Audio/Video Transport Working Group                           Q. Wu Wu, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Informational                               May 5, 2011                                   G. Hunt
Expires: November 6, 28, 2011                                  Unaffiliated
                                                                P. Arden
                                                            May 27, 2011

                    Monitoring Architectures for RTP


   This memo proposes an architecture for extending RTCP with a new RTCP
   XR (RFC3611) block type to report new metrics regarding media
   transmission or reception quality, as proposed in RFC5968.  This memo
   suggests that a new block should contain a single metric or a small
   number of metrics relevant to a single parameter of interest or
   concern, rather than containing a number of metrics which attempt to
   provide full coverage of all those parameters of concern to a
   specific application.  Applications may then "mix and match" to
   create a set of blocks which covers their set of concerns.  Where
   possible, a specific block should be designed to be re-usable across
   more than one application, for example, for all of voice, streaming
   audio and video.

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 6, 28, 2011.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  RTP monitoring architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Interaction with Management Application  . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  RTCP Metric Block Report and associated parameters . . . .  7
   4.  Issues with reporting metric block using RTCP XR extension . .  9
   5.  Guideline for reporting block format using RTCP XR . . . . . . 10
     5.1.  Using small blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.2.  Sharing the identity block information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.3.  Correlating identity information with the data . . . . . 10 . 12
   6.  An example of a metric block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 13
   7.  Application to RFC 5117 topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 14
     7.1.  Applicability to MCU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 14
     7.2.  Applicability to Translators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 14
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 16
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 17
   10. Acknowledgement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 18
   11. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Appendix A. 19
   Appendix A.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . 20
     A.1.  draft-ietf-avtcore-monarch-00  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 20
     A.2.  draft-ietf-avtcore-monarch-01  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Author's Address 20
     A.3.  draft-ietf-avtcore-monarch-02  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . 22

1.  Introduction

   Service providers and network providers today suffer from lack of
   good service that can monitor the performance at the user's home,
   handset or remote office.  Without service performance metrics, it is
   difficult for network operators to properly locate the problem and
   solve service issues before problems impact subscriber/end user.  The
   resolution generally involves deploying costly field network
   technician to conduct on-site troubleshooting and diagnostics.  By
   reducing the expensive deployments with more automated remote
   monitoring capabilities, network operators can save significant
   costs, reduce mean time to repair and provide a better service

   As more users and subscribers rely on real time application services,
   uncertainties in the performance and availability of these services
   are driving the need to support new standard methods for gathering
   performance metrics from RTP applications.  These rapidly emerging
   standards, such as RTCP XR [RFC3611]and other RTCP extension to
   Sender Reports(SR), Receiver Reports (RR) [RFC3550]are being
   developed for the purpose of collecting and reporting performance
   metrics from endpoint devices that can be used to correlate the
   metrics, provide end to end service visibility and measure and
   monitor QoE.

   However the proliferation of RTP/RTCP specific metrics for transport
   and application quality monitoring has been identified as a potential
   problem for RTP/RTCP interoperability, which attempt to provide full
   coverage of all those parameters of concern to a specific
   application.  Since different applications layered on RTP may have
   some monitoring requirements in common, therefore these metrics
   should be satisfied by a common design.

   The objective of this document is to define an extensible RTP
   monitoring framework to provide a small number of re-usable QoS/QoE
   metrics which facilitate reduced implementation costs and help
   maximize inter-operability.  [RFC5968] has stated that, where RTCP is
   to be extended with a new metric, the preferred mechanism is by the
   addition of a new RTCP XR [RFC3611] block.  This memo assumes that
   any requirement for a new metric to be transported in RTCP will use a
   new RTCP XR block.

2.  Requirements notation

   This memo is informative and as such contains no normative

   In addition, the following terms are defined:

   Transport level metrics

      A set of metrics which characterise the three transport
      impairments of packet loss, packet delay, and packet delay
      variation.  These metrics should be usable by any application
      which uses RTP transport.

   Application level metrics

      Metrics relating to QoE related parameters.  These metrics are
      measured at the application level and focus on quality of content
      rather than network parameters.

   End System metrics

      Metrics relating to the way a terminal deals with transport
      impairments affecting the incident RTP stream.  These may include
      de-jitter buffering, packet loss concealment, and the use of
      redundant streams (if any) for correction of error or loss.

3.  RTP monitoring architecture

   The RTP monitoring architecture comprises the following two key
   functional components shown below:

   o  Monitor

   o  Metric Block Structure

   Monitor is a functional component defined in RFC3550 that acts as a
   source of information gathered for monitoring purposes.  It may also
   collect statistics from multiple source, stores such information
   reported by RTCP XR or other RTCP extension appropriately as base
   metric or calculates composite metric.  According to the definition
   of monitor in RFC3550, the end system that source RTP streams, an
   intermediate-system that forwards RTP packets to End-devices or a
   third party that does not participate RTP session (i.e., the third
   party monitor depicted in figure 1) can be envisioned to act as
   Monitor within the RTP monitoring architecture.

   The Metric Block exposes real time Application Quality information in
   the appropriate report block format to monitor within the RTP
   monitoring architecture.  Both the RTCP or RTCP XR can be extended to
   convey such information.  The details on transport protocol for
   metric block is described in Section 3.2. 3.1.

                                                | Management    |
                +-------------------+           |   System      |
                | RTP Sender        |           |  +----------+ |
                |   +-----------+   |           |  |          | |
   ---------------->|  Monitor  |---------5------->|  Monitor | |
   |            |   |           |   |           |  |          | |
   |            |   +-----------+   |           |  +----\-----+ |
   |            |+-----------------+|           |       |       |
   |            ||Application      ||           --------|-------+
   |            ||-Streaming video ||                   |
   |   |---------|-VOIP            ||                   5
   |   |        ||-Video conference||                   |
   |   |        ||-Telepresence    ||       +---------------+
   |   |        ||-Ad insertion    ||       |  Third Party  |
   5   |        |+-----------------+|       |    Monitor    |
   |   |        +-------------------+       +---------------+
   |   1
   |   | +Intermediate------------+         |-------------- ---- ----+
   |   | | RTP System       Report Block    | RTP Receiver >--4-|    |
   |   | |      +---------- transported over|    +-----------+  |    |
   |   | |      |           RTCP extension  |    |  Monitor  |<--    |
   |-------------  Monitor |<--------5------|----|           |<------|
       | |      |          |   Report Block      +----/------+      ||
       | |      +----------+   transported over       |             ||
       | |                     RTCP XR      |         |2            ||
       | | +-----------------+    |         | +-------/---------+   ||
       | | |Application      |    |         | |Application      |   ||
       | | |-Streaming video |    |         | |-Streaming video |   ||
       | | |-VOIP            |    |    1    | |-VOIP            |   3|
       ---->-Video conference|--------------->|-Video conference    ||
         | |-Telepresence    |    |         | |-Telepresence    |   ||
         | |-Ad insertion    |    |         | |-Ad insertion    |   ||
         | +-----------------+    |         | +-----------------+   ||
         | +-----------------+    |         | +-----------------+   ||
         | |Transport        |    |         | |Transport        |   ||
         | |-IP/UDP/RTP      |    |         | |-IP/UDP/RTP      >---||
         | |-IP/TCP/RTP      |    |         | | -IP/TCP/RTP     |    |
         | |-IP/TCP/RTSP/RTP |    |         | |-IP/TCP/RTSP/RTP |    |
         | +-----------------+    |         | +-----------------+    |
         +------------------------+         +------------------------+

                   Figure 1: RTP Monitoring Architecture

   1.  RTP communication between real time applications
   2.  Application level metrics

   3.  Transport level metrics

   4.  End System metrics

   5.  Reporting Session- metrics transmitted over specified interfaces

3.1.  Interaction with Management Application

   The full solution may include Management application which interacts
   with monitor.  The Monitor outputs reports to the management
   application.  The management application collects raw data from
   monitor, organizes database, conducts data analysis and creates
   alerts to the users.  However Management application interaction with
   Monitor is out of scope of this document.

3.2.  RTCP Metric Block Report and associated parameters

   The basic RTCP Reception Report (RR) conveys reception statistics in
   metric block report format for multiple RTP media streams including

   o  transport level statistics

   o  the fraction of packet lost since the last report

   o  the cumulative number of packets lost

   o  the highest sequence number received

   o  an estimate of the inter-arrival jitter

   o  and information to allow senders to calculate the network round
      trip time.

   The RTCP XRs [RFC3611] supplement the existing RTCP packets and
   provide more detailed feedback on reception quality in several

   o  Loss and duplicate RLE reports

   o  Packet-receipt times reports

   o  Round-trip time reports

   o  Statistics Summary Reports

   There are also various other scenarios in which it is desirable to
   send RTCP Metric reports more frequently.  The Audio/Video Profile
   with Feedback [RFC4585]extends the standard A/V Profile[RFC3551] to
   allow RTCP reports to be sent early provided RTCP bandwidth
   allocation is respected.  There are four use cases but are not
   limited to:

   o  RTCP NACK is used to provide feedback on the RTP sequence number
      of the lost packets.

   o  RTCP XR is extended to provide feedback on multicast acquisition
      statistics information and parameters.

   o  RTCP is extended to convey requests for full intra-coded frames or
      select the reference picture, and signalchanges in the desired
      temporal/spatial trade-off and maximum media bit rate.

   o  RTCP or RTCP XR is extended to provide feedback on ECN statistics

4.  Issues with reporting metric block using RTCP XR extension

   Issues that have come up in the past with reporting metric block
   using RTCP XR extensions include (but are probably not limited to)
   the following:

   o  Using large block.  A single report block or metric is designed to
      contain a large number of parameters in different classes for a
      specific application.  For example, RFC 3611 [RFC3611] defines
      seven report block formats for network management and quality
      monitoring.  However some of these block types defined in
      [RFC3611] are only specifically designed for conveying multicast
      inference of network characteristics(MINC) or voice over IP (VoIP)
      monitoring.  However different applications layered on RTP may
      have some monitoring requirements in common, design large block
      only for specific applications may increase implementation cost
      and minimize interoperability.

   o  Identity Information duplication.  When multiple small blocks in
      the same  There may be situations where
      an RTCP XR packet contain containing more than two metrics blocks, reports
      on the same streams from the same source.  In such case, each
      metric block should have the same measurement identity, if each
      metric block carry such duplicated data for the same
      stream and period, it bring inefficiency measurement,it
      leads to Repeat the redundant information in a number of metrics blocks within the same RTCP this design since equivalent
      information is provided multiple times, once in *every*
      identification packet.  Though this ensures immunity to packet
      loss, the design bring more complexity and the overhead is not
      completely trivial.

   o  Metric Blocks association.  When  There may be situations where an RTCP
      XR packet containing four metrics blocks, reporting reports on streams from
      two sources, sources.  In such case, two identity blocks need to be added
      into the RTCP XR packet to correlate two sources if identity
      information is allowed separate from each metric block as one
      independent block.  However how to associate identity block with
      relevant metric block data or other identity data is a problem,
      e.g., all identity blocks are following all the metric block or
      vice versa make one receiving RTCP XR packet hard to distinguish
      from which metric block belong to which source.

5.   Guideline for reporting block format using RTCP XR

5.1.  Using small blocks

   Different applications using RTP for media transport certainly have
   differing requirements for metrics transported in RTCP to support
   their operation.  For many applications, the basic metrics for
   transport impairments provided in RTCP SR and RR packets [RFC3550]
   (together with source identification provided in RTCP SDES packets)
   are sufficient.  For other applications additional metrics may be
   required or at least sufficiently useful to justify the overheads,
   both of processing in endpoints and of increased session bandwidth.
   For example an IPTV application using Forward Error Correction (FEC)
   might use either a metric of post-repair loss or a metric giving
   detailed information about pre-repair loss bursts to optimise payload
   bandwidth and the strength of FEC required for changing network
   conditions.  However there are many metrics available.  It is likely
   that different applications or classes of applications will wish to
   use different metrics.  Any one application is likely to require
   metrics for more than one parameter but if this is the case,
   different applications will almost certainly require different
   combinations of metrics.  If larger blocks are defined containing
   multiple metrics to address the needs of each application, it becomes
   likely that many different such larger blocks are defined, which
   becomes a danger to interoperability.

   To avoid this pitfall, this memo proposes the use of small RTCP XR
   metrics blocks each containing a very small number of individual
   metrics characterizing only one parameter of interest to an
   application running over RTP.  For example, at the RTP transport
   layer, the parameter of interest might be packet delay variation, and
   specifically the metric "IPDV" defined by [Y1540].  See Section 6 for
   architectural considerations for a metrics block, using as an example
   a metrics block to report packet delay variation.

5.2.  Sharing the identity block information

   Any measurement must be identified.  However if metrics are delivered
   in small blocks there is a danger of inefficiency arising from
   repeating this information in a number of metrics blocks within the
   same RTCP packet, in cases where the same identification information
   applies to multiple metrics blocks.

   An instance of a metric must be identified using information which is
   likely to include most of the following:

   o  the node at which it was measured,

   o  the source of the measured stream (for example, its CNAME),

   o  the SSRC of the measured stream,

   o  the sequence number of the first packet of the RTP session,

   o  the extended sequence numbers of the first packet of the current
      measurement interval, and the last packet included in the

   o  the duration of the most recent measurement interval and

   o  the duration of the interval applicable to cumulative measurements
      (which may be the duration of the RTP session to date).

   Note that this set of information may overlap with, but is more
   extensive than, that in the union of similar information in RTCP RR
   packets.  However we can not assume that RR information is always
   present when XR is sent, since they may have different measurement
   intervals.  Also the reason for the additional information carried in
   the XR is the perceived difficulty of "locating" the *start* of the
   RTP session (sequence number of 1st packet, duration of interval
   applicable to cumulative measurements) using only RR.  However when
   an RTCP XR packet containing more than two metrics blocks, reporting
   on the same streams from the same source, each metric block should
   have the same measurement identity, if each metric block carry the
   duplicated data for the measurement identity ,it leads to redundant
   information in this design since equivalent information is provided
   multiple times, once in *every* identification packet.  Though this
   ensures immunity to packet loss, the design bring more complexity and
   the overhead is not completely trivial.

   This section proposes an approach to minimise the inefficiency of
   providing this identification information, assuming that an
   architecture based on small blocks means that a typical RTCP packet
   will contain more than one metrics block needing the same
   identification.  The choice of identification information to be
   provided is discussed in [IDENTITY] . [IDENTITY].  The approach is to define a
   stand-alone block containing only identification information, and to tag this identification block with
   a number which is unique information within
   the scope of the containing RTCP XR packet.  The "containing RTCP XR
   packet" is defined here as the RTCP XR header with PT=XR=207 defined
   in Section 2 of [RFC3611] and the associated payload defined by the
   length field of this RTCP XR header.  The RTCP XR header itself
   includes the SSRC of the node at which all of the contained metrics
   were measured, hence this SSRC need not be repeated in the stand-alone stand-
   alone identification block.  A single containing RTCP XR packet may
   contain multiple identification blocks limited by the range of the
   tag field.  Typically there will be one identification block per
   monitored source SSRC, but the use of more than one identification
   block for a single monitored source SSRC within a single containing
   RTCP XR packet is not ruled out.

   There  In order to reduce overhead of the
   payload, This stand-alone block need only be exchanged occasionally,
   for example sent once at the start of a session.

5.3.  Correlating identity information with the data

   This section proposes an approach to facilitate the correlation of
   the metrics report blocks with other session-related data or identity
   data, i.e., using correlation tag to associate identity information
   with the data.

   For example, there will be zero or more metrics blocks dependent on each
   identification block.
   the same set of identity information.  The dependence of an instance
   of a metrics block on an identification block is such identity information can be established by
   the metrics block's having the same numeric value of the tag field as its
   identification block (in the same containing RTCP XR packet).

   Figure 2 below illustrates this principle using as an example field.

   Also there will be an RTCP
   XR packet containing four metrics blocks, reporting on streams from
   two sources.  The measurement identity information is provided in two
   blocks with Block Type NMI, and tag values 0 and 1 respectively.

   Note: in this example, RTCP XR block type values for four proposed
   new block types (work in progress) are given as NMI, NPDV, NBGL and

   Each data dependent on the same set of these two
   identity blocks will specify information.  If the SSRC of one set of the
   monitored streams, as well as identity information about is formed
   as an independent block, then the span dependence of the
   measurement.  There are two metrics blocks with tag=0 indicating
   their association with the measurement an instance of a
   identity block which also has
   tag=0.  These are on identity data can be established by the two blocks following identity
   block's having the tag field to indicate the relationship between
   identity block with
   tag=0, though this positioning is not mandatory.  There are also two
   metrics blocks with tag=1 indicating their association with the
   measurement identity block which also has tag=1, and these are the
   two blocks following the identity block with tag=1.

   Note that if metrics blocks associated with an identity block must
   always follow the identity block, we could save the tag field and
   possibly simplify processing.  However depending on ordering of
   metric block and identity block may bring inefficiency since you do
   not know which block is the last metric block associated with
   identity block unless you identify the next identity block.  Hence it
   is more desirable to to do cross-referencing with a numeric tag,i.e.,
   using tag field to associated metric block with identity block.

   In the example, the block types of the metrics blocks associated with
   tag=0 are BT=NPDV (a PDV metrics block) and BT=NBGL (a burst and gap
   loss metrics block).  The block types of the metrics blocks
   associated with tag=1 are BT=NPDV (a second PDV metrics block) and
   BT=NDEL (a delay metrics block).  This illustrates that:

   o  multiple instances of the same metrics block may occur within a
      containing RTCP XR packet, associated with different
      identification information, and

   o  differing measurements may be made, and reported, specific application.  An example use case is
   for the
      different streams arriving at an RTP system.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      |V=2|P|reserved |   PT=XR=207   |             length            |
      |                  SSRC of RTCP XR packet sender                |
      |     BT=NMI    |0|tag=0| resv  |        block length           |
      |                  SSRC of stream source 1                      |
      .      ...measurement identity information, source 1...         .
      |     BT=NPDV   |I|tag=0|pdvtyp |        block length           |
      .               ...PDV information for source 1...              .
      |    BT=NBGL    |I|tag=0| resv  |        block length           |
      .            ...burst-gap-loss information for source 1...      .
      |     BT=NMI    |0|tag=1| resv  |        block length           |
      |                  SSRC of stream source 2                      |
      .      ...measurement identity information, source 2...         .
      |     BT=NPDV   |I|tag=1|pdvtyp |        block length           |
      .              ...PDV information for source 2...               .
      |    BT=NDEL    |I|tag=1| resv  |        block length           |
      .             ...delay information for source 2...              .

               Figure 2: RTCP XR block with identity blocks

   This approach of separating the identification information is more
   costly than providing identification in each metrics block if only endpoint may convey a call identifier or a
   single metrics block global call
   identifier associated with identity information.  A flow measurement
   tool that is sent in an RTCP packet, but becomes
   beneficial as soon not call-aware can then forward the metric reports along
   with this correlation tag to network management.  Network management
   can then use this tag to correlate this report with other diagnostic
   information such as more than one metrics block shares common
   identification. call detail records.

6.  An example of a metric block

   This section uses the example of an existing proposed metrics block
   to illustrate the application of the principles set out in
   Section 5.1.

   The example [PDV] (work in progress) is a block to convey information
   about packet delay variation (PDV) only, consistent with the
   principle that a metrics block should address only one parameter of
   interest.  One simple metric of PDV is available in the RTCP RR
   packet as the "jit" field.  There are other PDV metrics which may be
   more useful to certain applications.  Two such metrics are the IPDV
   metric ([Y1540], [RFC3393]) and the MAPDV2 metric [G1020].  Use of
   these metrics is consistent with the principle in Section 5 of
   [RFC5968] that metrics should usually be defined elsewhere, so that
   RTCP standards define only the transport of the metric rather than
   its nature.  The purpose of this section is to illustrate the
   architecture using the example of [PDV] (work in progress) rather
   than to document the design of the PDV metrics block or to provide a
   tutorial on PDV in general.

   Given the availability of at least three metrics for PDV, there are
   design options for the allocation of metrics to RTCP XR blocks:

   o  provide an RTCP XR block per metric

   o  provide a single RTCP XR block which contains all three metrics

   o  provide a single RTCP block to convey any one of the three
      metrics, together with a identifier to inform the receiving RTP
      system of the specific metric being conveyed

   In choosing between these options, extensibility is important,
   because additional metrics of PDV may well be standardized and
   require inclusion in this framework.  The first option is extensible
   but only by use of additional RTCP XR blocks, which may consume the
   limited namespace for RTCP XR blocks at an unacceptable rate.  The
   second option is not extensible, so could be rejected on that basis,
   but in any case a single application is quite unlikely to require
   transport of more than one metric for PDV.  Hence the third option
   was chosen.  This implies the creation of a subsidiary namespace to
   enumerate the PDV metrics which may be transported by this block, as
   discussed further in [PDV] (work in progress).

7.  Application to RFC 5117 topologies

   The topologies specified in [RFC5117] fall into two categories.  The
   first category relates to the RTP system model utilizing multicast
   and/or unicast.  The topologies in this category are specifically
   Topo-Point-to-Point, Topo- Multicast, Topo-Translator (both variants,
   Topo-Trn-Translator and Topo-Media-Translator, and combinations of
   the two), and Topo-Mixer.  These topologies use RTP end systems, RTP
   mixers and RTP translators defined in [RFC3550].  The second category
   relates  For purposes of
   reporting connection quality to deployed system models used in many H.323 [H323] video
   conferences.  The topologies in this category are Topo-Video-Switch-
   MCU other RTP systems, RTP mixers and Topo-RTCP-terminating-MCU.  Such topologies based on RTP
   end systems are very similar.  Mixers resynchronize audio packets and
   do not behave according to [RFC3550].  As for the first relay RTCP reports received from one cloud towards other
   cloud(s).  Translators do not resynchronize packets and SHOULD
   forward certain RTCP reports between clouds.  In this category, the
   RTP system (end system, mixer or translator) which originates,
   terminates or forwards RTCP XR blocks is expected to handle RTCP,
   including RTCP XR, according to [RFC3550].  Provided this expectation
   is met, an RTP system using RTCP XR is architecturally no different
   from an RTP system of the same class (end system, mixer, or
   translator) which does not use RTCP XR.  Considering the translator
   and MCU are two typical  The second category relates
   to deployed system models used in many H.323 [H323] video
   conferences.  The topologies in thetwo categories mentioned
   above, this document will take them as two typical examples category are Topo-Video-Switch-
   MCU and Topo-RTCP-terminating-MCU.  Such topologies based on systems
   do not behave according to
   explain how RTCP XR report works in different RFC5117 topologies. [RFC3550].

7.1.  Applicability to MCU

   Topo-Video-Switch-MCU and Topo-RTCP-terminating-MCU, suffer from the
   difficulties described in [RFC5117].  These difficulties apply to
   systems sending, and expecting to receive, RTCP XR blocks as much as
   to systems using other RTCP packet types.  For example, a participant
   RTP end system may send media to a video switch MCU.  If the media
   stream is not selected for forwarding by the switch, neither RTCP RR
   packets nor RTCP XR blocks referring to the end system's generated
   stream will be received at the RTP end system.  Strictly the RTP end
   system can only conclude that its RTP has been lost in the network,
   though an RTP end system complying with the robustness principle of
   [RFC1122] should survive with essential functions unimpaired.

7.2.  Applicability to Translators

   Section 7.2 of [RFC3550] describes processing of RTCP by translators.
   RTCP XR is within the scope of the recommendations of [RFC3550].
   Some RTCP XR metrics blocks may usefully be measured at, and reported
   by, translators.  As described in [RFC3550] this creates a
   requirement for the translator to allocate an SSRC for the monitor
   within itself so that it may populate the SSRC in the RTCP XR packet
   header (although the translator is not a Synchronisation Source in
   the sense of originating RTP media packets).  It must also supply
   this SSRC and the corresponding CNAME in RTCP SDES packets.

   In RTP sessions where one or more translators generate any RTCP
   traffic towards their next-neighbour RTP system, other translators in
   the session have a choice as to whether they forward a translator's
   RTCP packets.  Forwarding may provide additional information to other
   RTP systems in the connection but increases RTCP bandwidth and may in
   some cases present a security risk.  RTP translators may have
   forwarding behaviour based on local policy, which might differ
   between different interfaces of the same translator.

   For bidirectional unicast, an RTP system may usually detect RTCP XR
   from a translator by noting that the sending SSRC is not present in
   any RTP media packet.  However even for bidirectional unicast there
   is a possibility of a source sending RTCP XR before it has sent any
   RTP media (leading to transient mis-categorisation of an RTP end
   system or RTP mixer as a translator), and for multicast sessions - or
   unidirectional/streaming unicast - there is a possibility of a
   receive-only end system being permanently mis-categorised as a
   translator sending XR report, i.e.,monitor collocated with
   transaltor.  Hence it is desirable for a translator that send sends XR to
   have a way to declare itself explicitly.

8.  IANA Considerations


9.  Security Considerations

   This document itself contains no normative text and hence should not
   give rise to any new security considerations, to be confirmed.

10.  Acknowledgement

   Geoff Hunt and Philip Arden wrote the initial draft for this document
   and provided useful reviews.  Many thanks to them.

   The authors would also like to thank Colin Perkins, Graeme Gibbs,
   Debbie Greenstreet, Keith Drage,Dan Romascanu, Ali C. Begen, Roni
   Even for their valuable comments and suggestions on the early version
   of this document.

11.  Informative References

   [G1020]    ITU-T, "ITU-T Rec. G.1020, Performance parameter
              definitions for quality of speech and other voiceband
              applications utilizing IP networks", July 2006.

   [H323]     ITU-T, "ITU-T Rec. H.323, Packet-based multimedia
              communications systems", June 2006.

              Hunt, G., "RTCP XR Report Block for Measurement Identity",
              ID draft-ietf-avt-rtcp-xr-meas-identity-02, May 2009.

   [PDV]      Hunt, G., "RTCP XR Report Block for Packet Delay Variation
              Metric Reporting", ID draft-ietf-avt-rtcp-xr-pdv-03,
              May 2009.

   [RFC1122]  Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
              Communication Layers", RFC 1122, October 1989.

   [RFC3393]  Demichelis, C., "IP Packet Delay Variation Metric for IP
              Performance Metrics (IPPM)", RFC 3393, November 2002.

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC3551]  Schulzrinne , H. and S. Casner, "Extended RTP Profile for
              Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback
              (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 3551, July 2003.

   [RFC3611]  Friedman, T., "RTP Control Protocol Extended Reports (RTCP
              XR)", RFC 3611, November 2003.

   [RFC4585]  Ott, J. and S. Wenger, "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time
              Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/
              AVPF)", RFC 4585, July 2006.

   [RFC5117]  Westerlund, M., "RTP Topologies", RFC 5117, January 2008.

   [RFC5968]  Ott, J. and C. Perkins, "Guidelines for Extending the RTP
              Control Protocol (RTCP)", RFC 5968, September 2010.

   [Y1540]    ITU-T, "ITU-T Rec. Y.1540, IP packet transfer and
              availability performance parameters", November 2007.

Appendix A.  Appendix A.  Change Log

   Note to the RFC-Editor: please remove this section prior to
   publication as an RFC.

A.1.  draft-ietf-avtcore-monarch-00

   The following are the major changes compared to

   o  Move Geoff Hunt and Philip Arden to acknowledgement section.

A.2.  draft-ietf-avtcore-monarch-01

   The following are the major changes compared to 00:

   o  Restructure the document by merging section 4 into section 3.

   o  Remove section 4.1,section 5 that is out of scope of this

   o  Remove the last bullet in section 6 and section 7.3 based on
      conclusion of last meeting.

   o  Update figure 1 and related text in section 3 according to the
      monitor definition in RFC3550.

   o  Revise section 9 to address monitor declaration issue.

   o  Merge the first two bullet in section 6.

   o  Add one new bullet to discuss metric block association in section

Author's Address

A.3.  draft-ietf-avtcore-monarch-02

   The following are the major changes compared to 01:

   o  Deleting first paragraph of Section 1.

   o  Deleting Section 3.1, since the interaction with the management
      application is out of scope of this draft.

   o  Separeate identity information correlation from section 5.2 as new
      section 5.3.

   o  Remove figure 2 and related text from section 5.2.

   o  Editorial changes in the section 4 and the first paragraph of
      section 7.

Authors' Addresses

   Qin Wu (editor)
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu  210012


   Geoff Hunt


   Philip Arden
   Orion 3/7 PP4
   Adastral Park
   Martlesham Heath
   Ipswich, Suffolk  IP5 3RE
   United Kingdom

   Phone: +44 1473 644192