draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-13.txt   draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-14.txt 
6Lo Working Group Y. Choi, Ed. 6Lo Working Group Y. Choi, Ed.
Internet-Draft Y-G. Hong Internet-Draft Y-G. Hong
Intended status: Standards Track ETRI Intended status: Standards Track ETRI
Expires: August 14, 2019 J-S. Youn Expires: January 9, 2020 J-S. Youn
Dongeui Univ Dongeui Univ
D-K. Kim D-K. Kim
KNU KNU
J-H. Choi J-H. Choi
Samsung Electronics Co., Samsung Electronics Co.,
February 10, 2019 July 8, 2019
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication
draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-13 draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-14
Abstract Abstract
Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones
and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other
by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no
more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and more than 10 cm. NFC standards cover communications protocols and
data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency
identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa. identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa.
The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC
skipping to change at page 1, line 46 skipping to change at page 1, line 46
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 14, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 4 3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . . 3
3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. MTU of NFC Link Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. MTU of NFC Link Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.5. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.5. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.6. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.6. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.7. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.7. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly Considerations . . . . . . . 12 4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly Considerations . . . . . . . 11
4.9. Unicast and Multicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.9. Unicast and Multicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet . . . . . . 13 5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet . . . . . . 13
5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically
requiring a distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on requiring a distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on
ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to
424 kbit/s [ECMA-340]. NFC always involves an initiator and a 424 kbit/s [ECMA-340]. NFC always involves an initiator and a
target; the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a target; the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a
passive target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form passive target. This enables NFC targets to take very simple form
factors such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not factors such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not
require batteries. NFC peer-to-peer communication is possible, require batteries. NFC peer-to-peer communication is possible,
provided both devices are powered. NFC builds upon RFID systems by provided both devices are powered. NFC builds upon RFID systems by
allowing two-way communication between endpoints, where earlier allowing two-way communication between endpoints. At the time of
systems such as contactless smart cards were one-way only. It has this writing, it had been used in devices such as mobile phones,
been used in devices such as mobile phones, running Android operating running Android operating system, named with a feature called
system, named with a feature called "Android Beam". In addition, it "Android Beam". It was expected for the other mobile phones, running
is expected for the other mobile phones, running the other operating the other operating systems (e.g., iOS, etc.) to be equipped with NFC
systems (e.g., iOS, etc.) to be equipped with NFC technology in the technology in the near future.
near future.
Considering the potential for exponential growth in the number of Considering the potential for exponential growth in the number of
heterogeneous air interface technologies, NFC would be widely used as heterogeneous air interface technologies, NFC has been widely used
one of the other air interface technologies, such as Bluetooth Low like Bluetooth Low Energy (BT-LE), Wi-Fi, and so on. Each of the
Energy (BT-LE), Wi-Fi, and so on. Each of the heterogeneous air heterogeneous air interface technologies has its own characteristics,
interface technologies has its own characteristics, which cannot be which cannot be covered by the other technologies, so various kinds
covered by the other technologies, so various kinds of air interface of air interface technologies would co-exist together. NFC can
technologies would co-exist together. Therefore, it is required for provide secured communications with its short transmission range.
them to communicate with each other. NFC also has the strongest
ability (e.g., secure communication distance of 10 cm) to prevent a
third party from attacking privacy.
When the number of devices and things having different air interface When the number of devices and things having different air interface
technologies communicate with each other, IPv6 is an ideal internet technologies communicate with each other, IPv6 is an ideal internet
protocols owing to its large address space. Also, NFC would be one protocol owing to its large address space. Also, NFC would be one of
of the endpoints using IPv6. Therefore, this document describes how the endpoints using IPv6. Therefore, this document describes how
IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LoWPAN techniques. IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LoWPAN techniques.
[RFC4944] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4. The [RFC4944] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4. The
NFC link also has similar characteristics to that of IEEE 802.15.4. NFC link also has similar characteristics to that of IEEE 802.15.4.
Many of the mechanisms defined in [RFC4944] can be applied to the Many of the mechanisms defined in [RFC4944] can be applied to the
transmission of IPv6 on NFC links. This document specifies the transmission of IPv6 on NFC links. This document specifies the
details of IPv6 transmission over NFC links. details of IPv6 transmission over NFC links.
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology 3. Overview of Near Field Communication Technology
NFC technology enables simple and safe two-way interactions between NFC enables simple and two-way interaction between two devices,
electronic devices, allowing consumers to perform contactless allowing consumers to perform contactless transactions, access
transactions, access digital content, and connect electronic devices digital content, and connect electronic devices with a single touch.
with a single touch. NFC complements many popular consumer level NFC complements many popular consumer level wireless technologies, by
wireless technologies, by utilizing the key elements in existing utilizing the key elements in existing standards for contactless card
standards for contactless card technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and JIS-X 6319-4). NFC can be
JIS-X 6319-4). NFC can be compatible with existing contactless card compatible with existing contactless card infrastructure and it
infrastructure and it enables a consumer to utilize one device across enables a consumer to utilize one device across different systems.
different systems.
Extending the capability of contactless card technology, NFC also Extending the capability of contactless card technology, NFC also
enables devices to share information at a distance that is less than enables devices to share information at a distance that is less than
10 cm with a maximum communication speed of 424 kbps. Users can 10 cm with a maximum communication speed of 424 kbps. Users can
share business cards, make transactions, access information from a share business cards, make transactions, access information from a
smart poster or provide credentials for access control systems with a smart poster or provide credentials for access control systems with a
simple touch. simple touch.
NFC's bidirectional communication ability is ideal for establishing
connections with other technologies by the simplicity of touch. In
addition to the easy connection and quick transactions, simple data
sharing is also available.
3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC 3.1. Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC
NFC-enabled devices are unique in that they can support three modes NFC-enabled devices are unique in that they can support three modes
of operation: card emulation, peer-to-peer, and reader/writer. Only of operation: card emulation, peer-to-peer, and reader/writer. Only
peer-to-peer in the three modes enables two NFC-enabled devices to peer-to-peer in the three modes enables two NFC-enabled devices to
communicate with each other to exchange information and share files, communicate with each other to exchange information and share files,
so that users of NFC-enabled devices can quickly share contact so that users of NFC-enabled devices can quickly share contact
information and other files with a touch. Therefore, the peer-to- information and other files with a touch. Therefore, the peer mode
peer mode is used for ipv6-over-nfc. In addition, NFC-enabled is used for ipv6-over-nfc. In addition, NFC-enabled devices can
devices can securely send IPv6 packets to any corresponding node on securely send IPv6 packets in wireless range when an NFC-enabled
the Internet when an NFC-enabled gateway is linked to the Internet. gateway is linked to the Internet.
3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC 3.2. Protocol Stacks of NFC
IP can use the services provided by the Logical Link Control Protocol IP can use the services provided by the Logical Link Control Protocol
(LLCP) in the NFC stack to provide reliable, two-way transmission of (LLCP) in the NFC stack to provide reliable, two-way transmission of
information between the peer devices. Figure 1 depicts the NFC P2P information between the peer devices. Figure 1 depicts the NFC P2P
protocol stack with IPv6 bindings to LLCP. protocol stack with IPv6 bindings to LLCP.
For data communication in IPv6 over NFC, an IPv6 packet MUST be For data communication in IPv6 over NFC, an IPv6 packet MUST be
passed down to LLCP of NFC and transported to an Information (I) and passed down to LLCP of NFC and transported to an Information (I) and
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LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. LLCP does not support LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. LLCP does not support
fragmentation and reassembly. For IPv6 addressing or address fragmentation and reassembly. For IPv6 addressing or address
configuration, LLCP MUST provide related information, such as link configuration, LLCP MUST provide related information, such as link
layer addresses, to its upper layer. The LLCP to IPv6 protocol layer addresses, to its upper layer. The LLCP to IPv6 protocol
binding MUST transfer the SSAP and DSAP value to the IPv6 over NFC binding MUST transfer the SSAP and DSAP value to the IPv6 over NFC
protocol. SSAP stands for Source Service Access Point, which is a protocol. SSAP stands for Source Service Access Point, which is a
6-bit value meaning a kind of Logical Link Control (LLC) address, 6-bit value meaning a kind of Logical Link Control (LLC) address,
while DSAP means an LLC address of the destination NFC-enabled while DSAP means an LLC address of the destination NFC-enabled
device. device.
| | | |
| | Application Layer | | Application Layer
| Upper Layer Protocols | Transport Layer | Upper Layer Protocols | Transport Layer
| | Network Layer | | Network Layer
| | | | | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ ------------------
| IPv6-LLCP Binding | | | IPv6-LLCP Binding | |
+----------------------------------------+ NFC +----------------------------------------+ NFC
| | Logical Link | | Logical Link
| Logical Link Control Protocol | Layer | Logical Link Control Protocol | Layer
| (LLCP) | | | (LLCP) | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ ------------------
| | | | | |
| Activities | | | Activities | |
| Digital Protocol | NFC | Digital Protocol | NFC
| | Physical | | Physical
+----------------------------------------+ Layer +----------------------------------------+ Layer
| | | | | |
| RF Analog | | | RF Analog | |
| | | | | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+ ------------------
Figure 1: Protocol Stacks of NFC Figure 1: Protocol Stacks of NFC
The LLCP consists of Logical Link Control (LLC) and MAC Mapping. The The LLCP consists of Logical Link Control (LLC) and MAC Mapping. The
MAC Mapping integrates an existing RF protocol into the LLCP MAC Mapping integrates an existing RF protocol into the LLCP
architecture. The LLC contains three components, such as Link architecture. The LLC contains three components, such as Link
Management, Connection-oriented Transmission, and Connection-less Management, Connection-oriented Transmission, and Connection-less
Transmission. The Link Management component is responsible for Transmission. The Link Management component is responsible for
serializing all connection-oriented and connection-less LLC PDU serializing all connection-oriented and connection-less LLC PDU
(Protocol Data Unit) exchanges and for aggregation and disaggregation (Protocol Data Unit) exchanges and for aggregation and disaggregation
of small PDUs. This component also guarantees asynchronous balanced of small PDUs. The Connection-oriented Transmission component is
mode communication and provides link status supervision by performing responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data exchanges
the symmetry procedure. The Connection-oriented Transmission including connection set-up and termination. The Connectionless
component is responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data Transmission component is responsible for handling unacknowledged
exchanges including connection set-up and termination. The data exchanges.
Connectionless Transmission component is responsible for handling
unacknowledged data exchanges.
3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing 3.3. NFC-enabled Device Addressing
According to NFC Logical Link Control Protocol v1.3 [LLCP-1.3], NFC- According to NFC Logical Link Control Protocol v1.3 [LLCP-1.3], NFC-
enabled devices have two types of 6-bit addresses (i.e., SSAP and enabled devices have two types of 6-bit addresses (i.e., SSAP and
DSAP) to identify service access points. The several service access DSAP) to identify service access points. The several service access
points can be installed on a NFC device. However, the SSAP and DSAP points can be installed on a NFC device. However, the SSAP and DSAP
can be used as identifiers for NFC link connections with the IPv6 can be used as identifiers for NFC link connections with the IPv6
over NFC adaptation layer. Therefore, the SSAP can be used to over NFC adaptation layer. Therefore, the SSAP can be used to
generate an IPv6 interface identifier. Address values between 00h generate an IPv6 interface identifier. Address values between 00h
and 0Fh of SSAP and DSAP are reserved for identifying the well-known and 0Fh of SSAP and DSAP are reserved for identifying the well-known
service access points, which are defined in the NFC Forum Assigned service access points, which are defined in the NFC Forum Assigned
Numbers Register. Address values between 10h and 1Fh SHALL be Numbers Register. Address values between 10h and 1Fh are assigned by
assigned by the local LLC to services registered by local service the local LLC to services registered by local service environment.
environment. In addition, address values between 20h and 3Fh SHALL In addition, address values between 20h and 3Fh are assigned by the
be assigned by the local LLC as a result of an upper layer service local LLC as a result of an upper layer service request. Therefore,
request. Therefore, the address values between 20h and 3Fh can be the address values between 20h and 3Fh can be used for generating
used for generating IPv6 interface identifiers. IPv6 interface identifiers.
3.4. MTU of NFC Link Layer 3.4. MTU of NFC Link Layer
As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet MUST be passed down to As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet MUST be passed down to
LLCP of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol LLCP of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol
Data Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I Data Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I
PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device. PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device.
The information field of an I PDU contains a single service data The information field of an I PDU contains a single service data
unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field is unit. The maximum number of octets in the information field is
determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link
connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs is 128 octets. connection. The default value of the MIU for I PDUs is 128 octets.
The local and remote LLCs each establish and maintain distinct MIU The local and remote LLCs each establish and maintain distinct MIU
values for each data link connection endpoint. Also, an LLC MAY values for each data link connection endpoint. Also, an LLC is
announce a larger MIU for a data link connection by transmitting an announce a larger MIU for a data link connection by transmitting an
MIUX extension parameter within the information field. If no MIUX MIUX extension parameter within the information field. If no MIUX
parameter is transmitted, the default MIU value is 128 bytes. parameter is transmitted, the MIU value is 128 bytes. Otherwise, the
Otherwise, the MTU size in NFC LLCP MUST be calculated from the MIU MTU size in NFC LLCP MUST be calculated from the MIU value as
value as follows: follows:
MIU = 128 + MIUX. MTU = MIU = 128 + MIUX.
According to [LLCP-1.3], Figure 2 shows an example of the MIUX According to [LLCP-1.3], Figure 2 shows an example of the MIUX
parameter TLV. Each of TLV Type and TLV Length field is 1 byte, and parameter TLV. Each of TLV Type and TLV Length field is 1 byte, and
TLV Value field is 2 bytes. TLV Value field is 2 bytes.
0 0 1 2 3 0 0 1 2 3
0 8 6 2 1 0 8 6 2 1
+--------+--------+----------------+ +----------+----------+------+-----------+
| Type | Length | Value | | Type | Length | Value |
+--------+--------+----+-----------+ +----------+----------+------+-----------+
|00000010|00000010|1011| MIUX | | 00000010 | 00000010 | 1011 | 0x0~0x7FF |
+--------+--------+----+-----------+ +----------+----------+------+-----------+
| <-------> |
0x000 ~ 0x7FF
Figure 2: Example of MIUX Parameter TLV Figure 2: Example of MIUX Parameter TLV
When the MIUX parameter is encoded as a TLV option, the TLV Type When the MIUX parameter is encoded as a TLV option, the TLV Type
field MUST be 0x02 and the TLV Length field MUST be 0x02. The MIUX field MUST be 0x02 and the TLV Length field MUST be 0x02. The MIUX
parameter MUST be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the parameter MUST be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the
TLV Value field. The unused bits in the TLV Value field MUST be set TLV Value field. The unused bits in the TLV Value field MUST be set
to zero by the sender and ignored by the receiver. A maximum value to zero by the sender and ignored by the receiver. A maximum value
of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size of the MTU in of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size of the MTU in
NFC LLCP is 2176 bytes including the 128 byte default of MIU. NFC LLCP is 2176 bytes including the 128 byte default of MIU. This
value MUST be 0x480 to cover MTU of IPV6 if FAR is not used in IPv6
over NFC.
4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC 4. Specification of IPv6 over NFC
NFC technology also has considerations and requirements owing to low NFC technology also has considerations and requirements owing to low
power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN standards power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN standards
[RFC4944], [RFC6775], and [RFC6282] provide useful functionality for [RFC4944], [RFC6775], and [RFC6282] provide useful functionality for
reducing overhead which can be applied to NFC. This functionality reducing overhead which can be applied to NFC. This functionality
consists of link-local IPv6 addresses and stateless IPv6 address consists of link-local IPv6 addresses and stateless IPv6 address
auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor Discovery (see auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor Discovery (see
Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.7). Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.7).
4.1. Protocol Stacks 4.1. Protocol Stacks
Figure 3 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be Figure 3 illustrates IPv6 over NFC. Upper layer protocols can be
transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer protocols, transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer protocols,
and others capable running on top of IPv6. and others capable running on top of IPv6.
| | Transport & | |
| Upper Layer Protocols | Application Layer | Upper Layer Protocols |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+
| | | | IPv6 |
| IPv6 | | +----------------------------------------+
| | Network | Adaptation Layer for IPv6 over NFC |
+----------------------------------------+ Layer +----------------------------------------+
| Adaptation Layer for IPv6 over NFC | | | NFC Link Layer |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------ +----------------------------------------+
| IPv6-LLCP Binding | | NFC Physical Layer |
| Logical Link Control Protocol | NFC Link Layer +----------------------------------------+
| (LLCP) | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------
| | |
| Activities | NFC
| Digital Protocol | Physical Layer
| RF Analog | |
| | |
+----------------------------------------+ <------------------
Figure 3: Protocol Stacks for IPv6 over NFC Figure 3: Protocol Stacks for IPv6 over NFC
The adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC SHALL support neighbor The adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC support neighbor discovery,
discovery, stateless address auto-configuration, header compression, stateless address auto-configuration, header compression, and
and fragmentation & reassembly. fragmentation & reassembly.
4.2. Link Model 4.2. Link Model
In the case of BT-LE, the Logical Link Control and Adaptation In the case of BT-LE, the Logical Link Control and Adaptation
Protocol (L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) Protocol (L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR)
functionality; therefore, the adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE functionality; therefore, the adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE
does not have to conduct the FAR procedure. The NFC LLCP, in does not have to conduct the FAR procedure. The NFC LLCP, in
contrast, does not support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC contrast, does not support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC
needs to consider the FAR functionality, defined in [RFC4944]. needs to consider the FAR functionality, defined in [RFC4944].
However, the MTU on an NFC link can be configured in a connection However, the MTU on an NFC link can be configured in a connection
procedure and extended enough to fit the MTU of IPv6 packet (see procedure and extended enough to fit the MTU of IPv6 packet (see
Section 4.8). Section 4.8).
This document does NOT RECOMMEND using FAR over NFC link due to This document does NOT RECOMMEND using FAR over NFC link. In
simplicity of the protocol and implementation. In addition, the addition, the implementation for this specification MUST use MIUX
implementation for this specification SHOULD use MIUX extension to extension to communicate the MTU of the link to the peer as defined
communicate the MTU of the link to the peer as defined in in Section 3.4.
Section 3.4.
The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a
point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, an NFC link does not point-to-point link only. Unlike in BT-LE, an NFC link does not
support a star topology or mesh network topology but only direct support a star topology or mesh network topology but only direct
connections between two devices. Furthermore, the NFC link layer connections between two devices. Furthermore, the NFC link layer
does not support packet forwarding in link layer. Due to this does not support packet forwarding in link layer. Due to this
characteristics, 6LoWPAN functionalities, such as addressing and characteristics, 6LoWPAN functionalities, such as addressing and
auto-configuration, and header compression, need to be specialized auto-configuration, and header compression, need to be specialized
into IPv6 over NFC. into IPv6 over NFC.
4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 4.3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
An NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address An NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address
autoconfiguration as per [RFC4862]. A 64-bit Interface identifier autoconfiguration as per [RFC4862]. A 64-bit Interface identifier
(IID) for an NFC interface is formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC LLCP (IID) for an NFC interface is formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC SSAP
address (see Section 3.3). In the viewpoint of address (see Section 3.3). In the viewpoint of address configuration, such
configuration, such an IID SHOULD guarantee a stable IPv6 address an IID should guarantee a stable IPv6 address during the course of a
because each data link connection is uniquely identified by the pair single connection, because each data link connection is uniquely
of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of each LLC PDU in NFC. identified by the pair of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of
each LLC PDU in NFC.
Following the guidance of [RFC7136], interface identifiers of all Following the guidance of [RFC7136], interface identifiers of all
unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are 64 bits long and unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are 64 bits long and
constructed by using the generation algorithm of random (but stable) constructed by using the generation algorithm of random (but stable)
identifier (RID) [RFC7217] (see Figure 4). identifier (RID) [RFC7217] (see Figure 4).
0 1 3 4 6 0 1 3 4 6
0 6 2 8 3 0 6 2 8 3
+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Random (but stable) Identifier (RID) | | Random (but stable) Identifier (RID) |
+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +---------+---------+---------+---------+
Figure 4: IID from NFC-enabled device Figure 4: IID from NFC-enabled device
The RID is an output which MAY be created by the algorithm, F() with The RID is an output which is created by the algorithm, F() with
input parameters. One of the parameters is Net_IFace, and NFC Link input parameters. One of the parameters is Net_IFace, and NFC Link
Layer address (i.e., SSAP) MAY be a source of the NetIFace parameter. Layer address (i.e., SSAP) is a source of the NetIFace parameter.
The 6-bit address of SSAP of NFC is easy and short to be targeted by The 6-bit address of SSAP of NFC is easy and short to be targeted by
attacks of third party (e.g., address scanning). The F() can provide attacks of third party (e.g., address scanning). The F() can provide
secured and stable IIDs for NFC-enabled devices. In addition, an secured and stable IIDs for NFC-enabled devices. In addition, an
optional parameter, Network_ID MAY be used to increase the randomness optional parameter, Network_ID is used to increase the randomness of
of the generated IID. the generated IID.
4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address 4.4. IPv6 Link Local Address
Only if the NFC-enabled device address is known to be a public The IPv6 link-local address for an NFC-enabled device is formed by
address, the "Universal/Local" bit be set to 1. The IPv6 link-local appending the IID, to the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 5.
address for an NFC-enabled device is formed by appending the IID, to
the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 5.
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 1 6 2 0 1 6 2
0 0 4 7 0 0 4 7
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
|1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier | |1111111010| zeros | Interface Identifier |
+----------+------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
| | | |
| <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> | | <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> |
| | | |
Figure 5: IPv6 link-local address in NFC Figure 5: IPv6 link-local address in NFC
The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC
network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation network can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation ([RFC3633]).
([RFC3633]). The "Interface Identifier" is used the secured and stable IIDs for
NFC-enabled devices.
4.5. Neighbor Discovery 4.5. Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs ([RFC6775]) describes Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs ([RFC6775]) describes
the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such
as mesh topology. NFC does not support a complicated mesh topology as mesh topology. NFC does not support a complicated mesh topology
but only a simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected but only a simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected
peer-to-peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC 6775 peer-to-peer network. Therefore, the following aspects of RFC 6775
are applicable to NFC: are applicable to NFC:
o When an NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected to a 6LBR, o When an NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected to a NFC-
an NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by sending a enabled 6LBR, an NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the
Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address Registration 6LBR[RFC4944] by sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with
Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement (NA) the Address Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor
accordingly. In addition, if DHCPv6 is used to assign an address, Advertisement (NA) accordingly. In addition, when the 6LN and
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is not necessary. 6LBR are directly connected, DHCPv6 is used for address
assignment. Therefore, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is not
necessary between them.
o When two or more NFC 6LNs(or 6LRs) meet, there are two cases. One o When two or more NFC 6LNs[RFC4944](or 6LRs) are connected, there
is that three or more NFC devices are linked with multi-hop are two cases. One is that three or more NFC devices are linked
connections, and the other is that they meet within a single hop with multi-hop connections, and the other is that they meet within
range (e.g., isolated network). In a case of multi-hops, all of a single hop range (e.g., isolated network). In a case of multi-
6LNs, which have two or more connections with different neighbors, hops, all of 6LNs, which have two or more connections with
MAY be a router for 6LR/6LBR. In a case that they meet within a different neighbors, is a router for 6LR/6LBR. In a case that
single hop and they have the same properties, any of them can be a they meet within a single hop and they have the same properties,
router. When the NFC nodes are not of uniform category (e.g., any of them can be a router.
different MTU, level of remaining energy, connectivity, etc.), a
performance-outstanding device can become a router. Also, they
MUST deliver their MTU information to neighbors with NFC LLCP
protocols during connection initialization. The router MAY also
communicate other capabilities which is out of scope of this
document.
o For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router o For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
Advertisements, the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of Advertisements, the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of
[RFC6775]. [RFC6775].
o When a NFC device becomes a 6LR or a 6LBR, the NFC device MUST o When a NFC device becomes a 6LR or a 6LBR, the NFC device MUST
follow Section 6 and 7 of [RFC6775]. follow Section 6 and 7 of [RFC6775].
4.6. Dispatch Header 4.6. Dispatch Header
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IPv6-over-NFC is the LOWPAN_IPHC header followed by payload, as IPv6-over-NFC is the LOWPAN_IPHC header followed by payload, as
depicted in Figure 6. depicted in Figure 6.
+---------------+---------------+--------------+ +---------------+---------------+--------------+
| IPHC Dispatch | IPHC Header | Payload | | IPHC Dispatch | IPHC Header | Payload |
+---------------+---------------+--------------+ +---------------+---------------+--------------+
Figure 6: A IPv6-over-NFC Encapsulated 6LOWPAN_IPHC Compressed IPv6 Figure 6: A IPv6-over-NFC Encapsulated 6LOWPAN_IPHC Compressed IPv6
Datagram Datagram
The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace. Only The dispatch value is treated as an unstructured namespace. Only a
a single pattern is used to represent current IPv6-over-NFC single pattern is used to represent current IPv6-over-NFC
functionality. functionality.
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
| Pattern | Header Type | Reference | | Pattern | Header Type | Reference |
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
| 01 1xxxxx | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | [RFC6282] | | 01 1xxxxx | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | [RFC6282] |
+------------+--------------------+-----------+ +------------+--------------------+-----------+
Figure 7: Dispatch Values Figure 7: Dispatch Values
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4.7. Header Compression 4.7. Header Compression
Header compression as defined in [RFC6282], which specifies the Header compression as defined in [RFC6282], which specifies the
compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on
top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282 top of NFC. All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282
encoding formats. encoding formats.
Therefore, IPv6 header compression in [RFC6282] MUST be implemented. Therefore, IPv6 header compression in [RFC6282] MUST be implemented.
Further, implementations MAY also support Generic Header Compression Further, implementations MUST also support Generic Header Compression
(GHC) of [RFC7400]. (GHC) of [RFC7400].
If a 16-bit address is required as a short address, it MUST be formed If a 16-bit address is required as a short address, it MUST be formed
by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address to the left with by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address to the left with
zeros as shown in Figure 8. zeros as shown in Figure 8.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. | | Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 8: NFC short address format Figure 8: NFC short address format
4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly Considerations 4.8. Fragmentation and Reassembly Considerations
IPv6-over-NFC fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for the payloads is IPv6-over-NFC MUST NOT use fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for the
NOT RECOMMENDED in this document as discussed in Section 3.4. The payloads as discussed in Section 3.4. The NFC link connection for
NFC link connection for IPv6 over NFC MUST be configured with an IPv6 over NFC MUST be configured with an equivalent MIU size to fit
equivalent MIU size to fit the MTU of IPv6 Packet. The MIUX value is the MTU of IPv6 Packet. The MIUX value is 0x480 in order to fit the
0x480 in order to fit the MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet if NFC MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet if NFC devices support extension of
devices support extension of the MTU. However, if the NFC device the MTU. However, if the NFC device does not support extension,
does not support extension, IPv6-over-NFC uses FAR with the default IPv6-over-NFC uses FAR with the default MTU (128 bytes), as defined
MTU (128 bytes), as defined in [RFC4944]. in [RFC4944].
4.9. Unicast and Multicast Address Mapping 4.9. Unicast and Multicast Address Mapping
The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast
addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general
description in Section 7.2 of [RFC4861], unless otherwise specified. description in Section 4.6.1 and 7.2 of [RFC4861], unless otherwise
specified.
The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form
when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses. when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length=1 | | Type | Length=1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
skipping to change at page 13, line 31 skipping to change at page 12, line 47
The NFC Link Layer does not support multicast. Therefore, packets The NFC Link Layer does not support multicast. Therefore, packets
are always transmitted by unicast between two NFC-enabled devices. are always transmitted by unicast between two NFC-enabled devices.
Even in the case where a 6LBR is attached to multiple 6LNs, the 6LBR Even in the case where a 6LBR is attached to multiple 6LNs, the 6LBR
cannot do a multicast to all the connected 6LNs. If the 6LBR needs cannot do a multicast to all the connected 6LNs. If the 6LBR needs
to send a multicast packet to all its 6LNs, it has to replicate the to send a multicast packet to all its 6LNs, it has to replicate the
packet and unicast it on each link. packet and unicast it on each link.
5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios 5. Internet Connectivity Scenarios
As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and NFC networks can be isolated and connected to the Internet.
connected to the Internet.
5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet 5.1. NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet
One of the key applications of using IPv6 over NFC is securely One of the key applications of using IPv6 over NFC is securely
transmitting IPv6 packets because the RF distance between 6LN and transmitting IPv6 packets because the RF distance between 6LN and
6LBR is typically within 10 cm. If any third party wants to hack 6LBR is typically within 10 cm. If any third party wants to hack
into the RF between them, it must come to nearly touch them. into the RF between them, it must come to nearly touch them.
Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces (e.g., BT-LE, Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces (e.g., BT-LE,
Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending on the characteristics of Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending on the characteristics of
the data. the data.
skipping to change at page 14, line 14 skipping to change at page 13, line 32
************ ************
6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN 6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN
| (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ | | (dis. 10 cm or less) | ************ |
| | | | | |
| <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> | | <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | |
Figure 10: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet Figure 10: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet
Two or more LNs MAY be connected with a 6LBR, but each connection Two or more LNs are connected with a 6LBR, but each connection uses a
uses a different subnet. The 6LBR is acting as a router and different subnet. The 6LBR is acting as a router and forwarding
forwarding packets between 6LNs and the Internet. Also, the 6LBR packets between 6LNs and the Internet. Also, the 6LBR MUST ensure
MUST ensure address collisions do not occur and forwards packets sent address collisions do not occur and forwards packets sent by one 6LN
by one 6LN to another. to another.
5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network 5.2. Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network
In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be
a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 11. a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 11.
6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN 6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN
| (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) | | (10 cm or less) | (10 cm or less) |
| | | | | |
| <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> | | <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> |
| (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | | (IPv6 over NFC packet) | (IPv6 over NFC packet) |
Figure 11: Isolated NFC-enabled device network Figure 11: Isolated NFC-enabled device network
In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user
developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or developers. They may image interesting applications, where three or
more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish
outstanding performance. In an isolated NFC-enabled device network, performance. In an isolated NFC-enabled device network, when two or
when two or more LRs MAY be connected with each other, and then they more LRs are connected with each other, and then they are acting like
are acting like routers, the 6LR MUST ensure address collisions do routers, the 6LR MUST ensure address collisions do not occur.
not occur.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
There are no IANA considerations related to this document. There are no IANA considerations related to this document.
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
This document does not RECOMMEND sending NFC packets over the
Internet or any unsecured network.
When interface identifiers (IIDs) are generated, devices and users When interface identifiers (IIDs) are generated, devices and users
are required to consider mitigating various threats, such as are required to consider mitigating various threats, such as
correlation of activities over time, location tracking, device- correlation of activities over time, location tracking, device-
specific vulnerability exploitation, and address scanning. specific vulnerability exploitation, and address scanning.
IPv6-over-NFC is, in practice, not used for long-lived links for big
size data transfer or multimedia streaming, but used for extremely
short-lived links (i.e., single touch-based approaches) for ID
verification and mobile payment. This will mitigate the threat of
correlation of activities over time.
IPv6-over-NFC uses an IPv6 interface identifier formed from a "Short IPv6-over-NFC uses an IPv6 interface identifier formed from a "Short
Address" and a set of well-known constant bits (such as padding with Address" and a set of well-known constant bits for the modified
'0's) for the modified EUI-64 format. However, the short address of EUI-64 format. However, NFC applications use short-lived
NFC link layer (LLC) is not generated as a physically permanent value connections, and the every connection is made with different address
but logically generated for each connection. Thus, every single of NFC link with an extremely short-lived link.
touch connection can use a different short address of NFC link with
an extremely short-lived link. This can mitigate address scanning as
well as location tracking and device-specific vulnerability
exploitation.
Thus, this document does not RECOMMEND sending NFC packets over the
Internet or any unsecured network.
If there is a compelling reason to send/receive the IPv6-over-NFC This document does not RECOMMEND sending NFC packets over the
packets over the unsecured network, the deployment SHOULD make sure Internet or any unsecured network. Especially, there can be a threat
that the packets are sent over secured channels. The particular model in the scenario of Section 5.1. when the NFC-enabled device
Security mechanisms are out of scope of this document. links to a NFC-enabled gateway for connectivity with the Internet,
the gateway can be attacked. Even though IPv6 over NFC guarantees
security between the two NFC devices, there can be another threat
during packet forwarding.
8. Acknowledgements 8. Acknowledgements
We are grateful to the members of the IETF 6lo working group. We are grateful to the members of the IETF 6lo working group.
Michael Richardson, Suresh Krishnan, Pascal Thubert, Carsten Bormann, Michael Richardson, Suresh Krishnan, Pascal Thubert, Carsten Bormann,
Alexandru Petrescu, James Woodyatt, Dave Thaler, Samita Chakrabarti, Alexandru Petrescu, James Woodyatt, Dave Thaler, Samita Chakrabarti,
and Gabriel Montenegro have provided valuable feedback for this and Gabriel Montenegro have provided valuable feedback for this
draft. draft.
9. References 9. Normative References
9.1. Normative References [ECMA-340]
"Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-
1) 3rd Ed.", ECMA-340 , June 2013.
[LLCP-1.3] [LLCP-1.3]
"NFC Logical Link Control Protocol version 1.3", NFC Forum "NFC Logical Link Control Protocol version 1.3", NFC Forum
Technical Specification , March 2016. Technical Specification , March 2016.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3633] Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic [RFC3633] Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633, Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003, DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February
2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.
[RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless [RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>.
skipping to change at page 17, line 14 skipping to change at page 16, line 20
[RFC7400] Bormann, C., "6LoWPAN-GHC: Generic Header Compression for [RFC7400] Bormann, C., "6LoWPAN-GHC: Generic Header Compression for
IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
(6LoWPANs)", RFC 7400, DOI 10.17487/RFC7400, November (6LoWPANs)", RFC 7400, DOI 10.17487/RFC7400, November
2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7400>. 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7400>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
9.2. Informative References
[ECMA-340]
"Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-
1) 3rd Ed.", ECMA-340 , June 2013.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Younghwan Choi (editor) Younghwan Choi (editor)
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
218 Gajeongno, Yuseung-gu 218 Gajeongno, Yuseung-gu
Daejeon 34129 Daejeon 34129
Korea Korea
Phone: +82 42 860 1429 Phone: +82 42 860 1429
Email: yhc@etri.re.kr Email: yhc@etri.re.kr
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