draft-ietf-6lo-privacy-considerations-04.txt   rfc8065.txt 
Network Working Group D. Thaler Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) D. Thaler
Internet-Draft Microsoft Request for Comments: 8065 Microsoft
Intended status: Informational October 31, 2016 Category: Informational February 2017
Expires: May 4, 2017 ISSN: 2070-1721
Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Adaptation Layer Mechanisms Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Adaptation-Layer Mechanisms
draft-ietf-6lo-privacy-considerations-04
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses how a number of privacy threats apply to This document discusses how a number of privacy threats apply to
technologies designed for IPv6 over various link layer protocols, and technologies designed for IPv6 over various link-layer protocols, and
provides advice to protocol designers on how to address such threats it provides advice to protocol designers on how to address such
in adaptation layer specifications for IPv6 over such links. threats in adaptation-layer specifications for IPv6 over such links.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
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approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 4, 2017. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8065.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Amount of Entropy Needed in Global Addresses . . . . . . . . 3 2. Amount of Entropy Needed in Global Addresses . . . . . . . . 3
3. Potential Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Potential Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. IEEE-Identifier-Based Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. IEEE-Identifier-Based Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Short Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Short Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
RFC 6973 [RFC6973] discusses privacy considerations for Internet RFC 6973 [RFC6973] discusses privacy considerations for Internet
protocols, and Section 5.2 of that document covers a number of protocols, and Section 5.2 of that document covers a number of
privacy-specific threats. In the context of IPv6 addresses, privacy-specific threats. In the context of IPv6 addresses, Section
Section 3 of [RFC7721] provides further elaboration on the 3 of [RFC7721] provides further elaboration on the applicability of
applicability of the privacy threats. the privacy threats.
When interface identifiers (IIDs) are generated without sufficient When interface identifiers (IIDs) are generated without sufficient
entropy compared to the link lifetime, devices and users can become entropy compared to the link lifetime, devices and users can become
vulnerable to the various threats discussed there, including: vulnerable to the various threats discussed there, including:
o Correlation of activities over time, if the same identifier is o Correlation of activities over time, if the same identifier is
used for traffic over period of time used for traffic over period of time
o Location tracking, if the same interface identifier is used with o Location tracking, if the same interface identifier is used with
different prefixes as a device moves between different networks different prefixes as a device moves between different networks
o Device-specific vulnerability exploitation, if the identifier o Device-specific vulnerability exploitation, if the identifier
helps identify a vendor or version or protocol and hence suggests helps identify a vendor or version or protocol and hence suggests
what types of attacks to try what types of attacks to try
o Address scanning, which enables all of the above attacks by off- o Address scanning, which enables all of the above attacks by
link attackers. (On some Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) links off-link attackers. (On some Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA)
where all nodes aren't already privy to all on-link addresses, links where all nodes aren't already privy to all on-link
address scans might also be done by on-link attackers, but in most addresses, address scans might also be done by on-link attackers;
cases address scans are not an interesting threat from on-link however, in most cases, address scans are not an interesting
attackers and thus address scans generally apply only to routable threat from on-link attackers and thus address scans generally
addresses.) apply only to routable addresses.)
For example, for links that may last for years, "enough" bits of For example, for links that may last for years, "enough" bits of
entropy means at least 46 or so bits (see Section 2 for why) in a entropy means at least 46 or so bits (see Section 2 for why) in a
routable address; ideally all 64 bits of the IID should be used, routable address; ideally all 64 bits of the IID should be used,
although historically some bits have been excluded for reasons although historically some bits have been excluded for reasons
discussed in [RFC7421]. Link-local addresses can also be susceptible discussed in [RFC7421]. Link-local addresses can also be susceptible
to the same privacy threats from off-link attackers, since experience to the same privacy threats from off-link attackers, since experience
shows they are often leaked by upper-layer protocols such as SMTP, shows they are often leaked by upper-layer protocols such as SMTP,
SIP, or DNS. SIP, or DNS.
For these reasons, [I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids] recommends using an For these reasons, [RFC8064] recommends using an address generation
address generation scheme in [RFC7217], rather than addresses scheme in [RFC7217], rather than addresses generated from a fixed
generated from a fixed link-layer address. link-layer address.
Furthermore, to mitigate the threat of correlation of activities over Furthermore, to mitigate the threat of correlation of activities over
time on long-lived links, [RFC4941] specifies the notion of a time on long-lived links, [RFC4941] specifies the notion of a
"temporary" address to be used for transport sessions (typically "temporary" address to be used for transport sessions (typically
locally-initiated outbound traffic to the Internet) that should not locally initiated outbound traffic to the Internet) that should not
be linkable to a more permanent identifier such as a DNS name, user be linkable to a more permanent identifier such as a DNS name, user
name, or fixed link-layer address. Indeed, the default address name, or fixed link-layer address. Indeed, the default address
selection rules [RFC6724] now prefer temporary addresses by default selection rules [RFC6724] now prefer temporary addresses by default
for outgoing connections. If a device needs to simultaneously for outgoing connections. If a device needs to simultaneously
support unlinkable traffic as well as traffic that is linkable to support unlinkable traffic as well as traffic that is linkable to
such a stable identifier, this necessitates supporting simultaneous such a stable identifier, supporting simultaneous use of multiple
use of multiple addresses per device. addresses per device is necessary.
2. Amount of Entropy Needed in Global Addresses 2. Amount of Entropy Needed in Global Addresses
In terms of privacy threats discussed in [RFC7721], the one with the In terms of privacy threats discussed in [RFC7721], the one with the
need for the most entropy is address scans of routable addresses. To need for the most entropy is address scans of routable addresses. To
mitigate address scans, one needs enough entropy to make the mitigate address scans, one needs enough entropy to make the
probability of a successful address probe be negligible. Typically probability of a successful address probe be negligible. Typically,
this is measured in the length of time it would take to have a 50% this is measured in the length of time it would take to have a 50%
probability of getting at least one hit. Address scans often rely on probability of getting at least one hit. Address scans often rely on
sending a packet such as a TCP SYN or ICMP Echo Request, and sending a packet such as a TCP SYN or ICMP Echo Request, then
determining whether the reply is an ICMP unreachable error (if no determining whether the reply is a) an ICMP unreachable error (if no
host exists with that address) or a TCP response or ICMP Echo Reply host exists with that address), b) a TCP response or ICMP Echo Reply
(if a host exists), or neither in which case nothing is known for (if a host exists), or c) none of those, in which case nothing is
certain. known for certain.
Many privacy-sensitive devices support a "stealth mode" as discussed Many privacy-sensitive devices support a "stealth mode" as discussed
in Section 5 of [RFC7288] or are behind a network firewall that will in Section 5 of [RFC7288] or are behind a network firewall that will
drop unsolicited inbound traffic (e.g., TCP SYNs, ICMP Echo Requests, drop unsolicited inbound traffic (e.g., TCP SYNs, ICMP Echo Requests,
etc.) and thus no TCP RST or ICMP Echo Reply will be sent. In such etc.) and thus no TCP RST or ICMP Echo Reply will be sent. In such
cases, and when the device does not listen on a well-known TCP or UDP cases, and when the device does not listen on a well-known TCP or UDP
port known to the scanner, the effectiveness of an address scan is port known to the scanner, the effectiveness of an address scan is
limited by the ability to get ICMP unreachable errors, since the limited by the ability to get ICMP unreachable errors, since the
attacker can only infer the presence of a host based on the absense attacker can only infer the presence of a host based on the absence
of an ICMP unreachable error. of an ICMP unreachable error.
Generation of ICMP unreachable errors is typically rate limited to 2 Generation of ICMP unreachable errors is typically rate limited to 2
per second (the default in routers such as Cisco routers running IOS per second (the default in routers such as Cisco routers running IOS
12.0 or later). Such a rate results in taking about a year to 12.0 or later). Such a rate results in taking about a year to
completely scan 26 bits of space. completely scan 26 bits of space.
The actual math is as follows. Let 2^N be the number of devices on The actual math is as follows. Let 2^N be the number of devices on
the subnet. Let 2^M be the size of the space to scan (i.e., M bits the subnet. Let 2^M be the size of the space to scan (i.e., M bits
of entropy). Let S be the number of scan attempts. The formula for of entropy). Let S be the number of scan attempts. The formula for
a 50% chance of getting at least one hit in S attempts is: P(at least a 50% chance of getting at least one hit in S attempts is:
one success) = 1 - (1 - 2^N/2^M)^S = 1/2. Assuming 2^M >> S, this P(at least one success) = 1 - (1 - 2^N/2^M)^S = 1/2.
simplifies to: S * 2^N/2^M = 1/2, giving S = 2^(M-N-1), or M = N + 1 Assuming 2^M >> S, this simplifies to:
+ log_2(S). Using a scan rate of 2 per second, this results in the S * 2^N/2^M = 1/2, giving S = 2^(M-N-1), or M = N + 1 + log_2(S).
following rule of thumb: Using a scan rate of 2 per second, this results in the following rule
of thumb:
Bits of entropy needed = log_2(# devices per link) + log_2(seconds Bits of entropy needed =
of link lifetime) + 2 log_2(# devices per link) + log_2(seconds of link lifetime) + 2
For example, for a network with at most 2^16 devices on the same For example, for a network with at most 2^16 devices on the same
long-lived link, and the average lifetime of a link being 8 years long-lived link, where the average lifetime of a link is 8 years
(2^28 seconds) or less, this results in a need for at least 46 bits (2^28 seconds) or less, this results in a need for at least 46 bits
of entropy (16+28+2) so that an address scan would need to be of entropy (16+28+2) so that an address scan would need to be
sustained for longer than the lifetime of the link to have a 50% sustained for longer than the lifetime of the link to have a 50%
chance of getting a hit. chance of getting a hit.
Although 46 bits of entropy may be enough to provide privacy in such Although 46 bits of entropy may be enough to provide privacy in such
cases, 59 or more bits of entropy would be needed if addresses are cases, 59 or more bits of entropy would be needed if addresses are
used to provide security against attacks such as spoofing, as CGAs used to provide security against attacks such as spoofing, as CGAs
[RFC3972] and HBAs [RFC5535] do, since attacks are not limited by [RFC3972] and HBAs [RFC5535] do, since attacks are not limited by
ICMP rate limiting but by the processing power of the attacker. See ICMP rate limiting but by the processing power of the attacker. See
skipping to change at page 4, line 43 skipping to change at page 5, line 10
the ICMP unreachable rate limit in routers, since an adversary can the ICMP unreachable rate limit in routers, since an adversary can
determine the presence of a host without them. In such cases, more determine the presence of a host without them. In such cases, more
bits of entropy would be needed to provide the same level of bits of entropy would be needed to provide the same level of
protection. protection.
3. Potential Approaches 3. Potential Approaches
The table below shows the number of bits of entropy currently The table below shows the number of bits of entropy currently
available in various technologies: available in various technologies:
+---------------+--------------------------+--------------------+ +---------------+--------------------------+--------------------+
| Technology | Reference | Bits of Entropy | | Technology | Reference | Bits of Entropy |
+---------------+--------------------------+--------------------+ +---------------+--------------------------+--------------------+
| 802.15.4 | [RFC4944] | 16+ or any EUI-64 | | 802.15.4 | [RFC4944] | 16+ or any EUI-64 |
| Bluetooth LE | [RFC7668] | 48 | | Bluetooth LE | [RFC7668] | 48 |
| DECT ULE | [I-D.ietf-6lo-dect-ule] | 40 or any EUI-48 | | DECT ULE | [DECT-ULE] | 40 or any EUI-48 |
| MS/TP | [I-D.ietf-6lo-6lobac] | 7 or 64 | | MS/TP | [IPv6-over-MSTP] | 7 or 64 |
| ITU-T G.9959 | [RFC7428] | 8 | | ITU-T G.9959 | [RFC7428] | 8 |
| NFC | [I-D.ietf-6lo-nfc] | 5 | | NFC | [IPv6-over-NFC] | 5 |
+---------------+--------------------------+--------------------+ +---------------+--------------------------+--------------------+
Such technologies generally support either IEEE identifiers or so Such technologies generally support either IEEE identifiers or so
called "Short Addresses", or both, as link layer addresses. We called "Short Addresses", or both, as link-layer addresses. We
discuss each in turn. discuss each in turn.
3.1. IEEE-Identifier-Based Addresses 3.1. IEEE-Identifier-Based Addresses
Some technologies allow the use of IEEE EUI-48 or EUI-64 identifiers, Some technologies allow the use of IEEE EUI-48 or EUI-64 identifiers
or allow using an arbitrary 64-bit identifier. Using such an or allow the use of an arbitrary 64-bit identifier. Using such an
identifier to construct IPv6 addresses makes it easy to use the identifier to construct IPv6 addresses makes it easy to use the
normal LOWPAN_IPHC encoding with stateless compression, allowing such normal LOWPAN_IPHC encoding [RFC6282] with stateless compression,
IPv6 addresses to be fully elided in common cases. which allows such IPv6 addresses to be fully elided in common cases.
Global addresses with interface identifiers formed from IEEE Global addresses with interface identifiers formed from IEEE
identifiers can have insufficient entropy to mitigate address scans identifiers can have insufficient entropy to mitigate address scans
unless the IEEE identifier itself has sufficient entropy, and enough unless the IEEE identifier itself has sufficient entropy and enough
bits of entropy are carried over into the IPv6 address to bits of entropy are carried over into the IPv6 address to
sufficiently mitigate the threats. Privacy threats other than sufficiently mitigate the threats. Privacy threats other than
"Correlation over time" can be mitigated using per-network randomized "Correlation over time" can be mitigated using per-network randomized
link-layer addresses with enough entropy compared to the link link-layer addresses with enough entropy compared to the link
lifetime. A number of such proposals can be found at lifetime. A number of such proposals can be found at
<https://mentor.ieee.org/privecsg/documents>, and Section 10.8 of <https://mentor.ieee.org/privecsg/documents>, and Section 10.8 of
[BTCorev4.1] specifies one for Bluetooth. Using routable IPv6 [BTCorev4.1] specifies one for Bluetooth. Using routable IPv6
addresses derived from such link-layer addresses would be roughly addresses derived from such link-layer addresses would be roughly
equivalent to those specified in [RFC7217]. equivalent to those specified in [RFC7217].
Correlation over time (for all addresses, not just routable Correlation over time (for all addresses, not just routable
addresses) can be mitigated if the link-layer address itself changes addresses) can be mitigated if the link-layer address itself changes
often enough, such as each time the link is established, if the link often enough, such as each time the link is established, if the link
lifetime is short. For further discussion, see lifetime is short. For further discussion, see [RANDOM-ADDR].
[I-D.huitema-6man-random-addresses].
Another potential concern is that of efficiency, such as avoiding Another potential concern is that of efficiency, such as avoiding
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) all together when IPv6 addresses Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) altogether when IPv6 addresses are
are IEEE-identifier-based. Appendix A of [RFC4429] provides an based on IEEE identifiers. Appendix A of [RFC4429] provides an
analysis of address collision probability based on the number of bits analysis of address-collision probability based on the number of bits
of entropy. A simple web search on "duplicate MAC addresses" will of entropy. A simple web search on "duplicate MAC addresses" will
show that collisions do happen with MAC addresses, and thus based on show that collisions do happen with MAC addresses; thus, based on the
the analysis in [RFC4429], using sufficient bits of entropy in random analysis in [RFC4429], using sufficient bits of entropy in random
addresses can provide greater protection against collision than using addresses can provide greater protection against collision than using
MAC addresses. MAC addresses.
3.2. Short Addresses 3.2. Short Addresses
A routable IPv6 address with an interface identifier formed from the A routable IPv6 address with an interface identifier formed from the
combination of a "Short Address" and a set of well-known constant combination of a "Short Address" and a set of well-known constant
bits (such as padding with 0's) lacks sufficient entropy to mitigate bits (such as padding with 0's) lacks sufficient entropy to mitigate
address scanning unless the link lifetime is extremely short. address scanning unless the link lifetime is extremely short.
Furthermore, an adversary could also use statistical methods to Furthermore, an adversary could also use statistical methods to
skipping to change at page 6, line 17 skipping to change at page 6, line 35
When Short Addresses are desired on links that are not guaranteed to When Short Addresses are desired on links that are not guaranteed to
have a short enough lifetime, the mechanism for constructing an IPv6 have a short enough lifetime, the mechanism for constructing an IPv6
interface identifier from a Short Address could be designed to interface identifier from a Short Address could be designed to
sufficiently mitigate the problem. For example, if all nodes on a sufficiently mitigate the problem. For example, if all nodes on a
given L2 network have a shared secret (such as the key needed to get given L2 network have a shared secret (such as the key needed to get
on the layer-2 network), the 64-bit IID might be generated using a on the layer-2 network), the 64-bit IID might be generated using a
one-way hash that includes (at least) the shared secret together with one-way hash that includes (at least) the shared secret together with
the Short Address. The use of such a hash would result in the IIDs the Short Address. The use of such a hash would result in the IIDs
being spread out among the full range of IID address space, thus being spread out among the full range of IID address space, thus
mitigating address scans, while still allowing full stateless mitigating address scans while still allowing full stateless
compression/elision. compression/elision.
For long-lived links, "temporary" addresses might even be generated For long-lived links, "temporary" addresses might even be generated
in the same way by (for example) also including in the hash the in the same way by (for example) also including in the hash the
Version Number from the Authoritative Border Router Option Version Number from the Authoritative Border Router Option (Section
(Section 4.3 of [RFC6775]), if any. This would allow changing 4.3 of [RFC6775]), if any. This would allow changing temporary
temporary addresses whenever the Version Number is changed, even if addresses whenever the Version Number is changed, even if the set of
the set of prefix or context information is unchanged. prefix or context information is unchanged.
In summary, any specification using Short Addresses should carefully In summary, any specification using Short Addresses should carefully
construct an IID generation mechanism so as to provide sufficient construct an IID generation mechanism so as to provide sufficient
entropy compared to the link lifetime. entropy compared to the link lifetime.
4. Recommendations 4. Recommendations
The following are recommended for adaptation layer specifications: The following are recommended for adaptation-layer specifications:
o Security (privacy) sections should say how address scans are o Security (privacy) sections should say how address scans are
mitigated. An address scan might be mitigated by having a link mitigated. An address scan might be mitigated by having a link
always be short-lived, or might be mitigated by having a large always be short-lived, by having a large number of bits of entropy
number of bits of entropy in routable addresses, or some in routable addresses, or by some combination thereof. Thus, a
combination. Thus, a specification should explain what the specification should explain what the maximum lifetime of a link
maximum lifetime of a link is in practice, and show how the number is in practice and show how the number of bits of entropy is
of bits of entropy is sufficient given that lifetime. sufficient given that lifetime.
o Technologies should define a way to include sufficient bits of o Technologies should define a way to include sufficient bits of
entropy in the IPv6 interface identifier, based on the maximum entropy in the IPv6 interface identifier, based on the maximum
link lifetime. Specifying that randomized link-layer addresses link lifetime. Specifying that randomized link-layer addresses
can be used is one easy way to do so, for technologies that can be used is one easy way to do so, for technologies that
support such identifiers. support such identifiers.
o Specifications should not simply construct an IPv6 interface o Specifications should not simply construct an IPv6 interface
identifier by padding a short address with a set of other well- identifier by padding a Short Address with a set of other well-
known constant bits, unless the link lifetime is guaranteed to be known constant bits, unless the link lifetime is guaranteed to be
extremely short or the short address is allocated by the network extremely short or the Short Address is allocated by the network
(rather than being constant in the node). This also applies to (rather than being constant in the node). This also applies to
link-local addresses if the same short address is used independent link-local addresses if the same Short Address is used independent
of network and is unique enough to allow location tracking. of network and is unique enough to allow location tracking.
o Specifications should make sure that an IPv6 address can change o Specifications should make sure that an IPv6 address can change
over long periods of time. For example, the interface identifier over long periods of time. For example, the interface identifier
might change each time a device connects to the network (if might change each time a device connects to the network (if
connections are short), or might change each day (if connections connections are short) or might change each day (if connections
can be long). This is necessary to mitigate correlation over can be long). This is necessary to mitigate correlation over
time. time.
o If a device can roam between networks, and more than a few bits of o If a device can roam between networks and more than a few bits of
entropy exist in the IPv6 interface identifier, then make sure entropy exist in the IPv6 interface identifier, then make sure
that the interface identifier can vary per network as the device that the interface identifier can vary per network as the device
roams. This is necessary to mitigate location tracking. roams. This is necessary to mitigate location tracking.
5. IANA Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document has no actions for IANA.
6. Security Considerations
This entire document is about security considerations and how to This entire document is about security considerations and how to
specify possible mitigations. specify possible mitigations.
7. Informative References 6. Informative References
[BTCorev4.1]
Bluetooth, "Specification of the Bluetooth System",
Covered Core Package version: 4.1, December 2013,
<https://www.bluetooth.org/DocMan/handlers/
DownloadDoc.ashx?doc_id=282159>.
[DECT-ULE] Mariager, P., Petersen, J., Ed., Shelby, Z., Van de Logt,
M., and D. Barthel, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over
DECT Ultra Low Energy", draft-ietf-6lo-dect-ule-09,
Work in Progress, December 2016.
[IPv6-over-MSTP]
Lynn, K., Ed., Martocci, J., Neilson, C., and S.
Donaldson, "Transmission of IPv6 over MS/TP Networks",
draft-ietf-6lo-6lobac-06, Work in Progress, October 2016.
[IPv6-over-NFC]
Choi, Y-H., Hong, Y-G., Youn, J-S., Kim, D-K., and J-H.
Choi, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field
Communication", draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-05, Work in Progress,
October 2016.
[RANDOM-ADDR]
Huitema, C., "Implications of Randomized Link Layers
Addresses for IPv6 Address Assignment",
draft-huitema-6man-random-addresses-03, Work in Progress,
March 2016.
[RFC3972] Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)", [RFC3972] Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
RFC 3972, DOI 10.17487/RFC3972, March 2005, RFC 3972, DOI 10.17487/RFC3972, March 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3972>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3972>.
[RFC4429] Moore, N., "Optimistic Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) [RFC4429] Moore, N., "Optimistic Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)
for IPv6", RFC 4429, DOI 10.17487/RFC4429, April 2006, for IPv6", RFC 4429, DOI 10.17487/RFC4429, April 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4429>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4429>.
[RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy [RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
skipping to change at page 8, line 9 skipping to change at page 9, line 9
[RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler, [RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
"Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007, Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.
[RFC5535] Bagnulo, M., "Hash-Based Addresses (HBA)", RFC 5535, [RFC5535] Bagnulo, M., "Hash-Based Addresses (HBA)", RFC 5535,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5535, June 2009, DOI 10.17487/RFC5535, June 2009,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5535>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5535>.
[RFC6282] Hui, J., Ed., and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.
[RFC6724] Thaler, D., Ed., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown, [RFC6724] Thaler, D., Ed., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
"Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6 "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
(IPv6)", RFC 6724, DOI 10.17487/RFC6724, September 2012, (IPv6)", RFC 6724, DOI 10.17487/RFC6724, September 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6724>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6724>.
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012, RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
skipping to change at page 9, line 10 skipping to change at page 10, line 15
[RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B., [RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B.,
Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low
Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015, Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>.
[RFC7721] Cooper, A., Gont, F., and D. Thaler, "Security and Privacy [RFC7721] Cooper, A., Gont, F., and D. Thaler, "Security and Privacy
Considerations for IPv6 Address Generation Mechanisms", Considerations for IPv6 Address Generation Mechanisms",
RFC 7721, DOI 10.17487/RFC7721, March 2016, RFC 7721, DOI 10.17487/RFC7721, March 2016,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7721>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7721>.
[I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids] [RFC8064] Gont, F., Cooper, A., Thaler, D., and W. Liu,
Gont, F., Cooper, A., Thaler, D., and S. LIU,
"Recommendation on Stable IPv6 Interface Identifiers", "Recommendation on Stable IPv6 Interface Identifiers",
draft-ietf-6man-default-iids-16 (work in progress), RFC 8064, February 2017,
September 2016. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8064>.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-6lobac]
Lynn, K., Martocci, J., Neilson, C., and S. Donaldson,
"Transmission of IPv6 over MS/TP Networks", draft-ietf-
6lo-6lobac-05 (work in progress), June 2016.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-dect-ule]
Mariager, P., Petersen, J., Shelby, Z., Logt, M., and D.
Barthel, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over DECT Ultra Low
Energy", draft-ietf-6lo-dect-ule-07 (work in progress),
October 2016.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-nfc]
Choi, Y., Youn, J., and Y. Hong, "Transmission of IPv6
Packets over Near Field Communication", draft-ietf-6lo-
nfc-05 (work in progress), October 2016.
[I-D.huitema-6man-random-addresses]
Huitema, C., "Implications of Randomized Link Layers
Addresses for IPv6 Address Assignment", draft-huitema-
6man-random-addresses-03 (work in progress), March 2016.
[BTCorev4.1]
Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Core
Specification Version 4.1", December 2013,
<https://www.bluetooth.org/DocMan/handlers/
DownloadDoc.ashx?doc_id=282159>.
Author's Address Author's Address
Dave Thaler Dave Thaler
Microsoft Microsoft
One Microsoft Way One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052 Redmond, WA 98052
USA United States of America
Email: dthaler@microsoft.com Email: dthaler@microsoft.com
 End of changes. 42 change blocks. 
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