCP) | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
| | | | | |
| Activities | NFC | Activities | NFC
| Digital Protocol | Physical Layer | Digital Protocol | Physical Layer
| RF Analog | | | RF Analog | |
| | | | | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
Figure 3: Protocol Stack for IPv6 over NFC Figure 5: Protocol Stacks for IPv6 over NFC
Adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC SHALL support neighbor discovery, Adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC SHALL support neighbor discovery,
address auto-configuration, header compression, and fragmentation & address auto-configuration, header compression, and fragmentation &
reassembly. reassembly.
4.2. Link Model 4.2. Link Model
In the case of BT-LE, Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol In the case of BT-LE, Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
(L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) functionality; (L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) functionality;
therefore, adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE do not have to therefore, adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE does not have to
conduct the FAR procedure. However, NFC link layer is similar to conduct the FAR procedure. The NFC LLCP, by contrast, does not
IEEE 802.15.4. Adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC SHOULD support FAR support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC needs to consider the
functionality. Therefore, fragmentation functionality as defined in FAR functionality, defined in RFC4944 [1]. However, MTU on NFC link
RFC4944 [1] SHALL be used in NFC-enabled device networks. can be configured in a connection procedure and extended enough to
fit the MTU of IPv6 packet.
The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a
point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, NFC link does not point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, NFC link does not
consider star topology and mesh network topology but peer-to-peer consider star topology and mesh network topology but peer-to-peer
topology and simple multi-hop topology. Due to this characteristics, topology and simple multi-hop topology. Due to this characteristics,
6LoWPAN functionality, such as addressing and auto-configuration, and 6LoWPAN functionality, such as addressing and auto-configuration, and
header compression, is specialized into NFC. header compression, is specialized into NFC.
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
A NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address A NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address
autoconfiguration as per RFC4862 [6]. A 64-bit Interface identifier autoconfiguration as per RFC4862 [6]. A 64-bit Interface identifier
(IID) for a NFC interface MAY be formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC (IID) for a NFC interface MAY be formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC
LLCP address (i.e., SSAP or DSAP) (see Section 3.3). In the LLCP address (i.e., SSAP or DSAP) (see Section 3.3). In the
viewpoint of address configuration, such an IID MAY guarantee a viewpoint of address configuration, such an IID MAY guarantee a
stable IPv6 address because each data link connection is uniquely stable IPv6 address because each data link connection is uniquely
identified by the pair of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of identified by the pair of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of
each LLC PDU in NFC. each LLC PDU in NFC.
Following the guidance of RFC7136 [10], interface IIDs of all unicast Following the guidance of RFC7136 [10], interface Identifiers of all
addresses for NFC-enabled devices are formed on the basis of 64 bits unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are formed on the basis of
long and constructed in a modified EUI-64 format. Therefore, this 64 bits long and constructed in a modified EUI-64 format as shown in
document provides a stateless address autoconf formation which Figure 6.
suggests 58 zeros and 6 bit SSAP in the IID as shown in Figure 4. In
addition, the "Universal/Local" bit in the case of NFC-enabled device
address MUST be set to 0 RFC4291 [7]. Only if the NFC-enabled device
address is known to be a public address the "Universal/Local" bit can
be set to 1. The IPv6 link-local address for a NFC-enabled device is
formed by appending the IID, to the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in
Figure 4.
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 4 5 6
0 1 6 2 2 0 6 2 8 8 3
0 0 4 2 7 +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------+------+
+----------+------------------+---------------------+------+ |0000000000000000|0000000011111111|1111111000000000|0000000000| SSAP |
|1111111010| zeros | zeros | SSAP | +----------------+----------------+----------------+----------+------+
+----------+------------------+---------------------+------+
Figure 6: Formation of IID from NFC-enabled device adddress
In addition, the "Universal/Local" bit in the case of NFC-enabled
device address MUST be set to 0 RFC4291 [7].
4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address
Only if the NFC-enabled device address is known to be a public
address the "Universal/Local" bit can be set to 1. The IPv6 link-
local address for a NFC-enabled device is formed by appending the
IID, to the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 7.
0 0 0 1
0 1 6 2
0 0 4 7
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+
|1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier |
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+
| | | |
| <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> | | <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> |
| | | |
Figure 4: IPv6 link-local address in NFC Figure 7: IPv6 link-local address in NFC
The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC
network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (RFC3633 network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (RFC3633
[8]). [8]).
4.4. Neighbor Discovery 4.5. Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs (RFC6775 [4]) describes Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs (RFC6775 [4]) describes
the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such
as mesh topology. NFC does not consider complicated mesh topology as mesh topology. NFC does not consider complicated mesh topology
but simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected peer-to- but simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected peer-to-
peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC6775 are peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC6775 are
applicable to NFC: applicable to NFC:
1. In a case that a NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected 1. In a case that a NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected
to 6LBR, A NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by to 6LBR, A NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by
sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address
Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement
(NA) accordingly. In addition, DHCPv6 is used to assigned an (NA) accordingly. In addition, DHCPv6 is used to assigned an
address, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is not required. address, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is not required.
2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router 2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
Advertisements the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of Advertisements the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of
the RFC6775. the RFC6775.
4.5. Header Compression 4.6. Header Compression
Header compression as defined in RFC6282 [5] , which specifies the Header compression as defined in RFC6282 [5] , which specifies the
compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on
top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC6282 top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC6282
encoding formats. encoding formats.
If a 16-bit address is required as a short address of IEEE 802.15.4, If a 16-bit address is required as a short address of IEEE 802.15.4,
it MUST be formed by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address it MUST be formed by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address
to the left with zeros as shown in Figure 5. to the left with zeros as shown in Figure 8.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. | | Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 5: NFC short adress format Figure 8: NFC short adress format
4.6. Fragmentation and Reassembly 4.7. Fragmentation and Reassembly
Fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) as defined in RFC4944, which NFC provides fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for payloads from 128
specifies the fragmentation methods for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE bytes up to 2176 bytes as mention in Section 3.4. The MTU of a
802.15.4, is REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 datagram general IPv6 packet can fit into a sigle NFC link frame. Therefore,
FAR on top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to the FAR functionality as defined in RFC4944, which specifies the
RFC4944 encoding formats, but the default MTU of NFC is 128 bytes. fragmentation methods for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
This MUST be considered. NOT REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 datagram FAR on
top of NFC. The NFC link connection for IPv6 over NFC MUST be
configured with an equivalent MIU size to fit the MTU of IPv6 Packet.
However, the default configuration of MIUX value is 0x480 in order to
fit the MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet.
4.7. Unicast Address Mapping 4.8. Unicast Address Mapping
The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast
addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general
description in Section 7.2 of RFC4861 [9], unless otherwise description in Section 7.2 of RFC4861 [9], unless otherwise
specified. specified.
The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form
when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses. when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses.
0 1 0 1
skipping to change at page 10, line 44 skipping to change at page 12, line 40
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length=1 | | Type | Length=1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+- Padding (all zeros) -+ +- Padding (all zeros) -+
| | | |
+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+ +- +-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | NFC Addr. | | | NFC Addr. |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 6: Unicast address mapping Figure 9: Unicast address mapping
Option fields: Option fields:
Type: Type:
1: for Source Link-layer address. 1: for Source Link-layer address.
2: for Target Link-layer address. 2: for Target Link-layer address.
Length: Length:
This is the length of this option (including the type and This is the length of this option (including the type and
length fields) in units of 8 octets. The value of this field length fields) in units of 8 octets. The value of this field
is 1 for 6-bit NFC node addresses. is 1 for 6-bit NFC node addresses.
NFC address: NFC address:
The 6-bit address in canonical bit order. This is the unicast The 6-bit address in canonical bit order. This is the unicast
address the interface currently responds to. address the interface currently responds to.
4.8. Multicast Address Mapping 4.9. Multicast Address Mapping
All IPv6 multicast packets MUST be sent to NFC Destination Address, All IPv6 multicast packets MUST be sent to NFC Destination Address,
0x3F (broadcast) and filtered at the IPv6 layer. When represented as 0x3F (broadcast) and filtered at the IPv6 layer. When represented as
a 16-bit address in a compressed header, it MUST be formed by padding a 16-bit address in a compressed header, it MUST be formed by padding
on the left with a zero. In addition, the NFC Destination Address, on the left with a zero. In addition, the NFC Destination Address,
0x3F, MUST not be used as a unicast NFC address of SSAP or DSAP. 0x3F, MUST not be used as a unicast NFC address of SSAP or DSAP.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding(all zeros)|1 1 1 1 1 1| | Padding(all zeros)|1 1 1 1 1 1|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 7: Multicast address mapping Figure 10: Multicast address mapping
5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios 5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios
As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and
connected to the Internet. connected to the Internet.
5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet 5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet
One of the key applications by using adaptation technology of IPv6 One of the key applications by using adaptation technology of IPv6
over NFC is the most securely transmitting IPv6 packets because RF over NFC is the most securely transmitting IPv6 packets because RF
distance between 6LN and 6LBR SHOULD be within 10 cm. If any third distance between 6LN and 6LBR SHOULD be within 10 cm. If any third
party wants to hack into the RF between them, it MUST come to nearly party wants to hack into the RF between them, it MUST come to nearly
touch them. Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces touch them. Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces
(e.g., BT-LE, Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending (e.g., BT-LE, Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending
characteristics of data. NFC SHALL be the best solution for secured characteristics of data. NFC SHALL be the best solution for secured
and private information. and private information.
Figure 8 illustrates an example of NFC-enabled device network Figure 11 illustrates an example of NFC-enabled device network
connected to the Internet. Distance between 6LN and 6LBR SHOULD be connected to the Internet. Distance between 6LN and 6LBR SHOULD be
10 cm or less. If there is any of close laptop computers to a user, 10 cm or less. If there is any of close laptop computers to a user,
it SHALL becomes the 6LBR. Additionally, When the user mounts a NFC- it SHALL becomes the 6LBR. Additionally, When the user mounts a NFC-
enabled air interface adapter (e.g., portable small NFC dongle) on enabled air interface adapter (e.g., portable small NFC dongle) on
the close laptop PC, the user's NFC-enabled device (6LN) can the close laptop PC, the user's NFC-enabled device (6LN) can
communicate the laptop PC (6LBR) within 10 cm distance. communicate the laptop PC (6LBR) within 10 cm distance.
************ ************
6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN 6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN
| (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ | | (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ |
| | | | | |
| <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> | | <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | |
Figure 8: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet Figure 11: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet
5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network 5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network
In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be
a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 9. a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 12.
6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN 6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN
| (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) | | (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) |
| | | | | |
| <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> | | <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) |
Figure 9: Isolated NFC-enabled device network Figure 12: Isolated NFC-enabled device network
In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user
developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or
more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish
outstanding performance. For instance, three or more mobile phones outstanding performance. For instance, three or more mobile phones
can play multi-channel sound of music together. In addition, can play multi-channel sound of music together. In addition,
attached three or more mobile phones can make an extended banner to attached three or more mobile phones can make an extended banner to
show longer sentences in a concert hall. show longer sentences in a concert hall.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
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