draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-04.txt   draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-05.txt 
6Lo Working Group Y-H. Choi 6Lo Working Group Y-H. Choi
Internet-Draft Y-G. Hong Internet-Draft Y-G. Hong
Intended status: Standards Track ETRI Intended status: Standards Track ETRI
Expires: January 9, 2017 J-S. Youn Expires: April 14, 2017 J-S. Youn
DONG-EUI Univ Dongeui Univ
D-K. Kim D-K. Kim
KNU KNU
J-H. Choi J-H. Choi
Samsung Electronics Co., Samsung Electronics Co.,
July 8, 2016 October 11, 2016
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication
draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-04 draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-05
Abstract Abstract
Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones
and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other
by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no
more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and
data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency
identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa. identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa.
The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC
skipping to change at page 1, line 46 skipping to change at page 1, line 46
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 14, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 4 3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.5. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.5. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.6. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.6. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.7. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.7. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.9. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.9. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.10. Multicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.10. Multicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet . . . . . . 14 5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet . . . . . . 12
5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically
requiring a distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on requiring a distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on
ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to
424 kbit/s. NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the 424 kbit/s. NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the
initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive
target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors
such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require
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expected for the other mobile phones, running the other operating expected for the other mobile phones, running the other operating
systems (e.g., iOS, etc.) to be equipped with NFC technology in the systems (e.g., iOS, etc.) to be equipped with NFC technology in the
near future. near future.
Considering the potential for exponential growth in the number of Considering the potential for exponential growth in the number of
heterogeneous air interface technologies, NFC would be widely used as heterogeneous air interface technologies, NFC would be widely used as
one of the other air interface technologies, such as Bluetooth Low one of the other air interface technologies, such as Bluetooth Low
Energy (BT-LE), Wi-Fi, and so on. Each of the heterogeneous air Energy (BT-LE), Wi-Fi, and so on. Each of the heterogeneous air
interface technologies has its own characteristics, which cannot be interface technologies has its own characteristics, which cannot be
covered by the other technologies, so various kinds of air interface covered by the other technologies, so various kinds of air interface
technologies would be existing together. Therefore, it is required technologies would co-exist together. Therefore, it is required for
for them to communicate each other. NFC also has the strongest point them to communicate with each other. NFC also has the strongest
(e.g., secure communication distance of 10 cm) to prevent the third ability (e.g., secure communication distance of 10 cm) to prevent a
party from attacking privacy. third party from attacking privacy.
When the number of devices and things having different air interface When the number of devices and things having different air interface
technologies communicate each other, IPv6 is an ideal internet technologies communicate with each other, IPv6 is an ideal internet
protocols owing to its large address space. Also, NFC would be one protocols owing to its large address space. Also, NFC would be one
of the endpoints using IPv6. Therefore, This document describes how of the endpoints using IPv6. Therefore, this document describes how
IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LoWPAN techiques with following IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LoWPAN techniques.
scopes.
o Overview of NFC technologies;
o Specifications for IPv6 over NFC;
* Neighbor Discovery;
* Addressing and Configuration;
* Header Compression;
* Fragmentation & Reassembly for a IPv6 datagram;
RFC4944 [1] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4. RFC4944 [1] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4.
The NFC link also has similar characteristics to that of IEEE The NFC link also has similar characteristics to that of IEEE
802.15.4. Many of the mechanisms defined in the RFC4944 [1] can be 802.15.4. Many of the mechanisms defined in RFC 4944 [1] can be
applied to the transmission of IPv6 on NFC links. This document applied to the transmission of IPv6 on NFC links. This document
specifies the details of IPv6 transmission over NFC links. specifies the details of IPv6 transmission over NFC links.
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [2]. document are to be interpreted as described in [2].
3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology 3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology
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addition to the easy connection and quick transactions, simple data addition to the easy connection and quick transactions, simple data
sharing is also available. sharing is also available.
3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC 3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC
NFC-enabled devices are unique in that they can support three modes NFC-enabled devices are unique in that they can support three modes
of operation: card emulation, peer-to-peer, and reader/writer. Peer- of operation: card emulation, peer-to-peer, and reader/writer. Peer-
to-peer mode enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each to-peer mode enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each
other to exchange information and share files, so that users of NFC- other to exchange information and share files, so that users of NFC-
enabled devices can quickly share contact information and other files enabled devices can quickly share contact information and other files
with a touch. Therefore, a NFC-enabled device can securely send IPv6 with a touch. Therefore, an NFC-enabled device can securely send
packets to any corresponding node on the Internet when a NFC-enabled IPv6 packets to any corresponding node on the Internet when an NFC-
gateway is linked to the Internet. enabled gateway is linked to the Internet.
3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC 3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC
The IP protocol can use the services provided by Logical Link Control IP can use the services provided by the Logical Link Control Protocol
Protocol (LLCP) in the NFC stack to provide reliable, two-way (LLCP) in the NFC stack to provide reliable, two-way transport of
transport of information between the peer devices. Figure 1 depicts information between the peer devices. Figure 1 depicts the NFC P2P
the NFC P2P protocol stack with IPv6 bindings to the LLCP. protocol stack with IPv6 bindings to LLCP.
For data communication in IPv6 over NFC, an IPv6 packet SHALL be For data communication in IPv6 over NFC, an IPv6 packet SHALL be
received at LLCP of NFC and transported to an Information Field in passed down to LLCP of NFC and transported to an Information Field in
Protocol Data Unit (I PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. Protocol Data Unit (I PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device.
LLCP does not support fragmentation and reassembly. For IPv6 LLCP does not support fragmentation and reassembly. For IPv6
addressing or address configuration, LLCP SHALL provide related addressing or address configuration, LLCP SHALL provide related
information, such as link layer addresses, to its upper layer. LLCP information, such as link layer addresses, to its upper layer. The
to IPv6 protocol Binding SHALL transfer the SSAP and DSAP value to LLCP to IPv6 protocol binding SHALL transfer the SSAP and DSAP value
the IPv6 over NFC protocol. SSAP stands for Source Service Access to the IPv6 over NFC protocol. SSAP stands for Source Service Access
Point, which is 6-bit value meaning a kind of Logical Link Control Point, which is a 6-bit value meaning a kind of Logical Link Control
(LLC) address, while DSAP means a LLC address of destination NFC- (LLC) address, while DSAP means an LLC address of the destination
enabled device. NFC-enabled device.
| | | |
| | Application Layer | | Application Layer
| Upper Layer Protocols | Transport Layer | Upper Layer Protocols | Transport Layer
| | Network Layer | | Network Layer
| | | | | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
| IPv6-LLCP Binding | | | IPv6-LLCP Binding | |
+----------------------------------------+ NFC +----------------------------------------+ NFC
| | Logical Link | | Logical Link
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| | | | | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
Figure 1: Protocol Stacks of NFC Figure 1: Protocol Stacks of NFC
The LLCP consists of Logical Link Control (LLC) and MAC Mapping. The The LLCP consists of Logical Link Control (LLC) and MAC Mapping. The
MAC Mapping integrates an existing RF protocol into the LLCP MAC Mapping integrates an existing RF protocol into the LLCP
architecture. The LLC contains three components, such as Link architecture. The LLC contains three components, such as Link
Management, Connection-oriented Transport, and Connection-less Management, Connection-oriented Transport, and Connection-less
Transport. The Link Management component is responsible for Transport. The Link Management component is responsible for
serializing all connection-oriented and connectionless LLC PDU serializing all connection-oriented and connection-less LLC PDU
(Protocol Data Unit) exchanges and for aggregation and disaggregation (Protocol Data Unit) exchanges and for aggregation and disaggregation
of small PDUs. This component also guarantees asynchronous balanced of small PDUs. This component also guarantees asynchronous balanced
mode communication and provides link status supervision by performing mode communication and provides link status supervision by performing
the symmetry procedure. The Connection-oriented Transport component the symmetry procedure. The Connection-oriented Transport component
is responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data exchanges is responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data exchanges
including connection set-up and termination. The Connectionless including connection set-up and termination. The Connectionless
Transport component is responsible for handling unacknowledged data Transport component is responsible for handling unacknowledged data
exchanges. exchanges.
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing
NFC-enabled devices are identified by 6-bit LLC address. In other According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.3 [3], NFC-enabled devices have two
words, Any address SHALL be usable as both an SSAP and a DSAP types of 6-bit addresses (i.e., SSAP and DSAP) to identify service
address. According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.1 [3], address values access points. The several service access points can be installed on
between 0 and 31 (00h - 1Fh) SHALL be reserved for well-known service a NFC device. However, the SSAP and DSAP can be used as identifiers
access points for Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). Address values for NFC link connections with the IPv6 over NFC adaptation layer.
between 32 and 63 (20h - 3Fh) inclusively, SHALL be assigned by the Therefore, the SSAP can be used to generate an IPv6 interface
local LLC as the result of an upper layer service request. identifier. Address values between 00h and 0Fh of SSAP and DSAP are
reserved for identifying the well-known service access points, which
are defined in the NFC Forum Assigned Numbers Register. Address
values between 10h and 1Fh SHALL be assigned by the local LLC to
services registered by local service environment. In addition,
address values between 20h and 3Fh SHALL be assigned by the local LLC
as a result of an upper layer service request. Therefore, the
address values between 20h and 3Fh can be used for generating IPv6
interface identifiers.
3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU 3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU
As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet SHALL be received at LLCP As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet SHALL passed down to LLCP
of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol Data of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol Data
Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I PDU) Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I PDU)
of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. The format of the UI PDU and of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device.
I PDU SHALL be as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.
0 0 1 1
0 6 0 6
+------+----+------+-------------------------------------------+
|DDDDDD|1100|SSSSSS| Service Data Unit |
+------+----+------+-------------------------------------------+
| <-- 2 bytes ---> | |
| <------------------- 128 ~ 2176 bytes ---------------------> |
| |
Figure 2: Format of the UI PDU in NFC
0 0 1 1 2 2
0 6 0 6 0 4
+------+----+------+----+----+---------------------------------+
|DDDDDD|1100|SSSSSS|N(S)|N(R)| Service Data Unit |
+------+----+------+----+----+---------------------------------+
| <------- 3 bytes --------> | |
| <------------------- 128 ~ 2176 bytes ---------------------> |
| |
Figure 3: Format of the I PDU in NFC
The I PDU sequence field SHALL contain two sequence numbers: The send
sequence number N(S) and the receive sequence number N(R). The send
sequence number N(S) SHALL indicate the sequence number associated
with this I PDU. The receive sequence number N(R) value SHALL
indicate that I PDUs numbered up through N(R) - 1 have been received
correctly by the sender of this I PDU and successfully passed to the
senders SAP identified in the SSAP field. These I PDUs SHALL be
considered as acknowledged.
The information field of an I PDU SHALL contain a single service data The information field of an I PDU SHALL contain a single service data
unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field SHALL be unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field is
determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link
connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs SHALL be 128 connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs SHALL be 128
octets. The local and remote LLCs each establish and maintain octets. The local and remote LLCs each establish and maintain
distinct MIU values for each data link connection endpoint. Also, An distinct MIU values for each data link connection endpoint. Also, an
LLC MAY announce a larger MIU for a data link connection by LLC MAY announce a larger MIU for a data link connection by
transmitting an MIUX extension parameter within the information transmitting an MIUX extension parameter within the information
field. If no MIUX parameter is transmitted, the default MIU value of field. If no MIUX parameter is transmitted, the default MIU value of
128 SHALL be used. Otherwise, the MTU size in NFC LLCP SHALL 128 SHALL be used. Otherwise, the MTU size in NFC LLCP SHALL
calculate the MIU value as follows: calculate the MIU value as follows:
MIU = 128 + MIUX. MIU = 128 + MIUX.
According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.1 [3], format of the MIUX parameter
TLV is as shown in Figure 4.
0 0 1 2 3
0 8 6 2 1
+--------+--------+----------------+
| Type | Length | Value |
+--------+--------+----+-----------+
|00000010|00000010|1011| MIUX |
+--------+--------+----+-----------+
| <-------> |
0x000 ~ 0x7FF
Figure 4: Format of the MIUX Parameter TLV
When the MIUX parameter is encoded as a TLV, the TLV Type field SHALL When the MIUX parameter is encoded as a TLV, the TLV Type field SHALL
be 0x02 and the TLV Length field SHALL be 0x02. The MIUX parameter be 0x02 and the TLV Length field SHALL be 0x02. The MIUX parameter
SHALL be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the TLV Value SHALL be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the TLV Value
field. The unused bits in the TLV Value field SHALL be set to zero field. The unused bits in the TLV Value field SHALL be set to zero
by the sender and SHALL be ignored by the receiver. However, a by the sender and SHALL be ignored by the receiver. However, a
maximun value of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size maximum value of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size
of the MTU in NFC LLCP SHALL calculate 2176 bytes. of the MTU in NFC LLCP is 2176 bytes.
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC
NFC technology sets also has considerations and requirements owing to NFC technology also has considerations and requirements owing to low
low power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN standards
standards RFC4944 [1], RFC6775 [4], and RFC6282 [5] provide useful RFC 4944 [1], RFC 6775 [4], and RFC 6282 [5] provide useful
functionality for reducing overhead which can be applied to NFC. functionality for reducing overhead which can be applied to NFC.
This functionality comprises of link-local IPv6 addresses and This functionality consists of link-local IPv6 addresses and
stateless IPv6 address auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor stateless IPv6 address auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor
Discovery (see Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.7). Discovery (see Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.7).
One of the differences between IEEE 802.15.4 and NFC is that the
former supports both star and mesh topology (and requires a routing
protocol), whereas NFC can support direct peer-to-peer connection and
simple mesh-like topology depending on NFC application scenarios
because of very short RF distance of 10 cm or less.
4.1. Protocol Stacks 4.1. Protocol Stacks
Figure 5 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be Figure 2 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be
transport protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer, and the others transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer protocols,
capable running on the top of IPv6. and others capable running on top of IPv6.
| | Transport & | | Transport &
| Upper Layer Protocols | Application Layer | Upper Layer Protocols | Application Layer
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
| | | | | |
| IPv6 | | | IPv6 | |
| | Network | | Network
+----------------------------------------+ Layer +----------------------------------------+ Layer
| Adaptation Layer for IPv6 over NFC | | | Adaptation Layer for IPv6 over NFC | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
skipping to change at page 9, line 25 skipping to change at page 7, line 41
| Logical Link Control Protocol | NFC Link Layer | Logical Link Control Protocol | NFC Link Layer
| (LLCP) | | | (LLCP) | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
| | | | | |
| Activities | NFC | Activities | NFC
| Digital Protocol | Physical Layer | Digital Protocol | Physical Layer
| RF Analog | | | RF Analog | |
| | | | | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
Figure 5: Protocol Stacks for IPv6 over NFC Figure 2: Protocol Stacks for IPv6 over NFC
Adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC SHALL support neighbor discovery, The adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC SHALL support neighbor
address auto-configuration, header compression, and fragmentation & discovery, stateless address auto-configuration, header compression,
reassembly. and fragmentation & reassembly.
4.2. Link Model 4.2. Link Model
In the case of BT-LE, Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol In the case of BT-LE, the Logical Link Control and Adaptation
(L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) functionality; Protocol (L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR)
therefore, adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE does not have to functionality; therefore, the adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE
conduct the FAR procedure. The NFC LLCP, by contrast, does not does not have to conduct the FAR procedure. The NFC LLCP, in
support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC needs to consider the contrast, does not support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC
FAR functionality, defined in RFC4944 [1] if it is required. needs to consider the FAR functionality, defined in RFC 4944 [1].
However, MTU on NFC link can be configured in a connection procedure However, the MTU on an NFC link can be configured in a connection
and extended enough to fit the MTU of IPv6 packet. (see Section 4.8) procedure and extended enough to fit the MTU of IPv6 packet (see
Section 4.8).
The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a
point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, NFC link does not point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, an NFC link does not
consider star topology and mesh network topology but direct support a star topology or mesh network topology but only direct
connections between two devices. Furthermore, NFC link layer does connections between two devices. Furthermore, the NFC link layer
not support mesh-under protocols. Due to this characteristics, does not support packet forwarding in link layer. Due to this
6LoWPAN functionalities, such as addressing and auto-configuration, characteristics, 6LoWPAN functionalities, such as addressing and
and header compression, need to be specialized into IPv6 over NFC. auto-configuration, and header compression, need to be specialized
into IPv6 over NFC.
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
A NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address An NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address
autoconfiguration as per RFC4862 [6]. A 64-bit Interface identifier autoconfiguration as per RFC 4862 [6]. A 64-bit Interface identifier
(IID) for a NFC interface is formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC LLCP (IID) for an NFC interface is formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC LLCP
address (i.e., SSAP or DSAP) (see Section 3.3). In the viewpoint of address (see Section 3.3). In the viewpoint of address
address configuration, such an IID MAY guarantee a stable IPv6 configuration, such an IID SHOULD guarantee a stable IPv6 address
address because each data link connection is uniquely identified by because each data link connection is uniquely identified by the pair
the pair of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of each LLC PDU in of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of each LLC PDU in NFC.
NFC.
Following the guidance of RFC7136 [10], interface Identifiers of all Following the guidance of RFC 7136 [10], interface identifiers of all
unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are formed on the basis of unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are 64 bits long and
64 bits long and constructed in a modified EUI-64 format as shown in constructed in a modified EUI-64 format as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 6.
0 1 3 4 5 6 0 1 3 4 6
0 6 2 8 8 3 0 6 2 8 3
+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------+------+ +----------------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
|0000000000000000|0000000011111111|1111111000000000|0000000000| SSAP | |000000u000000000|0000000011111111|11111110RRRRRRRR|RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR|
+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------+------+ +----------------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
Figure 6: Formation of IID from NFC-enabled device adddress Figure 3: Formation of IID from NFC-enabled device address
In addition, the "Universal/Local" bit in the case of NFC-enabled The 'R' bits are random values which MAY be created by mechanisms
device address MUST be set to 0 RFC4291 [7]. like hash function with the SSAP as an input value because the 6-bit
address of SSAP is easy and short to be targeted by attacks of third
party (e.g., address scanning). In addition, the "Universal/Local"
bit (i.e., the 'u' bit) of an NFC-enabled device address MUST be set
to 0 RFC 4291 [7].
4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address 4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address
Only if the NFC-enabled device address is known to be a public Only if the NFC-enabled device address is known to be a public
address the "Universal/Local" bit can be set to 1. The IPv6 link- address, the "Universal/Local" bit be set to 1. The IPv6 link-local
local address for a NFC-enabled device is formed by appending the address for an NFC-enabled device is formed by appending the IID, to
IID, to the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 7. the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 4.
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 1 6 2 0 1 6 2
0 0 4 7 0 0 4 7
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
|1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier | |1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier |
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
| | | |
| <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> | | <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> |
| | | |
Figure 7: IPv6 link-local address in NFC Figure 4: IPv6 link-local address in NFC
The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC
network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (RFC3633 network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (RFC 3633
[8]). [8]).
4.5. Neighbor Discovery 4.5. Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs (RFC6775 [4]) describes Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs (RFC 6775 [4]) describes
the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such
as mesh topology. NFC does not consider complicated mesh topology as mesh topology. NFC does not support a complicated mesh topology
but simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected peer-to- but only a simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected
peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC6775 are peer-to-peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC 6775
applicable to NFC: are applicable to NFC:
1. In a case that a NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected 1. In a case that an NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected
to 6LBR, A NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by to a 6LBR, an NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by
sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address
Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement
(NA) accordingly. In addition, DHCPv6 is used to assigned an (NA) accordingly. In addition, if DHCPv6 is used to assign an
address, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is not required. address, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) MAY not be required.
2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router 2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
Advertisements the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of Advertisements the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of
the RFC6775. RFC 6775.
4.6. Dispatch Header 4.6. Dispatch Header
All IPv6-over-NFC encapsulated datagrams transmitted over NFC are All IPv6-over-NFC encapsulated datagrams are prefixed by an
prefixed by an encapsulation header stack consisting of a Dispatch encapsulation header stack consisting of a Dispatch value followed by
value followed by zero or more header fields. The only sequence zero or more header fields. The only sequence currently defined for
currently defined for IPv6-over-NFC is the LOWPAN_IPHC header IPv6-over-NFC is the LOWPAN_IPHC header followed by payload, as
followed by payload, as depicted in Figure 8. depicted in Figure 5.
+---------------+---------------+--------------+ +---------------+---------------+--------------+
| IPHC Dispatch | IPHC Header | Payload | | IPHC Dispatch | IPHC Header | Payload |
+---------------+---------------+--------------+ +---------------+---------------+--------------+
Figure 8: A IPv6-over-NFC Encapsulated 6LOWPAN_IPHC Compressed IPv6 Figure 5: A IPv6-over-NFC Encapsulated 6LOWPAN_IPHC Compressed IPv6
Datagram Datagram
The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace. Only The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace. Only
a single pattern is used to represent current IPv6-over-NFC a single pattern is used to represent current IPv6-over-NFC
functionality. functionality.
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
| Pattern | Header Type | Reference | | Pattern | Header Type | Reference |
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
| 01 1xxxxx | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | [RFC6282] | | 01 1xxxxx | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | [RFC6282] |
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
Figure 9: Dispatch Values Figure 6: Dispatch Values
Other IANA-assigned 6LoWPAN Dispatch values do not apply to this Other IANA-assigned 6LoWPAN Dispatch values do not apply to this
specification. specification.
4.7. Header Compression 4.7. Header Compression
Header compression as defined in RFC6282 [5] , which specifies the Header compression as defined in RFC 6282 [5], which specifies the
compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on
top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC6282 top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282
encoding formats. encoding formats.
Therefore, IPv6 header compression in RFC6282 [5] MUST be Therefore, IPv6 header compression in RFC 6282 [5] MUST be
implemented. Further, implementations MAY also support Generic implemented. Further, implementations MAY also support Generic
Header Compression (GHC) of RFC7400 [11]. A node implementing GHC Header Compression (GHC) of RFC 7400 [11].
MUST probe its peers for GHC support before applying GHC.
If a 16-bit address is required as a short address of IEEE 802.15.4, If a 16-bit address is required as a short address, it MUST be formed
it MUST be formed by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address to the left with
to the left with zeros as shown in Figure 10. zeros as shown in Figure 7.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. | | Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 10: NFC short adress format Figure 7: NFC short address format
4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly 4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly
NFC provides fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for payloads from 128 NFC provides fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for payloads from 128
bytes up to 2176 bytes as mention in Section 3.4. The MTU of a bytes up to 2176 bytes as mentioned in Section 3.4. The MTU of a
general IPv6 packet can fit into a sigle NFC link frame. Therefore, general IPv6 packet can fit into a single NFC link frame. Therefore,
the FAR functionality as defined in RFC4944, which specifies the the FAR functionality as defined in RFC 4944, which specifies the
fragmentation methods for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is fragmentation methods for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, MAY
NOT REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 datagram FAR on NOT be required as the basis for IPv6 datagram FAR on top of NFC.
top of NFC. The NFC link connection for IPv6 over NFC MUST be The NFC link connection for IPv6 over NFC MUST be configured with an
configured with an equivalent MIU size to fit the MTU of IPv6 Packet. equivalent MIU size to fit the MTU of IPv6 Packet. If NFC devices
However, the default configuration of MIUX value is 0x480 in order to support extension of the MTU, the MIUX value is 0x480 in order to fit
fit the MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet. the MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet.
4.9. Unicast Address Mapping 4.9. Unicast Address Mapping
The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast
addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general
description in Section 7.2 of RFC4861 [9], unless otherwise description in Section 7.2 of RFC 4861 [9], unless otherwise
specified. specified.
The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form
when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses. when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length=1 | | Type | Length=1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+- Padding (all zeros) -+ +- Padding (all zeros) -+
| | | |
+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+ +- +-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | NFC Addr. | | | NFC Addr. |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 11: Unicast address mapping Figure 8: Unicast address mapping
Option fields: Option fields:
Type: Type:
1: for Source Link-layer address. 1: for Source Link-layer address.
2: for Target Link-layer address. 2: for Target Link-layer address.
Length: Length:
skipping to change at page 13, line 51 skipping to change at page 12, line 17
is 1 for 6-bit NFC node addresses. is 1 for 6-bit NFC node addresses.
NFC address: NFC address:
The 6-bit address in canonical bit order. This is the unicast The 6-bit address in canonical bit order. This is the unicast
address the interface currently responds to. address the interface currently responds to.
4.10. Multicast Address Mapping 4.10. Multicast Address Mapping
All IPv6 multicast packets MUST be sent to NFC Destination Address, All IPv6 multicast packets MUST be sent to NFC Destination Address,
0x3F (broadcast) and filtered at the IPv6 layer. When represented as 0x3F (broadcast) and be filtered at the IPv6 layer. When represented
a 16-bit address in a compressed header, it MUST be formed by padding as a 16-bit address in a compressed header, it MUST be formed by
on the left with a zero. In addition, the NFC Destination Address, padding on the left with a zero. In addition, the NFC Destination
0x3F, MUST not be used as a unicast NFC address of SSAP or DSAP. Address, 0x3F, MUST NOT be used as a unicast NFC address of SSAP or
DSAP.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding(all zeros)|1 1 1 1 1 1| | Padding(all zeros)|1 1 1 1 1 1|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 12: Multicast address mapping Figure 9: Multicast address mapping
5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios 5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios
As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and
connected to the Internet. connected to the Internet.
5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet 5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet
One of the key applications by using adaptation technology of IPv6 One of the key applications of using IPv6 over NFC is securely
over NFC is the most securely transmitting IPv6 packets because RF transmitting IPv6 packets because the RF distance between 6LN and
distance between 6LN and 6LBR SHOULD be within 10 cm. If any third 6LBR is typically within 10 cm. If any third party wants to hack
party wants to hack into the RF between them, it MUST come to nearly into the RF between them, it must come to nearly touch them.
touch them. Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces (e.g., BT-LE,
(e.g., BT-LE, Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending on the characteristics of
characteristics of data. NFC SHALL be the best solution for secured the data.
and private information.
Figure 13 illustrates an example of NFC-enabled device network Figure 10 illustrates an example of an NFC-enabled device network
connected to the Internet. Distance between 6LN and 6LBR SHOULD be connected to the Internet. The distance between 6LN and 6LBR is
10 cm or less. If there is any of close laptop computers to a user, typically 10 cm or less. If there is any laptop computers close to a
it SHALL becomes the 6LBR. Additionally, When the user mounts a NFC- user, it will become the a 6LBR. Additionally, when the user mounts
enabled air interface adapter (e.g., portable small NFC dongle) on an NFC-enabled air interface adapter (e.g., portable NFC dongle) on
the close laptop PC, the user's NFC-enabled device (6LN) can the close laptop PC, the user's NFC-enabled device (6LN) can
communicate the laptop PC (6LBR) within 10 cm distance. communicate with the laptop PC (6LBR) within 10 cm distance.
************ ************
6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN 6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN
| (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ | | (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ |
| | | | | |
| <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> | | <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | |
Figure 13: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet Figure 10: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet
5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network 5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network
In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be
a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 14. a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 11.
6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN 6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN
| (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) | | (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) |
| | | | | |
| <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> | | <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) |
Figure 14: Isolated NFC-enabled device network Figure 11: Isolated NFC-enabled device network
In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user
developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or
more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish
outstanding performance. For instance, three or more mobile phones outstanding performance.
can play multi-channel sound of music together. In addition,
attached three or more mobile phones can make an extended banner to
show longer sentences in a concert hall.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
There are no IANA considerations related to this document. There are no IANA considerations related to this document.
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
When interface identifiers (IIDs) are generated, devices and users When interface identifiers (IIDs) are generated, devices and users
are required to consider mitigating various threats, such as are required to consider mitigating various threats, such as
correlation of activities over time, location tracking, device- correlation of activities over time, location tracking, device-
skipping to change at page 16, line 9 skipping to change at page 14, line 14
but logically generated for each connection. Thus, every single but logically generated for each connection. Thus, every single
touch connection can use a different short address of NFC link with touch connection can use a different short address of NFC link with
an extremely short-lived link. This can mitigate address scanning as an extremely short-lived link. This can mitigate address scanning as
well as location tracking and device-specific vulnerability well as location tracking and device-specific vulnerability
exploitation. exploitation.
However, malicious tries for one connection of a long-lived link with However, malicious tries for one connection of a long-lived link with
NFC technology are not secure, so the method of deriving interface NFC technology are not secure, so the method of deriving interface
identifiers from 6-bit NFC Link layer addresses is intended to identifiers from 6-bit NFC Link layer addresses is intended to
preserve global uniqueness when it is possible. Therefore, it preserve global uniqueness when it is possible. Therefore, it
requires to protect from duplication through accident or forgery and requires a way to protect from duplication through accident or
to define a way to include sufficient bit of entropy in the IPv6 forgery and to define a way to include sufficient bit of entropy in
interface identifier, such as random EUI-64. the IPv6 interface identifier, such as random EUI-64.
8. Acknowledgements 8. Acknowledgements
We are grateful to the members of the IETF 6lo working group. We are grateful to the members of the IETF 6lo working group.
Michael Richardson, Suresh Krishnan, Pascal Thubert, Carsten Bormann, Michael Richardson, Suresh Krishnan, Pascal Thubert, Carsten Bormann,
and Alexandru Petrescu have provided valuable feedback for this and Alexandru Petrescu have provided valuable feedback for this
draft. draft.
9. References 9. References
skipping to change at page 16, line 35 skipping to change at page 14, line 40
[1] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler, [1] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
"Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007, Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[3] "Logical Link Control Protocol version 1.1", NFC Forum [3] "NFC Logical Link Control Protocol version 1.3", NFC Forum
Technical Specification , June 2011. Technical Specification , March 2016.
[4] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [4] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012, RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[5] Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6 [5] Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282, Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011, DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
skipping to change at page 17, line 36 skipping to change at page 15, line 46
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7400>. 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7400>.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[12] "Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP- [12] "Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-
1) 3rd Ed.", ECMA-340 , June 2013. 1) 3rd Ed.", ECMA-340 , June 2013.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Younghwan Choi Younghwan Choi
ETRI Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
218 Gajeongno, Yuseong 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong
Daejeon 305-700 Daejeon 305-700
Korea Korea
Phone: +82 42 860 1429 Phone: +82 42 860 1429
Email: yhc@etri.re.kr Email: yhc@etri.re.kr
Yong-Geun Hong Yong-Geun Hong
ETRI Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-Gu 161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-Gu
Daejeon 305-700 Daejeon 305-700
Korea Korea
Phone: +82 42 860 6557 Phone: +82 42 860 6557
Email: yghong@etri.re.kr Email: yghong@etri.re.kr
Joo-Sang Youn Joo-Sang Youn
DONG-EUI University DONG-EUI University
176 Eomgwangno Busan_jin_gu 176 Eomgwangno Busan_jin_gu
Busan 614-714 Busan 614-714
Korea Korea
Phone: +82 51 890 1993 Phone: +82 51 890 1993
Email: joosang.youn@gmail.com Email: joosang.youn@gmail.com
Dongkyun Kim Dongkyun Kim
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