draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-07.txt   draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-08.txt 
6Lo Working Group Y-H. Choi 6Lo Working Group Y. Choi, Ed.
Internet-Draft Y-G. Hong Internet-Draft Y-G. Hong, Ed.
Intended status: Standards Track ETRI Intended status: Standards Track ETRI
Expires: December 6, 2017 J-S. Youn Expires: May 2, 2018 J-S. Youn
Dongeui Univ Dongeui Univ
D-K. Kim D-K. Kim
KNU KNU
J-H. Choi J-H. Choi
Samsung Electronics Co., Samsung Electronics Co.,
June 4, 2017 October 29, 2017
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication
draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-07 draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-08
Abstract Abstract
Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones
and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other
by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no
more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and
data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency
identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa. identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa.
The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC
skipping to change at page 1, line 39 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
techniques. techniques.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on December 6, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 2, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 4 3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. MTU of NFC Link Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.5. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.5. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.6. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.6. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.7. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.7. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.9. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.9. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
skipping to change at page 3, line 41 skipping to change at page 3, line 41
them to communicate with each other. NFC also has the strongest them to communicate with each other. NFC also has the strongest
ability (e.g., secure communication distance of 10 cm) to prevent a ability (e.g., secure communication distance of 10 cm) to prevent a
third party from attacking privacy. third party from attacking privacy.
When the number of devices and things having different air interface When the number of devices and things having different air interface
technologies communicate with each other, IPv6 is an ideal internet technologies communicate with each other, IPv6 is an ideal internet
protocols owing to its large address space. Also, NFC would be one protocols owing to its large address space. Also, NFC would be one
of the endpoints using IPv6. Therefore, this document describes how of the endpoints using IPv6. Therefore, this document describes how
IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LoWPAN techniques. IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LoWPAN techniques.
RFC4944 [1] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4. [RFC4944] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4. The
The NFC link also has similar characteristics to that of IEEE NFC link also has similar characteristics to that of IEEE 802.15.4.
802.15.4. Many of the mechanisms defined in RFC 4944 [1] can be Many of the mechanisms defined in [RFC4944] can be applied to the
applied to the transmission of IPv6 on NFC links. This document transmission of IPv6 on NFC links. This document specifies the
specifies the details of IPv6 transmission over NFC links. details of IPv6 transmission over NFC links.
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [2]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology 3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology
NFC technology enables simple and safe two-way interactions between NFC technology enables simple and safe two-way interactions between
electronic devices, allowing consumers to perform contactless electronic devices, allowing consumers to perform contactless
transactions, access digital content, and connect electronic devices transactions, access digital content, and connect electronic devices
with a single touch. NFC complements many popular consumer level with a single touch. NFC complements many popular consumer level
wireless technologies, by utilizing the key elements in existing wireless technologies, by utilizing the key elements in existing
standards for contactless card technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and standards for contactless card technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and
JIS-X 6319-4). NFC can be compatible with existing contactless card JIS-X 6319-4). NFC can be compatible with existing contactless card
skipping to change at page 6, line 7 skipping to change at page 6, line 7
of small PDUs. This component also guarantees asynchronous balanced of small PDUs. This component also guarantees asynchronous balanced
mode communication and provides link status supervision by performing mode communication and provides link status supervision by performing
the symmetry procedure. The Connection-oriented Transport component the symmetry procedure. The Connection-oriented Transport component
is responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data exchanges is responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data exchanges
including connection set-up and termination. The Connectionless including connection set-up and termination. The Connectionless
Transport component is responsible for handling unacknowledged data Transport component is responsible for handling unacknowledged data
exchanges. exchanges.
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing
According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.3 [3], NFC-enabled devices have two According to NFC Logical Link Control Protocol v1.3 [LLCP-1.3], NFC-
types of 6-bit addresses (i.e., SSAP and DSAP) to identify service enabled devices have two types of 6-bit addresses (i.e., SSAP and
access points. The several service access points can be installed on DSAP) to identify service access points. The several service access
a NFC device. However, the SSAP and DSAP can be used as identifiers points can be installed on a NFC device. However, the SSAP and DSAP
for NFC link connections with the IPv6 over NFC adaptation layer. can be used as identifiers for NFC link connections with the IPv6
Therefore, the SSAP can be used to generate an IPv6 interface over NFC adaptation layer. Therefore, the SSAP can be used to
identifier. Address values between 00h and 0Fh of SSAP and DSAP are generate an IPv6 interface identifier. Address values between 00h
reserved for identifying the well-known service access points, which and 0Fh of SSAP and DSAP are reserved for identifying the well-known
are defined in the NFC Forum Assigned Numbers Register. Address service access points, which are defined in the NFC Forum Assigned
values between 10h and 1Fh SHALL be assigned by the local LLC to Numbers Register. Address values between 10h and 1Fh SHALL be
services registered by local service environment. In addition, assigned by the local LLC to services registered by local service
address values between 20h and 3Fh SHALL be assigned by the local LLC environment. In addition, address values between 20h and 3Fh SHALL
as a result of an upper layer service request. Therefore, the be assigned by the local LLC as a result of an upper layer service
address values between 20h and 3Fh can be used for generating IPv6 request. Therefore, the address values between 20h and 3Fh can be
interface identifiers. used for generating IPv6 interface identifiers.
3.4. NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU 3.4. MTU of NFC Link Layer
As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet SHALL passed down to LLCP As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet SHALL passed down to LLCP
of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol Data of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol Data
Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I PDU) Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I PDU)
of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device.
The information field of an I PDU SHALL contain a single service data The information field of an I PDU SHALL contain a single service data
unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field is unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field is
determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link
connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs SHALL be 128 connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs SHALL be 128
skipping to change at page 7, line 9 skipping to change at page 7, line 9
SHALL be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the TLV Value SHALL be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the TLV Value
field. The unused bits in the TLV Value field SHALL be set to zero field. The unused bits in the TLV Value field SHALL be set to zero
by the sender and SHALL be ignored by the receiver. However, a by the sender and SHALL be ignored by the receiver. However, a
maximum value of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size maximum value of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size
of the MTU in NFC LLCP is 2176 bytes. of the MTU in NFC LLCP is 2176 bytes.
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC
NFC technology also has considerations and requirements owing to low NFC technology also has considerations and requirements owing to low
power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN standards power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN standards
RFC 4944 [1], RFC 6775 [4], and RFC 6282 [5] provide useful [RFC4944], [RFC6775], and [RFC6282] provide useful functionality for
functionality for reducing overhead which can be applied to NFC. reducing overhead which can be applied to NFC. This functionality
This functionality consists of link-local IPv6 addresses and consists of link-local IPv6 addresses and stateless IPv6 address
stateless IPv6 address auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor Discovery (see
Discovery (see Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.7). Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.7).
4.1. Protocol Stacks 4.1. Protocol Stacks
Figure 2 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be Figure 2 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be
transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer protocols, transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer protocols,
and others capable running on top of IPv6. and others capable running on top of IPv6.
| | Transport & | | Transport &
| Upper Layer Protocols | Application Layer | Upper Layer Protocols | Application Layer
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
skipping to change at page 8, line 5 skipping to change at page 8, line 5
discovery, stateless address auto-configuration, header compression, discovery, stateless address auto-configuration, header compression,
and fragmentation & reassembly. and fragmentation & reassembly.
4.2. Link Model 4.2. Link Model
In the case of BT-LE, the Logical Link Control and Adaptation In the case of BT-LE, the Logical Link Control and Adaptation
Protocol (L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) Protocol (L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR)
functionality; therefore, the adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE functionality; therefore, the adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE
does not have to conduct the FAR procedure. The NFC LLCP, in does not have to conduct the FAR procedure. The NFC LLCP, in
contrast, does not support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC contrast, does not support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC
needs to consider the FAR functionality, defined in RFC 4944 [1]. needs to consider the FAR functionality, defined in [RFC4944].
However, the MTU on an NFC link can be configured in a connection However, the MTU on an NFC link can be configured in a connection
procedure and extended enough to fit the MTU of IPv6 packet (see procedure and extended enough to fit the MTU of IPv6 packet (see
Section 4.8). Section 4.8).
The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a
point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, an NFC link does not point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, an NFC link does not
support a star topology or mesh network topology but only direct support a star topology or mesh network topology but only direct
connections between two devices. Furthermore, the NFC link layer connections between two devices. Furthermore, the NFC link layer
does not support packet forwarding in link layer. Due to this does not support packet forwarding in link layer. Due to this
characteristics, 6LoWPAN functionalities, such as addressing and characteristics, 6LoWPAN functionalities, such as addressing and
auto-configuration, and header compression, need to be specialized auto-configuration, and header compression, need to be specialized
into IPv6 over NFC. into IPv6 over NFC.
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
An NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address An NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address
autoconfiguration as per RFC 4862 [6]. A 64-bit Interface identifier autoconfiguration as per [RFC4862]. A 64-bit Interface identifier
(IID) for an NFC interface is formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC LLCP (IID) for an NFC interface is formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC LLCP
address (see Section 3.3). In the viewpoint of address address (see Section 3.3). In the viewpoint of address
configuration, such an IID SHOULD guarantee a stable IPv6 address configuration, such an IID SHOULD guarantee a stable IPv6 address
because each data link connection is uniquely identified by the pair because each data link connection is uniquely identified by the pair
of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of each LLC PDU in NFC. of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of each LLC PDU in NFC.
Following the guidance of RFC 7136 [10], interface identifiers of all Following the guidance of [RFC7136], interface identifiers of all
unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are 64 bits long and unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are 64 bits long and
constructed in a modified EUI-64 format as shown in Figure 3. constructed by using the generation algorithm of random (but stable)
identifier (RID) [RFC7217] (see Figure 3).
0 1 3 4 6
0 6 2 8 3
+----------------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
|RRRRRRuRRRRRRRRR|RRRRRRRR11111111|11111110RRRRRRRR|RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR|
+----------------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
Figure 3: Formation of IID from NFC-enabled device address
The 'R' bits are output values which MAY be created by mechanisms 0 1 3 4 6
like hash functions with input values, i.e., the SSAP and other 0 6 2 8 3
values (e.g., a prefix and a nonce) because the 6-bit address of SSAP +---------+---------+---------+---------+
is easy and short to be targeted by attacks of third party (e.g., | Random (but stable) Identifier (RID) |
address scanning). Figure 4 shows an example for IID creation. The +---------+---------+---------+---------+
F() means a mechanism to make a output value for 64-bit IID, and an
parameter, "nonce" is an example input value for making the different
output values.
IID = F( SHA-256(6-bit SSAP, 64-bit Prefix), 'u' bit, nonce ) Figure 3: IID from NFC-enabled device
Figure 4: An example of an IID creation mechanism The RID is an output which MAY be created by the algorithm, F() with
input parameters. One of the parameters is Net_IFace, and NFC Link
Layer address (i.e., SSAP) MAY be a source of the NetIFace parameter.
The 6-bit address of SSAP of NFC is easy and short to be targeted by
attacks of third party (e.g., address scanning). The F() can provide
secured and stable IIDs for NFC-enabled devices.
In addition, the "Universal/Local" bit (i.e., the 'u' bit) of an NFC- In addition, the "Universal/Local" bit (i.e., the 'u' bit) of an NFC-
enabled device address MUST be set to 0 RFC 4291 [7]. enabled device address MUST be set to 0 [RFC4291].
4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address 4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address
Only if the NFC-enabled device address is known to be a public Only if the NFC-enabled device address is known to be a public
address, the "Universal/Local" bit be set to 1. The IPv6 link-local address, the "Universal/Local" bit be set to 1. The IPv6 link-local
address for an NFC-enabled device is formed by appending the IID, to address for an NFC-enabled device is formed by appending the IID, to
the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 5. the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 4.
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 1 6 2 0 1 6 2
0 0 4 7 0 0 4 7
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
|1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier | |1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier |
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
| | | |
| <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> | | <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> |
| | | |
Figure 5: IPv6 link-local address in NFC Figure 4: IPv6 link-local address in NFC
The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC
network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (RFC 3633 network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation
[8]). ([RFC3633]).
4.5. Neighbor Discovery 4.5. Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs (RFC 6775 [4]) describes Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs ([RFC6775]) describes
the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such
as mesh topology. NFC does not support a complicated mesh topology as mesh topology. NFC does not support a complicated mesh topology
but only a simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected but only a simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected
peer-to-peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC 6775 peer-to-peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC 6775
are applicable to NFC: are applicable to NFC:
1. In a case that an NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected o In a case that an NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected
to a 6LBR, an NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by to a 6LBR, an NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by
sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address
Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement
(NA) accordingly. In addition, if DHCPv6 is used to assign an (NA) accordingly. In addition, if DHCPv6 is used to assign an
address, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) MAY not be required. address, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) MAY not be required.
2. For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router o In a case that two or more NFC 6LNs meet within a sigle hop range
Advertisements the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of (e.g., isolated network), one of them can become a router for
RFC 6775. 6LR/6LBR. If they have the same properties, any of them can be a
router. Unless they are the same (e.g., different MTU, level of
remaining energy, connectivity, etc.), a performance-outstanding
device can become a router.
o For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
Advertisements, the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of
RFC 6775.
4.6. Dispatch Header 4.6. Dispatch Header
All IPv6-over-NFC encapsulated datagrams are prefixed by an All IPv6-over-NFC encapsulated datagrams are prefixed by an
encapsulation header stack consisting of a Dispatch value followed by encapsulation header stack consisting of a Dispatch value followed by
zero or more header fields. The only sequence currently defined for zero or more header fields. The only sequence currently defined for
IPv6-over-NFC is the LOWPAN_IPHC header followed by payload, as IPv6-over-NFC is the LOWPAN_IPHC header followed by payload, as
depicted in Figure 6. depicted in Figure 5.
+---------------+---------------+--------------+ +---------------+---------------+--------------+
| IPHC Dispatch | IPHC Header | Payload | | IPHC Dispatch | IPHC Header | Payload |
+---------------+---------------+--------------+ +---------------+---------------+--------------+
Figure 6: A IPv6-over-NFC Encapsulated 6LOWPAN_IPHC Compressed IPv6 Figure 5: A IPv6-over-NFC Encapsulated 6LOWPAN_IPHC Compressed IPv6
Datagram Datagram
The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace. Only The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace. Only
a single pattern is used to represent current IPv6-over-NFC a single pattern is used to represent current IPv6-over-NFC
functionality. functionality.
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
| Pattern | Header Type | Reference | | Pattern | Header Type | Reference |
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
| 01 1xxxxx | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | [RFC6282] | | 01 1xxxxx | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | [RFC6282] |
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
Figure 7: Dispatch Values Figure 6: Dispatch Values
Other IANA-assigned 6LoWPAN Dispatch values do not apply to this Other IANA-assigned 6LoWPAN Dispatch values do not apply to this
specification. specification.
4.7. Header Compression 4.7. Header Compression
Header compression as defined in RFC 6282 [5], which specifies the Header compression as defined in [RFC6282], which specifies the
compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on
top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282 top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282
encoding formats. encoding formats.
Therefore, IPv6 header compression in RFC 6282 [5] MUST be Therefore, IPv6 header compression in [RFC6282] MUST be implemented.
implemented. Further, implementations MAY also support Generic Further, implementations MAY also support Generic Header Compression
Header Compression (GHC) of RFC 7400 [11]. (GHC) of [RFC7400].
If a 16-bit address is required as a short address, it MUST be formed If a 16-bit address is required as a short address, it MUST be formed
by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address to the left with by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address to the left with
zeros as shown in Figure 8. zeros as shown in Figure 7.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. | | Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 8: NFC short address format Figure 7: NFC short address format
4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly 4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly
NFC provides fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for payloads from 128 NFC provides fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for payloads from 128
bytes up to 2176 bytes as mentioned in Section 3.4. The MTU of a bytes up to 2176 bytes as mentioned in Section 3.4. The MTU of a
general IPv6 packet can fit into a single NFC link frame. Therefore, general IPv6 packet can fit into a single NFC link frame. Therefore,
the FAR functionality as defined in RFC 4944, which specifies the the FAR functionality as defined in RFC 4944, which specifies the
fragmentation methods for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, MAY fragmentation methods for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, MAY
NOT be required as the basis for IPv6 datagram FAR on top of NFC. NOT be required as the basis for IPv6 datagram FAR on top of NFC.
The NFC link connection for IPv6 over NFC MUST be configured with an The NFC link connection for IPv6 over NFC MUST be configured with an
equivalent MIU size to fit the MTU of IPv6 Packet. If NFC devices equivalent MIU size to fit the MTU of IPv6 Packet. If NFC devices
support extension of the MTU, the MIUX value is 0x480 in order to fit support extension of the MTU, the MIUX value is 0x480 in order to fit
the MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet. the MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet.
4.9. Unicast Address Mapping 4.9. Unicast Address Mapping
The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast
addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general
description in Section 7.2 of RFC 4861 [9], unless otherwise description in Section 7.2 of [RFC4861], unless otherwise specified.
specified.
The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form
when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses. when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length=1 | | Type | Length=1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+- Padding (all zeros) -+ +- Padding (all zeros) -+
| | | |
+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+ +- +-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | NFC Addr. | | | NFC Addr. |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 9: Unicast address mapping Figure 8: Unicast address mapping
Option fields: Option fields:
Type: Type:
1: for Source Link-layer address. 1: for Source Link-layer address.
2: for Target Link-layer address. 2: for Target Link-layer address.
Length: Length:
skipping to change at page 12, line 39 skipping to change at page 12, line 39
padding on the left with a zero. In addition, the NFC Destination padding on the left with a zero. In addition, the NFC Destination
Address, 0x3F, MUST NOT be used as a unicast NFC address of SSAP or Address, 0x3F, MUST NOT be used as a unicast NFC address of SSAP or
DSAP. DSAP.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding(all zeros)|1 1 1 1 1 1| | Padding(all zeros)|1 1 1 1 1 1|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 10: Multicast address mapping Figure 9: Multicast address mapping
5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios 5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios
As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and
connected to the Internet. connected to the Internet.
5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet 5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet
One of the key applications of using IPv6 over NFC is securely One of the key applications of using IPv6 over NFC is securely
transmitting IPv6 packets because the RF distance between 6LN and transmitting IPv6 packets because the RF distance between 6LN and
6LBR is typically within 10 cm. If any third party wants to hack 6LBR is typically within 10 cm. If any third party wants to hack
into the RF between them, it must come to nearly touch them. into the RF between them, it must come to nearly touch them.
Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces (e.g., BT-LE, Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces (e.g., BT-LE,
Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending on the characteristics of Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending on the characteristics of
the data. the data.
Figure 11 illustrates an example of an NFC-enabled device network Figure 10 illustrates an example of an NFC-enabled device network
connected to the Internet. The distance between 6LN and 6LBR is connected to the Internet. The distance between 6LN and 6LBR is
typically 10 cm or less. If there is any laptop computers close to a typically 10 cm or less. If there is any laptop computers close to a
user, it will become the a 6LBR. Additionally, when the user mounts user, it will become the a 6LBR. Additionally, when the user mounts
an NFC-enabled air interface adapter (e.g., portable NFC dongle) on an NFC-enabled air interface adapter (e.g., portable NFC dongle) on
the close laptop PC, the user's NFC-enabled device (6LN) can the close laptop PC, the user's NFC-enabled device (6LN) can
communicate with the laptop PC (6LBR) within 10 cm distance. communicate with the laptop PC (6LBR) within 10 cm distance.
************ ************
6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN 6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN
| (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ | | (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ |
| | | | | |
| <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> | | <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | |
Figure 11: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet Figure 10: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet
5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network 5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network
In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be
a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 12. a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 11.
6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN 6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN
| (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) | | (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) |
| | | | | |
| <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> | | <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) |
Figure 12: Isolated NFC-enabled device network Figure 11: Isolated NFC-enabled device network
In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user
developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or
more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish
outstanding performance. outstanding performance.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
There are no IANA considerations related to this document. There are no IANA considerations related to this document.
skipping to change at page 14, line 21 skipping to change at page 14, line 21
IPv6-over-NFC uses an IPv6 interface identifier formed from a "Short IPv6-over-NFC uses an IPv6 interface identifier formed from a "Short
Address" and a set of well-known constant bits (such as padding with Address" and a set of well-known constant bits (such as padding with
'0's) for the modified EUI-64 format. However, the short address of '0's) for the modified EUI-64 format. However, the short address of
NFC link layer (LLC) is not generated as a physically permanent value NFC link layer (LLC) is not generated as a physically permanent value
but logically generated for each connection. Thus, every single but logically generated for each connection. Thus, every single
touch connection can use a different short address of NFC link with touch connection can use a different short address of NFC link with
an extremely short-lived link. This can mitigate address scanning as an extremely short-lived link. This can mitigate address scanning as
well as location tracking and device-specific vulnerability well as location tracking and device-specific vulnerability
exploitation. exploitation.
However, malicious tries for one connection of a long-lived link with
NFC technology are not secure, so the method of deriving interface
identifiers from 6-bit NFC Link layer addresses is intended to
preserve global uniqueness when it is possible. Therefore, it
requires a way to protect from duplication through accident or
forgery and to define a way to include sufficient bit of entropy in
the IPv6 interface identifier, such as random EUI-64.
8. Acknowledgements 8. Acknowledgements
We are grateful to the members of the IETF 6lo working group. We are grateful to the members of the IETF 6lo working group.
Michael Richardson, Suresh Krishnan, Pascal Thubert, Carsten Bormann, Michael Richardson, Suresh Krishnan, Pascal Thubert, Carsten Bormann,
and Alexandru Petrescu have provided valuable feedback for this Alexandru Petrescu, James Woodyatt, Dave Thaler, Samita Chakrabarti,
and Gabriel Montenegro have provided valuable feedback for this
draft. draft.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[1] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler, [LLCP-1.3]
"Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 "NFC Logical Link Control Protocol version 1.3", NFC Forum
Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007, Technical Specification , March 2016.
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[3] "NFC Logical Link Control Protocol version 1.3", NFC Forum [RFC3633] Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
Technical Specification , March 2016. Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>.
[4] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.
RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[5] Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6 [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011, DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.
[6] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless [RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>.
[7] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing [RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>. Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.
[8] Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic [RFC6282] Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633, Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003, DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.
[9] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
"Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007, Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>. RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[10] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6 [RFC7136] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6
Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136, Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136,
February 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>. February 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>.
[11] Bormann, C., "6LoWPAN-GHC: Generic Header Compression for [RFC7217] Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque
Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>.
[RFC7400] Bormann, C., "6LoWPAN-GHC: Generic Header Compression for
IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
(6LoWPANs)", RFC 7400, DOI 10.17487/RFC7400, November (6LoWPANs)", RFC 7400, DOI 10.17487/RFC7400, November
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7400>. 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7400>.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[12] "Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP- [ECMA-340]
"Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-
1) 3rd Ed.", ECMA-340 , June 2013. 1) 3rd Ed.", ECMA-340 , June 2013.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Younghwan Choi Younghwan Choi (editor)
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
218 Gajeongno, Yuseung-gu 218 Gajeongno, Yuseung-gu
Daejeon 34129 Daejeon 34129
Korea Korea
Phone: +82 42 860 1429 Phone: +82 42 860 1429
Email: yhc@etri.re.kr Email: yhc@etri.re.kr
Yong-Geun Hong Yong-Geun Hong (editor)
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-gu 161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-gu
Daejeon 305-700 Daejeon 305-700
Korea Korea
Phone: +82 42 860 6557 Phone: +82 42 860 6557
Email: yghong@etri.re.kr Email: yghong@etri.re.kr
Joo-Sang Youn Joo-Sang Youn
DONG-EUI University DONG-EUI University
 End of changes. 61 change blocks. 
136 lines changed or deleted 138 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.46. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/