draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-11.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-12.txt 
Network Working Group Jerry Perser Network Working Group Jerry Perser
INTERNET-DRAFT INTERNET-DRAFT Veriwave
Expires in: January 2006 Scott Poretsky Expires in: August 2006
Scott Poretsky
Reef Point Systems Reef Point Systems
Shobha Erramilli Shobha Erramilli
Qnetworx Qnetworx
Sumit Khurana Sumit Khurana
Telcordia Telcordia
July 2005 February 2006
Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer
Traffic Control Mechanisms Traffic Control Mechanisms
<draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-11.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-12.txt>
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
Abstract Abstract
This document describes terminology for the benchmarking of This document describes terminology for the benchmarking of
devices that implement traffic control based on IP precedence or devices that implement traffic control based on IP precedence or
diff-serv code point criteria. The terminology is to be applied diff-serv code point criteria. The terminology is to be applied
to measurements made on the data plane to evaluate IP traffic to measurements made on the data plane to evaluate IP traffic
control mechanisms. control mechanisms.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
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Precedence in the packet header. Classification can also be Precedence in the packet header. Classification can also be
based on Multi-Field (MF) criteria such as IP Source and based on Multi-Field (MF) criteria such as IP Source and
destination addresses, protocol and port number. destination addresses, protocol and port number.
Classification determines the per-hop behaviors and traffic Classification determines the per-hop behaviors and traffic
conditioning functions such as shaping and dropping that are conditioning functions such as shaping and dropping that are
to be applied to the packet. to be applied to the packet.
Measurement units: n/a Measurement units: n/a
See Also: See Also: None
3.1.2 Codepoint Set 3.1.2 Codepoint Set
Definition: Definition:
The set of all DS Code-points or IP precedence values used The set of all DS Code-points or IP precedence values used
during the test duration. during the test duration.
Discussion: Discussion:
Describes all the code-point markings associated with packets Describes all the code-point markings associated with packets
that are input to the DUT/SUT. For each entry in the that are input to the DUT/SUT. For each entry in the
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This condition is a superset of the overload definition This condition is a superset of the overload definition
[Ma98]. Overload [Ma98] deals with overloading input and [Ma98]. Overload [Ma98] deals with overloading input and
output interfaces beyond the maximum transmission allowed by output interfaces beyond the maximum transmission allowed by
the medium. Forwarding congestion does not assume ingress the medium. Forwarding congestion does not assume ingress
interface overload as the only source of overload on output interface overload as the only source of overload on output
interfaces. interfaces.
Another difference between Forwarding Congestion and overload Another difference between Forwarding Congestion and overload
occurs when the SUT comprises multiple elements, in that occurs when the SUT comprises multiple elements, in that
Forwarding Congestion may occur at multiple points. Consider Forwarding Congestion may occur at multiple points. Consider
an SUT comprising multiple edge devices exchanging traffic a SUT comprising multiple edge devices exchanging traffic
with a single core device. Depending on traffic patterns, with a single core device. Depending on traffic patterns,
the edge devices may induce Forwarding Congestion on multiple the edge devices may induce Forwarding Congestion on multiple
egress interfaces on the core device. egress interfaces on the core device.
Packet Loss, not increased Delay, is the metric to indicate
the condition of Forwarding Congestion. Packet Loss is a
deterministic indicator of Forwarding Congestion. While
increased delay may be an indicator of Forwarding Congestion,
it is a non-deterministic indicator of Forwarding Congestion.
External observation of increased delay to indicate
congestion is in effect external observation of Incipient
Congestion.
[Ra99] implies that it is impractical to build a black-box
test to externally observe Incipient Congestion indicated by
increased delay in a router. [Ra99] introduces Explicit
Congestion Notification (ECN) as the externally observable,
deterministic method for indicating Incipient Congestion.
Because [Ra99] is an Experimental RFC with limited
deployment, ECN is not used for this particular methodology.
For the purpose of "black-box" testing a DUT/SUT, Packet Loss
as the indicator of Forwarding Congestion is used.
Throughput [Br91] defines the lower boundary of Forwarding Throughput [Br91] defines the lower boundary of Forwarding
Congestion. Throughput is the maximum offered rate with no Congestion. Throughput is the maximum offered rate with no
Forwarding Congestion. At offered rates above throughput, Forwarding Congestion. At offered rates above throughput,
the DUT/SUT is considered to be in a state of Forwarding the DUT/SUT is considered to be in a state of Forwarding
Congestion. Congestion.
Packet Loss, not increased Forwarding Delay, is the
external observable metric used to indicate the condition
of Forwarding Congestion. Packet Loss is a deterministic
indicator of Forwarding Congestion. The condition of
increased Forwarding Delay without Packet Loss is an
indicator of Forwarding Congestion known as Incipient
Congestion. Incipient Congestion is a non-deterministic
indicator of Forwarding Congestion [Fl93]. As stated in
[Ec98], RED [BR98] detects incipient congestion before the
buffer overflows, but the current Internet environment is
limited to packet loss as the mechanism for indicating
congestion to the end-nodes. [Ra99] implies that it is
impractical to build a black-box test to observe Incipient
Congestion. [Ra99] instead introduces Explicit Congestion
Notification (ECN) as a deterministic Black-Box method for
observing Incipient Congestion. [Ra99] is an Experimental
RFC with limited deployment, so ECN is not used for this
particular methodology. For the purpose of "black-box"
testing a DUT/SUT, this methodology uses Packet Loss as the
indicator of Forwarding Congestion.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Ingress observations alone are not sufficient to cover all Ingress observations alone are not sufficient to cover all
cases in which Forwarding Congestion may occur. A device cases in which Forwarding Congestion may occur. A device
with an infinite amount of memory could buffer an infinite with an infinite amount of memory could buffer an infinite
number of packets, and eventually forward all of them. number of packets, and eventually forward all of them.
However, these packets may or may not be forwarded during the However, these packets may or may not be forwarded during
test duration. Even though ingress interfaces accept all the test duration. Congestion Collapse [Na84] is defined
packets without loss, Forwarding Congestion is present in as the state in which buffers are full and all arriving
this hypothetical device. packets MUST be dropped across the network. Even though
ingress interfaces accept all packets without loss,
Forwarding Congestion, indicated by occurrence of packet Forwarding Congestion is present in this hypothetical
loss, is one type of congestion for a DUT/SUT. Congestion device.
Collapse [Na84] is defined as the state in which buffers are
full and all arriving packets MUST be dropped across the
network. Incipient Congestion [Ra99] is defined as
congestion that produces increased delay without packet loss.
The definition presented here explicitly defines Forwarding The definition presented here explicitly defines
Congestion as an event observable on egress interfaces. Forwarding Congestion as an event observable on egress
Regardless of internal architecture, any device that cannot interfaces. Regardless of internal architecture, any
forward packets on one or more egress interfaces is under device exhibiting Packet Loss on one or more egress
Forwarding Congestion. interfaces is experiencing Forwarding Congestion.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
none None
See Also: See Also:
Gateway Congestion Control Survey [Ma91] Gateway Congestion Control Survey [Ma91]
3.1.4 Congestion Management 3.1.4 Congestion Management
Definition: Definition:
An implementation of one or more per-hop-behaviors to avoid An implementation of one or more per-hop-behaviors to avoid
or minimize the condition of congestion. or minimize the condition of congestion.
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Congestion avoidance mechanisms seek to prevent congestion Congestion avoidance mechanisms seek to prevent congestion
before it actually occurs. before it actually occurs.
Congestion control mechanisms give one or more flows (with a Congestion control mechanisms give one or more flows (with a
discrete IP Precedence or DSCP value) preferential treatment discrete IP Precedence or DSCP value) preferential treatment
over other classes during periods of congestion. over other classes during periods of congestion.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
See Also: See Also: None
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.1.5 Flow 3.1.5 Flow
Definition: Definition:
A flow is a one or more of packets sharing a common intended A flow is a one or more of packets sharing a common intended
pair of source and destination interfaces. pair of ingress and egress interfaces.
Discussion: Discussion:
Packets are grouped by the ingress and egress interfaces they Packets are grouped by the ingress and egress interfaces they
use on a given DUT/SUT. use on a given DUT/SUT.
A flow can contain multiple source IP addresses and/or A flow can contain multiple source IP addresses and/or
destination IP addresses. All packets in a flow MUST enter destination IP addresses. All packets in a flow MUST enter
on the same ingress interface and exit on the same egress on the same ingress interface and exit on the same egress
interface, and have some common network layer content. interface, and have some common network layer content.
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The number of packets per second that a device can be The number of packets per second that a device can be
observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination
interface in response to a specified offered load while the interface in response to a specified offered load while the
device drops none of the offered packets. device drops none of the offered packets.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
Forwarding Capacity measures the packet rate at the egress Forwarding Capacity measures the packet rate at the egress
interface(s) of the DUT/SUT. In contrast, throughput as interface(s) of the DUT/SUT. In contrast, throughput as
defined in RFC 1242 measures the frame rate at the ingress defined in RFC 1242 measures the packet rate at the ingress
interface(s) of the DUT/SUT. interface(s) of the DUT/SUT.
Ingress-based measurements do not account for queuing of the Ingress-based measurements do not account for queuing of the
DUT/SUT. Throughput rates can be higher than the Forwarding DUT/SUT. Throughput rates can be higher than the Forwarding
Capacity because of queuing. The difference is dependent Capacity because of queueing. The difference is dependent
upon test duration, packet rate, and queue size. Forwarding upon test duration, packet rate, and queue size. Forwarding
Capacity, as an egress measurement, does take queuing into Capacity, as an egress measurement, does take queuing into
account. account.
Understanding Forwarding Capacity is a necessary precursor to Understanding Forwarding Capacity is a necessary precursor to
any measurement involving Traffic Control Mechanisms. The any measurement involving Traffic Control Mechanisms. The
accompanying methodology document MUST take into accompanying methodology document MUST take into
consideration Forwarding Capacity when determining the consideration Forwarding Capacity when determining the
expected forwarding vectors. When the sum of the expected expected forwarding vectors. When the sum of the expected
forwarding vectors on an interface exceeds the Forwarding forwarding vectors on an interface exceeds the Forwarding
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One-way Delay [Br99] One-way Delay [Br99]
3.2.5 Jitter 3.2.5 Jitter
Definition: Definition:
The absolute value of the difference between the arrival The absolute value of the difference between the arrival
delay of two consecutive received packets belonging to the delay of two consecutive received packets belonging to the
same stream. same stream.
Discussion: Discussion:
The delay fluctuation between two consecutive received The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive
packets in a stream is reported as the jitter. Jitter can be received packets in a stream is reported as the Jitter.
expressed as |D(i) - D(i-1)| where D equals the delay and i Jitter can be expressed as |D(i) - D(i-1)| where D equals
is the order the packets were received. the Forwarding Delay and i is the order the packets were
received.
Under loss, jitter can be measured between non-consecutive Under loss, jitter can be measured between non-consecutive
test sequence numbers. When IP Traffic Control Mechanisms are test sequence numbers. When IP Traffic Control Mechanisms
dropping packets, fluctuating Forwarding Delay may be observed. are dropping packets, fluctuating Forwarding Delay may be
Jitter MUST be able to benchmark the delay variation observed. Jitter MUST be able to benchmark the delay
independent of packet loss. variation independent of packet loss.
Jitter is related to the ipdv [De02] (IP Delay Variation) by Jitter is related to the IPDV [De02] (IP Delay Variation) by
taking the absolute value of the ipdv. The two metrics will taking the absolute value of the ipdv. The two metrics will
produce different mean values. Mean Jitter will produce a produce different mean values. Mean Jitter will produce a
positive value, where the mean ipdv is typically zero. positive value, where the mean ipdv is typically zero. Also,
IPDV is undefined when one packet from a pair is lost.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds Seconds
See Also: See Also:
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Jitter variation [Ja99] Jitter variation [Ja99]
ipdv [De02] ipdv [De02]
interarrival jitter [Sc96] interarrival jitter [Sc96]
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Discussion: Discussion:
In-sequence is done on a stream level. As packets are In-sequence is done on a stream level. As packets are
received on a stream, each packets Test Sequence number is received on a stream, each packets Test Sequence number is
compared with the previous packet. Only packets that match compared with the previous packet. Only packets that match
the expected Test Sequence number are considered in-sequence. the expected Test Sequence number are considered in-sequence.
Packets that do not match the expected Test Sequence number Packets that do not match the expected Test Sequence number
are counted as "not in-sequence" or out-of-sequence. Every are counted as "not in-sequence" or out-of-sequence. Every
packet that is received is either in-sequence or out-of- packet that is received is either in-sequence or out-of-
sequence. Subtracting the in-sequence from the received sequence. Subtracting the in-sequence from the received
packets (for that stream) can derive the out-of-sequence packets (for that stream), the tester can derive the
count. out-of-sequence count.
Two types of events will prevent the in-sequence from Two types of events will prevent the in-sequence from
incrementing: packet loss and reordered packets. incrementing: packet loss and reordered packets.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Packet count Packet count
See Also: See Also:
Stream Stream
Test Sequence number Test Sequence number
3.3.2 Out-of-order Packet 3.3.2 Out-of-order Packet
Definition: Definition:
A received packet with a Test Sequence number less than A received packet with a sequence number less than
expected. the sequence number of a previously arriving packet.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
As a stream of packets enters a DUT/SUT, they include a As a stream of packets enters a DUT/SUT, they include a
Stream Test Sequence number indicating the order the packets Stream Test Sequence number indicating the order the packets
were sent to the DUT/SUT. On exiting the DUT/SUT, these were sent to the DUT/SUT. On exiting the DUT/SUT, these
packets may arrive in a different order. Each packet that packets may arrive in a different order. Each packet that
was re-ordered is counted as an Out-of-order Packet. was re-ordered is counted as an Out-of-order Packet.
Certain streaming protocol (such as TCP) require the packets Certain streaming protocol (such as TCP) require the packets
to be in a certain order. Packets outside this are dropped to be in a certain order. Packets outside this are dropped
by the streaming protocols even though there were properly by the streaming protocols even though there were properly
received by the IP layer. The type of reordering tolerated received by the IP layer. The type of reordering tolerated
by a streaming protocol varies from protocol to protocol, and by a streaming protocol varies from protocol to protocol, and
also by implementation. also by implementation.
Out-of-order Packet count is based on the worst case
streaming protocol. It allows for no reordering.
Packet loss does not affect the Out-of-order Packet count. Packet loss does not affect the Out-of-order Packet count.
Only packets that were not received in the order that they Only packets that were not received in the order that they
were transmitted. were transmitted.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Packet count Packet count
See Also: See Also:
Stream Stream
Test Sequence number Test Sequence number
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packets statistic are grouped together to form an packets statistic are grouped together to form an
intelligible summary. intelligible summary.
Common stream groupings would be by egress interface, Common stream groupings would be by egress interface,
destination address, source address, DSCP, or IP precedence. destination address, source address, DSCP, or IP precedence.
A stream using test sequence numbers can track the ordering A stream using test sequence numbers can track the ordering
of packets as they transverse the DUT/SUT. of packets as they transverse the DUT/SUT.
Streams are not restricted to a pair of source and Streams are not restricted to a pair of source and
destination interfaces as long as all packets are tracked as destination interfaces as long as all packets are tracked as
a single entity. A multicast stream can be forward to a single entity. A multicast stream can be forwarded to
multiple destination interfaces. multiple destination interfaces.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
See Also: See Also:
Flow Flow
Microflow [Ni98] Microflow [Ni98]
Test sequence number Test sequence number
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
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Discussion: Discussion:
The traffic generator sets the test sequence number value and The traffic generator sets the test sequence number value and
the traffic receiver checks the value upon receipt of the the traffic receiver checks the value upon receipt of the
packet. The traffic generator changes the value on each packet. The traffic generator changes the value on each
packet transmitted based on an algorithm agreed to by the packet transmitted based on an algorithm agreed to by the
traffic receiver. traffic receiver.
The traffic receiver keeps track of the sequence numbers on a The traffic receiver keeps track of the sequence numbers on a
per stream basis. In addition to number of received packets, per stream basis. In addition to number of received packets,
the traffic receiver may also report number of in-sequence the traffic receiver may also report the number of
packets, number of out-of-sequence packets, number of in-sequence packets, number of out-of-sequence packets,
duplicate packets, and number of reordered packets. number of duplicate packets, and number of reordered packets.
The RECOMMENDED algorithm to use to change the sequence The RECOMMENDED algorithm to use to change the sequence
number on sequential packets is an incrementing value. number on sequential packets is an incrementing value.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
See Also: See Also:
Stream Stream
3.4 Vectors 3.4 Vectors
A vector is a group of packets all containing a specific DSCP A vector is a group of packets all containing a specific DSCP
or IP precedence value. Vectors are expressed as a pair of or IP precedence value. Vectors are expressed as a pair of
numbers. The first is being the particular diff-serv value. numbers. The first is being the particular diff-serv value.
The second is the metric expressed as a rate, loss The second is the metric expressed as a rate, loss
percentage, delay, or jitter. percentage, Forwarding Delay, or Jitter.
3.4.1 Intended Vector 3.4.1 Intended Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the attempted rate at which packets A vector describing the attempted rate at which packets
having a specific code-point (or IP precedence) are having a specific code-point (or IP precedence) are
transmitted to a DUT/SUT by an external source. transmitted to a DUT/SUT by an external source.
Discussion: Discussion:
Intended loads across the different code-point classes Intended loads across the different code-point classes
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Output Vectors Output Vectors
Expected Loss Vector Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Delay Vector Expected Delay Vector
Expected Jitter Vector Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.2 Expected Loss Vector 3.4.3.2 Expected Loss Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the percentage of packets, having a A vector describing the percentage of packets, having a
specific DSCP or IP precedence value that SHOULD not be specific DSCP or IP precedence value that SHOULD NOT be
forwarded. The value is dependent on the set of offered forwarded. The value is dependent on the set of offered
vectors and configuration of the DUT. vectors and configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when
subjected to a certain offered vector. subjected to a certain offered vector.
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A vector describing the expected in-sequence packets having a A vector describing the expected in-sequence packets having a
specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is dependent specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is dependent
on the set of offered vectors and configuration of the DUT. on the set of offered vectors and configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when
subjected to a certain offered vectors. subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve
service differentiation is not important in describing the service differentiation is not important in describing the
expected sequence vector. expected sequence vector.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N-octet packets per second N-octet packets per second
See Also: See Also:
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Output Vectors
Expected Loss Vector Expected Loss Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Delay Vector Expected Delay Vector
Expected Jitter Vector Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.4 Expected Instantaneous Delay Vector 3.4.3.4 Expected Instantaneous Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected delay for packets having a A vector describing the expected Forwarding Delay for packets
specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is dependent having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is
on the set of offered vectors and configuration of the DUT. dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration of
the DUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when
subjected to a certain offered vectors. subjected to a certain offered vectors.
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Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Output Vectors
Expected Loss Vector Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Jitter Vector Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.5 Expected Average Delay Vector 3.4.3.5 Expected Average Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected average delay for packets A vector describing the expected average Forwarding Delay for
having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is packets having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The
dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration of value is dependent on the set of offered vectors and
the DUT. configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when
subjected to a certain offered vectors. subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve
service differentiation is not important in describing the service differentiation is not important in describing the
expected average delay vector. expected average delay vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. Seconds.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
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Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Output Vectors
Expected Loss Vector Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Jitter Vector Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.6 Expected Maximum Delay Vector 3.4.3.6 Expected Maximum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected maximum delay for packets A vector describing the expected maximum Forwarding Delay for
having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is packets having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The
dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration of value is dependent on the set of offered vectors and
the DUT. configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when
subjected to a certain offered vectors. subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve
service differentiation is not important in describing the service differentiation is not important in describing the
expected maximum delay vector. expected maximum delay vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. Seconds.
See Also: See Also:
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Output Vectors
Expected Loss Vector Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Jitter Vector Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.7 Expected Minimum Delay Vector 3.4.3.7 Expected Minimum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected minimum delay for packets A vector describing the expected minimum Forwarding Delay for
having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is packets having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The
dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration of value is dependent on the set of offered vectors and
the DUT. configuration of the DUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when
subjected to a certain offered vectors. subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve
service differentiation is not important in describing the service differentiation is not important in describing the
expected minimum delay vector. expected minimum delay vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. Seconds.
See Also: See Also:
Intended Vector Intended Vector
skipping to change at page 21, line 41 skipping to change at page 21, line 41
3.4.3.8 Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector 3.4.3.8 Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected jitter between two A vector describing the expected jitter between two
consecutive packets arrival times having a specific DSCP or consecutive packets arrival times having a specific DSCP or
IP precedence value. The value is dependent on the set of IP precedence value. The value is dependent on the set of
offered vectors and configuration of the DUT. offered vectors and configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference
between the delay measurement of two packets belonging to the between the Forwarding Delay measurement of two packets
same stream. belonging to the same stream.
The delay fluctuation between two consecutive packets in a The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive
stream is reported as the "Instantaneous Jitter". packets in a stream is reported as the "Instantaneous
Instantaneous Jitter can be expressed as |D(i) - D(i-1)| Jitter". Instantaneous Jitter can be expressed as
where D equals the delay and is the test sequence number. |D(i) - D(i-1)| where D equals the Forwarding Delay and i is
Packets lost are not counted in the measurement. the test sequence number. Packets lost are not counted in
the measurement.
Forwarding Vector may contain several Jitter Vectors. For n Forwarding Vector may contain several Jitter Vectors. For n
packets received in a Forwarding Vector, there is a total of packets received in a Forwarding Vector, there is a total of
(n-1) Instantaneous Jitter Vectors. (n-1) Instantaneous Jitter Vectors.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds Seconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Delay Forwarding Delay
Jitter Jitter
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Output Vectors
Expected Average Jitter Vector Expected Average Jitter Vector
Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
Stream Stream
3.4.3.9 Expected Average Jitter Vector 3.4.3.9 Expected Average Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
skipping to change at page 22, line 42 skipping to change at page 22, line 42
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Output Vectors
Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
3.4.3.10 Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector 3.4.3.10 Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected maximum variation in the A vector describing the expected maximum variation in the
delay of packet arrival times for packets having a specific Forwarding Delay of packet arrival times for packets having
DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is dependent on the a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is
set of offered vectors and configuration of the DUT. dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration
of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is the maximum delay minus the Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is the maximum Forwarding Delay
minimum delay of the packets (in a vector) forwarded by the minus the minimum Forwarding Delay of the packets (in a
DUT/SUT. vector) forwarded by the DUT/SUT.
Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous
Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the
packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive
packets. packets.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds Seconds
skipping to change at page 25, line 34 skipping to change at page 25, line 34
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Vectors Expected Vectors
Loss Vector Loss Vector
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Delay Vectors Delay Vectors
3.4.4.4 Instantaneous Delay Vector 3.4.4.4 Instantaneous Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The delay for a packet containing a specific DSCP or IP The Forwarding Delay for a packet containing a specific
precedence value that a device can be observed to DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be observed
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in to successfully transmit to the correct destination
response to an offered vector. interface in response to an offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Instantaneous Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Instantaneous Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers.
Both the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND delay Both the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND
value combine to make a vector. Forwarding Delay value combine to make a vector.
The Instantaneous Delay Vector represents delay on its The Instantaneous Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay
specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily on its specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not
based on a stream or flow. The Delay vector may be expressed necessarily based on a stream or flow. The Delay vector
as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be consistent may be expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However,
with the Expected Delay vectors. it MUST be consistent with the Expected Delay vectors.
Instantaneous Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The Instantaneous Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The
DUT/SUT may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value DUT/SUT may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value
for a multiple-hop measurement. for a multiple-hop measurement. Instantaneous Delay vector
can be obtained at any offered load. It is RECOMMENDED to
Instantaneous Delay vector can be obtained at any offered obtain this vector at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the
load. RECOMMEND at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the absence of Forwarding Congestion. For congested Forwarding
absence of forwarding congestion. For congested delay, run Delay, run the offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
the offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Forwarding Vector may contain several Instantaneous Delay Forwarding Vector may contain several Instantaneous Delay
Vectors. For every packet received in a Forwarding Vector, Vectors. For every packet received in a Forwarding Vector,
there is a corresponding Instantaneous Delay Vector. there is a corresponding Instantaneous Delay Vector.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds Seconds
See Also: See Also:
Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vectors
Average Delay Vector Average Delay Vector
Maximum Delay Vector Maximum Delay Vector
Minimum Delay Vector Minimum Delay Vector
3.4.4.5 Average Delay Vector 3.4.4.5 Average Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The average delay for packets containing a specific DSCP or The average Forwarding Delay for packets containing a
IP precedence value that a device can be observed to specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in observed to successfully transmit to the correct
response to an offered vector. destination interface in response to an offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Average Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both Average Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers.
the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND delay value Both the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND
combine to make a vector. Forwarding Delay value combine to make a vector.
The Delay Vector represents delay on its specific DSCP or IP The Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay on its specific
precedence value. It is not necessarily based on a stream or DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily based
flow. The Delay vector may be expressed as per port of the on a stream or flow. The Delay vector may be expressed as
DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be consistent with the Expected per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be consistent
Delay vector. with the Expect Delay vector.
The Average Delay Vector is computed by averaging all the The Average Delay Vector is computed by averaging all the
Instantaneous Delay Vectors for a given vector. Instantaneous Delay Vectors for a given vector.
Average Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT Average Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a
multiple-hop measurement. multiple-hop measurement.
Average Delay vector can be obtained at any offered load. Average Delay vector can be obtained at any offered load.
Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the absence Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the absence
of congestion. For congested delay, run the offered load of congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run the
above the Forwarding Capacity. offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds Seconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vectors
Instantaneous Delay Vector Instantaneous Delay Vector
Maximum Delay Vector Maximum Delay Vector
Minimum Delay Vector Minimum Delay Vector
3.4.4.6 Maximum Delay Vector 3.4.4.6 Maximum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The maximum delay from all packets containing a specific DSCP The maximum Forwarding Delay from all packets containing a
or IP precedence value that a device can be observed to specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination
response to an offered vector. interface in response to an offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Maximum Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both Maximum Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both
the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND delay value the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND Forwarding
combine to make a vector. Delay value combine to make a vector.
The Maximum Delay Vector represents delay on its specific The Maximum Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay on its
DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily based on specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily
a stream or flow. The Maximum Delay vector may be expressed based on a stream or flow. The Maximum Delay vector may be
as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be consistent expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be
with the Expected Delay vector. consistent with the Expected Delay vector.
Maximum Delay Vector is based upon the maximum Instantaneous Maximum Delay Vector is based upon the maximum Instantaneous
Delay Vector of all packets in a Forwarding Vector. Delay Vector of all packets in a Forwarding Vector.
Maximum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT Maximum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a
multiple-hop measurement. multiple-hop measurement.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds Seconds
See Also: See Also:
Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vectors
Instantaneous Delay Vector Instantaneous Delay Vector
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Average Delay Vector Average Delay Vector
Minimum Delay Vector Minimum Delay Vector
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.4.4.7 Minimum Delay Vector 3.4.4.7 Minimum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The minimum delay from all packets containing a specific DSCP The minimum Forwarding Delay from all packets containing a
or IP precedence value that a device can be observed to specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination
response to an offered vector. interface in response to an offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND delay value specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND Forwarding Delay
combine to make a vector. value combine to make a vector.
The Minimum Delay Vector represents delay on its specific The Minimum Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay on its
DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily based on specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily
a stream or flow. The Minimum Delay vector may be expressed based on a stream or flow. The Minimum Delay vector may be
as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be consistent expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be
with the Expected Delay vector. consistent with the Expected Delay vector.
Minimum Delay Vector is based upon the minimum Instantaneous Minimum Delay Vector is based upon the minimum Instantaneous
Delay Vector of all packets in a Forwarding Vector. Delay Vector of all packets in a Forwarding Vector.
Minimum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT Minimum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a
multiple-hop measurement. multiple-hop measurement.
Minimum Delay vector can be obtained at any offered load. Minimum Delay vector can be obtained at any offered load.
Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the absence Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the absence
of congestion. For congested delay, run the offered load of congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run the
above the Forwarding Capacity. offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds Seconds
See Also: See Also:
Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vectors
Instantaneous Delay Vector Instantaneous Delay Vector
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Average Delay Vector Average Delay Vector
Maximum Delay Vector Maximum Delay Vector
3.4.4.8 Instantaneous Jitter Vector 3.4.4.8 Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
The jitter for two consecutive packets containing a specific The jitter for two consecutive packets containing a specific
DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be observed to DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be observed to
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in
response to an offered vector. response to an offered vector.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference
between the delay measurement of two packets belonging to the between the Forwarding Delay measurement of two packets
same stream. belonging to the same stream.
Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value
combine to make a vector. combine to make a vector.
The delay fluctuation between two consecutive packets in a The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive packets
stream is reported as the "Instantaneous Jitter". in a stream is reported as the "Instantaneous Jitter".
Instantaneous Jitter Vector can be expressed as |D(i) - D(i-1)| Instantaneous Jitter Vector can be expressed as |D(i) - D(i-1)|
where D equals the delay and i is the test sequence where D equals the Forwarding Delay and i is the test sequence
number. Packets lost are not counted in the measurement. number. Packets lost are not counted in the measurement.
Instantaneous Jitter Vector is a per-hop measurement. The Instantaneous Jitter Vector is a per-hop measurement. The
DUT/SUT may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value DUT/SUT may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value
for a multiple-hop measurement. for a multiple-hop measurement.
Forwarding Vector may contain several Instantaneous Jitter Forwarding Vector may contain several Instantaneous Jitter
Vectors. For n packets received in a Forwarding Vector, Vectors. For n packets received in a Forwarding Vector,
there are exactly (n-1) Instantaneous Jitter Vectors. there are exactly (n-1) Instantaneous Jitter Vectors.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds Seconds
See Also: See Also:
Delay Forwarding Delay
Jitter Jitter
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Stream Stream
Expected Vectors Expected Vectors
Average Jitter Vector Average Jitter Vector
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
3.4.4.9 Average Jitter Vector 3.4.4.9 Average Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
skipping to change at page 30, line 25 skipping to change at page 30, line 25
Jitter Jitter
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Stream Stream
Expected Vectors Expected Vectors
Instantaneous Jitter Vector Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
3.4.4.10 Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector 3.4.4.10 Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
The maximum possible variation in the delay for packets The maximum possible variation in the Forwarding Delay for
containing a specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a packets containing a specific DSCP or IP precedence value
device can be observed to successfully transmit to the that a device can be observed to successfully transmit to
correct destination interface in response to an offered the correct destination interface in response to an
vector. offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is the maximum delay minus the Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is the maximum Forwarding Delay
minimum delay of the packets (in a vector) forwarded by the minus the minimum Forwarding Delay of the packets (in a
DUT/SUT. vector) forwarded by the DUT/SUT.
Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value
combine to make a vector. combine to make a vector.
Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous
Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the
packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive
packets. packets.
skipping to change at page 31, line 42 skipping to change at page 31, line 42
7. References 7. References
7.1 Normative References 7.1 Normative References
[Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, July 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, July 1991.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997 Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997
[Br98] Braden, B., Clark, D., Crowcroft, J., Davie, B.,
Deering, S., Estrin, D., Floyd, S., Jacobson, V.,
Minshall, G., Partridge, C., Peterson, L., Ramakrishnan,
K., Shenker, S., Wroclawski, J. and L. Zhang,
"Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion
Avoidance in the Internet", RFC 2309, April 1998.
[Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN [Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN
Switching Devices", RFC 2285, July 1998. Switching Devices", RFC 2285, July 1998.
[Ni98] Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., Black, D., "Definition [Ni98] Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., Black, D., "Definition
of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the
IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474, December 1998. IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474, December 1998.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
7.2 Informative References 7.2 Informative References
skipping to change at page 32, line 22 skipping to change at page 32, line 22
[Bl98] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z., [Bl98] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z.,
Weiss, W., "An Architecture for Differentiated Services", Weiss, W., "An Architecture for Differentiated Services",
RFC 2475, December 1998. RFC 2475, December 1998.
[Br99] Bradner, S., McQuaid, J. "Benchmarking Methodology for [Br99] Bradner, S., McQuaid, J. "Benchmarking Methodology for
Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999 Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999
[De02] Demichelis, C., Chimento, P., "IP Packet Delay Variation [De02] Demichelis, C., Chimento, P., "IP Packet Delay Variation
Metric for IPPM", RFC 3393, November 2002 Metric for IPPM", RFC 3393, November 2002
[Ec98] http://www3.ietf.org/proceedings/98mar/
98mar-edited-135.htm
[Fl93] Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V., "Random Early Detection
gateways for Congestion Avoidance", IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, V.1 N.4, August 1993, p.
397-413. URL "ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/early.pdf".
[Ja99] Jacobson, V., Nichols, K., Poduri, K., "An Expedited [Ja99] Jacobson, V., Nichols, K., Poduri, K., "An Expedited
Forwarding PHB", RFC 2598, June 1999 Forwarding PHB", RFC 2598, June 1999
[Ka99] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., "A One-way [Ka99] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., "A One-way
Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999 Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999
[Ma91] Mankin, A., Ramakrishnan, K., "Gateway Congestion Control [Ma91] Mankin, A., Ramakrishnan, K., "Gateway Congestion Control
Survey", RFC 1254, August 1991 Survey", RFC 1254, August 1991
[Ma00] Mandeville, R., Perser, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for [Ma00] Mandeville, R., Perser, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for
skipping to change at page 33, line 9 skipping to change at page 33, line 9
January 1999. January 1999.
[Sc96] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., Jacobson, V., [Sc96] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., Jacobson, V.,
"RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications",
RFC 1889, January 1996 RFC 1889, January 1996
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
8. Authors' Addresses 8. Authors' Addresses
Jerry Perser Jerry Perser
Veriwave
USA USA
EMail: jperser@veriwave.com
EMail: jerry@perser.org
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Reef Point Systems Reef Point Systems
8 New England Executive Park 8 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803 Burlington, MA 01803
USA USA
Phone: + 1 508 439 9008 Phone: + 1 508 439 9008
EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com
skipping to change at page 34, line 8 skipping to change at page 34, line 8
445 South Street 445 South Street
Morristown, NJ 07960 Morristown, NJ 07960
USA USA
Phone: + 1 973 829 3170 Phone: + 1 973 829 3170
EMail: sumit@research.telcordia.com EMail: sumit@research.telcordia.com
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
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