draft-ietf-6lo-routing-dispatch-01.txt   draft-ietf-6lo-routing-dispatch-02.txt 
6lo P. Thubert, Ed. 6lo P. Thubert, Ed.
Internet-Draft Cisco Internet-Draft Cisco
Updates: 4944 (if approved) C. Bormann Intended status: Standards Track C. Bormann
Intended status: Standards Track Uni Bremen TZI Expires: July 17, 2016 Uni Bremen TZI
Expires: July 15, 2016 L. Toutain L. Toutain
IMT-TELECOM Bretagne IMT-TELECOM Bretagne
R. Cragie R. Cragie
ARM ARM
January 12, 2016 January 14, 2016
6LoWPAN Routing Header And Paging Dispatches 6LoWPAN Routing Header And Paging Dispatches
draft-ietf-6lo-routing-dispatch-01 draft-ietf-6lo-routing-dispatch-02
Abstract Abstract
This specification introduces a new context switch mechanism for This specification introduces a new 6LoWPAN dispatch type for use in
6LoWPAN compression, expressed in terms of Pages and signaled by a 6LoWPAN Route-Over topologies, that initially covers the needs of RPL
new Paging Dispatch. A new 6LoWPAN dispatch type is proposed in a (RFC6550) data packets compression. Using this dispatch type, this
new Page 1 for use in 6LoWPAN Route-Over topologies, that initially
covers the needs of RPL (RFC6550) data packets compression. This
specification defines a method to compress RPL Option (RFC6553) specification defines a method to compress RPL Option (RFC6553)
information and Routing Header type 3 (RFC6554), an efficient IP-in- information and Routing Header type 3 (RFC6554), an efficient IP-in-
IP technique and is extensible for more applications. IP technique and is extensible for more applications.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 15, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 17, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Updating RFC 4944 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Using the Page Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. New Page 1 Paging Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH) . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH) . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Placement Of The 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Placement Of The New Dispatch Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. Placement Of The Page 1 Paging Dispatch . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Elective Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Placement Of The 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Critical Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. The Routing Header Type 3 (RH3) 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1. Elective Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2. Critical Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.1. Compressing the RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6. The Routing Header Type 3 (RH3) 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.2. Compressing the SenderRank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.1. Compressing the RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.2. Compressing the SenderRank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.1. Reserving Space in 6LoWPAN Dispatch Page 1 . . . . . . . 15
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9.2. Nex 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry . . . . . . . . 15
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The design of Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) is generally The design of Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) is generally
focused on saving energy, a very constrained resource in most cases. focused on saving energy, a very constrained resource in most cases.
The other constraints, such as the memory capacity and the duty The other constraints, such as the memory capacity and the duty
cycling of the LLN devices, derive from that primary concern. Energy cycling of the LLN devices, derive from that primary concern. Energy
is often available from primary batteries that are expected to last is often available from primary batteries that are expected to last
for years, or is scavenged from the environment in very limited for years, or is scavenged from the environment in very limited
quantities. Any protocol that is intended for use in LLNs must be quantities. Any protocol that is intended for use in LLNs must be
skipping to change at page 1, line -116 skipping to change at page 1, line 202
RH3 to go down the graph. In any fashion, whether the packet was RH3 to go down the graph. In any fashion, whether the packet was
originated in a node in the LLN or outside the LLN, and regardless of originated in a node in the LLN or outside the LLN, and regardless of
whether the packet stays within the LLN or not, as long as the source whether the packet stays within the LLN or not, as long as the source
of the packet is not the root itself, the source-routing operation of the packet is not the root itself, the source-routing operation
also implies an IP-in-IP encapsulation at the root in order to insert also implies an IP-in-IP encapsulation at the root in order to insert
the RH3. the RH3.
6TiSCH [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] specifies the operation of IPv6 6TiSCH [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] specifies the operation of IPv6
over the TimeSlotted Channel Hopping [RFC7554] (TSCH) mode of over the TimeSlotted Channel Hopping [RFC7554] (TSCH) mode of
operation of IEEE 802.15.4. The architecture requires the use of operation of IEEE 802.15.4. The architecture requires the use of
both RPL and the 6lo adaptation layer framework ([RFC4944], both RPL and the 6lo adaptation layer over IEEE 802.15.4. Because it
[RFC6282]) over IEEE 802.15.4. Because it inherits the constraints inherits the constraints on the frame size from the MAC layer, 6TiSCH
on the frame size from the MAC layer, 6TiSCH cannot afford to spend 8 cannot afford to spend 8 bytes per packet on the RPI. Hence the
bytes per packet on the RPI. Hence the requirement for a 6LoWPAN requirement for a 6LoWPAN header compression of the RPI.
header compression of the RPI.
An extensible compression technique is required that simplifies IP- An extensible compression technique is required that simplifies IP-
in-IP encapsulation when it is needed, and optimally compresses in-IP encapsulation when it is needed, and optimally compresses
existing routing artifacts found in RPL LLNs. existing routing artifacts found in RPL LLNs.
This specification extends the 6lo adaptation layer framework This specification extends the 6lo adaptation layer framework
([RFC4944],[RFC6282]) so as to carry routing information for route- ([RFC4944],[RFC6282]) so as to carry routing information for route-
over networks based on RPL. The specification includes the formats over networks based on RPL. The specification includes the formats
necessary for RPL and is extensible for additional formats. necessary for RPL and is extensible for additional formats.
skipping to change at page 1, line -83 skipping to change at page 1, line 234
incorporates that described in `Terminology in Low power And Lossy incorporates that described in `Terminology in Low power And Lossy
Networks' [RFC7102] and [RFC6550]. Networks' [RFC7102] and [RFC6550].
The terms Route-over and Mesh-under are defined in [RFC6775]. The terms Route-over and Mesh-under are defined in [RFC6775].
Other terms in use in LLNs are found in [RFC7228]. Other terms in use in LLNs are found in [RFC7228].
The term "byte" is used in its now customary sense as a synonym for The term "byte" is used in its now customary sense as a synonym for
"octet". "octet".
3. Updating RFC 4944 3. Using the Page Dispatch
This draft adapts 6LoWPAN while maintaining backward compatibility
with IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 [RFC4944] by introducing a concept of
"context" in the 6LoWPAN parser, a context being identified by a Page
number. This specification defines 16 Pages.
Pages are delimited in a 6LoWPAN packet by a Paging Dispatch value
that indicates the next current Page. The Page number is encoded in
a Paging Dispatch with the Value Bit Pattern of 1111xxxx where xxxx
is the Page number, 0 to 15, as described in Figure 3:
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|1|1|1|Page Nb|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 3: Paging Dispatch with Page Number Encoding.
Values of the Dispatch byte defined in [RFC4944] are considered as
belonging to the Page 0 parsing context, which is the default and
does not need to be signaled explicitly at the beginning of a 6LoWPAN
packet. This ensures backward compatibility with existing
implementations of 6LoWPAN.
Note: This specification does not use the Escape Dispatch, which
extends Page 0 to more values, but rather allocates another Dispatch
Bit Pattern (1111xxxx) for a new Paging Dispatch, that is present in
all Pages, including Page 0 and Pages defined in future
specifications, to indicate the next parsing context represented by
its Page number. The rationale for avoiding that approach is that
there will be multiple occurrences of a new header indexed by this
specification in a single frame and the overhead on an octet each
time for the Escape Dispatch would be prohibitive.
3.1. New Page 1 Paging Dispatch
This draft defines a new Page 1 Paging Dispatch (Dispatch Value of
11110001), which indicates a context switch in the 6LoWPAN parser to
a Page 1.
The Dispatch bits defined in Page 0 by [RFC4944] are free to be The6LoWPAN Paging Dispatch [I-D.ietf-paging-dispatch] specification
reused in Pages 1 to 15. extends the 6lo adaptation layer framework ([RFC4944], [RFC6282]) by
introducing a concept of "context" in the 6LoWPAN parser, a context
being identified by a Page number. The specification defines 16
Pages.
On the other hand, the Dispatch bits defined in Page 0 for the This draft operates within the Page 1, which is indicated by a
Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Dispatch Value of binary 11110001.
Networks [RFC6282] are defined with the same values in Page 1 so
there is no need to switch context back from Page 1 to Page 0 to
address LOWPAN_IPHC and LOWPAN_NHC.
3.2. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH) 3.1. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH)
This specification introduces a new 6LoWPAN Routing Header (6LoRH) to This specification introduces a new 6LoWPAN Routing Header (6LoRH) to
carry IPv6 routing information. The 6LoRH may contain source routing carry IPv6 routing information. The 6LoRH may contain source routing
information such as a compressed form of RH3, as well as other sorts information such as a compressed form of RH3, as well as other sorts
of routing information such as the RPL Packet Information and IP-in- of routing information such as the RPL Packet Information and IP-in-
IP encapsulation. IP encapsulation.
The 6LoRH is expressed in a 6loWPAN packet as a Type-Length-Value The 6LoRH is expressed in a 6loWPAN packet as a Type-Length-Value
(TLV) field, which is extensible for future use. (TLV) field, which is extensible for future use.
This specification uses the bit pattern 10xxxxxx in Page 1 for the This specification uses the bit pattern 10xxxxxx in Page 1 for the
new 6LoRH Dispatch and Section 5 describes how RPL artifacts in data new 6LoRH Dispatch and Section 4 describes how RPL artifacts in data
packets can be compressed as 6LoRH headers. packets can be compressed as 6LoRH headers.
4. Placement Of The New Dispatch Types 3.2. Placement Of The 6LoRH
4.1. Placement Of The Page 1 Paging Dispatch
In a zone of a packet where Page 1 is active, which means once a Page In a zone of a packet where Page 1 is active, which means once a Page
1 Paging Dispatch is parsed, and as long as no other Paging Dispatch 1 Paging Dispatch is parsed, and as long as no other Paging Dispatch
is parsed, the parsing of the packet MUST follow this specification is parsed, the parsing of the packet MUST follow this specification
if the 6LoRH Bit Pattern Section 3.2 is found. if the 6LoRH Bit Pattern Section 3.1 is found.
Mesh Headers represent Layer-2 information and are processed before
any Layer-3 information that is encoded in Page 1. If a 6LoWPAN
packet requires a Mesh header, the Mesh Header MUST always be placed
in the packet before the first Page 1 Paging Dispatch, if any.
For the same reason, Fragment Headers as defined in [RFC4944] MUST
always be placed in the packet before the first Page 1 Paging
Dispatch, if any.
The NALP Dispatch Bit Pattern as defined in [RFC4944] is only defined
for the first octet in the packet. Switching back to Page 0 for NALP
inside a 6LoWPAN packet does not make sense.
parsing context after a context was switched to Page 1, so the value
for the Page 0 Paging Dispatch of 11110000 may not actually be seen
in packets following the 6LoWPAN specifications that are available at
the time of writing.
4.2. Placement Of The 6LoRH
With this specification, the 6LoRH Dispatch is only defined in Page With this specification, the 6LoRH Dispatch is only defined in Page
context is active. context is active.
One or more 6LoRH header(s) MAY be placed in a 6LoWPAN packet. A One or more 6LoRH header(s) MAY be placed in a 6LoWPAN packet. A
6LoRH header MUST always be placed before the LOWPAN_IPHC as defined 6LoRH header MUST always be placed before the LOWPAN_IPHC as defined
in 6LoWPAN Header Compression [RFC6282]. in 6LoWPAN Header Compression [RFC6282].
A 6LoRH header being always placed in a Page 1 context, it MUST A 6LoRH header being always placed in a Page 1 context, it MUST
always be placed after any Fragmentation Header and/or Mesh Header always be placed after any Fragmentation Header and/or Mesh Header
[RFC4944]. [RFC4944].
5. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format 4. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format
The 6LoRH reuses in Page 1 the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of The 6LoRH reuses in Page 1 the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of
10xxxxxx. 10xxxxxx.
The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern is split in two forms of 6LoRH: The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern is split in two forms of 6LoRH:
Elective (6LoRHE) that may skipped if not understood Elective (6LoRHE) that may skipped if not understood
Critical (6LoRHC) that may not be ignored Critical (6LoRHC) that may not be ignored
5.1. Elective Format 4.1. Elective Format
The 6LoRHE uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 101xxxxx. A 6LoRHE The 6LoRHE uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 101xxxxx. A 6LoRHE
may be ignored and skipped in parsing. If it is ignored, the 6LoRHE may be ignored and skipped in parsing. If it is ignored, the 6LoRHE
is forwarded with no change inside the LLN. is forwarded with no change inside the LLN.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
|1|0|1| Length | Type | | |1|0|1| Length | Type | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
<-- Length --> <-- Length -->
Figure 4: Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header. Figure 3: Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header.
Length: Length:
Length of the 6LoRHE expressed in bytes, excluding the first 2 Length of the 6LoRHE expressed in bytes, excluding the first 2
bytes. This enables a node to skip a 6LoRHE header that it does bytes. This enables a node to skip a 6LoRHE header that it does
not support and/or cannot parse, for instance if the Type is not not support and/or cannot parse, for instance if the Type is not
known. known.
Type: Type:
Type of the 6LoRHE Type of the 6LoRHE
5.2. Critical Format 4.2. Critical Format
The 6LoRHC uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 100xxxxx. The 6LoRHC uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 100xxxxx.
A node which does not support the 6LoRHC Type MUST silently discard A node which does not support the 6LoRHC Type MUST silently discard
the packet. the packet.
Note: The situation where a node receives a message with a Critical Note: The situation where a node receives a message with a Critical
6LoWPAN Routing Header that it does not understand is a critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header that it does not understand is a critical
administrative error whereby the wrong device is placed in a network. administrative error whereby the wrong device is placed in a network.
It makes no sense to overburden the constrained device with code that It makes no sense to overburden the constrained device with code that
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should be avoided by judicious use of administrative control and/or should be avoided by judicious use of administrative control and/or
capability indications by the device manufacturer. capability indications by the device manufacturer.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
|1|0|0| TSE | Type | | |1|0|0| TSE | Type | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
<-- Length implied by Type/TSE --> <-- Length implied by Type/TSE -->
Figure 5: Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header. Figure 4: Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header.
TSE: TSE:
Type Specific Extension. The meaning depends on the Type, which Type Specific Extension. The meaning depends on the Type, which
must be known in all of the nodes. The interpretation of the TSE must be known in all of the nodes. The interpretation of the TSE
depends on the Type field that follows. For instance, it may be depends on the Type field that follows. For instance, it may be
used to transport control bits, the number of elements in an used to transport control bits, the number of elements in an
array, or the length of the remainder of the 6LoRHC expressed in a array, or the length of the remainder of the 6LoRHC expressed in a
unit other than bytes. unit other than bytes.
Type: Type:
Type of the 6LoRHC Type of the 6LoRHC
6. The Routing Header Type 3 (RH3) 6LoRH 5. The Routing Header Type 3 (RH3) 6LoRH
The Routing Header type 3 (RH3) 6LoRH (RH3-6LoRH) is a Critical The Routing Header type 3 (RH3) 6LoRH (RH3-6LoRH) is a Critical
6LoWPAN Routing Header that provides a compressed form for the RH3, 6LoWPAN Routing Header that provides a compressed form for the RH3,
as defined in [RFC6554] for use by RPL routers. Routers that need to as defined in [RFC6554] for use by RPL routers. Routers that need to
forward a packet with a RH3-6LoRH are expected to be RPL routers and forward a packet with a RH3-6LoRH are expected to be RPL routers and
are expected to support this specification. If a non-RPL router are expected to support this specification. If a non-RPL router
receives a packet with a RH3-6LoRH, this means that there was a receives a packet with a RH3-6LoRH, this means that there was a
routing error and the packet should be dropped so the Type cannot be routing error and the packet should be dropped so the Type cannot be
ignored. ignored.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+
|1|0|0| Size |6LoRH Type 0..4| Hop1 | Hop2 | | HopN | |1|0|0| Size |6LoRH Type 0..4| Hop1 | Hop2 | | HopN |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+
Size indicates the number of compressed addresses Size indicates the number of compressed addresses
Figure 6: The RH3-6LoRH. Figure 5: The RH3-6LoRH.
The values for the RH3-6LoRH Type are an enumeration, 0 to 4. The The values for the RH3-6LoRH Type are an enumeration, 0 to 4. The
form of compression is indicated by the Type. The unit (as a number form of compression is indicated by the Type. The unit (as a number
of bytes) in which the Size is expressed depends on the Type as of bytes) in which the Size is expressed depends on the Type as
described in Figure 7: described in Figure 6:
+-----------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+
| Type | Size Unit | | Type | Size Unit |
+-----------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+
| 0 | 1 | | 0 | 1 |
| 1 | 2 | | 1 | 2 |
| 2 | 4 | | 2 | 4 |
| 3 | 8 | | 3 | 8 |
| 4 | 16 | | 4 | 16 |
+-----------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+
Figure 7: The RH3-6LoRH Types. Figure 6: The RH3-6LoRH Types.
In the case of a RH3-6LoRH, the TSE field is used as a Size, which In the case of a RH3-6LoRH, the TSE field is used as a Size, which
encodes the number of hops minus 1; so a Size of 0 means one hop, and encodes the number of hops minus 1; so a Size of 0 means one hop, and
the maximum that can be encoded is 32 hops. (If more than 32 hops the maximum that can be encoded is 32 hops. (If more than 32 hops
need to be expressed, a sequence of RH3-6LoRH can be employed.) need to be expressed, a sequence of RH3-6LoRH can be employed.)
The Next Hop is indicated in the first entry of the first RH3-6LoRH. The Next Hop is indicated in the first entry of the first RH3-6LoRH.
Upon reception, the router checks whether it owns the address Upon reception, the router checks whether it owns the address
indicated as Next Hop, which MUST be the case in a strict source indicated as Next Hop, which MUST be the case in a strict source
routing environment. If it is so, the entry is removed from the routing environment. If it is so, the entry is removed from the
skipping to change at page 11, line 16 skipping to change at page 1, line 421
from the final destination in the LoWPAN_IPHC, then that address may from the final destination in the LoWPAN_IPHC, then that address may
be compressed, otherwise it is expressed as a full IPv6 address of be compressed, otherwise it is expressed as a full IPv6 address of
128 bits. Next addresses only need to express the delta from the 128 bits. Next addresses only need to express the delta from the
previous address. previous address.
All addresses in a given RH3-6LoRH header are compressed in a same All addresses in a given RH3-6LoRH header are compressed in a same
fashion, down to the same number of bytes per address. In order to fashion, down to the same number of bytes per address. In order to
get different forms of compression, multiple consecutive RH3-6LoRH get different forms of compression, multiple consecutive RH3-6LoRH
must be used. must be used.
7. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH 6. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH
[RFC6550], Section 11.2, specifies the RPL Packet Information (RPI) [RFC6550], Section 11.2, specifies the RPL Packet Information (RPI)
as a set of fields that are placed by RPL routers in IP packets for as a set of fields that are placed by RPL routers in IP packets for
the purpose of Instance Identification, as well as Loop Avoidance and the purpose of Instance Identification, as well as Loop Avoidance and
Detection. Detection.
In particular, the SenderRank, which is the scalar metric computed by In particular, the SenderRank, which is the scalar metric computed by
an specialized Objective Function such as [RFC6552], indicates the an specialized Objective Function such as [RFC6552], indicates the
Rank of the sender and is modified at each hop. The SenderRank field Rank of the sender and is modified at each hop. The SenderRank field
is used to validate that the packet progresses in the expected is used to validate that the packet progresses in the expected
skipping to change at page 12, line 7 skipping to change at page 1, line 461
[I-D.thubert-6lo-forwarding-fragments]. [I-D.thubert-6lo-forwarding-fragments].
An additional overhead comes from the need, in certain cases, to add An additional overhead comes from the need, in certain cases, to add
an IP-in-IP encapsulation to carry the Hop-by-Hop header. This is an IP-in-IP encapsulation to carry the Hop-by-Hop header. This is
needed when the router that inserts the Hop-by-Hop header is not the needed when the router that inserts the Hop-by-Hop header is not the
source of the packet, so that an error can be returned to the router. source of the packet, so that an error can be returned to the router.
This is also the case when a packet originated by a RPL node must be This is also the case when a packet originated by a RPL node must be
stripped from the Hop-by-Hop header to be routed outside the RPL stripped from the Hop-by-Hop header to be routed outside the RPL
domain. domain.
This specification defines an IPinIP-6LoRH in Section 8 for that This specification defines an IPinIP-6LoRH in Section 7 for that
purpose, but it must be noted that stripping a 6LoRH does not require purpose, but it must be noted that stripping a 6LoRH does not require
a manipulation of the packet in the LOWPAN_IPHC, and thus, if the a manipulation of the packet in the LOWPAN_IPHC, and thus, if the
source address in the LOWPAN_IPHC is the node that inserted the source address in the LOWPAN_IPHC is the node that inserted the
IPinIP-6LoRH then this alone does not mandate an IPinIP-6LoRH. IPinIP-6LoRH then this alone does not mandate an IPinIP-6LoRH.
Note: A typical packet in RPL non-storing mode going down the RPL Note: A typical packet in RPL non-storing mode going down the RPL
graph requires an IP-in-IP encapsulating the RH3, whereas the RPI is graph requires an IP-in-IP encapsulating the RH3, whereas the RPI is
usually (and quite illegally) omitted, unless it is important to usually (and quite illegally) omitted, unless it is important to
indicate the RPLInstanceID. To match this structure, an optimized indicate the RPLInstanceID. To match this structure, an optimized
IP-in-IP 6LoRH is defined in Section 8. IP-in-IP 6LoRH is defined in Section 7.
As a result, a RPL packet may bear only an RPI-6LoRH and no IPinIP- As a result, a RPL packet may bear only an RPI-6LoRH and no IPinIP-
6LoRH. In that case, the source and destination of the packet are 6LoRH. In that case, the source and destination of the packet are
located in the LOWPAN_IPHC. located in the LOWPAN_IPHC.
As with [RFC6553], the fields in the RPI include an 'O', an 'R', and As with [RFC6553], the fields in the RPI include an 'O', an 'R', and
an 'F' bit, an 8-bit RPLInstanceID (with some internal structure), an 'F' bit, an 8-bit RPLInstanceID (with some internal structure),
and a 16-bit SenderRank. and a 16-bit SenderRank.
The remainder of this section defines the RPI-6LoRH, a Critical The remainder of this section defines the RPI-6LoRH, a Critical
6LoWPAN Routing Header that is designed to transport the RPI in 6LoWPAN Routing Header that is designed to transport the RPI in
6LoWPAN LLNs. 6LoWPAN LLNs.
7.1. Compressing the RPLInstanceID 6.1. Compressing the RPLInstanceID
RPL Instances are discussed in [RFC6550], Section 5. A number of RPL Instances are discussed in [RFC6550], Section 5. A number of
simple use cases do not require more than one instance, and in such simple use cases do not require more than one instance, and in such
cases, the instance is expected to be the global Instance 0. A cases, the instance is expected to be the global Instance 0. A
global RPLInstanceID is encoded in a RPLInstanceID field as follows: global RPLInstanceID is encoded in a RPLInstanceID field as follows:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0| ID | Global RPLInstanceID in 0..127 |0| ID | Global RPLInstanceID in 0..127
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 8: RPLInstanceID Field Format for Global Instances. Figure 7: RPLInstanceID Field Format for Global Instances.
For the particular case of the global Instance 0, the RPLInstanceID For the particular case of the global Instance 0, the RPLInstanceID
field is all zeros. This specification allows to elide a field is all zeros. This specification allows to elide a
RPLInstanceID field that is all zeros, and defines a I flag that, RPLInstanceID field that is all zeros, and defines a I flag that,
when set, signals that the field is elided. when set, signals that the field is elided.
7.2. Compressing the SenderRank 6.2. Compressing the SenderRank
The SenderRank is the result of the DAGRank operation on the rank of The SenderRank is the result of the DAGRank operation on the rank of
the sender; here the DAGRank operation is defined in [RFC6550], the sender; here the DAGRank operation is defined in [RFC6550],
Section 3.5.1, as: Section 3.5.1, as:
DAGRank(rank) = floor(rank/MinHopRankIncrease) DAGRank(rank) = floor(rank/MinHopRankIncrease)
If MinHopRankIncrease is set to a multiple of 256, the least If MinHopRankIncrease is set to a multiple of 256, the least
significant 8 bits of the SenderRank will be all zeroes; by eliding significant 8 bits of the SenderRank will be all zeroes; by eliding
those, the SenderRank can be compressed into a single byte. This those, the SenderRank can be compressed into a single byte. This
idea is used in [RFC6550] by defining DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE idea is used in [RFC6550] by defining DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE
as 256 and in [RFC6552] that defaults MinHopRankIncrease to as 256 and in [RFC6552] that defaults MinHopRankIncrease to
DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE. DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE.
This specification allows to encode the SenderRank as either one or This specification allows to encode the SenderRank as either one or
two bytes, and defines a K flag that, when set, signals that a single two bytes, and defines a K flag that, when set, signals that a single
byte is used. byte is used.
7.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH encoding 6.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH encoding
The RPI-6LoRH provides a compressed form for the RPL RPI. Routers The RPI-6LoRH provides a compressed form for the RPL RPI. Routers
that need to forward a packet with a RPI-6LoRH are expected to be RPL that need to forward a packet with a RPI-6LoRH are expected to be RPL
routers and expected to support this specification. If a non-RPL routers and expected to support this specification. If a non-RPL
router receives a packet with a RPI-6LoRH, this means that there was router receives a packet with a RPI-6LoRH, this means that there was
a routing error and the packet should be dropped so the Type cannot a routing error and the packet should be dropped so the Type cannot
be ignored. be ignored.
Since the I flag is not set, the TSE field does not need to be a Since the I flag is not set, the TSE field does not need to be a
length expressed in bytes. The field is fully reused for control length expressed in bytes. The field is fully reused for control
skipping to change at page 14, line 11 skipping to change at page 1, line 553
RPLInstanceID is elided and/or the SenderRank is compressed and RPLInstanceID is elided and/or the SenderRank is compressed and
depending on these bits, the Length of the RPI-6LoRH may vary as depending on these bits, the Length of the RPI-6LoRH may vary as
described hereafter. described hereafter.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|I|K| 6LoRH Type=5 | Compressed fields | |1|0|0|O|R|F|I|K| 6LoRH Type=5 | Compressed fields |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+
Figure 9: The Generic RPI-6LoRH Format. Figure 8: The Generic RPI-6LoRH Format.
O, R, and F bits: O, R, and F bits:
The O, R, and F bits as defined in [RFC6550], Section 11.2. The O, R, and F bits as defined in [RFC6550], Section 11.2.
I bit: I bit:
If it is set, the Instance ID is elided and the RPLInstanceID If it is set, the Instance ID is elided and the RPLInstanceID
is the Global RPLInstanceID 0. If it is not set, the octet is the Global RPLInstanceID 0. If it is not set, the octet
immediately following the type field contains the RPLInstanceID immediately following the type field contains the RPLInstanceID
as specified in [RFC6550] section 5.1. as specified in [RFC6550] section 5.1.
K bit: K bit:
If it is set, the SenderRank is be compressed into one octet, If it is set, the SenderRank is be compressed into one octet,
and the lowest significant octet is elided. If it is not set, and the lowest significant octet is elided. If it is not set,
the SenderRank, is fully inlined as 2 octets. the SenderRank, is fully inlined as 2 octets.
In Figure 10, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, and In Figure 9, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, and the
the MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256 so the least significant MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256 so the least significant byte
byte is all zeros and can be elided: is all zeros and can be elided:
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|1|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank | |1|0|0|O|R|F|1|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=1, K=1 I=1, K=1
Figure 10: The most compressed RPI-6LoRH. Figure 9: The most compressed RPI-6LoRH.
In Figure 11, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, but In Figure 10, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, but
both bytes of the SenderRank are significant so it can not be both bytes of the SenderRank are significant so it can not be
compressed: compressed:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|1|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank | |1|0|0|O|R|F|1|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=1, K=0 I=1, K=0
Figure 11: Eliding the RPLInstanceID. Figure 10: Eliding the RPLInstanceID.
In Figure 12, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0, In Figure 11, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0,
and the MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256: and the MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|0|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | SenderRank | |1|0|0|O|R|F|0|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | SenderRank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=0, K=1 I=0, K=1
Figure 12: Compressing SenderRank. Figure 11: Compressing SenderRank.
In Figure 13, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0, In Figure 12, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0,
and both bytes of the SenderRank are significant: and both bytes of the SenderRank are significant:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|0|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | Sender-... |1|0|0|O|R|F|0|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | Sender-...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
...-Rank | ...-Rank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=0, K=0 I=0, K=0
Figure 13: Least compressed form of RPI-6LoRH. Figure 12: Least compressed form of RPI-6LoRH.
8. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH 7. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH
The IP-in-IP 6LoRH (IPinIP-6LoRH) is an Elective 6LoWPAN Routing The IP-in-IP 6LoRH (IPinIP-6LoRH) is an Elective 6LoWPAN Routing
Header that provides a compressed form for the encapsulating IPv6 Header that provides a compressed form for the encapsulating IPv6
Header in the case of an IP-in-IP encapsulation. Header in the case of an IP-in-IP encapsulation.
An IP-in-IP encapsulation is used to insert a field such as a Routing An IP-in-IP encapsulation is used to insert a field such as a Routing
Header or an RPI at a router that is not the source of the packet. Header or an RPI at a router that is not the source of the packet.
In order to send an error back regarding the inserted field, the In order to send an error back regarding the inserted field, the
address of the router that performs the insertion must be provided. address of the router that performs the insertion must be provided.
skipping to change at page 16, line 11 skipping to change at page 1, line 646
This field is not critical for routing so the Type can be ignored, This field is not critical for routing so the Type can be ignored,
and the TSE field contains the Length in bytes. and the TSE field contains the Length in bytes.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
|1|0|1| Length | 6LoRH Type 6 | Hop Limit | Encaps. Address | |1|0|1| Length | 6LoRH Type 6 | Hop Limit | Encaps. Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
Figure 14: The IPinIP-6LoRH. Figure 13: The IPinIP-6LoRH.
The Length of an IPinIP-6LoRH is expressed in bytes and MUST be at The Length of an IPinIP-6LoRH is expressed in bytes and MUST be at
least 1, to indicate a Hop Limit (HL), that is decremented at each least 1, to indicate a Hop Limit (HL), that is decremented at each
hop. When the HL reaches 0, the packet is dropped per [RFC2460] hop. When the HL reaches 0, the packet is dropped per [RFC2460]
If the Length of an IPinIP-6LoRH is exactly 1, then the Encapsulator If the Length of an IPinIP-6LoRH is exactly 1, then the Encapsulator
Address is elided, which means that the Encapsulator is a well-known Address is elided, which means that the Encapsulator is a well-known
router, for instance the root in a RPL graph. router, for instance the root in a RPL graph.
If the Length of an IPinIP-6LoRH is strictly more than 1, then an If the Length of an IPinIP-6LoRH is strictly more than 1, then an
skipping to change at page 17, line 5 skipping to change at page 1, line 683
support this specification, then the chain of 6LoRH must be stripped support this specification, then the chain of 6LoRH must be stripped
by the RPL/6LR router to which the leaf is attached. In that by the RPL/6LR router to which the leaf is attached. In that
example, the destination IP address of the IP-in-IP header cannot be example, the destination IP address of the IP-in-IP header cannot be
elided. elided.
In the special case where the 6LoRH is used to route 6LoWPAN In the special case where the 6LoRH is used to route 6LoWPAN
fragments, the destination address is not accessible in the IPHC on fragments, the destination address is not accessible in the IPHC on
all fragments and can be elided only for the first fragment and for all fragments and can be elided only for the first fragment and for
packets going upwards. packets going upwards.
9. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
The security considerations of [RFC4944], [RFC6282], and [RFC6553] The security considerations of [RFC4944], [RFC6282], and [RFC6553]
apply. apply.
Using a compressed format as opposed to the full in-line format is Using a compressed format as opposed to the full in-line format is
logically equivalent and does not create an opening for a new threat logically equivalent and does not create an opening for a new threat
when compared to [RFC6550], [RFC6553] and [RFC6554]. when compared to [RFC6550], [RFC6553] and [RFC6554].
10. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This specification reserves the Dispatch Value Bit Patterns of
10xxxxxx within the 6LoWPAN Dispatch Page 1.
9.2. Nex 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry
This document creates a IANA registry for the 6LoWPAN Routing Header This document creates a IANA registry for the 6LoWPAN Routing Header
Type, and assigns the following values: Type, and assigns the following values:
0..4 : RH3-6LoRH [RFCthis] 0..4 : RH3-6LoRH [RFCthis]
5 : RPI-6LoRH [RFCthis] 5 : RPI-6LoRH [RFCthis]
6 : IPinIP-6LoRH [RFCthis] 6 : IPinIP-6LoRH [RFCthis]
11. Acknowledgments 10. Acknowledgments
The authors wish to thank Thomas Watteyne, Tengfei Chang, Martin The authors wish to thank Thomas Watteyne, Tengfei Chang, Martin
Turon, James Woodyatt, Samita Chakrabarti, Jonathan Hui, Gabriel Turon, James Woodyatt, Samita Chakrabarti, Jonathan Hui, Gabriel
Montenegro and Ralph Droms for constructive reviews to the design in Montenegro and Ralph Droms for constructive reviews to the design in
the 6lo Working Group. The overall discussion involved participants the 6lo Working Group. The overall discussion involved participants
to the 6MAN, 6TiSCH and ROLL WGs, thank you all. Special thanks to to the 6MAN, 6TiSCH and ROLL WGs, thank you all. Special thanks to
the chairs of the ROLL WG, Michael Richardson and Ines Robles, and the chairs of the ROLL WG, Michael Richardson and Ines Robles, and
Brian Haberman, Internet Area A-D, and Adrian Farrel, Routing Area Brian Haberman, Internet Area A-D, and Adrian Farrel, Routing Area
A-D, for driving this complex effort across Working Groups and Areas. A-D, for driving this complex effort across Working Groups and Areas.
12. References 11. References
12.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-paging-dispatch]
Thubert, P., "6LoWPAN Paging Dispatch", draft-ietf-paging-
dispatch-00 (work in progress), January 2016.
[IEEE802154] [IEEE802154]
IEEE standard for Information Technology, "IEEE std. IEEE standard for Information Technology, "IEEE std.
802.15.4, Part. 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) 802.15.4, Part. 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate
Wireless Personal Area Networks", 2015. Wireless Personal Area Networks", 2015.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/ Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/
RFC2119, March 1997, RFC2119, March 1997,
skipping to change at page 19, line 5 skipping to change at page 17, line 43
[RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and [RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, DOI 10.17487/RFC7102, January Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, DOI 10.17487/RFC7102, January
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7102>. 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7102>.
[RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for [RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, DOI 10.17487/ Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, DOI 10.17487/
RFC7228, May 2014, RFC7228, May 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.
12.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture]
Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-09 (work of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-09 (work
in progress), November 2015. in progress), November 2015.
[I-D.robles-roll-useofrplinfo] [I-D.robles-roll-useofrplinfo]
Robles, I., Richardson, M., and P. Thubert, "When to use Robles, I., Richardson, M., and P. Thubert, "When to use
RFC 6553, 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6", draft-robles-roll- RFC 6553, 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6", draft-robles-roll-
useofrplinfo-02 (work in progress), October 2015. useofrplinfo-02 (work in progress), October 2015.
skipping to change at page 19, line 36 skipping to change at page 18, line 29
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[RFC7554] Watteyne, T., Ed., Palattella, M., and L. Grieco, "Using [RFC7554] Watteyne, T., Ed., Palattella, M., and L. Grieco, "Using
IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) in the IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) in the
Internet of Things (IoT): Problem Statement", RFC 7554, Internet of Things (IoT): Problem Statement", RFC 7554,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7554, May 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7554, May 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7554>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7554>.
Appendix A. Examples Appendix A. Examples
The example in Figure 15 illustrates the 6LoRH compression of a The example in Figure 14 illustrates the 6LoRH compression of a
classical packet in Storing Mode in all directions, as well as in classical packet in Storing Mode in all directions, as well as in
non-Storing mode for a packet going up the DODAG following the non-Storing mode for a packet going up the DODAG following the
default route to the root. In this particular example, a default route to the root. In this particular example, a
fragmentation process takes place per [RFC4944], and the fragment fragmentation process takes place per [RFC4944], and the fragment
headers must be placed in Page 0 before switching to Page 1: headers must be placed in Page 0 before switching to Page 1:
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ...
|Frag type|Frag hdr |11110001| IPinIP | RPI | Dispatch + LOWPAN_IPHC |Frag type|Frag hdr |11110001| IPinIP | RPI | Dispatch + LOWPAN_IPHC
|RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | RFC 6282 |RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | RFC 6282
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ...
<- RFC 6282 -> <- RFC 6282 ->
No RPL artifact No RPL artifact
Figure 15: Example Compressed Packet with RPI. Figure 14: Example Compressed Packet with RPI.
The example illustrated in Figure 16 is a classical packet in non- The example illustrated in Figure 15 is a classical packet in non-
Storing mode for a packet going down the DODAG following a source Storing mode for a packet going down the DODAG following a source
routed path from the root; in this particular example, addresses in routed path from the root; in this particular example, addresses in
the DODAG are assigned to share a same /112 prefix, for instance the DODAG are assigned to share a same /112 prefix, for instance
taken from a /64 subnet with the first 6 octets of the suffix set to taken from a /64 subnet with the first 6 octets of the suffix set to
a constant such as all zeroes. In that case, all addresses but the a constant such as all zeroes. In that case, all addresses but the
first can be compressed to 2 octets, which means that there will be 2 first can be compressed to 2 octets, which means that there will be 2
RH3_6LoRH headers, one to store the first complete address and the RH3_6LoRH headers, one to store the first complete address and the
one to store the sequence of addresses compressed to 2 octets (in one to store the sequence of addresses compressed to 2 octets (in
this example, 3 of them): this example, 3 of them):
+- ... -+- ... -+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... +- ... -+- ... -+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ...
|11110001| IPinIP | RH3(128bits)| RH3(3*16bits)| Dispatch + LOWPAN_IPHC |11110001| IPinIP | RH3(128bits)| RH3(3*16bits)| Dispatch + LOWPAN_IPHC
|Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | RFC 6282 |Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | RFC 6282
+- ... -+- ... +-+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... +- ... -+- ... +-+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ...
<- RFC 6282 -> <- RFC 6282 ->
No RPL artifact No RPL artifact
Figure 16: Example Compressed Packet with RH3. Figure 15: Example Compressed Packet with RH3.
Note: the RPI is not represented since most implementations actually Note: the RPI is not represented since most implementations actually
refrain from placing it in a source routed packet though [RFC6550] refrain from placing it in a source routed packet though [RFC6550]
generally expects it. generally expects it.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Pascal Thubert (editor) Pascal Thubert (editor)
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
Building D - Regus Building D - Regus
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