draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-16.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-17.txt 
Network Working Group S. Poretsky Network Working Group S. Poretsky
Internet Draft Allot Communications Internet Draft Allot Communications
Expires: September 08, 2009
Intended Status: Informational Brent Imhoff Intended Status: Informational Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
October 15, 2008 March 08, 2009
Benchmarking Methodology for Benchmarking Methodology for
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
<draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-16.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-17.txt>
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ABSTRACT ABSTRACT
This document describes the methodology for benchmarking Interior This document describes the methodology for benchmarking Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The methodology is to Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The methodology is to
be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through externally be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through externally
observable (black box) data plane measurements. The methodology observable (black box) data plane measurements. The methodology
can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF. can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as ISIS and OSPF.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction ...............................................2 1. Introduction and Scope......................................2
2. Existing definitions .......................................2 2. Existing Definitions .......................................2
3. Test Setup..................................................3 3. Test Setup..................................................3
3.1 Test Topologies............................................3 3.1 Test Topologies............................................3
3.2 Test Considerations........................................5 3.2 Test Considerations........................................5
3.3 Reporting Format...........................................8 3.3 Reporting Format...........................................8
4. Test Cases..................................................9 4. Test Cases..................................................9
4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure.................9 4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure.................9
4.2 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure................10 4.2 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure................10
4.3 Convergence Due to Local Administrative Shutdown...........11 4.3 Convergence Due to Local Administrative Shutdown...........11
4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss....................11 4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss....................11
4.5 Convergence Due to Loss of IGP Adjacency...................12 4.5 Convergence Due to Loss of IGP Adjacency...................12
skipping to change at page 2, line 31 skipping to change at page 2, line 31
4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change.............................14 4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change.............................14
4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure...........15 4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure...........15
4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure....16 4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure....16
4.10 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure........16 4.10 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure........16
5. IANA Considerations.........................................17 5. IANA Considerations.........................................17
6. Security Considerations.....................................17 6. Security Considerations.....................................17
7. Acknowledgements............................................17 7. Acknowledgements............................................17
8. References..................................................18 8. References..................................................18
9. Author's Address............................................18 9. Author's Address............................................18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction and Scope
This document describes the methodology for benchmarking Interior This document describes the methodology for benchmarking Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The applicability of this Gateway Protocol (IGP) Route Convergence. The motivation and
testing is described in [Po07a] and the new terminology that it applicability for this benchmarking is described in [Po09a].
introduces is defined in [Po07t]. Service Providers use IGP The terminology to be used for this benchmarking is described
Convergence time as a key metric of router design and architecture. in [Po09t]. Service Providers use IGP Convergence time as a key
Customers of Service Providers observe convergence time by packet metric of router design and architecture. Customers of Service
loss, so IGP Route Convergence is considered a Direct Measure of Providers observe convergence time by packet loss, so IGP Route
Quality (DMOQ). The test cases in this document are black-box tests Convergence is considered a Direct Measure of Quality (DMOQ). The
that emulate the network events that cause route convergence, as test cases in this document are black-box tests that emulate the
described in [Po07a]. The black-box test designs benchmark the data network events that cause route convergence, as described in
plane and account for all of the factors contributing to convergence [Po09a]. The black-box test designs benchmark the data plane and
time, as discussed in [Po07a]. The methodology (and terminology) for account for all of the factors contributing to convergence time,
benchmarking route convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP as discussed in [Po09a]. Convergence times are measured at the
such as ISIS [Ca90] and OSPF [Mo98] and others. These methodologies Tester on the data plane by observing packet loss through the DUT.
apply to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and IGPs. The methodology (and terminology) for benchmarking route
convergence can be applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS
[Ca90] and OSPF [Mo98] and others. These methodologies apply to
IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and IGPs.
2. Existing definitions 2. Existing Definitions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
[Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the [Br97]. RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this intent of standards track documents as clear as possible. While this
document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track
document. document.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
This document adopts the definition format in Section 2 of RFC 1242 This document adopts the definition format in Section 2 of RFC 1242
[Br91]. This document uses much of the terminology defined in [Br91]. This document uses much of the terminology defined in
[Po07t]. This document uses existing terminology defined in other [Po09t]. This document uses existing terminology defined in other
BMWG work. Examples include, but are not limited to: BMWG work. Examples include, but are not limited to:
Throughput [Ref.[Br91], section 3.17] Throughput [Ref.[Br91], section 3.17]
Device Under Test (DUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1] Device Under Test (DUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1]
System Under Test (SUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2] System Under Test (SUT) [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2]
Out-of-order Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2] Out-of-order Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2]
Duplicate Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.3] Duplicate Packet [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.3]
Packet Loss [Ref.[Po07t], Section 3.5] Packet Loss [Ref.[Po09t], Section 3.5]
3. Test Setup 3. Test Setup
3.1 Test Topologies 3.1 Test Topologies
Figure 1 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence Convergence times are measured at the Tester on the data plane
due to local Convergence Events such as Link Failure, Layer 2 by observing packet loss through the DUT. Figure 1 shows the test
Session Failure, IGP Adjacency Failure, Route Withdrawal, and route topology to measure IGP Route Convergence due to local Convergence
cost change. These test cases discussed in section 4 provide route Events such as Link Failure, Layer 2 Session Failure, IGP
convergence times that include the Event Detection time, SPF Adjacency Failure, Route Withdrawal, and route cost change. These
Processing time, and FIB Update time. These times are measured test cases discussed in section 4 provide route convergence times
by observing packet loss in the data plane at the Tester. that include the Event Detection time, SPF Processing time, and
FIB Update time.
Figure 2 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence Figure 2 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time due to remote changes in the network topology. These times time due to remote changes in the network topology. These times
are measured by observing packet loss in the data plane at the are measured by observing packet loss in the data plane at the
Tester. In this topology the three routers are considered a System Tester. In this topology the three routers are considered a System
Under Test (SUT). A Remote Interface [Po07t] failure on router R2 Under Test (SUT). A Remote Interface [Po09t] failure on router R2
MUST result in convergence of traffic to router R3. NOTE: All MUST result in convergence of traffic to router R3. NOTE: All
routers in the SUT must be the same model and identically routers in the SUT must be the same model and identically
configured. configured.
Figure 3 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time with members of an Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Set. These
times are measured by observing packet loss in the data plane at
the Tester. In this topology, the DUT is configured with each
Egress interface as a member of an ECMP set and the Tester emulates
multiple next-hop routers (emulates one router for each member).
--------- Ingress Interface --------- --------- Ingress Interface ---------
| |<--------------------------------| | | |<--------------------------------| |
| | | | | | | |
| | Preferred Egress Interface | | | | Preferred Egress Interface | |
| DUT |-------------------------------->| Tester| | DUT |-------------------------------->| Tester|
| | | | | | | |
| |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| | | |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| |
| | Next-Best Egress Interface | | | | Next-Best Egress Interface | |
--------- --------- --------- ---------
skipping to change at page 4, line 39 skipping to change at page 4, line 39
| | . | | | | . | |
| | . | | | | . | |
| | . | | | | . | |
| |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| | | |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| |
| | ECMP Set Interface N | | | | ECMP Set Interface N | |
--------- --------- --------- ---------
Figure 3. Test Topology 3: IGP Convergence Test Topology Figure 3. Test Topology 3: IGP Convergence Test Topology
for ECMP Convergence for ECMP Convergence
Figure 3 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time with members of an Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Set. These
times are measured by observing packet loss in the data plane at
the Tester. In this topology, the DUT is configured with each
Egress interface as a member of an ECMP set and the Tester emulates
multiple next-hop routers (emulates one router for each member).
Figure 4 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time with members of a Parallel Link. These times are measured by
observing packet loss in the data plane at the Tester. In this
topology, the DUT is configured with each Egress interface as a
member of a Parallel Link and the Tester emulates the single
next-hop router.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
--------- Ingress Interface --------- --------- Ingress Interface ---------
| |<--------------------------------| | | |<--------------------------------| |
| | | | | | | |
| | Parallel Link Interface 1 | | | | Parallel Link Interface 1 | |
| DUT |-------------------------------->| Tester| | DUT |-------------------------------->| Tester|
| | . | | | | . | |
| | . | | | | . | |
| | . | | | | . | |
| |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| | | |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| |
| | Parallel Link Interface N | | | | Parallel Link Interface N | |
--------- --------- --------- ---------
Figure 4. Test Topology 4: IGP Convergence Test Topology Figure 4. Test Topology 4: IGP Convergence Test Topology
for Parallel Link Convergence for Parallel Link Convergence
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Figure 4 shows the test topology to measure IGP Route Convergence
time with members of a Parallel Link. These times are measured by
observing packet loss in the data plane at the Tester. In this
topology, the DUT is configured with each Egress interface as a
member of a Parallel Link and the Tester emulates the single
next-hop router.
3.2 Test Considerations 3.2 Test Considerations
3.2.1 IGP Selection 3.2.1 IGP Selection
The test cases described in section 4 MAY be used for link-state The test cases described in section 4 MAY be used for link-state
IGPs, such as ISIS or OSPF. The Route Convergence test methodology IGPs, such as ISIS or OSPF. The Route Convergence test methodology
is identical. The IGP adjacencies are established on the Preferred is identical. The IGP adjacencies are established on the Preferred
Egress Interface and Next-Best Egress Interface. Egress Interface and Next-Best Egress Interface.
3.2.2 Routing Protocol Configuration 3.2.2 Routing Protocol Configuration
The obtained results for IGP Route Convergence may vary if The obtained results for IGP Route Convergence may vary if
other routing protocols are enabled and routes learned via those other routing protocols are enabled and routes learned via those
protocols are installed. IGP convergence times MUST be benchmarked protocols are installed. IGP convergence times MUST be benchmarked
without routes installed from other protocols. without routes installed from other protocols.
When performing test cases, advertise a single IGP topology from
Tester to DUT on the Preferred Egress Interface [Po09t] and
Next-Best Egress Interface [Po09t] using the test setup shown in
Figure 1. These two interfaces on the DUT must peer with
different emulated neighbor routers for their IGP adjacencies.
The IGP topology learned on both interfaces MUST be the same
topology with the same nodes and routes.
3.2.3 IGP Route Scaling 3.2.3 IGP Route Scaling
The number of IGP routes will impact the measured IGP Route The number of IGP routes will impact the measured IGP Route
Convergence. To obtain results similar to those that would be Convergence. To obtain results similar to those that would be
observed in an operational network, it is RECOMMENDED that the observed in an operational network, it is RECOMMENDED that the
number of installed routes and nodes closely approximates that number of installed routes and nodes closely approximates that
of the network (e.g. thousands of routes with tens of nodes). of the network (e.g. thousands of routes with tens of nodes).
The number of areas (for OSPF) and levels (for ISIS) can impact The number of areas (for OSPF) and levels (for ISIS) can impact
the benchmark results. the benchmark results.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.2.4 Timers 3.2.4 Timers
There are some timers that will impact the measured IGP Convergence There are some timers that will impact the measured IGP Convergence
time. Benchmarking metrics may be measured at any fixed values for time. Benchmarking metrics may be measured at any fixed values for
these timers. It is RECOMMENDED that the following timers be these timers. It is RECOMMENDED that the following timers be
configured to the minimum values listed: configured to the minimum values listed:
Timer Recommended Value Timer Recommended Value
----- ----------------- ----- -----------------
Link Failure Indication Delay <10milliseconds Link Failure Indication Delay <10milliseconds
IGP Hello Timer 1 second IGP Hello Timer 1 second
IGP Dead-Interval 3 seconds IGP Dead-Interval 3 seconds
LSA Generation Delay 0 LSA Generation Delay 0
LSA Flood Packet Pacing 0 LSA Flood Packet Pacing 0
LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing 0 LSA Retransmission Packet Pacing 0
SPF Delay 0 SPF Delay 0
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.2.5 Interface Types 3.2.5 Interface Types
All test cases in this methodology document may be executed with any All test cases in this methodology document may be executed with any
interface type. All interfaces MUST be the same media and Throughput interface type. All interfaces MUST be the same media and Throughput
[Br91][Br99] for each test case. The type of media may dictate which [Br91][Br99] for each test case. The type of media may dictate which
test cases may be executed. This is because each interface type has test cases may be executed. This is because each interface type has
a unique mechanism for detecting link failures and the speed at which a unique mechanism for detecting link failures and the speed at which
that mechanism operates will influence the measure results. Media that mechanism operates will influence the measure results. Media
and protocols MUST be configured for minimum failure detection delay and protocols MUST be configured for minimum failure detection delay
to minimize the contribution to the measured Convergence time. For to minimize the contribution to the measured Convergence time. For
example, configure SONET with the minimum carrier-loss-delay. All example, configure SONET with the minimum carrier-loss-delay. All
interfaces SHOULD be configured as point-to-point. interfaces SHOULD be configured as point-to-point.
3.2.6 Packet Sampling Interval 3.2.6 Packet Sampling Interval
The Packet Sampling Interval [Po07t] value is the fastest measurable The Packet Sampling Interval [Po09t] value is the fastest measurable
Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t]. The RECOMMENDED value for the convergence time. The RECOMMENDED value for the Packet Sampling
Packet Sampling Interval is 10 milliseconds. Rate-Derived Convergence Interval to be set on the Tester is 10 milliseconds. The Packet
Time is the preferred benchmark for IGP Route Convergence. This Sampling Interval MUST be reported.
benchmark must always be reported when the Packet Sampling Interval
is set <= 10 milliseconds on the test equipment. If the test
equipment does not permit the Packet Sampling Interval to be set as
low as 10 milliseconds, then both the Rate-Derived Convergence Time
and Loss-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] MUST be reported.
3.2.7 Offered Load 3.2.7 Offered Load
The offered load MUST be the Throughput of the device as defined in The offered load MUST be the Throughput of the device as defined in
[Br91] and benchmarked in [Br99] at a fixed packet size. At least [Br91] and benchmarked in [Br99] at a fixed packet size. At least
one packet per route in the FIB for all routes in the FIB MUST be one packet per route in the FIB for all routes in the FIB MUST be
offered to the DUT within the Packet Sampling interval. Packet size offered to the DUT within the Packet Sampling interval. Packet
is measured in bytes and includes the IP header and payload. The size is measured in bytes and includes the IP header and payload.
packet size is selectable and MUST be recorded. The Forwarding The packet size is selectable and MUST be recorded. The Throughput
Rate [Ma98] MUST be measured at the Preferred Egress Interface and MUST be measured at the Preferred Egress Interface and the
the Next-Best Egress Interface. The duration of offered load MUST Next-Best Egress Interface. The duration of offered load MUST be
be greater than the convergence time. The destination addresses greater than the convergence time.
for the offered load MUST be distributed such that all routes are
matched and each route is offered an equal share of the total
Offered Load. This requirement for the Offered Load to be
distributed to match all destinations in the route table creates
separate flows that are offered to the DUT. The capability of the
Tester to measure packet loss for each individual flow (identified
by the destination address matching a route entry) and the scale
for the number of individual flows for which it can measure packet
loss should be considered when benchmarking Route-Specific
Convergence [Po07t].
The destination addresses for the offered load MUST be distributed
such that all routes are matched and each route is offered an equal
share of the total Offered Load. This requirement for the Offered
Load to be distributed to match all destinations in the route table
creates separate flows that are offered to the DUT. The capability
of the Tester to measure packet loss for each individual flow
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.2.8 Selection of Convergence Time Benchmark Metrics (identified by the destination address matching a route entry) and
The methodologies in the section 4 test cases MAY be applied to the scale for the number of individual flows for which it can
benchmark Full Convergence and Route-Specific Convergence with measure packet loss should be considered when benchmarking
benchmarking metrics First Route Convergence Time, Loss-Derived Route-Specific Convergence [Po09t].
Convergence Time, Rate-Derived Convergence Time, Reversion
Convergence Time, and Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t].
When benchmarking Full Convergence the Rate-Derived Convergence 3.2.8 Selection of Convergence Time Benchmark Metrics and Methods
Time benchmarking metric MAY be measured. When benchmarking
Route-Specific Convergence the Route-Specific Convergence Time The methodologies in the section 4 test cases MAY be applied to
benchmarking metric MUST be measured and Full Convergence MAY be benchmark Full Convergence Time, First Route Convergence Time,
obtained from max(Route-Specific Convergence Time). The First Reversion Convergence Time, and Route-Specific Convergence Time
Route Convergence Time benchmarking metric MAY be measured when [Po09t]. The First Route Convergence Time benchmark metric MAY
benchmarking either Full Convergence or Route-Specific Convergence. be measured while measuring any of these convergence benchmarks.
The benchmarking metrics may be obtained using either the
Loss-Derived Convergence Method or Rate-Derived Convergence
Method. It is RECOMMENDED that the Rate-Derived Convergence
Method be measured when benchmarking convergence times. The
Loss-Derived Convergence Method is not the preferred method to
measure convergence benchmarks because it can produce a result
that is faster than the actual convergence time. When the
Packet Sampling Interval is too large, the Rate-Derived
Convergence Method may produce a larger than actual convergence
time. In such cases the Loss-Derived Convergence Method may
produce a more accurate result.
3.2.9 Tester Capabilities 3.2.9 Tester Capabilities
It is RECOMMENDED that the Tester used to execute each test case It is RECOMMENDED that the Tester used to execute each test case
have the following capabilities: have the following capabilities:
1. Ability to insert a timestamp in each data packet's IP 1. Ability to establish IGP adjacencies and advertise a single
IGP topology to one or more peers.
2. Ability to produce convergence Event Triggers [Po09t].
3. Ability to insert a timestamp in each data packet's IP
payload. payload.
2. An internal time clock to control timestamping, time 2. An internal time clock to control timestamping, time
measurements, and time calculations. measurements, and time calculations.
3. Ability to distinguish traffic load received on the Preferred 3. Ability to distinguish traffic load received on the
and Next-Best interfaces. Preferred and Next-Best Interfaces [Po09t].
4. Ability to disable or tune specific Layer-2 and Layer-3 4. Ability to disable or tune specific Layer-2 and Layer-3
protocol functions on any interface(s). protocol functions on any interface(s).
It is not required that the Tester be capable of making non-data
plane convergence observations nor to use those observations for
measurements.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3.3 Reporting Format 3.3 Reporting Format
For each test case, it is recommended that the reporting table below For each test case, it is recommended that the reporting table below
is completed and all time values SHOULD be reported with resolution is completed and all time values SHOULD be reported with resolution
as specified in [Po07t]. as specified in [Po09t].
Parameter Units Parameter Units
--------- ----- --------- -----
Test Case test case number Test Case test case number
Test Topology (1, 2, 3, or 4) Test Topology (1, 2, 3, or 4)
IGP (ISIS, OSPF, other) IGP (ISIS, OSPF, other)
Interface Type (GigE, POS, ATM, other) Interface Type (GigE, POS, ATM, other)
Packet Size offered to DUT bytes Packet Size offered to DUT bytes
IGP Routes advertised to DUT number of IGP routes IGP Routes advertised to DUT number of IGP routes
Nodes in emulated network number of nodes Nodes in emulated network number of nodes
skipping to change at page 8, line 39 skipping to change at page 8, line 39
SPF Delay seconds SPF Delay seconds
Forwarding Metrics Forwarding Metrics
Total Packets Offered to DUT number of Packets Total Packets Offered to DUT number of Packets
Total Packets Routed by DUT number of Packets Total Packets Routed by DUT number of Packets
Convergence Packet Loss number of Packets Convergence Packet Loss number of Packets
Out-of-Order Packets number of Packets Out-of-Order Packets number of Packets
Duplicate Packets number of Packets Duplicate Packets number of Packets
Convergence Benchmarks Convergence Benchmarks
Full Convergence Full Convergence
First Route Convergence Time seconds First Route Convergence Time seconds
Rate-Derived Convergence Time seconds Full Convergence Time (Rate-Derived) seconds
Loss-Derived Convergence Time seconds Full Convergence Time (Loss-Derived) seconds
Route-Specific Convergence Route-Specific Convergence
Number of Routes Measured number of flows Number of Routes Measured number of flows
Route-Specific Convergence Time[n] array of seconds Route-Specific Convergence Time[n] array of seconds
Minimum R-S Convergence Time seconds Minimum R-S Convergence Time seconds
Maximum R-S Convergence Time seconds Maximum R-S Convergence Time seconds
Median R-S Convergence Time seconds Median R-S Convergence Time seconds
Average R-S Convergence Time seconds Average R-S Convergence Time seconds
Reversion Reversion
Reversion Convergence Time seconds Reversion Convergence Time seconds
First Route Convergence Time seconds First Route Convergence Time seconds
Route-Specific Convergence Route-Specific Convergence
Number of Routes Measured number of flows Number of Routes Measured number of flows
Route-Specific Convergence Time[n] array of seconds Route-Specific Convergence Time[n] array of seconds
Minimum R-S Convergence Time seconds Minimum R-S Convergence Time seconds
Maximum R-S Convergence Time seconds Maximum R-S Convergence Time seconds
Median R-S Convergence Time seconds Median R-S Convergence Time seconds
Average R-S Convergence Time seconds Average R-S Convergence Time seconds
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4. Test Cases 4. Test Cases
It is RECOMMENDED that all applicable test cases be executed for It is RECOMMENDED that all applicable test cases be performed for
best characterization of the DUT. The test cases follow a generic best characterization of the DUT. The test cases follow a generic
procedure tailored to the specific DUT configuration and Convergence procedure tailored to the specific DUT configuration and Convergence
Event[Po07t]. This generic procedure is as follows: Event[Po09t]. This generic procedure is as follows:
1. Establish DUT configuration and install routes. 1. Establish DUT configuration and install routes.
2. Send offered load with traffic traversing Preferred Egress 2. Send offered load with traffic traversing Preferred Egress
Interface [Po07t]. Interface [Po09t].
3. Introduce Convergence Event to force traffic to Next-Best 3. Introduce Convergence Event to force traffic to Next-Best
Egress Interface [Po07t]. Egress Interface [Po09t].
4. Measure First Route Convergence Time. 4. Measure First Route Convergence Time.
5. Measure Full Convergence from Loss-Derived Convergence Time, 5. Measure Full Convergence Time and, optionally, the
Rate-Derived Convergence Time, and optionally the
Route-Specific Convergence Times. Route-Specific Convergence Times.
6. Wait the Sustained Convergence Validation Time to ensure there 6. Wait the Sustained Convergence Validation Time to ensure there
no residual packet loss. is no residual packet loss.
7. Recover from Convergence Event. 7. Recover from Convergence Event.
8. Measure Reversion Convergence Time, and optionally the First 8. Measure Reversion Convergence Time, and optionally the First
Route Convergence Time and Route-Specific Convergence Times. Route Convergence Time and Route-Specific Convergence Times.
4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure 4.1 Convergence Due to Local Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event
at the DUT's Local Interface. at the DUT's Local Interface.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred 1. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to DUT on
Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t] the Preferred Egress Interface [Po09t] and Next-Best Egress
using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes Interface [Po09t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the
so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop. cost of the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. This is the 4. Remove link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. This is the
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event Convergence Event Trigger[Po09t] that produces the Convergence
Instant [Po07t]. Event Instant [Po09t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 8. Restore link on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the link up event and Convergence Times, as DUT detects the link up event and
converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred
Egress Interface. Egress Interface.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
link failure indication, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF Execution link failure indication, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF Execution
Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a]. Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po09a].
4.2 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure 4.2 Convergence Due to Remote Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a Remote Interface To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a Remote Interface
Failure event. Failure event.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to
Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress SUT on Preferred Egress Interface [Po09t] and Next-Best Egress
Interface [Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 2. Interface [Po09t] using the topology shown in Figure 2.
Set the cost of the routes so that the Preferred Egress Set the cost of the routes so that the Preferred Egress
Interface is the preferred next-hop. Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
SUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. SUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to 4. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po09t] connected to
SUT's Preferred Egress Interface. This is the Convergence Event SUT's Preferred Egress Interface. This is the Convergence Event
[Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t]. Trigger [Po09t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects the [Po09t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as SUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects 6. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as SUT detects
the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 8. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the link up event and Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT detects the link up event and
converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred Egress converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred Egress
Interface. Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the link failure The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the link failure
indication, LSA/LSP Flood Packet Pacing, LSA/LSP Retransmission indication, LSA/LSP Flood Packet Pacing, LSA/LSP Retransmission
Packet Pacing, LSA/LSP Generation time, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, Packet Pacing, LSA/LSP Generation time, SPF delay, SPF Hold time,
SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time
[Po07a]. This test case may produce Stale Forwarding [Po07t] due to [Po09a]. This test case may produce Stale Forwarding [Po09t] due to
microloops which may increase the measured convergence times. microloops which may increase the measured convergence times.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4.3 Convergence Due to Local Adminstrative Shutdown 4.3 Convergence Due to Local Adminstrative Shutdown
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a administrative shutdown To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a administrative shutdown
at the DUT's Local Interface. at the DUT's Local Interface.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to DUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [Po09t] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [Po09t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Perform adminstrative shutdown on the DUT's Preferred Egress 4. Perform adminstrative shutdown on the DUT's Preferred Egress
Interface. This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces Interface. This is the Convergence Event Trigger [Po09t] that
the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t]. produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po09t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT converges 6. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT converges
all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. all IGP routes and traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be
measured. measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore Preferred Egress Interface by administratively enabling 8. Restore Preferred Egress Interface by administratively enabling
the interface. the interface.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the link up event and Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT detects the link up event and
converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred converges all IGP routes and traffic back to the Preferred
Egress Interface. Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by SPF delay, The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by SPF delay,
SPF Hold time, SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware SPF Hold time, SPF Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware
Update Time [Po07a]. Update Time [Po09a].
4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss 4.4 Convergence Due to Layer 2 Session Loss
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local Layer 2 loss. To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local Layer 2 loss.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to DUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [Po09t] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [Po09t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the IGP routes along the Preferred Egress the routes so that the IGP routes along the Preferred Egress
Interface is the preferred next-hop. Interface is the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester removes Layer 2 session from DUT's Preferred Egress 4. Tester removes Layer 2 session from DUT's Preferred Egress
Interface [Po07t]. It is RECOMMENDED that this be achieved with Interface [Po09t]. It is RECOMMENDED that this be achieved with
messaging, but the method MAY vary with the Layer 2 protocol. messaging, but the method MAY vary with the Layer 2 protocol.
This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the This is the Convergence Event Trigger [Po09t] that produces the
Convergence Event Instant [Po07t]. Convergence Event Instant [Po09t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
Layer 2 session down event and begins to converge IGP routes and Layer 2 session down event and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
Layer 2 session down event and converges all IGP routes and Layer 2 session down event and converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally,
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore Layer 2 session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 8. Restore Layer 2 session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the session up event Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT detects the session up event
and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the Preferred Egress and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the Preferred Egress
Interface. Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Layer 2 The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Layer 2
failure indication, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF Execution failure indication, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF Execution
Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a]. Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po09a].
4.5 Convergence Due to Loss of IGP Adjacency 4.5 Convergence Due to Loss of IGP Adjacency
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to loss of the IGP To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to loss of the IGP
Adjacency. Adjacency.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 1. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to DUT on
Preferred Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface Preferred Egress Interface [Po09t] and Next-Best Egress Interface
[Po07t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of [Po09t] using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop. preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Remove IGP adjacency from Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] 4. Remove IGP adjacency from Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po09t]
connected to Preferred Egress Interface. The Layer 2 session connected to Preferred Egress Interface. The Layer 2 session
MUST be maintained. This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that MUST be maintained. This is the Convergence Event Trigger
produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t]. [Po09t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po09t].
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
loss of IGP adjacency and begins to converge IGP routes and loss of IGP adjacency and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
IGP session failure event and converges all IGP routes and IGP session failure event and converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally,
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be measured.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Restore IGP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 8. Restore IGP session on DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the session recovery Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT detects the session recovery
event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the
Preferred Egress Interface. Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the IGP Hello The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the IGP Hello
Interval, IGP Dead Interval, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF Interval, IGP Dead Interval, SPF delay, SPF Hold time, SPF
Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a]. Execution Time, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po09a].
4.6 Convergence Due to Route Withdrawal 4.6 Convergence Due to Route Withdrawal
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to Route Withdrawal. To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to Route Withdrawal.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred 1. Advertise a single IGP topology from Tester to DUT on Preferred
Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t] Egress Interface [Po09t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po09t]
using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes using the test setup shown in Figure 1. These two interfaces
so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop. on the DUT must peer with different emulated neighbor routers
It is RECOMMENDED that the IGP routes be IGP external routes for their IGP adjacency. The IGP topology learned on both
for which the Tester would be emulating a preferred and a interfaces MUST be the same topology with the same nodes and
next-best Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR). routes. It is RECOMMENDED that the IGP routes be IGP external
routes for which the Tester would be emulating a preferred and
a next-best Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR). Set the
cost of the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is
the preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester withdraws all IGP routes from DUT's Local Interface 4. The Tester, emulating the neighbor node, withdraws one or
on Preferred Egress Interface. The Tester records the time it more IGP leaf routes from the DUT's Preferred Egress Interface.
sends the withdrawal message(s). This MAY be achieved with The withdrawal update message MUST be a single unfragmented
inclusion of a timestamp in the traffic payload. This is the packet. This is the Convergence Event Trigger [Po09t] that
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po09t]. The Tester
Instant [Po07t]. MAY record the time it sends the withdrawal message(s).
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
route withdrawal event and begins to converge IGP routes and route withdrawal event and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface. This is measured traffic over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
from the time that the Tester sent the withdrawal message(s). 6. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT withdraws
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT withdraws
routes and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the routes and converges all IGP routes and traffic over the
Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface. 8. Re-advertise the withdrawn IGP leaf routes to DUT's Preferred
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally Egress Interface.
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is the SPF Processing and FIB The measured IGP Convergence time is the SPF Processing and FIB
Update time as influenced by the SPF or route calculation delay, Update time as influenced by the SPF or route calculation delay,
Hold time, Execution Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po07a]. Hold time, Execution Time, and Hardware Update Time [Po09a].
4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change 4.7 Convergence Due to Cost Change
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to route cost change. To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to route cost change.
Procedure Procedure
1. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Preferred 1. Advertise a single IGP topology from Tester to DUT on
Egress Interface [Po07t] and Next-Best Egress Interface [Po07t] Preferred Egress Interface [Po09t] and Next-Best Egress
using the topology shown in Figure 1. Set the cost of the routes Interface [Po09t] using the test setup shown in Figure 1.
so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the preferred next-hop. These two interfaces on the DUT must peer with different
emulated neighbor routers for their IGP adjacency. The
IGP topology learned on both interfaces MUST be the same
topology with the same nodes and routes. It is RECOMMENDED
that the IGP routes be IGP external routes for which the
Tester would be emulating a preferred and a next-best
Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR). Set the cost of
the routes so that the Preferred Egress Interface is the
preferred next-hop.
2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 2. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface. 3. Verify traffic is routed over Preferred Egress Interface.
4. Tester increases cost for all IGP routes at DUT's Preferred 4. The Tester, emulating the neighbor node, increases the cost for
Egress Interface so that the Next-Best Egress Interface all IGP routes at DUT's Preferred Egress Interface so that the
has lower cost and becomes preferred path. This is the Next-Best Egress Interface has lower cost and becomes preferred
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event path. The update message advertising the higher cost MUST be a
Instant [Po07t]. single unfragmented packet. This is the Convergence Event
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the Trigger [Po09t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant
[Po09t]. The Tester MAY record the time it sends the message
advertising the higher cost on the Preferred Egress Interface.
5. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
cost change event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic cost change event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. over the Next-Best Egress Interface.
6. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
cost change event and converges all IGP routes and traffic cost change event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific over the Next-Best Egress Interface. Optionally, Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be measured. Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be measured.
7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 7. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
8. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface 8. Re-advertise IGP routes to DUT's Preferred Egress Interface
with original lower cost metric. with original lower cost metric.
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and
9. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT converges all IGP routes and
traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface. traffic over the Preferred Egress Interface.
Results Results
There should be no measured packet loss for this case. It is possible that no measured packet loss will be observed for
this test case.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure 4.8 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure event
of an ECMP Member. of an ECMP Member.
Procedure Procedure
1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 3. 1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 3.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on each ECMP 2. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to DUT on
member. each ECMP member.
3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet size to 3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet size to
destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to DUT on Ingress
Interface [Po07t]. Interface [Po09t].
4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set. 4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set.
5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to 5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po09t] connected to
one of the DUT's ECMP member interfaces. This is the Convergence one of the DUT's ECMP member interfaces. This is the Convergence
Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant [Po07t]. Event Trigger [Po09t] that produces the Convergence Event Instant
6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the [Po09t].
6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the other ECMP members. over the other ECMP members.
7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects 7. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects
the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure
Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06]. Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06].
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be
measured. measured.
8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
DUT's ECMP member interface. DUT's ECMP member interface.
10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and Route-Specific measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and Route-Specific
Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT detects the link up event and Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT detects the link up event and
converges IGP routes and some distribution of traffic over the converges IGP routes and some distribution of traffic over the
restored ECMP member. restored ECMP member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link
failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time
[Po07a]. [Po09a].
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure 4.9 Convergence Due to ECMP Member Remote Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a remote interface To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a remote interface
failure event for an ECMP Member. failure event for an ECMP Member.
Procedure Procedure
1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 2 in which the links 1. Configure ECMP Set as shown in Figure 2 in which the links
from R1 to R2 and R1 to R3 are members of an ECMP Set. from R1 to R2 and R1 to R3 are members of an ECMP Set.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to SUT to balance 2. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to
traffic to each ECMP member. SUT to balance traffic to each ECMP member.
3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
SUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. SUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set. 4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of ECMP Set.
5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3. 5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3.
This is the Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the This is the Convergence Event Trigger [Po09t] that produces
Convergence Event Instant [Po07t]. the Convergence Event Instant [Po09t].
6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects 6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as SUT detects
the link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and the link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and
traffic over the other ECMP members. traffic over the other ECMP members.
7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as SUT detects 7. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as SUT detects
the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic the link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic
over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure over the other ECMP members. At the same time measure
Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06]. Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06].
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be
measured. measured.
8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3. 9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface to R2 or R3.
10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t], as SUT detects Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t], as SUT detects
the link up event and converges IGP routes and some the link up event and converges IGP routes and some
distribution of traffic over the restored ECMP member. distribution of traffic over the restored ECMP member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by Local link
failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update Time
[Po07a]. [Po09a].
4.10 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure 4.10 Convergence Due to Parallel Link Interface Failure
Objective Objective
To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure To obtain the IGP Route Convergence due to a local link failure
event for a Member of a Parallel Link. The links can be used event for a Member of a Parallel Link. The links can be used
for data Load Balancing for data Load Balancing
Procedure Procedure
1. Configure Parallel Link as shown in Figure 4. 1. Configure Parallel Link as shown in Figure 4.
2. Advertise matching IGP routes from Tester to DUT on 2. Advertise matching IGP routes and topology from Tester to DUT
each Parallel Link member. on each Parallel Link member.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet 3. Send offered load at measured Throughput with fixed packet
size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to size to destinations matching all IGP routes from Tester to
DUT on Ingress Interface [Po07t]. DUT on Ingress Interface [Po09t].
4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of Parallel Link. 4. Verify traffic is routed over all members of Parallel Link.
5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po07t] connected to 5. Remove link on Tester's Neighbor Interface [Po09t] connected to
one of the DUT's Parallel Link member interfaces. This is the one of the DUT's Parallel Link member interfaces. This is the
Convergence Event [Po07t] that produces the Convergence Event Convergence Event Trigger [Po09t] that produces the Convergence
Instant [Po07t]. Event Instant [Po09t].
6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 6. Measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic link down event and begins to converge IGP routes and traffic
over the other Parallel Link members. over the other Parallel Link members.
7. Measure Rate-Derived Convergence Time [Po07t] as DUT detects the 7. Measure Full Convergence Time [Po09t] as DUT detects the
link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over link down event and converges all IGP routes and traffic over
the other Parallel Link members. At the same time measure the other Parallel Link members. At the same time measure
Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06]. Out-of-Order Packets [Po06] and Duplicate Packets [Po06].
Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t] MAY be Optionally, Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t] MAY be
measured. measured.
8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain. 8. Stop offered load. Wait 30 seconds for queues to drain.
Restart offered load. Restart offered load.
9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to 9. Restore link on Tester's Neighbor Interface connected to
DUT's Parallel Link member interface. DUT's Parallel Link member interface.
10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po07t], and optionally 10. Measure Reversion Convergence Time [Po09t], and optionally
measure First Route Convergence Time [Po07t] and measure First Route Convergence Time [Po09t] and
Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po07t], as DUT Route-Specific Convergence Times [Po09t], as DUT
detects the link up event and converges IGP routes and some detects the link up event and converges IGP routes and some
distribution of traffic over the restored Parallel Link member. distribution of traffic over the restored Parallel Link member.
Results Results
The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local The measured IGP Convergence time is influenced by the Local
link failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update link failure indication, Tree Build Time, and Hardware Update
Time [Po07a]. Time [Po09a].
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document requires no IANA considerations. This document requires no IANA considerations.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of
the Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking is not
is not performed on devices or systems connected to operating performed on devices or systems connected to production networks.
networks. Security threats and how to counter these in SIP and the media
layer is discussed in RFC3261, RFC3550, and RFC3711 and various
other drafts. This document attempts to formalize a set of
common methodology for benchmarking IGP convergence performance
in a lab environment.
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward, Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward,
Kris Michielsen and the BMWG for their contributions to this work. Kris Michielsen, Peter De Vriendt and the BMWG for their
contributions to this work.
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
8. References 8. References
8.1 Normative References 8.1 Normative References
[Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network [Br91] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, IETF, March 1991. Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, IETF, March 1991.
[Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [Br97] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
skipping to change at page 18, line 29 skipping to change at page 18, line 29
[Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN [Ma98] Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN
Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998. Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.
[Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998. [Mo98] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998.
[Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking [Po06] Poretsky, S., et al., "Terminology for Benchmarking
Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689, Network-layer Traffic Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689,
November 2006. November 2006.
[Po07a] Poretsky, S., "Considerations for Benchmarking Link-State [Po09a] Poretsky, S., "Considerations for Benchmarking Link-State
IGP Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-16, IGP Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-17,
work in progress, October 2008. work in progress, March 2009.
[Po07t] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Terminology for [Po09t] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., "Benchmarking Terminology for
Link-State IGP Convergence", Link-State IGP Convergence",
draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-16, work in draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-17, work in
progress, October 2008. progress, March 2009.
8.2 Informative References 8.2 Informative References
None None
9. Author's Address 9. Author's Address
Scott Poretsky Scott Poretsky
Allot Communications Allot Communications
67 South Bedford Street, Suite 400 67 South Bedford Street, Suite 400
Burlington, MA 01803 Burlington, MA 01803
skipping to change at page 19, line 4 skipping to change at line 945
Phone: + 1 508 309 2179 Phone: + 1 508 309 2179
Email: sporetsky@allot.com Email: sporetsky@allot.com
Brent Imhoff Brent Imhoff
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
1194 North Mathilda Ave 1194 North Mathilda Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA USA
Phone: + 1 314 378 2571 Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com
Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
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