draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-15.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-16.txt 
Network Working Group S. Poretsky Network Working Group S. Poretsky
Internet Draft NextPoint Networks Internet Draft Allot Communications
Expires: August 2008
Intended Status: Informational Brent Imhoff Intended Status: Informational Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
February 25, 2008 October 15, 2008
Benchmarking Methodology for Benchmarking Methodology for
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-15.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-16.txt>
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can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF. can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction ...............................................2 1. Introduction ...............................................2
2. Existing definitions .......................................2 2. Existing definitions .......................................2
3. Test Setup..................................................3 3. Test Setup..................................................3
3.1 Test Topologies............................................3 3.1 Test Topologies............................................3
3.2 Test Considerations........................................5 3.2 Test Considerations........................................5
3.3 Reporting Format...........................................7 3.3 Reporting Format...........................................8
4. Test Cases..................................................8 4. Test Cases..................................................9
4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure.................8 4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure.................9
4.2 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure................9 4.2 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure................10
4.3 Convergence Due to Local Administrative Shutdown...........10 4.3 Convergence Due to Local Administrative Shutdown...........11
4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss....................10 4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss....................11
4.5 Convergence Due to Loss of IGP Adjacency...................11 4.5 Convergence Due to Loss of IGP Adjacency...................12
4.6 Convergence Due to Route Withdrawal........................12 4.6 Convergence Due to Route Withdrawal........................13
4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change.............................13 4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change.............................14
4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure...........13 4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure...........15
4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure....14 4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure....16
4.10 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure........15 4.10 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure........16
5. IANA Considerations.........................................16 5. IANA Considerations.........................................17
6. Security Considerations.....................................16 6. Security Considerations.....................................17
7. Acknowledgements............................................16 7. Acknowledgements............................................17
8. References..................................................16 8. References..................................................18
9. Author's Address............................................17 9. Author's Address............................................18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes the methodology for benchmarking Interior This document describes the methodology for benchmarking Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The applicability of this Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The applicability of this
testing is described in [Po07a] and the new terminology that it testing is described in [Po07a] and the new terminology that it
introduces is defined in [Po07t]. Service Providers use IGP introduces is defined in [Po07t]. Service Providers use IGP
Convergence time as a key metric of router design and architecture. Convergence time as a key metric of router design and architecture.
Customers of Service Providers observe convergence time by packet Customers of Service Providers observe convergence time by packet
loss, so IGP Route Convergence is considered a Direct Measure of loss, so IGP Route Convergence is considered a Direct Measure of
Quality (DMOQ). The test cases in this document are black-box tests Quality (DMOQ). The test cases in this document are black-box tests
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2. Existing definitions 2. Existing definitions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
[Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the [Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the
intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this
document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track
document. document.
This document uses much of the terminology defined in [Po07t].
This document uses existing terminology defined in other BMWG
work. Examples include, but are not limited to:
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
This document adopts the definition format in Section 2 of RFC 1242
[Br91]. This document uses much of the terminology defined in
[Po07t]. This document uses existing terminology defined in other
BMWG work. Examples include, but are not limited to:
Throughput [Ref.[Br91], section 3.17] Throughput [Ref.[Br91], section 3.17]
Device Under Test (DUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1] Device Under Test (DUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1]
System Under Test (SUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2] System Under Test (SUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2]
Out-of-order Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2] Out-of-order Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2]
Duplicate Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.3] Duplicate Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.3]
Packet Loss [Ref.[Po07t], Section 3.5] Packet Loss [Ref.[Po07t], Section 3.5]
This document adopts the definition format in Section 2 of RFC 1242
[Br91].
3. Test Setup 3. Test Setup
3.1 Test Topologies 3.1 Test Topologies
Figure 1 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence Figure 1 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
due to local Convergence Events such as Link Failure, Layer 2 due to local Convergence Events such as Link Failure, Layer 2
Session Failure, IGP Adjacency Failure, Route Withdrawal, and route Session Failure, IGP Adjacency Failure, Route Withdrawal, and route
cost change. These test cases discussed in section 4 provide route cost change. These test cases discussed in section 4 provide route
convergence times that account for the Event Detection time, SPF convergence times that include the Event Detection time, SPF
Processing time, and FIB Update time. These times are measured Processing time, and FIB Update time. These times are measured
by observing packet loss in the data plane at the Tester. by observing packet loss in the data plane at the Tester.
Figure 2 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence Figure 2 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time due to remote changes in the network topology. These times time due to remote changes in the network topology. These times
are measured by observing packet loss in the data plane at the are measured by observing packet loss in the data plane at the
Tester. In this topology the three routers are considered a System Tester. In this topology the three routers are considered a System
Under Test (SUT). A Remote Interface [Po07t] failure on router R2 Under Test (SUT). A Remote Interface [Po07t] failure on router R2
MUST result in convergence of traffic to router R3. NOTE: All MUST result in convergence of traffic to router R3. NOTE: All
routers in the SUT must be the same model and identically routers in the SUT must be the same model and identically
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Timer Recommended Value Timer Recommended Value
----- ----------------- ----- -----------------
Link Failure Indication Delay <10milliseconds Link Failure Indication Delay <10milliseconds
IGP Hello Timer 1 second IGP Hello Timer 1 second
IGP Dead-Interval 3 seconds IGP Dead-Interval 3 seconds
LSA Generation Delay 0 LSA Generation Delay 0
LSA Flood Packet Pacing 0 LSA Flood Packet Pacing 0
LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing 0 LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing 0
SPF Delay 0 SPF Delay 0
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.2.5 Interface Types 3.2.5 Interface Types
All test cases in this methodology document may be executed with any All test cases in this methodology document may be executed with any
interface type. All interfaces MUST be the same media and Throughput interface type. All interfaces MUST be the same media and Throughput
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
[Br91][Br99] for each test case. The type of media may dictate which [Br91][Br99] for each test case. The type of media may dictate which
test cases may be executed. This is because each interface type has test cases may be executed. This is because each interface type has
a unique mechanism for detecting link failures and the speed at which a unique mechanism for detecting link failures and the speed at which
that mechanism operates will influence the measure results. Media that mechanism operates will influence the measure results. Media
and protocols MUST be configured for minimum failure detection delay and protocols MUST be configured for minimum failure detection delay
to minimize the contribution to the measured Convergence time. For to minimize the contribution to the measured Convergence time. For
example, configure SONET with the minimum carrier-loss-delay. All example, configure SONET with the minimum carrier-loss-delay. All
interfaces SHOULD be configured as point-to-point. interfaces SHOULD be configured as point-to-point.
3.2.6 Packet Sampling Interval 3.2.6 Packet Sampling Interval
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matched and each route is offered an equal share of the total matched and each route is offered an equal share of the total
Offered Load. This requirement for the Offered Load to be Offered Load. This requirement for the Offered Load to be
distributed to match all destinations in the route table creates distributed to match all destinations in the route table creates
separate flows that are offered to the DUT. The capability of the separate flows that are offered to the DUT. The capability of the
Tester to measure packet loss for each individual flow (identified Tester to measure packet loss for each individual flow (identified
by the destination address matching a route entry) and the scale by the destination address matching a route entry) and the scale
for the number of individual flows for which it can measure packet for the number of individual flows for which it can measure packet
loss should be considered when benchmarking Route-Specific loss should be considered when benchmarking Route-Specific
Convergence [Po07t]. Convergence [Po07t].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.2.8 Selection of Convergence Time Benchmark Metrics 3.2.8 Selection of Convergence Time Benchmark Metrics
The methodologies in the section 4 test cases MAY be applied to The methodologies in the section 4 test cases MAY be applied to
benchmark Full Convergence and Route-Specific Convergence with benchmark Full Convergence and Route-Specific Convergence with
benchmarking metrics First Route Convergence Time, Loss-Derived benchmarking metrics First Route Convergence Time, Loss-Derived
Convergence Time, Rate-Derived Convergence Time, Reversion Convergence Time, Rate-Derived Convergence Time, Reversion
Convergence Time, and Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t]. Convergence Time, and Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t].
When benchmarking Full Convergence the Rate-Derived Convergence When benchmarking Full Convergence the Rate-Derived Convergence
Time benchmarking metric SHOULD be measured. When benchmarking Time benchmarking metric MAY be measured. When benchmarking
Route-Specific Convergence the ROute-Specific Convergence Time Route-Specific Convergence the Route-Specific Convergence Time
benchmarking metric SHOULD be measured. The First Route Convergence benchmarking metric MUST be measured and Full Convergence MAY be
Time benchmarking metric MAY be measured when benchmarking either obtained from max(Route-Specific Convergence Time). The First
Full Convergence or Route-Specific Convergence. Route Convergence Time benchmarking metric MAY be measured when
benchmarking either Full Convergence or Route-Specific Convergence.
3.2.9 Tester Capabilities
It is RECOMMENDED that the Tester used to execute each test case
have the following capabilities:
1. Ability to insert a timestamp in each data packet's IP
payload.
2. An internal time clock to control timestamping, time
measurements, and time calculations.
3. Ability to distinguish traffic load received on the Preferred
and Next-Best interfaces.
4. Ability to disable or tune specific Layer-2 and Layer-3
protocol functions on any interface(s).
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.3 Reporting Format 3.3 Reporting Format
For each test case, it is recommended that the reporting table below For each test case, it is recommended that the reporting table below
is completed and all time values SHOULD be reported with resolution is completed and all time values SHOULD be reported with resolution
as specified in [Po07t]. as specified in [Po07t].
Parameter Units Parameter Units
--------- ----- --------- -----
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best characterization of the DUT. The test cases follow a generic best characterization of the DUT. The test cases follow a generic
procedure tailored to the specific DUT configuration and Convergence procedure tailored to the specific DUT configuration and Convergence
Event[Po07t]. This generic procedure is as follows: Event[Po07t]. This generic procedure is as follows:
1. Establish DUT configuration and install routes. 1. Establish DUT configuration and install routes.
2. Send offered load with traffic traversing Preferred Egress 2. Send offered load with traffic traversing Preferred Egress
Interface [Po07t]. Interface [Po07t].
3. Introduce Convergence Event to force traffic to Next-Best 3. Introduce Convergence Event to force traffic to Next-Best
Egress Interface [Po07t]. Egress Interface [Po07t].
4. Measure First Route Convergence Time. 4. Measure First Route Convergence Time.
5. Measure Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Rate-Derived 5. Measure Full Convergence from Loss-Derived Convergence Time,
Convergence Time, and optionally the Route-Specific Rate-Derived Convergence Time, and optionally the
Convergence Times. Route-Specific Convergence Times.
6. Wait the Sustained Convergence Validation Time to ensure there 6. Wait the Sustained Convergence Validation Time to ensure there
no residual packet loss. no residual packet loss.
7. Recover from Convergence Event. 7. Recover from Convergence Event.
8. Measure Reversion Convergence Time, and optionally the First 8. Measure Reversion Convergence Time, and optionally the First
Route Convergence Time and Route-Specific Convergence Times. Route Convergence Time and Route-Specific Convergence Times.
4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure 4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event
at the DUT's Local Interface. at the DUT's Local Interface.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred
Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t] Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t]
using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes
so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop. so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
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Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred
Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t] Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t]
using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes
so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop. so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 4. Remove link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. This is the
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event
Instant [Po07t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 8. Restore link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
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1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress
Interface [Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 2. Interface [Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 2.
Set the cost of the routes so that the Preferred Egress Set the cost of the routes so that the Preferred Egress
Interface is the preferred next-hop. Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
SUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. SUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to 4. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to
SUT's Preferred Egress Interface. SUT's Preferred Egress Interface. This is the Convergence Event
[Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects
the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 8. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
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1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Perform adminstrative shutdown on the DUT's Preferred Egress 4. Perform adminstrative shutdown on the DUT's Preferred Egress
Interface. Interface. This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces
the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT converges 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT converges
all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be
measured. measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore Preferred Egress Interface by administratively enabling 8. Restore Preferred Egress Interface by administratively enabling
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converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred
Egress Interface. Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by SPF delay, The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by SPF delay,
SPF Hold time, SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware SPF Hold time, SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware
Update Time [Po07a]. Update Time [Po07a].
4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss 4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a Local Layer 2 To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local Layer 2 loss.
session loss.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the IGP routes along the Preferred Egress the routes so that the IGP routes along the Preferred Egress
Interface is the preferred next-hop. Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester removes Layer 2 session from DUT's Preferred Egress 4. Tester removes Layer 2 session from DUT's Preferred Egress
Interface [Po07t]. It is RECOMMENDED that this be achieved with Interface [Po07t]. It is RECOMMENDED that this be achieved with
messaging, but the method MAY vary with the Layer 2 protocol. messaging, but the method MAY vary with the Layer 2 protocol.
This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the
Convergence Event Instant [Po07t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
Layer 2 session down event and begins to converge IGP routes and Layer 2 session down event and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
Layer 2 session down event and converges all IGP routes and Layer 2 session down event and converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally,
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore Layer 2 session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 8. Restore Layer 2 session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
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Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove IGP adjacency from Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] 4. Remove IGP adjacency from Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t]
connected to Preferred Egress Interface. The Layer 2 session connected to Preferred Egress Interface. The Layer 2 session
MUST be maintained. MUST be maintained. This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that
produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
loss of IGP adjacency and begins to converge IGP routes and loss of IGP adjacency and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
IGP session failure event and converges all IGP routes and IGP session failure event and converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally,
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load.
8. Restore IGP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load.
8. Restore IGP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the session recovery Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the session recovery
event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the
Preferred Egress Interface. Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the IGP Hello The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the IGP Hello
Interval, IGP Dead Interval, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF Interval, IGP Dead Interval, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF
Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a]. Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a].
skipping to change at page 12, line 38 skipping to change at page 13, line 41
It is RECOMMENDED that the IGP routes be IGP external routes It is RECOMMENDED that the IGP routes be IGP external routes
for which the Tester would be emulating a preferred and a for which the Tester would be emulating a preferred and a
next-best Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR). next-best Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR).
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester withdraws all IGP routes from DUT's Local Interface 4. Tester withdraws all IGP routes from DUT's Local Interface
on Preferred Egress Interface. The Tester records the time it on Preferred Egress Interface. The Tester records the time it
sends the withdrawal message(s). This MAY be achieved with sends the withdrawal message(s). This MAY be achieved with
inclusion of a timestamp in the traffic payload. inclusion of a timestamp in the traffic payload. This is the
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event
Instant [Po07t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
route withdrawal event and begins to converge IGP routes and route withdrawal event and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. This is measured traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. This is measured
from the time that the Tester sent the withdrawal message(s). from the time that the Tester sent the withdrawal message(s).
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT withdraws 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT withdraws
routes and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the routes and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the
Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 8. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface. traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is the SPF Processing and FIB The measured IGP Convergence time is the SPF Processing and FIB
Update time as influenced by the SPF or route calculation delay, Update time as influenced by the SPF or route calculation delay,
Hold time, Execution Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a]. Hold time, Execution Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change 4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to route cost change. To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to route cost change.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred 1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred
Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t] Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t]
using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes
so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop. so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester increases cost for all IGP routes at DUT's Preferred 4. Tester increases cost for all IGP routes at DUT's Preferred
Egress Interface so that the Next-Best Egress Interface Egress Interface so that the Next-Best Egress Interface
has lower cost and becomes preferred path. has lower cost and becomes preferred path. This is the
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event
Instant [Po07t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
cost change event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic cost change event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
cost change event and converges all IGP routes and traffic cost change event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface 8. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface
with original lower cost metric. with original lower cost metric.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface. traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
There should be no measured packet loss for this case. There should be no measured packet loss for this case.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure 4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event
of an ECMP Member. of an ECMP Member.
Procedure Procedure
1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 3. 1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 3.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on each ECMP 2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on each ECMP
member. member.
3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet size to 3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet size to
destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [Po07t]. Interface [Po07t].
4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set. 4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set.
5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to 5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to
one of the DUT's ECMP member interfaces. one of the DUT's ECMP member interfaces. This is the Convergence
Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the other ECMP members. over the other ECMP members.
7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects 7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects
the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure
Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06]. Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06].
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be
measured. measured.
8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
skipping to change at page 14, line 31 skipping to change at page 16, line 5
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the link up event and Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the link up event and
converges IGP routes and some distribution of traffic over the converges IGP routes and some distribution of traffic over the
restored ECMP member. restored ECMP member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link
failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time
[Po07a]. [Po07a].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure 4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a remote interface To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a remote interface
failure event for an ECMP Member. failure event for an ECMP Member.
Procedure Procedure
1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 2 in which the links 1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 2 in which the links
from R1 to R2 and R1 to R3 are members of an ECMP Set. from R1 to R2 and R1 to R3 are members of an ECMP Set.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT to balance 2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT to balance
traffic to each ECMP member. traffic to each ECMP member.
3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
SUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. SUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set. 4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set.
5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3. 5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3.
This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the
Convergence Event Instant [Po07t].
6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects 6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects
the link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and the link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the other ECMP members. traffic over the other ECMP members.
7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects 7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects
the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure
Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06]. Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06].
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be
measured. measured.
8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3. 9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t], as SUT detects Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t], as SUT detects
the link up event and converges IGP routes and some the link up event and converges IGP routes and some
distribution of traffic over the restored ECMP member. distribution of traffic over the restored ECMP member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link
failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time
[Po07a]. [Po07a].
skipping to change at page 15, line 29 skipping to change at page 17, line 4
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure
event for a Member of a Parallel Link. The links can be used event for a Member of a Parallel Link. The links can be used
for data Load Balancing for data Load Balancing
Procedure Procedure
1. Configure Parallel Link as shown in Figure 4. 1. Configure Parallel Link as shown in Figure 4.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on
each Parallel Link member. each Parallel Link member.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t].
4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of Parallel Link. 4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of Parallel Link.
5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to 5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to
one of the DUT's Parallel Link member interfaces. one of the DUT's Parallel Link member interfaces. This is the
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event
Instant [Po07t].
6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the other Parallel Link members. over the other Parallel Link members.
7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the
link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
the other Parallel Link members. At the same time measure the other Parallel Link members. At the same time measure
Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06]. Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06].
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be
measured. measured.
8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
skipping to change at page 16, line 5 skipping to change at page 17, line 39
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT
detects the link up event and converges IGP routes and some detects the link up event and converges IGP routes and some
distribution of traffic over the restored Parallel Link member. distribution of traffic over the restored Parallel Link member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
link failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update link failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update
Time [Po07a]. Time [Po07a].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document requires no IANA considerations. This document requires no IANA considerations.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of
the Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking the Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking
is not performed on devices or systems connected to operating is not performed on devices or systems connected to operating
networks. networks.
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward, Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward,
Kris Michielsen and the BMWG for their contributions to this work. Kris Michielsen and the BMWG for their contributions to this work.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
8. References 8. References
8.1 Normative References 8.1 Normative References
[Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, IETF, March 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, IETF, March 1991.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
[Br99] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for [Br99] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for
Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, IETF, March 1999. Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, IETF, March 1999.
skipping to change at page 16, line 44 skipping to change at page 18, line 30
[Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN [Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN
Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.
[Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. [Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998.
[Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking [Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689, Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689,
November 2006. November 2006.
[Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Considerations for Benchmarking Link-State [Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Considerations for Benchmarking Link-State
IGP Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-15, IGP Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-16,
work in progress, February 2008. work in progress, October 2008.
[Po07t] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Terminology for [Po07t] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Terminology for
Link-State IGP Convergence", Link-State IGP Convergence",
draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-15, work in draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-16, work in
progress, February 2008. progress, October 2008.
8.2 Informative References 8.2 Informative References
None None
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
9. Author's Address 9. Author's Address
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
NextPoint Networks Allot Communications
3 Federal Street 67 South Bedford Street, Suite 400
Billerica, MA 01821 Burlington, MA 01803
USA USA
Phone: + 1 508 439 9008 Phone: + 1 508 309 2179
EMail: sporetsky@nextpointnetworks.com Email: sporetsky@allot.com
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
1194 North Mathilda Ave 1194 North Mathilda Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA USA
Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided This document and the information contained herein are provided
skipping to change at page 18, line 5 skipping to change at page 19, line 41
on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
found in BCP 78 and BCP 79. found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
http://www.ietf.org/ipr. http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf- this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
ipr@ietf.org. ipr@ietf.org.
Acknowledgement Acknowledgement
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
Internet Society. Internet Society.
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