draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-01.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-02.txt 
Network Working Group Network Working Group
INTERNET-DRAFT INTERNET-DRAFT
Expires in: April 2004 Expires in: July 2004
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Quarry Technologies Quarry Technologies
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Wiltel Communications Wiltel Communications
October 2003 January 2004
Benchmarking Methodology for Benchmarking Methodology for
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-01.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-02.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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ABSTRACT
This draft describes the methodology for benchmarking IGP Route
Convergence as described in Applicability document [1] and
Terminology document [2]. The methodology and terminology are
to be used for benchmarking route convergence and can be applied
to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4]. The terms
used in the procedures provided within this document are
defined in [2].
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction ...............................................2 1. Introduction ...............................................2
2. Existing definitions .......................................2 2. Existing definitions .......................................2
3. Test Setup..................................................2 3. Test Setup..................................................3
3.1 Test Topologies............................................2 3.1 Test Topologies............................................3
3.2 Test Considerations........................................4 3.2 Test Considerations........................................4
3.2.1 IGP Selection............................................4 3.2.1 IGP Selection............................................4
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.2.2 BGP Configuration........................................4 3.2.2 BGP Configuration........................................4
3.2.3 IGP Route Scaling........................................5 3.2.3 IGP Route Scaling........................................5
3.2.4 Timers...................................................5 3.2.4 Timers...................................................5
3.2.5 Convergence Time Metrics.................................5 3.2.5 Convergence Time Metrics.................................5
3.2.6 Packet Sampling Interval.................................6 3.2.6 Offered Load.............................................5
3.2.7 Interface Type...........................................6 3.2.7 Interface Types..........................................5
3.3 Reporting Format...........................................6 3.3 Reporting Format...........................................6
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence 4. Test Cases..................................................6
4.1 Convergence Due to Link Failure............................6
4. Test Cases..................................................7 4.1.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure...............6
4.1 Convergence Due to Link Failure............................7 4.1.2 Convergence Due to Neighbor Interface Failure............7
4.1.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure...............7 4.1.3 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure..............7
4.1.2 Convergence Due to Neighbor Interface Failure............8 4.2 Convergence Due to PPP Session Failure.....................8
4.1.3 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure..............8 4.3 Convergence Due to IGP Adjacency Failure...................9
4.2 Convergence Due to PPP Session Failure.....................9 4.4 Convergence Due to Route Withdrawal........................9
4.3 Convergence Due to IGP Adjacency Failure...................10 4.5 Convergence Due to Cost Change.............................10
4.4 Convergence Due to Route Withdrawal........................10 4.6 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure...........10
4.5 Convergence Due to Cost Change.............................11 4.7 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure.........11
4.6 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure...........11 5. Security Considerations.....................................12
4.7 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure.........12 6. References..................................................12
5. Security Considerations.....................................13 7. Author's Address............................................12
6. References..................................................13
7. Author's Address............................................13
8. Full Copyright Statement....................................13 8. Full Copyright Statement....................................13
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This draft describes the methodology for benchmarking IGP Route This draft describes the methodology for benchmarking IGP Route
Convergence. The applicability of this testing is described in Convergence. The applicability of this testing is described in
[1] and the new terminology that it introduces is defined in [2]. [1] and the new terminology that it introduces is defined in [2].
Service Providers use IGP Convergence time as a key metric of Service Providers use IGP Convergence time as a key metric of
router design and architecture. Customers of Service Providers router design and architecture. Customers of Service Providers
observe convergence time by packet loss, so IGP Route Convergence observe convergence time by packet loss, so IGP Route Convergence
is considered a Direct Measure of Quality (DMOQ). The test cases is considered a Direct Measure of Quality (DMOQ). The test cases
in this document are black-box tests that emulate the network in this document are black-box tests that emulate the network
events that cause route convergence, as described in [1]. The events that cause route convergence, as described in [1]. The
black-box test designs benchmark the data plane accounting for black-box test designs benchmark the data plane accounting for
all of the factors contributing to route convergence time, as all of the factors contributing to convergence time, as discussed
discussed in [1]. The methodology (and terminology) for in [1]. The methodology (and terminology) for benchmarking route
benchmarking route convergence can be applied to any link-state convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3]
IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4]. and OSPF [4].
2. Existing definitions 2. Existing definitions
For the sake of clarity and continuity this RFC adopts the template For the sake of clarity and continuity this RFC adopts the template
for definitions set out in Section 2 of RFC 1242. Definitions are for definitions set out in Section 2 of RFC 1242. Definitions are
indexed and grouped together in sections for ease of reference. indexed and grouped together in sections for ease of reference.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3. Test Setup 3. Test Setup
3.1 Test Topologies 3.1 Test Topologies
Figure 1 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence due Figure 1 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence due
to local Convergence Events such as SONET Link Failure, PPP Session to local Convergence Events such as SONET Link Failure, PPP Session
Failure, IGP Adjacency Failure, Route Withdrawal, and route cost Failure, IGP Adjacency Failure, Route Withdrawal, and route cost
change. These test cases discussed in section 4 provide route change. These test cases discussed in section 4 provide route
convergence times that account for the Event Detection time, SPF convergence times that account for the Event Detection time, SPF
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Processing time, and FIB Update time. These times are measured Processing time, and FIB Update time. These times are measured
by observing packet loss in the data plane. by observing packet loss in the data plane.
--------- Ingress Interface --------- --------- Ingress Interface ---------
| |<------------------------------| | | |<------------------------------| |
| | | | | | | |
| | Preferred Egress Interface | | | | Preferred Egress Interface | |
| DUT |------------------------------>|Tester | | DUT |------------------------------>|Tester |
| | | | | | | |
| |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| | | |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| |
| | Next-Best Egress Interface | | | | Next-Best Egress Interface | |
--------- --------- --------- ---------
Figure 1. IGP Route Convergence Test Topology for Local Changes Figure 1. IGP Route Convergence Test Topology for Local Changes
Figure 2 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence Figure 2 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time due to remote changes in the network topology. These times are time due to remote changes in the network topology. These times are
measured by observing packet loss in the data plane. In this measured by observing packet loss in the data plane. In this
topology the three routers are considered a System Under Test (SUT). topology the three routers are considered a System Under Test (SUT).
NOTE: All routers in the SUT must be the same model and identically configured.
----- ----------- ----- -----------
| | Preferred | | | | Preferred | |
----- |R2 |---------------------->| | ----- |R2 |---------------------->| |
| |-->| | Egress Interface | | | |-->| | Egress Interface | |
| | ----- | | | | ----- | |
|R1 | | Tester | |R1 | | Tester |
| | ----- | | | | ----- | |
| |-->| | Next-Best | | | |-->| | Next-Best | |
----- |R3 |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| | ----- |R3 |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| |
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| | | |
|-------------------------------------- |--------------------------------------
Ingress Interface Ingress Interface
Figure 2. IGP Route Convergence Test Topology Figure 2. IGP Route Convergence Test Topology
for Remote Changes for Remote Changes
Figure 3 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence Figure 3 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time with members of an ECMP Set. These times are measured by time with members of an ECMP Set. These times are measured by
observing packet loss in the data plane. In this topology, the DUT observing packet loss in the data plane. In this topology, the DUT
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
is configured with each Egress interface as a member of an ECMP set is configured with each Egress interface as a member of an ECMP set
and the Tester emulates multiple next-hop routers (emulates one and the Tester emulates multiple next-hop routers (emulates one
router for each member). router for each member).
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
--------- Ingress Interface --------- --------- Ingress Interface ---------
| |<--------------------------------| | | |<--------------------------------| |
| | | | | | | |
| | ECMP Set Interface 1 | | | | ECMP Set Interface 1 | |
| DUT |-------------------------------->| Tester| | DUT |-------------------------------->| Tester|
| | . | | | | . | |
| | . | | | | . | |
| | . | | | | . | |
| |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| | | |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| |
| | ECMP Set Interface N | | | | ECMP Set Interface N | |
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----- ----------------- ----- -----------------
SONET Failure Indication Delay <10milliseconds SONET Failure Indication Delay <10milliseconds
IGP Hello Timer 1 second IGP Hello Timer 1 second
IGP Dead-Interval 3 seconds IGP Dead-Interval 3 seconds
LSA Generation Delay 0 LSA Generation Delay 0
LSA Flood Packet Pacing 0 LSA Flood Packet Pacing 0
LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing 0 LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing 0
SPF Delay 0 SPF Delay 0
3.2.5 Convergence Time Metrics 3.2.5 Convergence Time Metrics
Figure 5 shows a graph model of Convergence Time as measured The recommended value for the Packet Sampling Interval [2] is
from the data plane. Refer to [2] for definitions of the terms 100 milliseconds. Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] is the
used. Rate-Derived Convergence Time and Loss-Derived Convergence preferred benchmark for IGP Route Convergence. This benchmark
Time are the two metrics for convergence time. An offered Load of must always be reported when the
maximum forwarding rate at a fixed packet size is recommended for Packet Sampling Interval [2] <= 100 milliseconds.
accurate measurement. The test duration must be greater than the If the test equipment does not permit the Packet Sampling
convergence time. Interval to be set as low as 100 msec, then both the
Rate-Derived Convergence Time and Loss-Derived Convergence
Ideally, Convergence Event Transition and Convergence Recovery Time [2] must be reported.
Transition are instantaneous so that the
Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time.
When the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence Recovery
Transition are not instantaneous so that there is a slope, as
shown in Figure 5, the accuracy of the Rate-Derived Convergence
Time and Loss-Derived Convergence Time are dependent upon the
Packet Sampling Interval.
Under this condition and the Packet Sampling Interval <= 100
millisecond, the Rate-Derived Convergence Time > Loss-Derived
Convergence Time and Rate-Derived Convergence Time is the preferred
metric. Under this condition and the Packet Sampling Interval > 100
millisecond the Rate-Derived Convergence Time < Loss-Derived
Convergence Time and Loss-Derived Convergence Time is the better
metric. For all test cases, the Rate-Derived Convergence Time
and Loss-Derived Convergence Time must be recorded.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Recovery Convergence Event Time = 0sec
Maximum ^ ^ ^
Forwarding Rate--> ----\ Packet /---------------
\ Loss /<----Convergence
Convergence------->\ / Event Transition
Recovery Transition \ /
\_____/<------100% Packet Loss
X-axis = Time
Y-axis = Forwarding Rate
Figure 5. Convergence Graph
3.2.6 Packet Sampling Interval 3.2.6 Offered Load
Selection of the Packet Sampling Interval on the Test Equipment An offered Load of maximum forwarding rate at a fixed packet size
impacts the measured Rate-Derived Convergence Time. Packet is recommended for accurate measurement. The duration of offered
Sampling Interval time is that is too large exaggerates the load must be greater than the convergence time.
slope of the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence
Recovery Transition producing a larger than the actual Rate-Derived
Convergence Time. This impact is greater as routers achieve
millisecond convergence times. The recommended value for the
Packet Sampling Interval is 100 millisecond. It is possible to
have commercially available test equipment with a minimum
configurable Packet Sampling Interval of 1 second.
3.2.7 Interface Types 3.2.7 Interface Types
All test cases in this methodology document may be executed with All test cases in this methodology document may be executed with
any interface type. SONET is recommended and specifically any interface type. SONET is recommended and specifically
mentioned in the procedures because it can be configured to have mentioned in the procedures because it can be configured to have
no or negligible affect on the measured convergence time. no or negligible affect on the measured convergence time.
Ethernet (10Mb, 100Mb, 1Gb, and 10Gb) is not preferred since Ethernet (10Mb, 100Mb, 1Gb, and 10Gb) is not preferred since
broadcast media are unable to detect loss of host and rely upon broadcast media are unable to detect loss of host and rely upon
IGP Hellos to detect session loss. IGP Hellos to detect session loss.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.3 Reporting Format 3.3 Reporting Format
For each test case, it is recommended that the following reporting For each test case, it is recommended that the following reporting
format be completed: format be completed:
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Parameter Units Parameter Units
--------- ----- --------- -----
IGP (ISIS or OSPF) IGP (ISIS or OSPF)
Interface Type (GigE, POS, ATM, etc.) Interface Type (GigE, POS, ATM, etc.)
Packet Size bytes Packet Size bytes
IGP Routes number of IGP routes IGP Routes number of IGP routes
Packet Sampling Interval seconds or milliseconds Packet Sampling Interval seconds or milliseconds
IGP Timer Values IGP Timer Values
SONET Failure Indication Delay seconds or milliseconds SONET Failure Indication Delay seconds or milliseconds
IGP Hello Timer seconds or milliseconds IGP Hello Timer seconds or milliseconds
IGP Dead-Interval seconds or milliseconds IGP Dead-Interval seconds or milliseconds
LSA Generation Delay seconds or milliseconds LSA Generation Delay seconds or milliseconds
LSA Flood Packet Pacing seconds or milliseconds LSA Flood Packet Pacing seconds or milliseconds
LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing seconds or milliseconds LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing seconds or milliseconds
SPF Delay seconds or milliseconds SPF Delay seconds or milliseconds
Results Benchmarks
Rate-Derived Convergence Time seconds or milliseconds Rate-Derived Convergence Time seconds or milliseconds
Loss-Derived Convergence Time seconds or milliseconds Loss-Derived Convergence Time seconds or milliseconds
Restoration Convergence Time seconds or milliseconds Restoration Convergence Time seconds or milliseconds
4. Test Cases 4. Test Cases
4.1 Convergence Due to Link Failure 4.1 Convergence Due to Link Failure
4.1.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure 4.1.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link
failure event at the DUT's Local Interface. failure event at the DUT's Local Interface.
skipping to change at page 7, line 46 skipping to change at page 6, line 50
Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the [2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the
routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred
next-hop. next-hop.
2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress Interface matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress Interface
[2]. [2].
3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove SONET on DUT's Local Interface [2] by performing an 4. Remove SONET on DUT's Local Interface [2] by performing an
administrative shutdown of the interface. administrative shutdown of the interface.
5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the link down event and link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
converges all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best Egress the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Interface.
6. Restore SONET on DUT's Local Interface by administratively 6. Restore SONET on DUT's Local Interface by administratively
enabling the interface. enabling the interface.
7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the link 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the link
up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the
Preferred Egress Interface. Preferred Egress Interface.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
SONET indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution SONET indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution
Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time. Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4.1.2 Convergence Due to Neighbor Interface Failure 4.1.2 Convergence Due to Neighbor Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link
failure event at the Tester's Neighbor Interface. failure event at the Tester's Neighbor Interface.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [2]. Interface [2].
3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to 4. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to
DUT' s Preferred Egress Interface. DUT' s Preferred Egress Interface.
5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the link down event and link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
converges all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Egress Interface.
6. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 6. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
link up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic back to link up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic back to
the Preferred Egress Interface. the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
SONET indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution SONET indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution
Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time. Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time.
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7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
link up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic back to link up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic back to
the Preferred Egress Interface. the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
SONET indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution SONET indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution
Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time. Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time.
4.1.3 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure 4.1.3 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a Remote To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a Remote
Interface failure event. Interface failure event.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[2] using the topology shown in Figure 2. Set the cost of the [2] using the topology shown in Figure 2. Set the cost of the
routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred
next-hop. NOTE: All routers in the SUT must be the same model next-hop.
and identically configured.
2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress Interface matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress Interface
[2]. [2].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to 4. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to
SUT' s Preferred Egress Interface. SUT' s Preferred Egress Interface.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as SUT detects
Convergence Time [2] as SUT detects the link down event and the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
converges all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Egress Interface.
6. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 6. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
SUT's Preferred Egress Interface. SUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as SUT detects the 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as SUT detects the
link up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over link up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
the Preferred Egress Interface. the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the
SONET failure indication, LSA/LSP Flood Packet Pacing, SONET failure indication, LSA/LSP Flood Packet Pacing,
LSA/LSP Retransmission Packet Pacing, LSA/LSP Generation LSA/LSP Retransmission Packet Pacing, LSA/LSP Generation
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Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the IGP routes along the Preferred Egress the routes so that the IGP routes along the Preferred Egress
Interface is the preferred next-hop. Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [2]. Interface [2].
3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove PPP session from Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] 4. Remove PPP session from Tester's Neighbor Interface [2]
connected to Preferred Egress Interface. connected to Preferred Egress Interface.
5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the PPP session down event PPP session down event and converges all IGP routes and
and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Egress Interface.
6. Restore PPP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 6. Restore PPP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
session up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over session up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
the Preferred Egress Interface. the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the PPP The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the PPP
failure indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution failure indication, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, SPF Execution
Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time. Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time.
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Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [2]. Interface [2].
3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove IGP adjacency from Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] 4. Remove IGP adjacency from Tester's Neighbor Interface [2]
connected to Preferred Egress Interface. connected to Preferred Egress Interface.
5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the IGP session failure IGP session failure event and converges all IGP routes and
event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Restore IGP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 6. Restore IGP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
session up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over session up event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
the Preferred Egress Interface. the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the IGP The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the IGP
Hello Interval, IGP Dead Interval, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, Hello Interval, IGP Dead Interval, SPF delay, SPF Holdtime,
SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update
Time. Time.
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preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [2]. Interface [2].
3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester withdraws all IGP routes from DUT's Local Interface 4. Tester withdraws all IGP routes from DUT's Local Interface
on Preferred Egress Interface. on Preferred Egress Interface.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived
Convergence Time [2] as DUT processes the route withdrawal
event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the
Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 6. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT converges all 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT converges all
IGP routes and traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface. IGP routes and traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is the SPF Processing and FIB The measured IGP Convergence time is the SPF Processing and FIB
Update time as influenced by the SPF delay, SPF Holdtime, Update time as influenced by the SPF delay, SPF Holdtime,
SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time. SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time.
4.5 Convergence Due to Cost Change 4.5 Convergence Due to Cost Change
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1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [2] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [2] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 2. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [2]. Interface [2].
3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester increases cost for all IGP routes at DUT's Preferred 4. Tester increases cost for all IGP routes at DUT's Preferred
Egress Interface so that the Next-Best Egress Inerface Egress Interface so that the Next-Best Egress Interface
has lower cost and becomes preferred path. has lower cost and becomes preferred path.
5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 5. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the cost change event cost change event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Egress Interface.
6. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface 6. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface
with original lower cost metric. with original lower cost metric.
7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT converges all 7. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT converges all
IGP routes and traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface. IGP routes and traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
There should be no measured packet loss for this case. There should be no measured packet loss for this case.
4.6 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure 4.6 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link
failure event of an ECMP Member. failure event of an ECMP Member.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Procedure Procedure
1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 3. 1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 3.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on
each ECMP member. each ECMP member.
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 3. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [2]. Interface [2].
4. Verify traffic routed over all members of ECMP Set. 4. Verify traffic routed over all members of ECMP Set.
5. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to 5. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to
one of the DUT's ECMP member interfaces. one of the DUT's ECMP member interfaces.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the link down event and link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
converges all IGP routes and traffic over the other ECMP over the other ECMP members.
members.
7. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 7. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
DUT's ECMP member interface. DUT's ECMP member interface.
8. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the 8. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
link up event and converges IGP routes and some distribution link up event and converges IGP routes and some distribution
of traffic over the restored ECMP member. of traffic over the restored ECMP member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
SONET indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time. SONET indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time.
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Procedure Procedure
1. Configure Parallel Link as shown in Figure 4. 1. Configure Parallel Link as shown in Figure 4.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on
each Parallel Link member. each Parallel Link member.
3. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations 3. Send traffic at maximum forwarding rate to destinations
matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [2]. Interface [2].
4. Verify traffic routed over all members of Parallel Link. 4. Verify traffic routed over all members of Parallel Link.
5. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to 5. Remove SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface [2] connected to
one of the DUT's Parallel Link member interfaces. one of the DUT's Parallel Link member interfaces.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] and Loss-Derived 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the link down event and link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
converges all IGP routes and traffic over the other the other Parallel Link members.
Parallel Link members.
7. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 7. Restore SONET on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
DUT's Parallel Link member interface. DUT's Parallel Link member interface.
8. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the 8. Measure Restoration Convergence Time [2] as DUT detects the
link up event and converges IGP routes and some distribution link up event and converges IGP routes and some distribution
of traffic over the restored Parallel Link member. of traffic over the restored Parallel Link member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
SONET indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time. SONET indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time.
skipping to change at page 13, line 17 skipping to change at page 12, line 17
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of
the Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking the Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking
is not performed on devices or systems connected to operating is not performed on devices or systems connected to operating
networks. networks.
6. References 6. References
[1] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP [1] Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP
Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-01, work Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-02, work
in progress, October 2003. in progress, January 2004.
[2] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Terminology for IGP Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-01, work [2] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Terminology for IGP
in progress, October 2003. Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-02, work
in progress, January 2004
[3] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual [3] Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual
Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990. Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.
[4] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. [4] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998.
7. Author's Address 7. Author's Address
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Quarry Technologies Quarry Technologies
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EMail: sporetsky@quarrytech.com EMail: sporetsky@quarrytech.com
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
WilTel Communications WilTel Communications
3180 Rider Trail South 3180 Rider Trail South
Bridgeton, MO 63045 Bridgeton, MO 63045
USA USA
Phone: +1 314 595 6853 Phone: +1 314 595 6853
EMail: brent.imhoff@wcg.com EMail: brent.imhoff@wcg.com
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
8. Full Copyright Statement 8. Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights
Reserved. Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and This document and translations of it may be copied and
furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or
otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be
IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in
part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above
copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such
copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may
not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright
notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet
organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing
Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights
defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or
as required to translate it into languages other than English. as required to translate it into languages other than English.
 End of changes. 

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