draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-12.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-13.txt 
Network Working Group Jerry Perser Network Working Group Scott Poretsky
INTERNET-DRAFT Veriwave INTERNET-DRAFT Reef Point Systems
Expires in: August 2006 Expires in: December 2006
Scott Poretsky Jerry Perser
Reef Point Systems Veriwave
Shobha Erramilli Shobha Erramilli
Qnetworx Telcordia
Sumit Khurana Sumit Khurana
Telcordia Telcordia
February 2006
Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer
Traffic Control Mechanisms Traffic Control Mechanisms
<draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-12.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-dsmterm-13.txt>
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applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
skipping to change at page 1, line 51 skipping to change at page 1, line 48
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
Abstract Abstract
This document describes terminology for the benchmarking of This document describes terminology for the benchmarking of
devices that implement traffic control based on IP precedence or devices that implement traffic control using packet classification
diff-serv code point criteria. The terminology is to be applied based on defined criteria. The terminology is to be applied to
to measurements made on the data plane to evaluate IP traffic measurements made on the data plane to evaluate IP traffic control
control mechanisms. mechanisms. Rules for packet classification can be based on any
field in the IP header, such as DSCP, or field in the packet
payload, such as port number.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction .............................................. 3 1. Introduction .............................................. 3
2. Existing definitions ...................................... 3 2. Existing definitions ...................................... 3
3. Term definitions............................................4 3. Term definitions............................................4
3.1 Configuration Terms 3.1 Configuration Terms
3.1.1 Classification.........................................4 3.1.1 Classification.........................................4
3.1.2 Codepoint Set..........................................4 3.1.2 Codepoint Set..........................................4
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3.2.6 Undifferentiated Response.............................11 3.2.6 Undifferentiated Response.............................11
3.3 Sequence Tracking 3.3 Sequence Tracking
3.3.1 In-sequence Packet....................................12 3.3.1 In-sequence Packet....................................12
3.3.2 Out-of-order Packet...................................12 3.3.2 Out-of-order Packet...................................12
3.3.3 Duplicate Packet......................................13 3.3.3 Duplicate Packet......................................13
3.3.4 Stream................................................14 3.3.4 Stream................................................14
3.3.5 Test Sequence number .................................15 3.3.5 Test Sequence number .................................15
3.4 Vectors...................................................15 3.4 Vectors...................................................15
3.4.1 Intended Vector.......................................15 3.4.1 Intended Vector.......................................15
3.4.2 Offered Vector........................................16 3.4.2 Offered Vector........................................16
3.4.3 Expected Vectors 3.4.3 Expected Vectors......................................16
3.4.3.1 Expected Forwarding Vector........................16 3.4.4 Output Vectors........................................23
3.4.3.2 Expected Loss Vector..............................17
3.4.3.3 Expected Sequence Vector..........................18
3.4.3.4 Expected Instantaneous Delay Vector...............18
3.4.3.5 Expected Average Delay Vector.....................19
3.4.3.6 Expected Maximum Delay Vector.....................10
3.4.3.7 Expected Minimum Delay Vector.....................20
3.4.3.8 Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector..............21
3.4.3.9 Expected Average Jitter Vector....................22
3.4.3.10 Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector..............22
3.4.4 Output Vectors
3.4.4.1 Forwarding Vector.................................23
3.4.4.2 Loss Vector.......................................24
3.4.4.3 Sequence Vector...................................24
3.4.4.4 Instantaneous Delay Vector........................25
3.4.4.5 Average Delay Vector..............................26
3.4.4.6 Maximum Delay Vector..............................27
3.4.4.7 Minimum Delay Vector..............................28
3.4.4.8 Instantaneous Jitter Vector.......................28
3.4.4.9 Average Jitter Vector.............................29
3.4.4.10 Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector.......................30
4. IANA Considerations........................................31 4. IANA Considerations........................................31
5. Security Considerations....................................31 5. Security Considerations....................................31
6. Acknowledgments............................................31 6. Acknowledgments............................................31
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
7. References.................................................32 7. References.................................................32
8. Author's Address...........................................33 8. Author's Address...........................................33
9. Full Copyright Statement...................................34 9. Full Copyright Statement...................................34
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
New terminology is needed because most existing measurements New terminology is needed because most existing measurements
assume the absence of congestion and only a single per-hop- assume the absence of congestion and only a single per-hop-
behavior. This document introduces several new terms that will behavior. This document introduces several new terms that will
allow measurements to be taken during periods of congestion. allow measurements to be taken during periods of congestion.
Another key difference from existing terminology is the definition Another key difference from existing terminology is the definition
of measurements as observed on egress as well as ingress of a of measurements as observed on egress as well as ingress of a
device/system under test. Again, the existence of congestion device/system under test. Again, the existence of congestion
requires the addition of egress measurements as well as those requires the addition of egress measurements as well as those
taken on ingress; without observing traffic leaving a taken on ingress; without observing traffic leaving a
device/system it is not possible to say whether traffic-control device/system it is not possible to say whether traffic-control
mechanisms effectively dealt with congestion. mechanisms effectively dealt with congestion.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
The principal measurements introduced in this document are vectors The principal measurements introduced in this document are vectors
for rate, delay, and jitter, all of which can be observed with or for rate, delay, and jitter, all of which can be observed with or
without congestion of the DUT/SUT. without congestion of the Device Under Test (DUT)/ System Under
Test (SUT). This document describes only those terms relevant to
This document describes only those terms relevant to measuring measuring behavior of a DUT or SUT at the Egress during periods of
behavior of a device or a group of devices using one of these two congestion. End-to-end and service-level measurements are beyond
mechanisms. End-to-end and service-level measurements are beyond
the scope of this document. the scope of this document.
2. Existing definitions 2. Existing definitions
RFC 1224 "Techniques for Managing Asynchronously Generated Alerts"
[St91] is used for 'Time with fine enough units to distinguish
between two events'
RFC 1242 "Benchmarking Terminology for Network Interconnect RFC 1242 "Benchmarking Terminology for Network Interconnect
Devices" and RFC 2285 "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching Devices" and RFC 2285 "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching
Devices" SHOULD be consulted before attempting to make use of this Devices" should be consulted before attempting to make use of this
document. document.
RFC 2474 "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS RFC 2474 "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers" section 2, contains Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers" section 2, contains
discussions of a number of terms relevant to network-layer traffic discussions of a number of terms relevant to network-layer traffic
control mechanisms and SHOULD also be consulted. control mechanisms and should also be consulted.
For the sake of clarity and continuity this RFC adopts the For the sake of clarity and continuity this RFC adopts the
template for definitions set out in Section 2 of RFC 1242. template for definitions set out in Section 2 of RFC 1242.
Definitions are indexed and grouped together in sections for ease Definitions are indexed and grouped together in sections for ease
of reference. of reference.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
[Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the [Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the
intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this
document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track
document. document.
2.1 Frequently Used Acronyms
DA Destination Address
DS DiffServ
DSCP DiffServ Code Point
DUT Device Under Test
IP Internet Protocol
PHB Per Hop Behavior
SA Source Address
SUT System Under Test
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3. Term definitions 3. Term definitions
3.1 Configuration Terms 3.1 Configuration Terms
3.1.1 Classification 3.1.1 Classification
Definition: Definition:
Selection of packets based on the contents of packet header Selection of packets according to defined rules.
according to defined rules.
Discussion: Discussion:
Packets can be selected based on the DS field or IP
Precedence in the packet header. Classification can also be
based on Multi-Field (MF) criteria such as IP Source and
destination addresses, protocol and port number.
Classification determines the per-hop behaviors and traffic Classification determines the per-hop behaviors and traffic
conditioning functions such as shaping and dropping that are conditioning functions such as shaping and dropping that
to be applied to the packet. are to be applied to the packet.
Classification of packets can be made based on the DS field
or IP Precedence in the packet header. Classification can
be based on other IP header fields such as IP Source
Address (SA), Destination Address (DA), and protocol, or
fields in the packet payload such as port number.
Classification can also be based on ingress interface.
It is possible to classify based on Multi-Field (MF)
criteria such as IP source and destination addresses,
protocol and port number.
Measurement units: n/a Measurement units: n/a
See Also: None See Also: None
3.1.2 Codepoint Set 3.1.2 Codepoint Set
Definition: Definition:
The set of all DS Code-points or IP precedence values used The set of all DS Code-points or IP precedence values used
during the test duration. during the test duration.
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Congestion. Congestion.
Packet Loss, not increased Forwarding Delay, is the Packet Loss, not increased Forwarding Delay, is the
external observable metric used to indicate the condition external observable metric used to indicate the condition
of Forwarding Congestion. Packet Loss is a deterministic of Forwarding Congestion. Packet Loss is a deterministic
indicator of Forwarding Congestion. The condition of indicator of Forwarding Congestion. The condition of
increased Forwarding Delay without Packet Loss is an increased Forwarding Delay without Packet Loss is an
indicator of Forwarding Congestion known as Incipient indicator of Forwarding Congestion known as Incipient
Congestion. Incipient Congestion is a non-deterministic Congestion. Incipient Congestion is a non-deterministic
indicator of Forwarding Congestion [Fl93]. As stated in indicator of Forwarding Congestion [Fl93]. As stated in
[Ec98], RED [BR98] detects incipient congestion before the [Ec98], RED [Br98] detects incipient congestion before the
buffer overflows, but the current Internet environment is buffer overflows, but the current Internet environment is
limited to packet loss as the mechanism for indicating limited to packet loss as the mechanism for indicating
congestion to the end-nodes. [Ra99] implies that it is congestion to the end-nodes. [Ra99] implies that it is
impractical to build a black-box test to observe Incipient impractical to build a black-box test to observe Incipient
Congestion. [Ra99] instead introduces Explicit Congestion Congestion. [Ra99] instead introduces Explicit Congestion
Notification (ECN) as a deterministic Black-Box method for Notification (ECN) as a deterministic Black-Box method for
observing Incipient Congestion. [Ra99] is an Experimental observing Incipient Congestion. [Ra99] is an Experimental
RFC with limited deployment, so ECN is not used for this RFC with limited deployment, so ECN is not used for this
particular methodology. For the purpose of "black-box" particular methodology. For the purpose of "black-box"
testing a DUT/SUT, this methodology uses Packet Loss as the testing a DUT/SUT, this methodology uses Packet Loss as the
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Gateway Congestion Control Survey [Ma91] Gateway Congestion Control Survey [Ma91]
3.1.4 Congestion Management 3.1.4 Congestion Management
Definition: Definition:
An implementation of one or more per-hop-behaviors to avoid An implementation of one or more per-hop-behaviors to avoid
or minimize the condition of congestion. or minimize the condition of congestion.
Discussion: Discussion:
Congestion management may seek either to control congestion Congestion management may seek either to control congestion
or avoid it altogether. Such mechanisms classify packets or avoid it altogether through Classification.
based upon IP Precedence or DSCP settings in a packets IP
header.
Congestion avoidance mechanisms seek to prevent congestion Congestion avoidance mechanisms seek to prevent congestion
before it actually occurs. before it actually occurs.
Congestion control mechanisms give one or more flows (with a Congestion control mechanisms give one or more flows (with a
discrete IP Precedence or DSCP value) preferential treatment discrete IP Precedence or DSCP value) preferential treatment
over other classes during periods of congestion. over other classes during periods of congestion.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
See Also: None See Also:
Classification
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.1.5 Flow 3.1.5 Flow
Definition: Definition:
A flow is a one or more of packets sharing a common intended A flow is a one or more of packets sharing a common intended
pair of ingress and egress interfaces. pair of ingress and egress interfaces.
Discussion: Discussion:
Packets are grouped by the ingress and egress interfaces they Packets are grouped by the ingress and egress interfaces they
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3.2 Measurement Terms 3.2 Measurement Terms
3.2.1 Forwarding Capacity 3.2.1 Forwarding Capacity
Definition: Definition:
The number of packets per second that a device can be The number of packets per second that a device can be
observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination
interface in response to a specified offered load while the interface in response to a specified offered load while the
device drops none of the offered packets. device drops none of the offered packets.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
Forwarding Capacity measures the packet rate at the egress Forwarding Capacity measures the packet rate at the egress
interface(s) of the DUT/SUT. In contrast, throughput as interface(s) of the DUT/SUT. In contrast, throughput as
defined in RFC 1242 measures the packet rate at the ingress defined in RFC 1242 measures the packet rate at the ingress
interface(s) of the DUT/SUT. interface(s) of the DUT/SUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Ingress-based measurements do not account for queuing of the Ingress-based measurements do not account for queuing of the
DUT/SUT. Throughput rates can be higher than the Forwarding DUT/SUT. Throughput rates can be higher than the Forwarding
Capacity because of queueing. The difference is dependent Capacity because of queueing. The difference is dependent
upon test duration, packet rate, and queue size. Forwarding upon test duration, packet rate, and queue size. Forwarding
Capacity, as an egress measurement, does take queuing into Capacity, as an egress measurement, does take queuing into
account. account.
Understanding Forwarding Capacity is a necessary precursor to Understanding Forwarding Capacity is a necessary precursor to
any measurement involving Traffic Control Mechanisms. The any measurement involving Traffic Control Mechanisms. The
accompanying methodology document MUST take into accompanying methodology document MUST take into
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Discussion: Discussion:
A DUT/SUT may be configured to allow a given traffic class to A DUT/SUT may be configured to allow a given traffic class to
consume a given amount of bandwidth, or to fall within consume a given amount of bandwidth, or to fall within
predefined delay or jitter boundaries. All packets that lie predefined delay or jitter boundaries. All packets that lie
within specified bounds are then said to be conforming, within specified bounds are then said to be conforming,
whereas those outside the bounds are nonconforming. whereas those outside the bounds are nonconforming.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Expected Vector Expected Vector
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Nonconforming Nonconforming
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.2.3 Nonconforming Packet 3.2.3 Nonconforming Packet
Definition: Definition:
Packets that do not lie within specific rate, delay, or Packets that do not lie within specific rate, delay, or
jitter bounds. jitter bounds.
Discussion: Discussion:
A DUT/SUT may be configured to allow a given traffic class to A DUT/SUT may be configured to allow a given traffic class to
consume a given amount of bandwidth, or to fall within consume a given amount of bandwidth, or to fall within
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The time interval starting when the last bit of the input IP The time interval starting when the last bit of the input IP
packet is offered to the input port of the DUT/SUT and ending packet is offered to the input port of the DUT/SUT and ending
when the last bit of the output IP packet is received from when the last bit of the output IP packet is received from
the output port of the DUT/SUT. the output port of the DUT/SUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The delay time interval MUST be externally observed. The The delay time interval MUST be externally observed. The
delay measurement MUST NOT include delays added by test bed delay measurement MUST NOT include delays added by test bed
components other than the DUT/SUT, such as propagation time components other than the DUT/SUT, such as propagation time
introduced by cabling or non-zero delay added by the test introduced by cabling or non-zero delay added by the test
instrument. instrument. Forwarding Delay differs from latency [Br91]
and one-way delay [Al99] in several key regards:
Forwarding Delay differs from latency [Br91] and one-way
delay [Al99] in several key regards:
1. Latency [Br91] assumes knowledge of whether the DUT/SUT 1. Latency [Br91] assumes knowledge of whether the DUT/SUT
uses "store and forward" or "bit forwarding" technology. uses "store and forward" or "bit forwarding" technology.
Forwarding Delay is the same metric, measured the same way, Forwarding Delay is the same metric, measured the same way,
regardless of the architecture of the DUT/SUT. regardless of the architecture of the DUT/SUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
2. Forwarding Delay is a last-in, last-out (LILO) 2. Forwarding Delay is a last-in, last-out (LILO)
measurement, unlike the last-in, first-out method [Br91] or measurement, unlike the last-in, first-out method [Br91] or
the first-in, last-out method [Al99]. the first-in, last-out method [Al99].
The LILO method most closely simulates the way a network- The LILO method most closely simulates the way a network-
layer device actually processes an IP datagram. IP datagrams layer device actually processes an IP datagram. IP datagrams
are not passed up and down the stack unless they are are not passed up and down the stack unless they are
complete, and processing begins only once the last bit of the complete, and processing begins only once the last bit of the
IP datagram has been received. IP datagram has been received.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Further, the LILO method has an additive property, where the Further, the LILO method has an additive property, where the
sum of the parts MUST equal the whole. This is a key sum of the parts MUST equal the whole. This is a key
difference from [Br91] and [Al99]. For example, the delay difference from [Br91] and [Al99]. For example, the delay
added by two DUTs MUST equal the sum of the delay of the added by two DUTs MUST equal the sum of the delay of the
DUTs. This may or may not be the case with [Br91] and DUTs. This may or may not be the case with [Br91] and
[Al99]. [Al99].
3. Forwarding Delay measures the IP datagram only, unlike 3. Forwarding Delay measures the IP datagram only, unlike
[Br91], which also includes link layer overhead. [Br91], which also includes link layer overhead.
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exceeds Forwarding Capacity. exceeds Forwarding Capacity.
Note: Forwarding Delay SHOULD NOT be used as an absolute Note: Forwarding Delay SHOULD NOT be used as an absolute
indicator of DUT/SUT Forwarding Congestion. While Forwarding indicator of DUT/SUT Forwarding Congestion. While Forwarding
Delay may rise when offered load nears or exceeds Forwarding Delay may rise when offered load nears or exceeds Forwarding
Capacity, there is no universal point at which Forwarding Capacity, there is no universal point at which Forwarding
Delay can be said to indicate the presence or absence of Delay can be said to indicate the presence or absence of
Forwarding Congestion. Forwarding Congestion.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. milliseconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Latency [Br91] Latency [Br91]
Latency [Al99] Latency [Al99]
One-way Delay [Br99] One-way Delay [Br99]
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.2.5 Jitter 3.2.5 Jitter
Definition: Definition:
The absolute value of the difference between the arrival The absolute value of the difference between the arrival
delay of two consecutive received packets belonging to the delay of two consecutive received packets belonging to the
same stream. same stream.
Discussion: Discussion:
The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive
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observed. Jitter MUST be able to benchmark the delay observed. Jitter MUST be able to benchmark the delay
variation independent of packet loss. variation independent of packet loss.
Jitter is related to the IPDV [De02] (IP Delay Variation) by Jitter is related to the IPDV [De02] (IP Delay Variation) by
taking the absolute value of the ipdv. The two metrics will taking the absolute value of the ipdv. The two metrics will
produce different mean values. Mean Jitter will produce a produce different mean values. Mean Jitter will produce a
positive value, where the mean ipdv is typically zero. Also, positive value, where the mean ipdv is typically zero. Also,
IPDV is undefined when one packet from a pair is lost. IPDV is undefined when one packet from a pair is lost.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Jitter variation [Ja99] Jitter variation [Ja99]
ipdv [De02] ipdv [De02]
interarrival jitter [Sc96] interarrival jitter [Sc96]
3.2.6 Undifferentiated Response 3.2.6 Undifferentiated Response
Definition: Definition:
The vector(s) obtained when mechanisms used to support The vector(s) obtained when mechanisms used to support
diff-serv or IP precedence are disabled. diff-serv or IP precedence are disabled.
Discussion: Discussion:
Enabling diff-serv or IP precedence mechanisms may impose Enabling diff-serv or IP precedence mechanisms may impose
additional processing overhead for packets. This overhead additional processing overhead for packets. This overhead
may degrade performance even when traffic belonging to only may degrade performance even when traffic belonging to only
one class, the best-effort class, is offered to the device. one class, the best-effort class, is offered to the device.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Measurements with "undifferentiated response" SHOULD be made Measurements with "undifferentiated response" SHOULD be made
to establish a baseline. to establish a baseline.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
The vector(s) obtained with DSCP or IP precedence enabled can The vector(s) obtained with DSCP or IP precedence enabled can
be compared to the undifferentiated response to determine the be compared to the undifferentiated response to determine the
effect of differentiating traffic. effect of differentiating traffic.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
3.3 Sequence Tracking 3.3 Sequence Tracking
3.3.1 In-sequence Packet 3.3.1 In-sequence Packet
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by the streaming protocols even though there were properly by the streaming protocols even though there were properly
received by the IP layer. The type of reordering tolerated received by the IP layer. The type of reordering tolerated
by a streaming protocol varies from protocol to protocol, and by a streaming protocol varies from protocol to protocol, and
also by implementation. also by implementation.
Packet loss does not affect the Out-of-order Packet count. Packet loss does not affect the Out-of-order Packet count.
Only packets that were not received in the order that they Only packets that were not received in the order that they
were transmitted. were transmitted.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Packet count packets
See Also: See Also:
Stream Stream
Test Sequence number Test Sequence number
Packet Reordering Metric for IPPM [Mo03] Packet Reordering Metric for IPPM [Mo03]
3.3.3 Duplicate Packet 3.3.3 Duplicate Packet
Definition: Definition:
A received packet with a Test Sequence number matching a A received packet with a Test Sequence number matching a
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successfully transmitted out an egress interface more than successfully transmitted out an egress interface more than
once. The egress interface has previously forwarded this once. The egress interface has previously forwarded this
packet. packet.
A Duplicate Packet SHOULD be a bit for bit copy of an already A Duplicate Packet SHOULD be a bit for bit copy of an already
transmitted packet (including Test Sequence number). If the transmitted packet (including Test Sequence number). If the
Duplicate Packet traversed different paths through the Duplicate Packet traversed different paths through the
DUT/SUT, some fields (such as TTL or checksum) may have DUT/SUT, some fields (such as TTL or checksum) may have
changed. changed.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
A multicast packet is not a Duplicate Packet by definition. A multicast packet is not a Duplicate Packet by definition.
For a given IP multicast group, a DUT/SUT SHOULD forward a For a given IP multicast group, a DUT/SUT SHOULD forward a
packet once on a given egress interface provided the path to packet once on a given egress interface provided the path to
one or more multicast receivers is through that interface. one or more multicast receivers is through that interface.
Several egress interfaces will transmit the same packet, but Several egress interfaces will transmit the same packet, but
only once per interface. only once per interface.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
To detect a Duplicate Packet, each offered packet to the To detect a Duplicate Packet, each offered packet to the
DUT/SUT MUST contain a unique packet-by-packet identifier. DUT/SUT MUST contain a unique packet-by-packet identifier.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Packet count Packet count
See Also: See Also:
Stream Stream
Test Sequence number Test Sequence number
3.3.4 Stream 3.3.4 Stream
Definition: Definition:
A group of packets tracked as a single entity by the traffic A group of packets tracked as a single entity by the traffic
receiver. A stream may share a common content such as type receiver. A stream MUST share common content such as type
(IP, UDP), packet size, or payload. (IP, UDP), IP SA/DA, packet size, or payload.
Discussion: Discussion:
Streams are tracked by test sequence number or "unique Streams are tracked by test sequence number or "unique
signature field" [Ma00]. Streams define how individual signature field" [Ma00]. Streams define how individual
packets statistic are grouped together to form an packets statistic are grouped together to form an
intelligible summary. intelligible summary.
Common stream groupings would be by egress interface, Common stream groupings would be by egress interface,
destination address, source address, DSCP, or IP precedence. destination address, source address, DSCP, or IP precedence.
A stream using test sequence numbers can track the ordering A stream using test sequence numbers can track the ordering
of packets as they transverse the DUT/SUT. of packets as they traverse the DUT/SUT.
Streams are not restricted to a pair of source and Streams are not restricted to a pair of source and
destination interfaces as long as all packets are tracked as destination interfaces as long as all packets are tracked as
a single entity. A multicast stream can be forwarded to a single entity. A multicast stream can be forwarded to
multiple destination interfaces. multiple destination interfaces.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
See Also: See Also:
Flow Flow
Microflow [Ni98] Microflow [Ni98]
Test sequence number Test sequence number
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.3.5 Test Sequence number 3.3.5 Test Sequence Number
Definition: Definition:
A field in the IP payload portion of the packet that is used A field in the IP payload portion of the packet that is used
to verify the order of the packets on the egress of the to verify the order of the packets on the egress of the
DUT/SUT. DUT/SUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The traffic generator sets the test sequence number value and The traffic generator sets the test sequence number value and
the traffic receiver checks the value upon receipt of the the traffic receiver checks the value upon receipt of the
packet. The traffic generator changes the value on each packet. The traffic generator changes the value on each
packet transmitted based on an algorithm agreed to by the packet transmitted based on an algorithm agreed to by the
skipping to change at page 15, line 36 skipping to change at page 15, line 34
The RECOMMENDED algorithm to use to change the sequence The RECOMMENDED algorithm to use to change the sequence
number on sequential packets is an incrementing value. number on sequential packets is an incrementing value.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
n/a n/a
See Also: See Also:
Stream Stream
3.4 Vectors 3.4 Vectors
A vector is a group of packets all containing a specific DSCP A vector is a group of packets all matching a specific
or IP precedence value. Vectors are expressed as a pair of classification criteria, such as DSCP. Vectors are
numbers. The first is being the particular diff-serv value. identified by the classification criteria and benchmarking
The second is the metric expressed as a rate, loss metrics such as a Forwarding Capacity, Forwarding Delay,
percentage, Forwarding Delay, or Jitter. or Jitter.
3.4.1 Intended Vector 3.4.1 Intended Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the attempted rate at which packets A description of the configuration on an external source
having a specific code-point (or IP precedence) are for the attempted rate of a stream transmitted to a DUT/SUT
transmitted to a DUT/SUT by an external source. matching specific classification rules.
Discussion: Discussion:
Intended loads across the different code-point classes The Intended Vector of a stream influences the benchmark
determine the metrics associated with a specific code-point measurements. The Intended Vector is described by the
traffic class. classification criteria and attempted rate.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N-octets packets per second N-bytes packets per second
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Stream
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Delay Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Loss Vector Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.4.2 Offered Vector 3.4.2 Offered Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the measured rate at which packets having A description for the attempted rate of a stream offered to
a specific DSCP or IP precedence value are offered to the a DUT/SUT matching specific classification rules.
DUT/SUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Offered loads across the different code-point classes, The Offered Vector of a stream influences the benchmark
constituting a code-point set, determine the metrics measurements. The Offered Vector is described by the
associated with a specific code-point traffic class. classification criteria and offered rate.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N-octets packets per second N-bytes packets per second
See Also: See Also:
Expected Forwarding Vector Stream
Expected Loss Vector Intended Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Delay Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Codepoint Set
3.4.3 Expected Vectors 3.4.3 Expected Vectors
3.4.3.1 Expected Forwarding Vector 3.4.3.1 Expected Forwarding Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected output rate of packets A description of the expected output rate of packets
having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is matching a specific classification, such as DSCP.
dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration of
the DUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The value of the Expected Minimum Delay Vector is dependent
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence on the set of offered vectors and Classification
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term certain way in order that classification occurs when a
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
subjected to a certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
service differentiation is not important in describing the DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
expected forwarding vector. or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Forwarding Vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
N-octet packets per second N-octet packets per second
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Delay Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.2 Expected Loss Vector 3.4.3.2 Expected Loss Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the percentage of packets, having a A description of the percentage of packets, having a
specific DSCP or IP precedence value that SHOULD NOT be specific classification that SHOULD NOT be forwarded.
forwarded. The value is dependent on the set of offered
vectors and configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The value of the Expected Minimum Delay Vector is dependent
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence on the set of offered vectors and Classification
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term certain way in order that classification occurs when a
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
subjected to a certain offered vector.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
service differentiation is not important in describing the DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
expected loss vector. or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Loss Vector.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Percentage of intended packets that is expected to be Percentage of intended packets that is expected to be
dropped. dropped.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Delay Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
One-way Packet Loss Metric [Ka99] One-way Packet Loss Metric [Ka99]
3.4.3.3 Expected Sequence Vector 3.4.3.3 Expected Sequence Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected in-sequence packets having a A description of the expected in-sequence packets matching
specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is dependent a specific classification, such as DSCP.
on the set of offered vectors and configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The value of the Expected Minimum Delay Vector is dependent
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence on the set of offered vectors and Classification
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term certain way in order that classification occurs when a
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
service differentiation is not important in describing the DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
expected sequence vector. or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Sequence Vector.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N-octet packets per second N-octet packets per second
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
In-Sequence Packet
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors
Expected Loss Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Delay Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.4 Expected Instantaneous Delay Vector 3.4.3.4 Expected Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected Forwarding Delay for packets A description of the expected instantaneous Forwarding
having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is Delay for packets matching a specific classification, such
dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration of as DSCP.
the DUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The value of the Expected Minimum Delay Vector is dependent
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence on the set of offered vectors and Classification
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term certain way in order that classification occurs when a
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
subjected to a certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
service differentiation is not important in describing the DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
expected delay vector. or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Delay Vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors
Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.5 Expected Average Delay Vector 3.4.3.5 Expected Average Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected average Forwarding Delay for A description of the expected average Forwarding Delay
packets having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The for packets matching a specific classification, such as
value is dependent on the set of offered vectors and DSCP.
configuration of the DUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The value of the Expected Minimum Delay Vector is dependent
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence on the set of offered vectors and Classification
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term certain way in order that classification occurs when a
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
service differentiation is not important in describing the DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
expected average delay vector. or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Average Delay Vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. milliseconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Expected Delay Vector
Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.6 Expected Maximum Delay Vector 3.4.3.6 Expected Maximum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected maximum Forwarding Delay for A description of the expected maximum Forwarding Delay
packets having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The for packets matching a specific classification, such as
value is dependent on the set of offered vectors and DSCP.
configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The value of the Expected Minimum Delay Vector is dependent
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence on the set of offered vectors and Classification
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term certain way in order that classification occurs when a
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
service differentiation is not important in describing the DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
expected maximum delay vector. or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Maximum Delay Vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. milliseconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Expected Delay Vector
Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.7 Expected Minimum Delay Vector 3.4.3.7 Expected Minimum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected minimum Forwarding Delay for A description of the expected minimum Forwarding Delay
packets having a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The for packets matching a specific classification, such as
value is dependent on the set of offered vectors and DSCP.
configuration of the DUT.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
The DUT is configured in a certain way in order that service The value of the Expected Minimum Delay Vector is dependent
differentiation occurs for a particular DSCP or IP precedence on the set of offered vectors and Classification
value when a specific traffic mix consisting of multiple configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
DSCPs or IP precedence values are applied. This term certain way in order that classification occurs when a
attempts to capture the expected forwarding behavior when traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
subjected to certain offered vectors.
The actual algorithm or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
service differentiation is not important in describing the DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
expected minimum delay vector. or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Minimum Delay Vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds. milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors Expected Delay Vector
Expected Loss Vector
Expected Sequence Vector
Expected Forwarding Vector
Expected Jitter Vector
3.4.3.8 Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector 3.4.3.8 Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected jitter between two A description of the expected instantaneous jitter between two
consecutive packets arrival times having a specific DSCP or consecutive packets arrival times matching a specific
IP precedence value. The value is dependent on the set of classification, such as DSCP.
offered vectors and configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference
between the Forwarding Delay measurement of two packets between the Forwarding Delay measurement of two packets
belonging to the same stream. belonging to the same stream.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive
packets in a stream is reported as the "Instantaneous packets in a stream is reported as the "Instantaneous
Jitter". Instantaneous Jitter can be expressed as Jitter". Instantaneous Jitter can be expressed as
|D(i) - D(i-1)| where D equals the Forwarding Delay and i is |D(i) - D(i-1)| where D equals the Forwarding Delay and i is
the test sequence number. Packets lost are not counted in the test sequence number. Packets lost are not counted in
the measurement. the measurement.
Forwarding Vector may contain several Jitter Vectors. For n Forwarding Vector may contain several Jitter Vectors. For n
packets received in a Forwarding Vector, there is a total of packets received in a Forwarding Vector, there is a total of
(n-1) Instantaneous Jitter Vectors. (n-1) Instantaneous Jitter Vectors.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds milliseconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Forwarding Delay Classification
Stream
Jitter Jitter
Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors
Expected Average Jitter Vector
Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
Stream
3.4.3.9 Expected Average Jitter Vector 3.4.3.9 Expected Average Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected jitter in packet arrival A description of the expected average jitter for packets
times for packets having a specific DSCP or IP precedence arriving in a stream matching a specific classification, such
value. The value is dependent on the set of offered vectors as DSCP.
and configuration of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Average Jitter Vector is the average of all the Instantaneous Average Jitter Vector is the average of all the Instantaneous
Jitter Vectors measured during the test duration for the same Jitter Vectors measured during the test duration for the same
DSCP or IP precedence value. stream.
The value of the Expected Average Jitter Vector is dependent
on the set of offered vectors and Classification
configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
certain way in order that classification occurs when a
traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Average Jitter Vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds milliseconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Jitter
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors
Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
3.4.3.10 Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector 3.4.3.10 Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
A vector describing the expected maximum variation in the A description of the expected maximum variation in the
Forwarding Delay of packet arrival times for packets having Forwarding Delay of packet arrival times for packets
a specific DSCP or IP precedence value. The value is arriving in a stream matching a specific classification,
dependent on the set of offered vectors and configuration such as DSCP.
of the DUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is the maximum Forwarding Delay Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is the maximum Forwarding Delay
minus the minimum Forwarding Delay of the packets (in a minus the minimum Forwarding Delay of the packets (in a
vector) forwarded by the DUT/SUT. vector) forwarded by the DUT/SUT.
Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous
Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the
packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive
packets. packets.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms The value of the Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is
dependent on the set of offered vectors and Classification
configuration on the DUT/SUT. The DUT is configured in a
certain way in order that classification occurs when a
traffic mix consisting of multiple streams is applied.
This term captures the expected forwarding behavior from the
DUT receiving multiple Offered Vectors. The actual algorithm
or mechanism the DUT uses to achieve service differentiation
is implementation specific and not important when describing
the Expected Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Jitter
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Output Vectors
Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector Expected Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Expected Average Jitter Vector Expected Average Jitter Vector
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.4.4 Output Vectors 3.4.4 Output Vectors
3.4.4.1 Forwarding Vector 3.4.4.1 Forwarding Vector
Definition: Definition:
The number of packets per second for all packets containing a The number of packets per second for a stream matching a
specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be specific classification, such as DSCP, that a DUT/SUT
observed to successfully forward to the correct destination is measured to successfully forward to the correct
interface in response to an offered vector. destination interface in response to an offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Forwarding Vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Forwarding Vector is expressed as a combination of values:
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND the packets per the classification rules AND the measured packets per
second value combine to make a vector. second for the stream matching the classification rules.
Forwarding Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
The Forwarding Vector represents packet rate based on its MAY remark the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value for
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value. It is not a multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
necessarily based on a stream or flow. The Forwarding Vector
may be expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it
MUST be consistent with the Expected Forwarding Vector.
Forwarding Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT may
change the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value for a
multiple-hop measurement.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
N-octet packets per second N-octet packets per second
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Capacity
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Vectors Expected Vector
Loss Vector
Sequence Vector
Delay Vectors
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.4.4.2 Loss Vector 3.4.4.2 Loss Vector
Definition: Definition:
The percentage of packets containing a specific DSCP or IP The percentage of packets per second for a stream
precedence value that a DUT/SUT did not transmit to the matching a specific classification, such as DSCP, that
correct destination interface in response to an offered a DUT/SUT is measured to not transmit to the correct
vector. destination interface in response to an offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Loss Vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Loss Vector is expressed as a combination of values:
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND the percentage the classification rules AND the measured percentage
value combine to make a vector. value of packet loss. Loss Vector is a per-hop
measurement. The DUT/SUT MAY remark the specific DSCP
The Loss Vector represents percentage based on a specific or IP precedence value for a multi-hop measurement.
DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily based on The stream remains the same.
a stream or flow. The Loss Vector may be expressed as per
port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be consistent with the
Expected Loss Vector
Loss Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT may change
the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a multiple-hop
measurement.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Percentage of offered packets that is not forwarded. Percentage of packets
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Vectors Expected Vector
Forwarding Vector
Sequence Vector
Delay Vectors
One-way Packet Loss Metric [Ka99] One-way Packet Loss Metric [Ka99]
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.4.4.3 Sequence Vector 3.4.4.3 Sequence Vector
Definition: Definition:
The number of packets per second for all packets containing a The number of packets per second for all packets in a
specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be stream matching a specific classification, such as DSCP,
observed to transmit in sequence to the correct destination that a DUT/SUT is measured to transmit in sequence to the
interface in response to an offered vector. correct destination interface in response to an offered
vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Sequence Vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Sequence Vector is expressed as a combination of values:
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND the packets per the classification rules AND the number of packets per
second value combine to make a vector. second that are in-sequence.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
The Sequence Vector represents packet rate based on its
specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily
based on a stream or flow. The Sequence Vector may be
expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be
consistent with the Expected Sequence Vector.
Sequence Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT may Sequence Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a MAY remark the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for
multiple-hop measurement. a multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
N-octet packets per second N-octet packets per second
Issues:
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
In-sequence Packet In-sequence Packet
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Vectors Expected Vector
Loss Vector
Forwarding Vector
Delay Vectors
3.4.4.4 Instantaneous Delay Vector 3.4.4.4 Instantaneous Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The Forwarding Delay for a packet containing a specific The instantaneous Forwarding Delay for a packet in a
DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be observed stream matching a specific classification, such as DSCP,
to successfully transmit to the correct destination that a DUT/SUT is measured to successfully transmit to the
interface in response to an offered vector. correct destination interface in response to an offered
vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Instantaneous Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Instantaneous Delay Vector is expressed as a combination
Both the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND of values: the classification rules AND Forwarding Delay.
Forwarding Delay value combine to make a vector. For every packet received in a Forwarding Vector, there
is a corresponding Instantaneous Delay Vector.
The Instantaneous Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay
on its specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not
necessarily based on a stream or flow. The Delay vector
may be expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However,
it MUST be consistent with the Expected Delay vectors.
Instantaneous Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The Instantaneous Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The
DUT/SUT may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value DUT/SUT MAY remark the specific DSCP or IP precedence value
for a multiple-hop measurement. Instantaneous Delay vector for a multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
can be obtained at any offered load. It is RECOMMENDED to
obtain this vector at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the
absence of Forwarding Congestion. For congested Forwarding
Delay, run the offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Instantaneous Delay Vector can be obtained at any offered
load. It is RECOMMENDED to obtain this vector at or below
the Forwarding Capacity in the absence of Forwarding
Congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run the
offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Forwarding Vector may contain several Instantaneous Delay Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Vectors. For every packet received in a Forwarding Vector,
there is a corresponding Instantaneous Delay Vector.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Capacity
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vector
Average Delay Vector
Maximum Delay Vector
Minimum Delay Vector
3.4.4.5 Average Delay Vector 3.4.4.5 Average Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The average Forwarding Delay for packets containing a The average Forwarding Delay for packets in a stream
specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be matching a specific classification, such as DSCP, that
observed to successfully transmit to the correct a DUT/SUT is measured to successfully transmit to the
destination interface in response to an offered vector. correct destination interface in response to an offered
vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Average Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Average Delay Vector is expressed as combination of values:
Both the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND the classification rules AND average Forwarding Delay.
Forwarding Delay value combine to make a vector.
The Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay on its specific
DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily based
on a stream or flow. The Delay vector may be expressed as
per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be consistent
with the Expect Delay vector.
The Average Delay Vector is computed by averaging all the The average Forwarding Delay is computed by averaging all
Instantaneous Delay Vectors for a given vector. the Instantaneous Delay Vectors for a given stream.
Average Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT Average Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a MAY remark the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a
multiple-hop measurement. multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
Average Delay vector can be obtained at any offered load. Average Delay Vector can be obtained at any offered load.
Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the absence Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the
of congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run the absence of congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run
offered load above the Forwarding Capacity. the offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds milliseconds
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Capacity
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vector
Instantaneous Delay Vector Instantaneous Delay Vector
Maximum Delay Vector Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Minimum Delay Vector
3.4.4.6 Maximum Delay Vector 3.4.4.6 Maximum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The maximum Forwarding Delay from all packets containing a The maximum Forwarding Delay for packets in a stream
specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be matching a specific classification, such as DSCP, that
observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination a DUT/SUT is measured to successfully transmit to the
interface in response to an offered vector. correct destination interface in response to an offered
vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Maximum Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both Maximum Delay Vector is expressed as combination of values:
the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND Forwarding the classification rules AND maximum Forwarding Delay.
Delay value combine to make a vector.
The Maximum Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay on its
specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily
based on a stream or flow. The Maximum Delay vector may be
expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be
consistent with the Expected Delay vector.
Maximum Delay Vector is based upon the maximum Instantaneous The maximum Forwarding Delay is computed by selecting the
Delay Vector of all packets in a Forwarding Vector. highest value from the Instantaneous Delay Vectors for a
given stream.
Maximum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT Maximum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a MAY remark the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a
multiple-hop measurement. multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
Maximum Delay Vector can be obtained at any offered load.
Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the
absence of congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run
the offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Capacity
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vector
Instantaneous Delay Vector Instantaneous Delay Vector
Forwarding Vector
Average Delay Vector
Minimum Delay Vector
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
3.4.4.7 Minimum Delay Vector 3.4.4.7 Minimum Delay Vector
Definition: Definition:
The minimum Forwarding Delay from all packets containing a The minimum Forwarding Delay for packets in a stream
specific DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be matching a specific classification, such as DSCP, that
observed to successfully transmit to the correct destination a DUT/SUT is measured to successfully transmit to the
interface in response to an offered vector. correct destination interface in response to an offered
vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Delay vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Minimum Delay Vector is expressed as a combination of
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND Forwarding Delay values: the classification rules AND maximum Forwarding
value combine to make a vector. Delay. The minimum Forwarding Delay is computed by
selecting the highest value from the Instantaneous Delay
The Minimum Delay Vector represents Forwarding Delay on its Vectors for a given stream.
specific DSCP or IP precedence value. It is not necessarily
based on a stream or flow. The Minimum Delay vector may be
expressed as per port of the DUT/SUT. However, it MUST be
consistent with the Expected Delay vector.
Minimum Delay Vector is based upon the minimum Instantaneous Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Delay Vector of all packets in a Forwarding Vector.
Minimum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT Minimum Delay Vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT
may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a MAY remark the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a
multiple-hop measurement. multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
Minimum Delay vector can be obtained at any offered load. Minimum Delay Vector can be obtained at any offered load.
Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the absence Recommend at or below the Forwarding Capacity in the
of congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run the absence of congestion. For congested Forwarding Delay, run
offered load above the Forwarding Capacity. the offered load above the Forwarding Capacity.
Measurement Units: Measurement Units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Capacity
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Intended Vector Intended Vector
Offered Vector Offered Vector
Expected Delay Vectors Expected Delay Vector
Instantaneous Delay Vector
Forwarding Vector
Average Delay Vector
Maximum Delay Vector
3.4.4.8 Instantaneous Jitter Vector 3.4.4.8 Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
The jitter for two consecutive packets containing a specific The jitter for two consecutive packets in a
DSCP or IP precedence value that a device can be observed to stream matching a specific classification, such as DSCP,
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in that a DUT/SUT is measured to successfully transmit to the
response to an offered vector. correct destination interface in response to an offered
vector.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Discussion: Discussion:
Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference Instantaneous Jitter is the absolute value of the difference
between the Forwarding Delay measurement of two packets between the Forwarding Delay measurement of two packets
belonging to the same stream. belonging to the same stream.
Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value
combine to make a vector. combine to make a vector.
The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive packets The Forwarding Delay fluctuation between two consecutive
in a stream is reported as the "Instantaneous Jitter". packets in a stream is reported as the "Instantaneous Jitter".
Instantaneous Jitter Vector can be expressed as |D(i) - D(i-1)| Instantaneous Jitter Vector can be expressed as
where D equals the Forwarding Delay and i is the test sequence |D(i) - D(i-1)| where D equals the Forwarding Delay and i is
number. Packets lost are not counted in the measurement. the test sequence number. Packets lost are not counted in
the measurement.
Instantaneous Jitter Vector is a per-hop measurement. The Instantaneous Jitter Vector is a per-hop measurement. The
DUT/SUT may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value DUT/SUT MAY remark the specific DSCP or IP precedence value
for a multiple-hop measurement. for a multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
Forwarding Vector may contain several Instantaneous Jitter There may be several Instantaneous Jitter Vectors for a
Vectors. For n packets received in a Forwarding Vector, single stream. For n packets measured, there may be (n-1)
there are exactly (n-1) Instantaneous Jitter Vectors. Instantaneous Jitter Vectors.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Forwarding Delay Forwarding Delay
Jitter Jitter
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Stream
Expected Vectors Expected Vectors
Average Jitter Vector
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
3.4.4.9 Average Jitter Vector 3.4.4.9 Average Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
The average jitter for packets containing a specific DSCP or The average jitter for packets in a stream matching a
IP precedence value that a device can be observed to specific classification, such as DSCP, that a DUT/SUT is
successfully transmit to the correct destination interface in measured to successfully transmit to the correct
response to an offered vector. destination interface in response to an offered vector.
Discussion: Discussion:
Average Jitter Vector is the average of all the Instantaneous Average jitter is calculated by the average of all the
Jitter Vectors of the same DSCP or IP precedence value, Instantaneous Jitter Vectors of the same stream measured
measured during the test duration. during the test duration. Average Jitter Vector is
expressed as a combination of values: the
Average Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both classification rules AND average Jitter.
the specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value
combine to make a vector.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Average Jitter vector is a per-hop measurement. The DUT/SUT Average Jitter vector is a per-hop measurement. The
may change the specific DSCP or IP precedence value for a DUT/SUT MAY remark the specific DSCP or IP precedence value
multiple-hop measurement. for a multi-hop measurement. The stream remains the same.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Classification
Stream
Jitter Jitter
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Stream Expected Vector
Expected Vectors
Instantaneous Jitter Vector Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
3.4.4.10 Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector 3.4.4.10 Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
Definition: Definition:
The maximum possible variation in the Forwarding Delay for The maximum possible variation in the Forwarding Delay for
packets containing a specific DSCP or IP precedence value packets in a stream matching a specific classification,
that a device can be observed to successfully transmit to such as DSCP, that a DUT/SUT is measured to successfully
the correct destination interface in response to an transmit to the correct destination interface in response
offered vector. to an offered vector.
Discussion: Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is the maximum Forwarding Delay
minus the minimum Forwarding Delay of the packets (in a
vector) forwarded by the DUT/SUT.
Jitter vector is expressed as pair of numbers. Both the Discussion:
specific DSCP (or IP precedence) value AND jitter value Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector is calculated by subtracting
combine to make a vector. the maximum Forwarding Delay from the minimum Forwarding
Delay of the packets forwarded by the DUT/SUT. Jitter
vector is expressed as a combination of values: the
classification rules AND peak-to-peak Jitter.
Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous Peak-to-peak Jitter is not derived from the Instantaneous
Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the Jitter Vector. Peak-to-peak Jitter is based upon all the
packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive packets during the test duration, not just two consecutive
packets. packets.
Measurement units: Measurement units:
Seconds milliseconds
See Also: See Also:
Jitter Jitter
Forwarding Vector Forwarding Vector
Stream Stream
Expected Vectors Expected Vectors
Instantaneous Jitter Vector
Average Jitter Vector Average Jitter Vector
Peak-to-peak Jitter Vector
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
4. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document requires no IANA considerations. This document requires no IANA considerations.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of
the Internet or of corporate networks as long as benchmarking the Internet or of corporate networks as long as benchmarking
is not performed on devices or systems connected to is not performed on devices or systems connected to
skipping to change at page 31, line 33 skipping to change at page 30, line 5
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the
IETF's benchmarking working group members in reviewing this IETF's benchmarking working group members in reviewing this
document. The authors would like to express our thanks to document. The authors would like to express our thanks to
David Newman for his consistent and valuable assistance David Newman for his consistent and valuable assistance
throughout the development of this document. The authors throughout the development of this document. The authors
would also like to thank Al Morton (acmorton@att.com) and would also like to thank Al Morton (acmorton@att.com) and
Kevin Dubray (kdubray@juniper.net) for their ideas and Kevin Dubray (kdubray@juniper.net) for their ideas and
support. support.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
7. References 7. References
7.1 Normative References 7.1 Normative References
[Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, July 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, July 1991.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
[Br98] Braden, B., Clark, D., Crowcroft, J., Davie, B., [Br98] Braden, B., Clark, D., Crowcroft, J., Davie, B.,
Deering, S., Estrin, D., Floyd, S., Jacobson, V., Deering, S., Estrin, D., Floyd, S., Jacobson, V.,
Minshall, G., Partridge, C., Peterson, L., Ramakrishnan, Minshall, G., Partridge, C., Peterson, L., Ramakrishnan,
K., Shenker, S., Wroclawski, J. and L. Zhang, K., Shenker, S., Wroclawski, J. and L. Zhang,
"Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion "Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion
Avoidance in the Internet", RFC 2309, April 1998. Avoidance in the Internet", RFC 2309, April 1998.
skipping to change at page 32, line 5 skipping to change at page 30, line 27
"Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion "Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion
Avoidance in the Internet", RFC 2309, April 1998. Avoidance in the Internet", RFC 2309, April 1998.
[Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN [Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN
Switching Devices", RFC 2285, July 1998. Switching Devices", RFC 2285, July 1998.
[Ni98] Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., Black, D., "Definition [Ni98] Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., Black, D., "Definition
of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the
IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474, December 1998. IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474, December 1998.
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms [St91] Steinberg, L., "Techniques for Managing Asynchronously
Generated Alerts", RC 1224, May 1991.
7.2 Informative References 7.2 Informative References
[Al99] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., "A One-way Delay [Al99] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., "A One-way Delay
Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999 Metric for IPPM", RFC 2679, September 1999
[Bl98] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z., [Bl98] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z.,
Weiss, W., "An Architecture for Differentiated Services", Weiss, W., "An Architecture for Differentiated Services",
RFC 2475, December 1998. RFC 2475, December 1998.
[Br99] Bradner, S., McQuaid, J. "Benchmarking Methodology for [Br99] Bradner, S., McQuaid, J. "Benchmarking Methodology for
[De02] Demichelis, C., Chimento, P., "IP Packet Delay Variation [De02] Demichelis, C., Chimento, P., "IP Packet Delay Variation
Metric for IPPM", RFC 3393, November 2002 Metric for IPPM", RFC 3393, November 2002
skipping to change at page 32, line 31 skipping to change at page 31, line 4
98mar-edited-135.htm 98mar-edited-135.htm
[Fl93] Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V., "Random Early Detection [Fl93] Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V., "Random Early Detection
gateways for Congestion Avoidance", IEEE/ACM gateways for Congestion Avoidance", IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, V.1 N.4, August 1993, p. Transactions on Networking, V.1 N.4, August 1993, p.
397-413. URL "ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/early.pdf". 397-413. URL "ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/early.pdf".
[Ja99] Jacobson, V., Nichols, K., Poduri, K., "An Expedited [Ja99] Jacobson, V., Nichols, K., Poduri, K., "An Expedited
[Ka99] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., "A One-way [Ka99] Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., "A One-way
Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999 Packet Loss Metric for IPPM", RFC 2680, September 1999
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
[Ma91] Mankin, A., Ramakrishnan, K., "Gateway Congestion Control [Ma91] Mankin, A., Ramakrishnan, K., "Gateway Congestion Control
Survey", RFC 1254, August 1991 Survey", RFC 1254, August 1991
[Ma00] Mandeville, R., Perser, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for [Ma00] Mandeville, R., Perser, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for
LAN Switching Devices", RFC 2889, August 2000 LAN Switching Devices", RFC 2889, August 2000
[Mo03] Morton, A., Ciavattone, L., Ramachandran, G., Shalunov, [Mo03] Morton, A., Ciavattone, L., Ramachandran, G., Shalunov,
S., Perser, J., "Packet Reordering Metric for IPPM", S., Perser, J., "Packet Reordering Metric for IPPM",
Work in Progress Work in Progress
skipping to change at page 33, line 4 skipping to change at page 31, line 26
[Na84] Nagle, J., "Congestion Control in IP/TCP Internetworks", [Na84] Nagle, J., "Congestion Control in IP/TCP Internetworks",
RFC 896, January 1984. RFC 896, January 1984.
[Ra99] Ramakrishnan, K. and Floyd, S., "A Proposal to add [Ra99] Ramakrishnan, K. and Floyd, S., "A Proposal to add
Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP", RFC 2481, Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP", RFC 2481,
January 1999. January 1999.
[Sc96] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., Jacobson, V., [Sc96] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., Jacobson, V.,
"RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications",
RFC 1889, January 1996 RFC 1889, January 1996
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
8. Authors' Addresses 8. Authors' Addresses
Jerry Perser Jerry Perser
Veriwave Veriwave
USA USA
EMail: jperser@veriwave.com EMail: jperser@veriwave.com
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Reef Point Systems Reef Point Systems
skipping to change at page 33, line 18 skipping to change at page 31, line 39
Jerry Perser Jerry Perser
Veriwave Veriwave
USA USA
EMail: jperser@veriwave.com EMail: jperser@veriwave.com
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Reef Point Systems Reef Point Systems
8 New England Executive Park 8 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803 Burlington, MA 01803
USA USA
Phone: + 1 508 439 9008 Phone: + 1 508 439 9008
EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com
Shobha Erramilli Shobha Erramilli
QNetworx Inc Telcordia Technologies
1119 Campus Drive West 331 Newman Springs Road
Morganville, NJ 07751 Red Bank, New Jersey 07701
USA USA
Email: shobha@research.telcordia.com
EMail: shobha@qnetworx.com
Sumit Khurana Sumit Khurana
Telcordia Technologies Telcordia Technologies
445 South Street 445 South Street
Morristown, NJ 07960 Morristown, NJ 07960
USA USA
Phone: + 1 973 829 3170 Phone: + 1 973 829 3170
EMail: sumit@research.telcordia.com EMail: sumit@research.telcordia.com
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
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