draft-ietf-bmwg-mcastm-03.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-mcastm-04.txt 
Network Working Group Hardev Soor Network Working Group Hardev Soor
INTERNET-DRAFT Debra Stopp INTERNET-DRAFT Debra Stopp
Expires in: August 2000 Ixia Communications Expires in: January 2001 IXIA
Ralph Daniels Ralph Daniels
Netcom Systems Netcom Systems
March 2000 July 2000
Methodology for IP Multicast Benchmarking Methodology for IP Multicast Benchmarking
<draft-ietf-bmwg-mcastm-03.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-mcastm-04.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts. Drafts.
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| | . . . | | . . .
| | +----------------+ | | +----------------+
| | | | | | | |
| |--------->| destination(n) | | |--------->| destination(n) |
| | | | | | | |
| | +----------------+ | | +----------------+
| | | |
+------------+ +------------+
Figure 1 Figure 1
Generally , the destination ports first join the desired number of Generally , the destination ports first join the desired number of
multicast groups by sending IGMP Join Group messages to the DUT/SUT. To multicast groups by sending IGMP Join Group messages to the DUT/SUT.
verify that all destination ports successfully joined the appropriate To verify that all destination ports successfully joined the
groups, the source port MUST transmit IP multicast frames destined for appropriate groups, the source port MUST transmit IP multicast frames
these groups. The destination ports MAY send IGMP Leave Group messages destined for these groups. The destination ports MAY send IGMP Leave
after the transmission of IP Multicast frames to clear the IGMP table of Group messages after the transmission of IP Multicast frames to clear
the DUT/SUT. the IGMP table of the DUT/SUT.
In addition, all transmitted frames MUST contain a recognizable pattern In addition, all transmitted frames MUST contain a recognizable
that can be filtered on in order to ensure the receipt of only the pattern that can be filtered on in order to ensure the receipt of
frames that are involved in the test. only the frames that are involved in the test.
3.1 Test Considerations 3.1 Test Considerations
3.2 IGMP Support 3.2 IGMP Support
Each of the receiving ports of the tester should support and be able Each of the destination ports should support and be able to test all
to test all IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3. The minimum requirement, IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3. The minimum requirement, however, is IGMP
however, is IGMP version 2. version 2.
Each receiving port should be able to respond to IGMP queries during Each destination port should be able to respond to IGMP queries
the test. during the test.
Each receiving port should also send LEAVE (running IGMP version 2) Each destination port should also send LEAVE (running IGMP version 2)
after each test. after each test.
3.3 Group Addresses 3.3 Group Addresses
The Class D Group address SHOULD be changed between tests. Many DUTs The Class D Group address SHOULD be changed between tests. Many DUTs
have memory or cache that is not cleared properly and can bias the have memory or cache that is not cleared properly and can bias the
results. results.
The following group addresses are recommended by use in a test: The following group addresses are recommended by use in a test:
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224.0.5.128-224.0.5.255 224.0.5.128-224.0.5.255
224.0.6.128-224.0.6.255 224.0.6.128-224.0.6.255
If the number of group addresses accommodated by these ranges do not If the number of group addresses accommodated by these ranges do not
satisfy the requirements of the test, then these ranges may be satisfy the requirements of the test, then these ranges may be
overlapped. The total number of configured group addresses must be overlapped. The total number of configured group addresses must be
less than or equal to the IGMP table size of the DUT/SUT. less than or equal to the IGMP table size of the DUT/SUT.
3.4 Frame Sizes 3.4 Frame Sizes
Each test should be run with different Multicast Frame Sizes. The Each test SHOULD be run with different Multicast Frame Sizes. The
recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518 recommended frame sizes are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518
byte frames. byte frames.
3.5 TTL 3.5 TTL
The source frames should have a TTL value large enough to accommodate The source frames should have a TTL value large enough to accommodate
the DUT/SUT. the DUT/SUT.
3.6 Layer 2 Support 3.6 Layer 2 Support
Each of the receiving ports of the tester should support GARP/GMRP Each of the destination ports should support GARP/GMRP protocols to
protocols to join groups on Layer 2 DUTs/SUTs. join groups on Layer 2 DUTs/SUTs.
4 Forwarding and Throughput 4 Forwarding and Throughput
This section contains the description of the tests that are related to This section contains the description of the tests that are related
the characterization of the packet forwarding of a DUT/SUT in a to the characterization of the packet forwarding of a DUT/SUT in a
multicast environment. Some metrics extend the concept of throughput multicast environment. Some metrics extend the concept of throughput
presented in RFC 1242. The notion of Forwarding Rate is cited in RFC presented in RFC 1242. The notion of Forwarding Rate is cited in RFC
2285. 2285.
4.1 Mixed Class Throughput 4.1 Mixed Class Throughput
Definition Objective
The maximum rate at which none of the offered frames, comprised from To determine the maximum throughput rate at which none of the offered
a unicast Class and a multicast Class, to be forwarded are dropped by frames, comprised from a unicast Class and a multicast Class, to be
the device across a fixed number of ports. forwarded are dropped by the device across a fixed number of ports as
defined in RFC 2432.
Procedure Procedure
Multicast and unicast traffic are mixed together in the same Multicast and unicast traffic are mixed together in the same
aggregated traffic stream in order to simulate the non-homogenous aggregated traffic stream in order to simulate the non-homogenous
networking environment. While the multicast traffic is transmitted networking environment. While the multicast traffic is transmitted
from one source to multiple destinations, the unicast traffic MAY be from one source to multiple destinations, the unicast traffic MAY be
evenly distributed across the DUT/SUT architecture. In addition, the evenly distributed across the DUT/SUT architecture. In addition, the
DUT/SUT SHOULD learn the appropriate unicast IP addresses, either by DUT/SUT SHOULD learn the appropriate unicast IP addresses, either by
sending ARP frames from each unicast address, sending a RIP packet or sending ARP frames from each unicast address, sending a RIP packet or
by assigning static entries into the DUT/SUT address table. by assigning static entries into the DUT/SUT address table.
The mixture of multicast and unicast traffic MUST be set up in one of The mixture of multicast and unicast traffic MUST be set up in one of
two ways: two ways:
a) As a percent of the total bandwidth resulting in a ratio. For a) As a percent of the total traffic flow resulting in a ratio.
example, 20 percent multicast traffic to 80 percent unicast For example, 20 percent multicast traffic to 80 percent unicast
traffic. traffic.
b) In evenly distributed bursts of multicast and unicast b) In evenly distributed bursts of multicast and unicast
traffic, resulting in a 50-50 ratio of multicast to unicast traffic, resulting in a 50-50 ratio of multicast to unicast
traffic. traffic.
The transmission of the frames MUST be set up so that they form a The transmission of the frames MUST be set up so that they form a
deterministic distribution while still maintaining the specified deterministic distribution while still maintaining the specified
bandwidth and transmission rates. See Appendix A for a discussion on forwarding rates. See Appendix A for a discussion on non-homogenous
determining an even distribution. vs. homogenous packet distribution.
Similar to the Frame loss rate test in RFC 2544, the first trial Similar to the Frame loss rate test in RFC 2544, the first trial
SHOULD be run for the frame rate that corresponds to 100% of the SHOULD be run for the frame rate that corresponds to 100% of the
maximum rate for the frame size on the input media. Repeat the maximum rate for the frame size on the input media. Repeat the
procedure for the rate that corresponds to 90% of the maximum rate procedure for the rate that corresponds to 90% of the maximum rate
used and then for 80% of this rate. This sequence SHOULD be continued used and then for 80% of this rate. This sequence SHOULD be continued
(at reducing 10% intervals) until there are two successive trials in (at reducing 10% intervals) until there are two successive trials in
which no frames are lost. The maximum granularity of the trials MUST which no frames are lost. The maximum granularity of the trials MUST
be 10% of the maximum rate, a finer granularity is encouraged. be 10% of the maximum rate, a finer granularity is encouraged.
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4.2 Scaled Group Forwarding Matrix 4.2 Scaled Group Forwarding Matrix
Definition Definition
A table that demonstrates Forwarding Rate as a function of tested A table that demonstrates Forwarding Rate as a function of tested
multicast groups for a fixed number of tested DUT/SUT ports. multicast groups for a fixed number of tested DUT/SUT ports.
Procedure Procedure
Multicast traffic is sent at a fixed percent of line rate with a Multicast traffic is sent at a fixed percent of maximum offered load
fixed number of receive ports of the tester at a fixed frame length. with a fixed number of receive ports of the tester at a fixed frame
length.
The receive ports SHOULD continue joining incrementally by 10 The receive ports SHOULD continue joining incrementally by 10
multicast groups until a user defined maximum is reached. multicast groups until a user defined maximum is reached.
The receive ports will continue joining in the incremental fashion The receive ports will continue joining in the incremental fashion
until a user defined maximum is reached. until a user defined maximum is reached.
Results Results
Parameters to be measured SHOULD include the frame loss and percent Parameters to be measured SHOULD include the frame loss and percent
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4.3 Aggregated Multicast Throughput 4.3 Aggregated Multicast Throughput
Definition Definition
The maximum rate at which none of the offered frames to be forwarded The maximum rate at which none of the offered frames to be forwarded
through N destination interfaces of the same multicast group are through N destination interfaces of the same multicast group are
dropped. dropped.
Procedure Procedure
Multicast traffic is sent at a fixed percent of line rate with a Multicast traffic is sent at a fixed percent of maximum offered load
fixed number of groups at a fixed frame length for a fixed duration with a fixed number of groups at a fixed frame length for a fixed
of time. duration of time.
The initial number of receive ports of the tester will join the The initial number of receive ports of the tester will join the
group(s) and the sender will transmit to the same groups after a group(s) and the sender will transmit to the same groups after a
certain delay (a few seconds). certain delay (a few seconds).
Then the an incremental number of receive ports will join the same Then the an incremental number of receive ports will join the same
groups and then the Multicast traffic is sent as stated. groups and then the Multicast traffic is sent as stated.
The receive ports will continue to be added and multicast traffic The receive ports will continue to be added and multicast traffic
sent until a user defined maximum number of ports is reached. sent until a user defined maximum number of ports is reached.
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offered a DUT/SUT are converted to another encapsulated format and offered a DUT/SUT are converted to another encapsulated format and
correctly forwarded by the DUT/SUT without loss. correctly forwarded by the DUT/SUT without loss.
Procedure Procedure
Re-encapsulation takes place in DUT/SUT B after test port C has Re-encapsulation takes place in DUT/SUT B after test port C has
received the decapsulated frames. These decapsulated frames will received the decapsulated frames. These decapsulated frames will
be re-inserted with a new encapsulation frame and sent to test be re-inserted with a new encapsulation frame and sent to test
port B which will measure the throughput. See Figure 5. port B which will measure the throughput. See Figure 5.
Test port A DUT/SUT A Test port B DUT/SUT B Test port C Test port A DUT/SUT A Test port B DUT/SUT B Test port
C
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
| | | | | | | |
-----(a) (b)| |(c) ---- (d)| |(e) (f)----- -----(a) (b)| |(c) ---- (d)| |(e) (f)-----
||||| -----> | |----> |||| <---->| |<----> ||||| ||||| -----> | |----> |||| <---->| |<----> |||||
----- | | ---- | | ----- ----- | | ---- | | -----
| | | | | | | |
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
Figure 5 Figure 5
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percent loss per destination port for each multicast group percent loss per destination port for each multicast group
address. address.
In addition, the transmit and receive rates in frames per second In addition, the transmit and receive rates in frames per second
for each source and destination port for all multicast groups, for each source and destination port for all multicast groups,
together with the number of frames transmitted and received per together with the number of frames transmitted and received per
port per multicast groups SHOULD be reported. port per multicast groups SHOULD be reported.
5 Forwarding Latency 5 Forwarding Latency
This section presents methodologies relating to the characterization of This section presents methodologies relating to the characterization
the forwarding latency of a DUT/SUT in a multicast environment. It of the forwarding latency of a DUT/SUT in a multicast environment. It
extends the concept of latency characterization presented in RFC 2544. extends the concept of latency characterization presented in RFC
2544.
5.1 Multicast Latency 5.1 Multicast Latency
Definition Definition
The set of individual latencies from a single input port on the The set of individual latencies from a single input port on the
DUT/SUT or SUT to all tested ports belonging to the destination DUT/SUT or SUT to all tested ports belonging to the destination
multicast group. multicast group.
Procedure Procedure
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7.1 Multicast Group Capacity 7.1 Multicast Group Capacity
Definition Definition
The maximum number of multicast groups a DUT/SUT can support while The maximum number of multicast groups a DUT/SUT can support while
maintaining the ability to forward multicast frames to all multicast maintaining the ability to forward multicast frames to all multicast
groups registered to that DUT/SUT. groups registered to that DUT/SUT.
Procedure Procedure
One or more receiving ports of DUT/SUT will join an initial number of One or more destination ports of DUT/SUT will join an initial number
groups. of groups.
Then after a delay (enough time for all ports to join) the source Then after a delay (enough time for all ports to join) the source
port will transmit to each group at a transmission rate that the port will transmit to each group at a transmission rate that the
DUT/SUT can handle without dropping IP Multicast frames. DUT/SUT can handle without dropping IP Multicast frames.
If all frames sent are forwarded by the DUT/SUT and received the test If all frames sent are forwarded by the DUT/SUT and received the test
iteration is said to pass at the current capacity. iteration is said to pass at the current capacity.
If the iteration passes at the capacity the test will add an user If the iteration passes at the capacity the test will add an user
defined incremental value of groups to each receive port. defined incremental value of groups to each receive port.
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Results Results
The parameter to be measured is the total number of group addresses The parameter to be measured is the total number of group addresses
that were successfully forwarded with no loss. that were successfully forwarded with no loss.
8 Interaction 8 Interaction
Network forwarding devices are generally required to provide more Network forwarding devices are generally required to provide more
functionality than just the forwarding of traffic. Moreover, network functionality than just the forwarding of traffic. Moreover, network
forwarding devices may be asked to provide those functions in a variety forwarding devices may be asked to provide those functions in a
of environments. This section offers terms to assist in the variety of environments. This section offers terms to assist in the
characterization of DUT/SUT behavior in consideration of potentially characterization of DUT/SUT behavior in consideration of potentially
interacting factors. interacting factors.
8.1 Forwarding Burdened Multicast Latency 8.1 Forwarding Burdened Multicast Latency
The Multicast Latency metrics can be influenced by forcing the The Multicast Latency metrics can be influenced by forcing the
DUT/SUT to perform extra processing of packets while multicast DUT/SUT to perform extra processing of packets while multicast
traffic is being forwarded for latency measurements. In this test, a traffic is being forwarded for latency measurements. In this test, a
set of ports on the tester will be designated to be source and set of ports on the tester will be designated to be source and
destination similar to the generic IP Multicast test setup. In destination similar to the generic IP Multicast test setup. In
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[Mt98] Maufer, T. "Deploying IP Multicast in the Enterprise." Prentice- [Mt98] Maufer, T. "Deploying IP Multicast in the Enterprise." Prentice-
Hall, 1998. Hall, 1998.
[Se98] Semeria, C. and Maufer, T. "Introduction to IP Multicast [Se98] Semeria, C. and Maufer, T. "Introduction to IP Multicast
Routing." http://www.3com.com/nsc/501303.html 3Com Corp., 1998. Routing." http://www.3com.com/nsc/501303.html 3Com Corp., 1998.
11 11
Author's Addresses Author's Addresses
Hardev Soor Hardev Soor
Ixia Communications IXIA
4505 Las Virgenes Road, Suite 209 26601 W. Agoura Rd.
Calabasas, CA 91302 Calabasas, CA 91302
USA USA
Phone: 818 871 1800 Phone: 818 871 1800
EMail: hardev@ixia.com EMail: hardev@ixiacom.com
Debra Stopp Debra Stopp
Ixia Communications IXIA
4505 Las Virgenes Road, Suite 209 26601 W. Agoura Rd.
Calabasas, CA 91302 Calabasas, CA 91302
USA USA
Phone: 818 871 1800 Phone: 818 871 1800
EMail: debby@ixia.com EMail: debby@ixiacom.com
Ralph Daniels Ralph Daniels
Netcom Systems Netcom Systems
948 Loop Road 948 Loop Road
Clayton, NC 27520 Clayton, NC 27520
USA USA
Phone: 919 550 9475 Phone: 919 550 9475
EMail: Ralph_Daniels@NetcomSystems.com EMail: Ralph_Daniels@NetcomSystems.com
Appendix A: Determining an even distribution Appendix A: Determining an even distribution
A.1 Scope Of This Appendix
This appendix discusses the suggested approach to configuring the
deterministic distribution methodology for tests that involve both
multicast and unicast traffic classes in an aggregated traffic stream.
As such, this appendix MUST not be read as an amendment to the
methodology described in the body of this document but as a guide to
testing practice.
It is important to understand and fully define the distribution of It is important to understand and fully define the distribution of
frames among all multicast and unicast destinations. If the frames among all multicast and unicast destinations. If the
distribution is not well defined or understood, the throughput and distribution is not well defined or understood, the throughput and
forwarding metrics are not meaningful. forwarding metrics are not meaningful.
In a homogeneous environment, a large, single burst of multicast frames In a homogeneous environment, a large single burst of multicast
may be followed by a large burst of unicast frames. This is a very frames may be followed by a large burst of unicast frames. This is a
different distribution than that of a non-homogeneous environment, where very different distribution than that of a non-homogeneous
the multicast and unicast frames are intermingled environment, where the multicast and unicast frames are intermingled
throughout the entire transmission. throughout the entire transmission.
The recommended distribution is that of the non-homogeneous environment The recommended distribution is that of the non-homogeneous
because it more closely represents a real-world scenario. The environment because it more closely represents a real-world scenario.
distribution is modeled by calculating the number of multicast frames The distribution is modeled by calculating the number of multicast
per destination port as a burst, then calculating the number of unicast frames per destination port as a burst, then calculating the number
frames to transmit as a percentage of the total frames transmitted. The of unicast frames to transmit as a percentage of the total frames
overall effect of the distribution is small bursts of multicast frames transmitted. The overall effect of the distribution is small bursts
intermingled with small bursts of unicast frames. of multicast frames intermingled with small bursts of unicast frames.
Example
This example illustrates the distribution algorithm for a 100 Mbps rate.
Frame size = 64
Duration of test = 30 seconds
Intended Load (ILOAD) = 100% of maximum rate
Mapping for unicast traffic: Port 1 to Port 2
Port 3 to port 4
Mapping for multicast traffic: Port 1 to Ports 2,3,4
Number of Multicast group addresses per destination port = 3
Multicast groups joined by Port 2: 224.0.1.27
224.0.1.28
224,0.1.29
Multicast groups joined by Port 3: 224.0.1.30
224.0.1.31
224,0.1.32
Multicast groups joined by Port 4: 224.0.1.33
224.0.1.34
224,0.1.35
Percentage of Unicast frames = 20
Percentage of Multicast frames = 80
Total number of frames to be transmitted = 148810 fps * 30 sec
= 4464300 frames
Number of unicast frames = 20/100 * 4464300 = 892860 frames
Number of multicast frames = 80/100 * 4464300 = 3571440 frames
Unicast burst size = 20 * 9 = 180
Multicast burst size = 80 * 9 = 720
Loop counter = 4464300 / 900 = 4960.3333 (round it off to 4960)
Therefore, the actual number of frames that will be transmitted:
Unicast frames = 4960 * 180 = 892800 frames
Multicast frames = 4960 * 720 = 3571200 frames
The following pattern will be established:
UUUMMMMMMMMMMMMUUUMMMMMMMMMMMMUUUMMMMMMMMMMMMUUUMMMMMMMMMMMM
where U represents 60 Unicast frames (U = 180 frames)
M represents 60 Multicast frames (M = 720 frames)
12 12
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distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
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included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
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