draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-meth-01.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-meth-02.txt 
Internet-Draft Bhuvaneswaran Vengainathan Internet-Draft Bhuvaneswaran Vengainathan
Network Working Group Anton Basil Network Working Group Anton Basil
Intended Status: Informational Veryx Technologies Intended Status: Informational Veryx Technologies
Expires: September 19, 2016 Mark Tassinari Expires: January 8, 2017 Mark Tassinari
Hewlett-Packard Hewlett-Packard
Vishwas Manral Vishwas Manral
Nano Sec Nano Sec
Sarah Banks Sarah Banks
VSS Monitoring VSS Monitoring
March 21, 2016 July 8, 2016
Benchmarking Methodology for SDN Controller Performance Benchmarking Methodology for SDN Controller Performance
draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-meth-01 draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-meth-02
Abstract Abstract
This document defines the methodologies for benchmarking control This document defines the methodologies for benchmarking control
plane performance of SDN controllers. Terminology related to plane performance of SDN controllers. Terminology related to
benchmarking SDN controllers is described in the companion benchmarking SDN controllers is described in the companion
terminology document. SDN controllers have been implemented with terminology document. SDN controllers have been implemented with
many varying designs in order to achieve their intended network many varying designs in order to achieve their intended network
functionality. Hence, the authors have taken the approach of functionality. Hence, the authors have taken the approach of
considering an SDN controller as a black box, defining the considering an SDN controller as a black box, defining the
skipping to change at page 1, line 45 skipping to change at page 1, line 45
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 19, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 8, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction...................................................3 1. Introduction ................................................ 3
2. Scope..........................................................4 2. Scope ....................................................... 4
3. Test Setup.....................................................4 3. Test Setup .................................................. 4
3.1. Test setup - Controller working in Standalone Mode........5 3.1. Test setup - Controller working in Standalone Mode....... 5
3.2. Test setup - Controller working in Cluster Mode...........6 3.2. Test setup - Controller working in Cluster Mode.......... 6
4. Test Considerations............................................7 4. Test Considerations ......................................... 7
4.1. Network Topology..........................................7 4.1. Network Topology ........................................ 7
4.2. Test Traffic..............................................7 4.2. Test Traffic ........................................... 7
4.3. Connection Setup..........................................7 4.3. Connection Setup ........................................ 7
4.4. Measurement Point Specification and Recommendation........8 4.4. Measurement Point Specification and Recommendation....... 8
4.5. Connectivity Recommendation...............................8 4.5. Connectivity Recommendation ............................. 8
4.6. Test Repeatability........................................8 4.6. Test Repeatability ...................................... 8
5. Benchmarking Tests.............................................9 5. Benchmarking Tests .......................................... 9
5.1. Performance...............................................9 5.1. Performance ............................................ 9
5.1.1. Network Topology Discovery Time......................9 5.1.1. Network Topology Discovery Time .................... 9
5.1.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time................11 5.1.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time .............. 11
5.1.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate................12 5.1.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate .............. 12
5.1.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time.....................14 5.1.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time ................... 14
5.1.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time....................15 5.1.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time .................. 15
5.1.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate.....................16 5.1.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate ................... 16
5.1.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate....................18 5.1.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate .................. 18
5.1.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time..............19 5.1.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time ............ 19
5.2. 6.2 Scalability..........................................20 5.2. 6.2 Scalability ........................................ 20
5.2.1. Control Session Capacity............................20 5.2.1. Control Session Capacity .......................... 20
5.2.2. Network Discovery Size..............................21 5.2.2. Network Discovery Size ............................ 21
5.2.3. 6.2.3 Forwarding Table Capacity.....................22 5.2.3. 6.2.3 Forwarding Table Capacity ................... 22
5.3. 6.3 Security.............................................23 5.3. 6.3 Security .......................................... 24
5.3.1. 6.3.1 Exception Handling............................23 5.3.1. 6.3.1 Exception Handling .......................... 24
5.3.2. Denial of Service Handling..........................25 5.3.2. Denial of Service Handling ........................ 25
5.4. Reliability..............................................26 5.4. Reliability ........................................... 26
5.4.1. Controller Failover Time............................26 5.4.1. Controller Failover Time .......................... 26
5.4.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time........................27 5.4.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time ...................... 28
6. References....................................................29 6. References ................................................. 29
6.1. Normative References.....................................29 6.1. Normative References ................................... 29
6.2. Informative References...................................30 6.2. Informative References ................................. 30
7. IANA Considerations...........................................30 7. IANA Considerations ........................................ 30
8. Security Considerations.......................................30 8. Security Considerations ..................................... 30
9. Acknowledgments...............................................30 9. Acknowledgments ............................................ 31
Appendix A. Example Test Topologies..............................31 Appendix A. Example Test Topologies ............................ 32
A.1. Leaf-Spine Topology - Three Tier Network Architecture....31 A.1. Leaf-Spine Topology - Three Tier Network Architecture... 32
A.2. Leaf-Spine Topology - Two Tier Network Architecture......31 A.2. Leaf-Spine Topology - Two Tier Network Architecture..... 32
Appendix B. Benchmarking Methodology using OpenFlow Controllers..32 Appendix B. Benchmarking Methodology using OpenFlow Controllers. 33
B.1. Protocol Overview........................................32 B.1. Protocol Overview ...................................... 33
B.2. Messages Overview........................................32 B.2. Messages Overview ...................................... 33
B.3. Connection Overview......................................32 B.3. Connection Overview .................................... 33
B.4. Performance Benchmarking Tests...........................33 B.4. Performance Benchmarking Tests ......................... 34
B.4.1. Network Topology Discovery Time.....................33 B.4.1. Network Topology Discovery Time ................... 34
B.4.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time................34 B.4.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time .............. 35
B.4.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate................35 B.4.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate .............. 36
B.4.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time.....................36 B.4.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time ................... 37
B.4.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time....................37 B.4.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time .................. 38
B.4.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate.....................38 B.4.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate ................... 39
B.4.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate....................39 B.4.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate .................. 40
B.4.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time..............40 B.4.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time ............ 41
B.5. Scalability..............................................41 B.5. Scalability ........................................... 42
B.5.1. Control Sessions Capacity...........................41 B.5.1. Control Sessions Capacity ......................... 42
B.5.2. Network Discovery Size..............................41 B.5.2. Network Discovery Size ............................ 42
B.5.3. Forwarding Table Capacity...........................42 B.5.3. Forwarding Table Capacity ......................... 43
B.6. Security.................................................44 B.6. Security .............................................. 45
B.6.1. Exception Handling..................................44 B.6.1. Exception Handling ................................ 45
B.6.2. Denial of Service Handling..........................45 B.6.2. Denial of Service Handling ........................ 46
B.7. Reliability..............................................47 B.7. Reliability ........................................... 48
B.7.1. Controller Failover Time............................47 B.7.1. Controller Failover Time .......................... 48
B.7.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time........................48 B.7.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time ...................... 49
Authors' Addresses...............................................51 Authors' Addresses ............................................ 52
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document provides generic methodologies for benchmarking SDN This document provides generic methodologies for benchmarking SDN
controller performance. An SDN controller may support many controller performance. An SDN controller may support many
northbound and southbound protocols, implement a wide range of northbound and southbound protocols, implement a wide range of
applications, and work solely, or as a group to achieve the desired applications, and work solely, or as a group to achieve the desired
functionality. This document considers an SDN controller as a black functionality. This document considers an SDN controller as a black
box, regardless of design and implementation. The tests defined in box, regardless of design and implementation. The tests defined in
the document can be used to benchmark SDN controller for the document can be used to benchmark SDN controller for
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4.4. Connection Setup 4.4. Connection Setup
There may be controller implementations that support unencrypted and There may be controller implementations that support unencrypted and
encrypted network connections with Network Devices. Further, the encrypted network connections with Network Devices. Further, the
controller may have backward compatibility with Network Devices controller may have backward compatibility with Network Devices
running older versions of southbound protocols. It is recommended running older versions of southbound protocols. It is recommended
that the controller performance be measured with one or more that the controller performance be measured with one or more
applicable connection setup methods defined below. applicable connection setup methods defined below.
1. Unencrypted connection with Network Devices, running same 1.Unencrypted connection with Network Devices, running same
protocol version. protocol version.
2. Unencrypted connection with Network Devices, running different 2.Unencrypted connection with Network Devices, running different
protocol versions. protocol versions.
Example: Example:
a. Controller running current protocol version and switch a.Controller running current protocol version and switch
running older protocol version running older protocol version
b. Controller running older protocol version and switch b.Controller running older protocol version and switch
running current protocol version running current protocol version
3. Encrypted connection with Network Devices, running same 3.Encrypted connection with Network Devices, running same
protocol version protocol version
4. Encrypted connection with Network Devices, running different 4.Encrypted connection with Network Devices, running different
protocol versions. protocol versions.
Example: Example:
a. Controller running current protocol version and switch a.Controller running current protocol version and switch
running older protocol version running older protocol version
b. Controller running older protocol version and switch b.Controller running older protocol version and switch
running current protocol version running current protocol version
4.5. Measurement Point Specification and Recommendation 4.5. Measurement Point Specification and Recommendation
The measurement accuracy depends on several factors including the The measurement accuracy depends on several factors including the
point of observation where the indications are captured. For point of observation where the indications are captured. For
example, the notification can be observed at the controller or test example, the notification can be observed at the controller or test
emulator. The test operator SHOULD make the observations/ emulator. The test operator SHOULD make the observations/
measurements at the interfaces of test emulator unless it is measurements at the interfaces of test emulator unless it is
explicitly mentioned otherwise in the individual test. explicitly mentioned otherwise in the individual test.
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Test Reporting Test Reporting
Each test has a reporting format that contains some global and Each test has a reporting format that contains some global and
identical reporting components, and some individual components that identical reporting components, and some individual components that
are specific to individual tests. The following test configuration are specific to individual tests. The following test configuration
parameters and controller settings parameters MUST be reflected in parameters and controller settings parameters MUST be reflected in
the test report. the test report.
Test Configuration Parameters: Test Configuration Parameters:
1. Controller name and version 1.Controller name and version
2. Northbound protocols and versions 2.Northbound protocols and versions
3. Southbound protocols and versions 3.Southbound protocols and versions
4. Controller redundancy mode (Standalone or Cluster Mode) 4.Controller redundancy mode (Standalone or Cluster Mode)
5. Connection setup (Unencrypted or Encrypted) 5.Connection setup (Unencrypted or Encrypted)
6. Network Topology (Mesh or Tree or Linear) 6.Network Topology (Mesh or Tree or Linear)
7. Network Device Type (Physical or Virtual or Emulated) 7.Network Device Type (Physical or Virtual or Emulated)
8. Number of Nodes 8.Number of Nodes
9. Number of Links 9.Number of Links
10. Test Traffic Type 10.Test Traffic Type
11. Controller System Configuration (e.g., CPU, Memory, Operating 11.Controller System Configuration (e.g., CPU, Memory, Operating
System, Interface Speed etc.,) System, Interface Speed etc.,)
12. Reference Test Setup (e.g., Section 3.1 etc.,) 12.Reference Test Setup (e.g., Section 3.1 etc.,)
Controller Settings Parameters: Controller Settings Parameters:
1. Topology re-discovery timeout 1.Topology re-discovery timeout
2. Controller redundancy mode (e.g., active-standby etc.,) 2.Controller redundancy mode (e.g., active-standby etc.,)
To ensure the repeatability of test, the following capabilities of To ensure the repeatability of test, the following capabilities of
test emulator SHOULD be reported test emulator SHOULD be reported
1. Maximum number of Network Devices that the forwarding plane 1.Maximum number of Network Devices that the forwarding plane
emulates emulates
2. Control message processing time (e.g., Topology Discovery 2.Control message processing time (e.g., Topology Discovery
Messages) Messages)
One way to determine the above two values are to simulate the One way to determine the above two values are to simulate the
required control sessions and messages from the control plane. required control sessions and messages from the control plane.
5. Benchmarking Tests 5. Benchmarking Tests
5.1. Performance 5.1. Performance
5.1.1. Network Topology Discovery Time 5.1.1. Network Topology Discovery Time
Objective: Objective:
Measure the time taken by the SDN controller to discover the network The time taken by controller(s) to determine the complete network
topology (nodes and links), expressed in milliseconds. topology, defined as the interval starting with the first discovery
message from the controller(s) at its Southbound interface, ending
with all features of the static topology determined.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST support network discovery. 1. The controller MUST support network discovery.
2. Tester should be able to retrieve the discovered topology 2. Tester should be able to retrieve the discovered topology
information either through the controller's management interface, information either through the controller's management interface,
or northbound interface to determine if the discovery was or northbound interface to determine if the discovery was
successful and complete. successful and complete.
3. Ensure that the controller's topology re-discovery timeout has 3. Ensure that the controller's topology re-discovery timeout has
been set to the maximum value to avoid initiation of re-discovery been set to the maximum value to avoid initiation of re-discovery
process in the middle of the test. process in the middle of the test.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Ensure that the controller is operational, its network 1. Ensure that the controller is operational, its network
applications, northbound and southbound interfaces are up and applications, northbound and southbound interfaces are up and
running. running.
2. Establish the network connections between controller and Network 2. Establish the network connections between controller and Network
Devices. Devices.
3. Record the time for the first discovery message (Tm1) received 3. Record the time for the first discovery message (Tm1) received
from the controller at forwarding plane test emulator interface from the controller at forwarding plane test emulator interface
I1. I1.
4. Query the controller every 3 seconds to obtain the discovered 4. Query the controller every 3 seconds to obtain the discovered
network topology information through the northbound interface or network topology information through the northbound interface or
the management interface and compare it with the deployed network the management interface and compare it with the deployed network
topology information. topology information.
5. Stop the test when the discovered topology information matches the 5. Stop the test when the discovered topology information matches the
deployed network topology, or when the discovered topology deployed network topology, or when the discovered topology
information for 3 consecutive queries return the same details. information for 3 consecutive queries return the same details.
6. Record the time last discovery message (Tmn) sent to controller 6. Record the time last discovery message (Tmn) sent to controller
from the forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1) when the from the forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1) when the
test completed successfully. (e.g., the topology matches). test completed successfully. (e.g., the topology matches).
Measurement: Measurement:
Topology Discovery Time Tr1 = Tmn-Tm1. Topology Discovery Time Tr1 = Tmn-Tm1.
Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn
Average Topology Discovery Time = ----------------------- Average Topology Discovery Time = -----------------------
Total Test Iterations Total Test Iterations
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
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If this test is repeated with same number of nodes over different If this test is repeated with same number of nodes over different
topologies, the results SHOULD be reported in the form of a graph. topologies, the results SHOULD be reported in the form of a graph.
The X coordinate SHOULD be the Topology Type, the Y coordinate The X coordinate SHOULD be the Topology Type, the Y coordinate
SHOULD be the average Topology Discovery Time. SHOULD be the average Topology Discovery Time.
5.1.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time 5.1.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time
Objective: Objective:
Measure the time taken by the SDN controller to process an The time taken by controller(s) to process an asynchronous message,
asynchronous message, expressed in milliseconds. defined as the interval starting with an asynchronous message from a
network device after the discovery of all the devices by the
controller(s), ending with a response message from the controller(s)
at its Southbound interface.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
This test SHOULD use one of the test setup described in section 3.1 This test SHOULD use one of the test setup described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST have completed the network topology discovery 1.The controller MUST have completed the network topology discovery
for the connected Network Devices. for the connected Network Devices.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Generate asynchronous messages from every connected Network 1.Generate asynchronous messages from every connected Network
Device, to the SDN controller, one at a time in series from the Device, to the SDN controller, one at a time in series from the
forwarding plane test emulator for the test duration. forwarding plane test emulator for the test duration.
2. Record every request transmit (T1) timestamp and the 2.Record every request transmit (T1) timestamp and the
corresponding response (R1) received timestamp at the corresponding response (R1) received timestamp at the
forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1) for every forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1) for every
successful message exchange. successful message exchange.
Measurement: Measurement:
(R1-T1) + (R2-T2)..(Rn-Tn) (R1-T1) + (R2-T2)..(Rn-Tn)
Asynchronous Message Processing Time Tr1 = ----------------------- Asynchronous Message Processing Time Tr1 = -----------------------
Nrx Nrx
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If this test is repeated with same number of nodes using different If this test is repeated with same number of nodes using different
topologies, the results SHOULD be reported in the form of a graph. topologies, the results SHOULD be reported in the form of a graph.
The X coordinate SHOULD be the Topology Type, the Y coordinate The X coordinate SHOULD be the Topology Type, the Y coordinate
SHOULD be the average Asynchronous Message Processing Time. SHOULD be the average Asynchronous Message Processing Time.
5.1.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate 5.1.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate
Objective: Objective:
To measure the maximum rate of asynchronous messages (session The maximum number of asynchronous messages (session aliveness check
aliveness check message, new flow arrival notification message etc.) message, new flow arrival notification message etc.) that the
a controller can process within the test duration, expressed in controller(s) can process, defined as the number of asynchronous
messages processed per second. messages the controller(s) can process at its Southbound interface
between the start of the test and the expiry of given test duration
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST have completed the network topology discovery 1. The controller MUST have completed the network topology discovery
for the connected Network Devices. for the connected Network Devices.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Generate asynchronous messages continuously at the maximum 1. Generate asynchronous messages continuously at the maximum
possible rate on the established connections from all the possible rate on the established connections from all the
connected Network Devices in the forwarding plane test emulator connected Network Devices in the forwarding plane test emulator
for the Test Duration (Td). for the Test Duration (Td).
2. Record the total number of responses received from the controller 2. Record the total number of responses received from the controller
(Nrx) as well as the number of messages sent(Ntx) to the (Nrx) as well as the number of messages sent(Ntx) to the
controller within the test duration(Td) at the forwarding plane controller within the test duration(Td) at the forwarding plane
test emulator interface (I1). test emulator interface (I1).
Measurement: Measurement:
Nrx Nrx
Asynchronous Message Processing Rate Tr1 = ----- Asynchronous Message Processing Rate Tr1 = -----
Td Td
Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3..Trn Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3..Trn
Average Asynchronous Message Processing Rate= -------------------- Average Asynchronous Message Processing Rate= --------------------
Total Test Iterations Total Test Iterations
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If this test is repeated with same number of nodes over different If this test is repeated with same number of nodes over different
topologies, the results SHOULD be reported in the form of a graph. topologies, the results SHOULD be reported in the form of a graph.
The X coordinate SHOULD be the Topology Type, the Y coordinate The X coordinate SHOULD be the Topology Type, the Y coordinate
SHOULD be the average Asynchronous Message Processing Rate. SHOULD be the average Asynchronous Message Processing Rate.
5.1.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time 5.1.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time
Objective: Objective:
To measure the time taken by the controller to setup a path The time taken by the controller to setup a path reactively between
reactively between source and destination node, expressed in source and destination node, defined as the interval starting with
milliseconds. the first flow provisioning request message received by the
controller(s), ending with the last flow provisioning response
message sent from the controller(s) at it Southbound interface.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for 1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for
the deployed network topology. the deployed network topology.
2. The controller should have the knowledge about the location of 2. The controller should have the knowledge about the location of
destination endpoint for which the path has to be provisioned. destination endpoint for which the path has to be provisioned.
This can be achieved through dynamic learning or static This can be achieved through dynamic learning or static
provisioning. provisioning.
3. Ensure that the default action for 'flow miss' in Network Device 3. Ensure that the default action for 'flow miss' in Network Device
is configured to 'send to controller'. is configured to 'send to controller'.
4. Ensure that each Network Device in a path requires the controller 4. Ensure that each Network Device in a path requires the controller
to make the forwarding decision while paving the entire path. to make the forwarding decision while paving the entire path.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Send a single traffic stream from the test traffic generator TP1 1. Send a single traffic stream from the test traffic generator TP1
to test traffic generator TP2. to test traffic generator TP2.
2. Record the time of the first flow provisioning request message 2. Record the time of the first flow provisioning request message
sent to the controller (Tsf1) from the Network Device at the sent to the controller (Tsf1) from the Network Device at the
forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1). forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1).
3. Wait for the arrival of first traffic frame at the Traffic 3. Wait for the arrival of first traffic frame at the Traffic
Endpoint TP2 or the expiry of test duration (Td). Endpoint TP2 or the expiry of test duration (Td).
4. Record the time of the last flow provisioning response message 4. Record the time of the last flow provisioning response message
received from the controller (Tdf1) to the Network Device at the received from the controller (Tdf1) to the Network Device at the
forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1). forwarding plane test emulator interface (I1).
Measurement: Measurement:
Reactive Path Provisioning Time Tr1 = Tdf1-Tsf1. Reactive Path Provisioning Time Tr1 = Tdf1-Tsf1.
Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn
Average Reactive Path Provisioning Time = ----------------------- Average Reactive Path Provisioning Time = -----------------------
Total Test Iterations Total Test Iterations
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
The Reactive Path Provisioning Time results MUST be reported in the The Reactive Path Provisioning Time results MUST be reported in the
format of a table with a row for each iteration. The last row of the format of a table with a row for each iteration. The last row of the
table indicates the Average Reactive Path Provisioning Time table indicates the Average Reactive Path Provisioning Time
The report should capture the following information in addition to The report should capture the following information in addition to
the configuration parameters captured in section 5. the configuration parameters captured in section 5.
- Number of Network Devices in the path - Number of Network Devices in the path
5.1.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time 5.1.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time
Objective: Objective:
To measure the time taken by the controller to setup a path The time taken by the controller to setup a path proactively between
proactively between source and destination node, expressed in source and destination node, defined as the interval starting with
milliseconds. the first proactive flow provisioned in the controller(s) at its
Northbound interface, ending with the last flow provisioning
response message sent from the controller(s) at it Southbound
interface.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for 1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for
the deployed network topology. the deployed network topology.
2. The controller should have the knowledge about the location of 2. The controller should have the knowledge about the location of
destination endpoint for which the path has to be provisioned. destination endpoint for which the path has to be provisioned.
This can be achieved through dynamic learning or static This can be achieved through dynamic learning or static
provisioning. provisioning.
3. Ensure that the default action for flow miss in Network Device is 3. Ensure that the default action for flow miss in Network Device is
'drop'. 'drop'.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Send a single traffic stream from test traffic generator TP1 to 1. Send a single traffic stream from test traffic generator TP1 to
TP2. TP2.
2. Install the flow entries to reach from test traffic generator TP1 2. Install the flow entries to reach from test traffic generator TP1
to the test traffic generator TP2 through controller's northbound to the test traffic generator TP2 through controller's northbound
or management interface. or management interface.
3. Wait for the arrival of first traffic frame at the test traffic 3. Wait for the arrival of first traffic frame at the test traffic
generator TP2 or the expiry of test duration (Td). generator TP2 or the expiry of test duration (Td).
4. Record the time when the proactive flow is provisioned in the 4. Record the time when the proactive flow is provisioned in the
Controller (Tsf1) at the management plane test emulator interface Controller (Tsf1) at the management plane test emulator interface
I2. I2.
5. Record the time of the last flow provisioning message received 5. Record the time of the last flow provisioning message received
from the controller (Tdf1) at the forwarding plane test emulator from the controller (Tdf1) at the forwarding plane test emulator
interface I1. interface I1.
Measurement: Measurement:
Proactive Flow Provisioning Time Tr1 = Tdf1-Tsf1. Proactive Flow Provisioning Time Tr1 = Tdf1-Tsf1.
Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn
Average Proactive Path Provisioning Time = ----------------------- Average Proactive Path Provisioning Time = -----------------------
Total Test Iterations Total Test Iterations
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
skipping to change at page 16, line 35 skipping to change at page 16, line 44
The report should capture the following information in addition to The report should capture the following information in addition to
the configuration parameters captured in section 5. the configuration parameters captured in section 5.
- Number of Network Devices in the path - Number of Network Devices in the path
5.1.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate 5.1.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate
Objective: Objective:
Measure the maximum number of independent paths a controller can The maximum number of independent paths a controller can
concurrently establish between source and destination nodes concurrently establish between source and destination nodes
reactively within the test duration, expressed in paths per second. reactively, defined as the number of paths provisioned by the
controller(s) at its Southbound interface for the flow provisioning
requests received for path provisioning at its Southbound interface
between the start of the test and the expiry of given test duration.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for 1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for
the deployed network topology. the deployed network topology.
2. The controller should have the knowledge about the location of 2. The controller should have the knowledge about the location of
destination addresses for which the paths have to be provisioned. destination addresses for which the paths have to be provisioned.
This can be achieved through dynamic learning or static
This can be achieved through dynamic learning or static provisioning.
provisioning.
3. Ensure that the default action for 'flow miss' in Network Device 3. Ensure that the default action for 'flow miss' in Network Device
is configured to 'send to controller'. is configured to 'send to controller'.
4. Ensure that each Network Device in a path requires the controller 4. Ensure that each Network Device in a path requires the controller
to make the forwarding decision while provisioning the entire to make the forwarding decision while provisioning the entire
path. path.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Send traffic with unique source and destination addresses from 1. Send traffic with unique source and destination addresses from
test traffic generator TP1. test traffic generator TP1.
2. Record total number of unique traffic frames (Ndf) received at the 2. Record total number of unique traffic frames (Ndf) received at the
test traffic generator TP2 within the test duration (Td). test traffic generator TP2 within the test duration (Td).
Measurement: Measurement:
Ndf Ndf
Reactive Path Provisioning Rate Tr1 = ------ Reactive Path Provisioning Rate Tr1 = ------
Td Td
Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn Tr1 + Tr2 + Tr3 .. Trn
Average Reactive Path Provisioning Rate = ------------------------ Average Reactive Path Provisioning Rate = ------------------------
Total Test Iterations Total Test Iterations
skipping to change at page 17, line 40 skipping to change at page 18, line 4
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
The Reactive Path Provisioning Rate results MUST be reported in the The Reactive Path Provisioning Rate results MUST be reported in the
format of a table with a row for each iteration. The last row of the format of a table with a row for each iteration. The last row of the
table indicates the Average Reactive Path Provisioning Rate. table indicates the Average Reactive Path Provisioning Rate.
The report should capture the following information in addition to The report should capture the following information in addition to
the configuration parameters captured in section 5. the configuration parameters captured in section 5.
- Number of Network Devices in the path - Number of Network Devices in the path
- Offered rate - Offered rate
5.1.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate 5.1.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate
Objective: Objective:
Measure the maximum number of independent paths a controller can Measure the maximum number of independent paths a controller can
concurrently establish between source and destination nodes concurrently establish between source and destination nodes
proactively within the test duration, expressed in paths per second. proactively, defined as the number of paths provisioned by the
controller(s) at its Southbound interface for the paths provisioned
in its Northbound interface between the start of the test and the
expiry of given test duration .
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for 1. The controller MUST contain the network topology information for
the deployed network topology. the deployed network topology.
skipping to change at page 19, line 23 skipping to change at page 19, line 32
the configuration parameters captured in section 5. the configuration parameters captured in section 5.
- Number of Network Devices in the path - Number of Network Devices in the path
- Offered rate - Offered rate
5.1.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time 5.1.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time
Objective: Objective:
Measure the time taken by the controller to detect any changes in The amount of time required for the controller to detect any changes
the network topology, expressed in milliseconds. in the network topology, defined as the interval starting with the
notification message received by the controller(s) at its Southbound
interface, ending with the first topology rediscovery messages sent
from the controller(s) at its Southbound interface.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST have discovered the network topology 1. The controller MUST have discovered the network topology
information for the deployed network topology. information for the deployed network topology.
skipping to change at page 20, line 33 skipping to change at page 20, line 42
The Network Topology Change Detection Time results MUST be reported The Network Topology Change Detection Time results MUST be reported
in the format of a table with a row for each iteration. The last in the format of a table with a row for each iteration. The last
row of the table indicates the average Network Topology Change Time. row of the table indicates the average Network Topology Change Time.
5.2. 6.2 Scalability 5.2. 6.2 Scalability
5.2.1. Control Session Capacity 5.2.1. Control Session Capacity
Objective: Objective:
Measure the maximum number of control sessions that the controller Measure the maximum number of control sessions the controller can
can maintain. maintain, defined as the number of sessions that the controller can
accept from network devices, starting with the first control
session, ending with the last control session that the controller(s)
accepts at its Southbound interface.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Establish control connection with controller from every Network 1. Establish control connection with controller from every Network
Device emulated in the forwarding plane test emulator. Device emulated in the forwarding plane test emulator.
2. Stop the test when the controller starts dropping the control 2. Stop the test when the controller starts dropping the control
connection. connection.
3. Record the number of successful connections established with the 3. Record the number of successful connections established with the
controller (CCn) at the forwarding plane test emulator. controller (CCn) at the forwarding plane test emulator.
Measurement: Measurement:
Control Sessions Capacity = CCn. Control Sessions Capacity = CCn.
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
The Control Session Capacity results MUST be reported in addition to The Control Session Capacity results MUST be reported in addition to
the configuration parameters captured in section 5. the configuration parameters captured in section 5.
5.2.2. Network Discovery Size 5.2.2. Network Discovery Size
Objective: Objective:
Measure the network size (number of nodes, links, and hosts) that a Measure the network size (number of nodes, links and hosts) that a
controller can discover. controller can discover, defined as the size of a network that the
controller(s) can discover, starting from a network topology given
by the user for discovery, ending with the topology that the
controller(s) could successfully discover.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller MUST support automatic network discovery. 1. The controller MUST support automatic network discovery.
2. Tester should be able to retrieve the discovered topology 2. Tester should be able to retrieve the discovered topology
information either through controller's management interface or information either through controller's management interface or
northbound interface. northbound interface.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Establish the network connections between controller and network 1. Establish the network connections between controller and network
nodes. nodes.
2. Query the controller for the discovered network topology 2. Query the controller for the discovered network topology
information and compare it with the deployed network topology information and compare it with the deployed network topology
information. information.
3. 3a. Increase the number of nodes by 1 when the comparison is 3. 3a. Increase the number of nodes by 1 when the comparison is
successful and repeat the test. successful and repeat the test.
4. 3b. Decrease the number of nodes by 1 when the comparison fails 4. 3b. Decrease the number of nodes by 1 when the comparison fails
and repeat the test. and repeat the test.
5. Continue the test until the comparison of step 3b is successful. 5. Continue the test until the comparison of step 3b is successful.
6. Record the number of nodes for the last iteration (Ns) where the 6. Record the number of nodes for the last iteration (Ns) where the
topology comparison was successful. topology comparison was successful.
Measurement: Measurement:
Network Discovery Size = Ns. Network Discovery Size = Ns.
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
The Network Discovery Size results MUST be reported in addition to The Network Discovery Size results MUST be reported in addition to
the configuration parameters captured in section 5. the configuration parameters captured in section 5.
skipping to change at page 22, line 32 skipping to change at page 22, line 47
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. The controller Forwarding table should be empty. 1. The controller Forwarding table should be empty.
2. Flow Idle time MUST be set to higher or infinite value. 2. Flow Idle time MUST be set to higher or infinite value.
3. The controller MUST have completed network topology discovery. 3. The controller MUST have completed network topology discovery.
4. Tester should be able to retrieve the forwarding table information 4. Tester should be able to retrieve the forwarding table information
either through controller's management interface or northbound either through controller's management interface or northbound
interface. interface.
Procedure: Procedure:
Reactive Flow Provisioning Mode: Reactive Flow Provisioning Mode:
1. Send bi-directional traffic continuously with unique source and/or 1. Send bi-directional traffic continuously with unique source and/or
destination addresses from test traffic generators TP1 and TP2 at destination addresses from test traffic generators TP1 and TP2 at
the asynchronous message processing rate of controller. the asynchronous message processing rate of controller.
2. Query the controller at a regular interval (e.g., 5 seconds) for 2. Query the controller at a regular interval (e.g., 5 seconds) for
the number of learnt flow entries from its northbound interface. the number of learnt flow entries from its northbound interface.
3. Stop the test when the retrieved value is constant for three 3. Stop the test when the retrieved value is constant for three
consecutive iterations and record the value received from the last consecutive iterations and record the value received from the last
query (Nrp). query (Nrp).
Proactive Flow Provisioning Mode: Proactive Flow Provisioning Mode:
1. Install unique flows continuously through controller's northbound 1. Install unique flows continuously through controller's northbound
or management interface until a failure response is received from or management interface until a failure response is received from
the controller. the controller.
2. Record the total number of successful responses (Nrp). 2. Record the total number of successful responses (Nrp).
Note: Note:
Some controller designs for proactive flow provisioning mode may Some controller designs for proactive flow provisioning mode may
require the switch to send flow setup requests in order to generate require the switch to send flow setup requests in order to generate
flow setup responses. In such cases, it is recommended to generate flow setup responses. In such cases, it is recommended to generate
bi-directional traffic for the provisioned flows. bi-directional traffic for the provisioned flows.
Measurement: Measurement:
skipping to change at page 24, line 16 skipping to change at page 24, line 29
c. Network Topology Change Detection Time c. Network Topology Change Detection Time
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1 The test SHOULD use one of the test setups described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. This test MUST be performed after obtaining the baseline 1. This test MUST be performed after obtaining the baseline
measurement results for the above performance tests. measurement results for the above performance tests.
2. Ensure that the invalid messages are not dropped by the 2. Ensure that the invalid messages are not dropped by the
intermediate devices connecting the controller and Network intermediate devices connecting the controller and Network
Devices. Devices.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Perform the above listed performance tests and send 1% of messages 1. Perform the above listed performance tests and send 1% of messages
from the Asynchronous Message Processing Rate as invalid messages from the Asynchronous Message Processing Rate as invalid messages
from the connected Network Devices emulated at the forwarding from the connected Network Devices emulated at the forwarding
plane test emulator. plane test emulator.
2. Perform the above listed performance tests and send 2% of messages 2. Perform the above listed performance tests and send 2% of messages
from the Asynchronous Message Processing Rate as invalid messages from the Asynchronous Message Processing Rate as invalid messages
from the connected Network Devices emulated at the forwarding from the connected Network Devices emulated at the forwarding
plane test emulator. plane test emulator.
Note: Note:
Invalid messages can be frames with incorrect protocol fields or any Invalid messages can be frames with incorrect protocol fields or any
form of failure notifications sent towards controller. form of failure notifications sent towards controller.
Measurement: Measurement:
Measurement MUST be done as per the equation defined in the Measurement MUST be done as per the equation defined in the
corresponding performance test measurement section. corresponding performance test measurement section.
skipping to change at page 25, line 37 skipping to change at page 26, line 8
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
This test MUST be performed after obtaining the baseline measurement This test MUST be performed after obtaining the baseline measurement
results for the above tests. results for the above tests.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Perform the listed tests and launch a DoS attack towards 1. Perform the listed tests and launch a DoS attack towards
controller while the test is running. controller while the test is running.
Note: Note:
DoS attacks can be launched on one of the following interfaces. DoS attacks can be launched on one of the following interfaces.
a. Northbound (e.g., Sending a huge number of requests on a. Northbound (e.g., Sending a huge number of requests on
northbound interface) northbound interface)
b. Management (e.g., Ping requests to controller's management b. Management (e.g., Ping requests to controller's management
interface) interface)
c. Southbound (e.g., TCP SYNC messages on southbound interface) c. Southbound (e.g., TCP SYNC messages on southbound interface)
Measurement: Measurement:
Measurement MUST be done as per the equation defined in the Measurement MUST be done as per the equation defined in the
corresponding test's measurement section. corresponding test's measurement section.
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
The DoS Attacks Handling results MUST be reported in the format of The DoS Attacks Handling results MUST be reported in the format of
table with a column for each of the below parameters and row for table with a column for each of the below parameters and row for
skipping to change at page 26, line 29 skipping to change at page 26, line 44
The report should also specify the nature of attack and the The report should also specify the nature of attack and the
interface. interface.
5.4. Reliability 5.4. Reliability
5.4.1. Controller Failover Time 5.4.1. Controller Failover Time
Objective: Objective:
Measure the time taken to switch from an active controller to the The time taken to switch from an active controller to the backup
backup controller, when the controllers work in redundancy mode and controller, when the controllers work in redundancy mode and the
the active controller fails. active controller fails, defined as the interval starting with the
active controller bringing down, ending with the first re-discovery
message received from the new controller at its Southbound
interface.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
The test SHOULD use the test setup described in section 3.2 of this The test SHOULD use the test setup described in section 3.2 of this
document. document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. Master controller election MUST be completed. 1. Master controller election MUST be completed.
2. Nodes are connected to the controller cluster as per the 2. Nodes are connected to the controller cluster as per the
Redundancy Mode (RM). Redundancy Mode (RM).
3. The controller cluster should have completed the network topology 3. The controller cluster should have completed the network topology
discovery. discovery.
4. The Network Device MUST send all new flows to the controller when 4. The Network Device MUST send all new flows to the controller when
it receives from the test traffic generator. it receives from the test traffic generator.
5. Controller should have learnt the location of destination (D1) at 5. Controller should have learnt the location of destination (D1) at
test traffic generator TP2. test traffic generator TP2.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Send uni-directional traffic continuously with incremental 1. Send uni-directional traffic continuously with incremental
sequence number and source addresses from test traffic generator sequence number and source addresses from test traffic generator
TP1 at the rate that the controller processes without any drops. TP1 at the rate that the controller processes without any drops.
2. Ensure that there are no packet drops observed at the test traffic 2. Ensure that there are no packet drops observed at the test traffic
generator TP2. generator TP2.
3. Bring down the active controller. 3. Bring down the active controller.
4. Stop the test when a first frame received on TP2 after failover 4. Stop the test when a first frame received on TP2 after failover
operation. operation.
5. Record the time at which the last valid frame received (T1) at 5. Record the time at which the last valid frame received (T1) at
test traffic generator TP2 before sequence error and the first test traffic generator TP2 before sequence error and the first
valid frame received (T2) after the sequence error at TP2 valid frame received (T2) after the sequence error at TP2
Measurement: Measurement:
Controller Failover Time = (T2 - T1) Controller Failover Time = (T2 - T1)
Packet Loss = Number of missing packet sequences. Packet Loss = Number of missing packet sequences.
Reporting Format: Reporting Format:
The Controller Failover Time results MUST be tabulated with the The Controller Failover Time results MUST be tabulated with the
skipping to change at page 27, line 47 skipping to change at page 28, line 16
- Controller Failover - Controller Failover
- Time Packet Loss - Time Packet Loss
- Cluster keep-alive interval - Cluster keep-alive interval
5.4.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time 5.4.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time
Objective: Objective:
Compute the time taken to re-route the traffic by the controller The time taken to re-route the traffic by the Controller, when there
when there is a failure in existing traffic paths. is a failure in existing traffic paths, defined as the interval
starting from the first failure notification message received by the
controller, ending with the last flow re-provisioning message sent
by the controller at its Southbound interface.
Reference Test Setup: Reference Test Setup:
This test SHOULD use one of the test setup described in section 3.1 This test SHOULD use one of the test setup described in section 3.1
or section 3.2 of this document. or section 3.2 of this document.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite:
1. Network with the given number of nodes and redundant paths MUST be 1. Network with the given number of nodes and redundant paths MUST be
deployed. deployed.
2. Ensure that the controller MUST have knowledge about the location 2. Ensure that the controller MUST have knowledge about the location
of test traffic generators TP1 and TP2. of test traffic generators TP1 and TP2.
3. Ensure that the controller does not pre-provision the alternate 3. Ensure that the controller does not pre-provision the alternate
path in the emulated Network Devices at the forwarding plane test path in the emulated Network Devices at the forwarding plane test
emulator. emulator.
Procedure: Procedure:
1. Send bi-directional traffic continuously with unique sequence 1. Send bi-directional traffic continuously with unique sequence
number from TP1 and TP2. number from TP1 and TP2.
2. Bring down a link or switch in the traffic path. 2. Bring down a link or switch in the traffic path.
3. Stop the test after receiving first frame after network re- 3. Stop the test after receiving first frame after network re-
convergence. convergence.
4. Record the time of last received frame prior to the frame loss at 4. Record the time of last received frame prior to the frame loss at
TP2 (TP2-Tlfr) and the time of first frame received after the TP2 (TP2-Tlfr) and the time of first frame received after the
frame loss at TP2 (TP2-Tffr). frame loss at TP2 (TP2-Tffr).
5. Record the time of last received frame prior to the frame loss at 5. Record the time of last received frame prior to the frame loss at
TP1 (TP1-Tlfr) and the time of first frame received after the TP1 (TP1-Tlfr) and the time of first frame received after the
frame loss at TP1 (TP1-Tffr). frame loss at TP1 (TP1-Tffr).
Measurement: Measurement:
Forward Direction Path Re-Provisioning Time (FDRT) Forward Direction Path Re-Provisioning Time (FDRT)
= (TP2-Tffr - TP2-Tlfr) = (TP2-Tffr - TP2-Tlfr)
Reverse Direction Path Re-Provisioning Time (RDRT) Reverse Direction Path Re-Provisioning Time (RDRT)
= (TP1-Tffr - TP1-Tlfr) = (TP1-Tffr - TP1-Tlfr)
Network Re-Provisioning Time = (FDRT+RDRT)/2 Network Re-Provisioning Time = (FDRT+RDRT)/2
skipping to change at page 29, line 48 skipping to change at page 30, line 23
[RFC5440] JP. Vasseur, JL. Le Roux, "Path Computation Element (PCE) [RFC5440] JP. Vasseur, JL. Le Roux, "Path Computation Element (PCE)
Communication Protocol (PCEP)", RFC 5440, March 2009. Communication Protocol (PCEP)", RFC 5440, March 2009.
[OpenFlow Switch Specification] ONF,"OpenFlow Switch Specification" [OpenFlow Switch Specification] ONF,"OpenFlow Switch Specification"
Version 1.4.0 (Wire Protocol 0x05), October 14, 2013. Version 1.4.0 (Wire Protocol 0x05), October 14, 2013.
[I-D.sdn-controller-benchmark-term] Bhuvaneswaran.V, Anton Basil, [I-D.sdn-controller-benchmark-term] Bhuvaneswaran.V, Anton Basil,
Mark.T, Vishwas Manral, Sarah Banks, "Terminology for Mark.T, Vishwas Manral, Sarah Banks, "Terminology for
Benchmarking SDN Controller Performance", Benchmarking SDN Controller Performance",
draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-term-01 draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-term-02
(Work in progress), March 21, 2016 (Work in progress), July 8, 2016
6.2. Informative References 6.2. Informative References
[I-D.i2rs-architecture] A. Atlas, J. Halpern, S. Hares, D. Ward, [I-D.i2rs-architecture] A. Atlas, J. Halpern, S. Hares, D. Ward,
T. Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the T. Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the
Routing System", draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-09 Routing System", draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-09
(Work in progress), March 6, 2015 (Work in progress), March 6, 2015
[OpenContrail] Ankur Singla, Bruno Rijsman, "OpenContrail [OpenContrail] Ankur Singla, Bruno Rijsman, "OpenContrail
Architecture Documentation", Architecture Documentation",
skipping to change at page 31, line 7 skipping to change at page 32, line 7
providing their valuable comments to the earlier versions of this providing their valuable comments to the earlier versions of this
document: Al Morton (AT&T), Sandeep Gangadharan (HP), M. Georgescu document: Al Morton (AT&T), Sandeep Gangadharan (HP), M. Georgescu
(NAIST), Andrew McGregor (Google), Scott Bradner (Harvard (NAIST), Andrew McGregor (Google), Scott Bradner (Harvard
University), Jay Karthik (Cisco), Ramakrishnan (Dell), Khasanov University), Jay Karthik (Cisco), Ramakrishnan (Dell), Khasanov
Boris (Huawei), Brian Castelli (Spirent) Boris (Huawei), Brian Castelli (Spirent)
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
Appendix A. Example Test Topologies Appendix A. Example Test Topologies
A.1. Leaf-Spine Topology - Three Tier Network Architecture A.1. Leaf-Spine Topology - Three Tier Network Architecture
+----------+ +----------+
| SDN | | SDN |
| Node | (Core) | Node | (Core)
+----------+ +----------+
/ \ / \
/ \ / \
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| SDN | | SDN | (Spine) | SDN | | SDN | (Spine)
| Node |.. | Node | | Node |.. | Node |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
/ \ / \ / \ / \
/ \ / \ / \ / \
l1 / / \ ln-1 l1 / / \ ln-1
/ / \ \ / / \ \
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
| SDN | | SDN | | SDN | | SDN |
| Node |.. | Node | (Leaf) | Node |.. | Node | (Leaf)
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
A.2. Leaf-Spine Topology - Two Tier Network Architecture A.2. Leaf-Spine Topology - Two Tier Network Architecture
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| SDN | | SDN | (Spine) | SDN | | SDN | (Spine)
| Node |.. | Node | | Node |.. | Node |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
/ \ / \ / \ / \
/ \ / \ / \ / \
l1 / / \ ln-1 l1 / / \ ln-1
/ / \ \ / / \ \
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
| SDN | | SDN | | SDN | | SDN |
| Node |.. | Node | (Leaf) | Node |.. | Node | (Leaf)
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
Appendix B. Benchmarking Methodology using OpenFlow Controllers Appendix B. Benchmarking Methodology using OpenFlow Controllers
This section gives an overview of OpenFlow protocol and provides This section gives an overview of OpenFlow protocol and provides
test methodology to benchmark SDN controllers supporting OpenFlow test methodology to benchmark SDN controllers supporting OpenFlow
southbound protocol. southbound protocol.
B.1. Protocol Overview B.1. Protocol Overview
OpenFlow is an open standard protocol defined by Open Networking OpenFlow is an open standard protocol defined by Open Networking
Foundation (ONF), used for programming the forwarding plane of Foundation (ONF), used for programming the forwarding plane of
network switches or routers via a centralized controller. network switches or routers via a centralized controller.
B.2. Messages Overview B.2. Messages Overview
OpenFlow protocol supports three messages types namely controller- OpenFlow protocol supports three messages types namely controller-
to-switch, asynchronous and symmetric. to-switch, asynchronous and symmetric.
Controller-to-switch messages are initiated by the controller and Controller-to-switch messages are initiated by the controller and
used to directly manage or inspect the state of the switch. These used to directly manage or inspect the state of the switch. These
messages allow controllers to query/configure the switch (Features, messages allow controllers to query/configure the switch (Features,
Configuration messages), collect information from switch (Read-State Configuration messages), collect information from switch (Read-State
message), send packets on specified port of switch (Packet-out message), send packets on specified port of switch (Packet-out
message), and modify switch forwarding plane and state (Modify- message), and modify switch forwarding plane and state (Modify-
skipping to change at page 32, line 40 skipping to change at page 33, line 40
Asynchronous messages are generated by the switch without a Asynchronous messages are generated by the switch without a
controller soliciting them. These messages allow switches to update controller soliciting them. These messages allow switches to update
controllers to denote an arrival of new flow (Packet-in), switch controllers to denote an arrival of new flow (Packet-in), switch
state change (Flow-Removed, Port-status) and error (Error). state change (Flow-Removed, Port-status) and error (Error).
Symmetric messages are generated in either direction without Symmetric messages are generated in either direction without
solicitation. These messages allow switches and controllers to set solicitation. These messages allow switches and controllers to set
up connection (Hello), verify for liveness (Echo) and offer up connection (Hello), verify for liveness (Echo) and offer
additional functionalities (Experimenter). additional functionalities (Experimenter).
B.3. Connection Overview B.3. Connection Overview
OpenFlow channel is used to exchange OpenFlow message between an OpenFlow channel is used to exchange OpenFlow message between an
OpenFlow switch and an OpenFlow controller. The OpenFlow channel OpenFlow switch and an OpenFlow controller. The OpenFlow channel
connection can be setup using plain TCP or TLS. By default, a switch connection can be setup using plain TCP or TLS. By default, a switch
establishes single connection with SDN controller. A switch may establishes single connection with SDN controller. A switch may
establish multiple parallel connections to single controller establish multiple parallel connections to single controller
(auxiliary connection) or multiple controllers to handle controller (auxiliary connection) or multiple controllers to handle controller
failures and load balancing. failures and load balancing.
B.4. Performance Benchmarking Tests B.4. Performance Benchmarking Tests
B.4.1. Network Topology Discovery Time B.4.1. Network Topology Discovery Time
Procedure: Procedure:
Network Devices OpenFlow SDN Network Devices OpenFlow SDN
Controller Application Controller Application
| | | | | |
| |<Initialize controller | | |<Initialize controller |
| |app.,NB and SB interfaces> | | |app.,NB and SB interfaces> |
skipping to change at page 41, line 13 skipping to change at page 42, line 13
| | PACKET_OUT with LLDP T1>| | | PACKET_OUT with LLDP T1>|
Discussion: Discussion:
The Network Topology Change Detection Time can be obtained by The Network Topology Change Detection Time can be obtained by
finding the difference between the time the OpenFlow switch S1 sends finding the difference between the time the OpenFlow switch S1 sends
the PORT_STATUS message (T0) and the time that the OpenFlow the PORT_STATUS message (T0) and the time that the OpenFlow
controller sends the first topology re-discovery message (T1) to controller sends the first topology re-discovery message (T1) to
OpenFlow switches. OpenFlow switches.
B.5. Scalability B.5. Scalability
B.5.1. Control Sessions Capacity B.5.1. Control Sessions Capacity
Procedure: Procedure:
Network Devices OpenFlow Network Devices OpenFlow
Controller Controller
| | | |
| OFPT_HELLO Exchange for Switch 1 | | OFPT_HELLO Exchange for Switch 1 |
|<------------------------------------->| |<------------------------------------->|
skipping to change at page 44, line 5 skipping to change at page 45, line 5
FWD: Forwarding Table FWD: Forwarding Table
Discussion: Discussion:
Query the controller forwarding table entries for multiple times Query the controller forwarding table entries for multiple times
until the three consecutive queries return the same value. The last until the three consecutive queries return the same value. The last
value retrieved from the controller will provide the Forwarding value retrieved from the controller will provide the Forwarding
Table Capacity value. The query interval is user configurable. The 5 Table Capacity value. The query interval is user configurable. The 5
seconds shown in this example is for representational purpose. seconds shown in this example is for representational purpose.
B.6. Security B.6. Security
B.6.1. Exception Handling B.6.1. Exception Handling
Procedure: Procedure:
Test Traffic Test Traffic Network Devices OpenFlow SDN Test Traffic Test Traffic Network Devices OpenFlow SDN
Generator TP1 Generator TP2 Controller Application Generator TP1 Generator TP2 Controller Application
| | | | | | | | | |
| |G-ARP (D1..Dn) | | | | |G-ARP (D1..Dn) | | |
| |------------------>| | | | |------------------>| | |
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TCP SYN attack should be launched from one of the emulated/simulated TCP SYN attack should be launched from one of the emulated/simulated
OpenFlow Switch. Rn1 provides the Path Programming Rate of OpenFlow Switch. Rn1 provides the Path Programming Rate of
controller uponhandling denial of service attack. controller uponhandling denial of service attack.
The procedure defined above provides test steps to determine the The procedure defined above provides test steps to determine the
effect of handling denial of service on Path Programming Rate. Same effect of handling denial of service on Path Programming Rate. Same
procedure can be adopted to determine the effects on other procedure can be adopted to determine the effects on other
performance tests listed in this benchmarking tests. performance tests listed in this benchmarking tests.
B.7. Reliability B.7. Reliability
B.7.1. Controller Failover Time B.7.1. Controller Failover Time
Procedure: Procedure:
Test Traffic Test Traffic Network Device OpenFlow SDN Test Traffic Test Traffic Network Device OpenFlow SDN
Generator TP1 Generator TP2 Controller Application Generator TP1 Generator TP2 Controller Application
| | | | | | | | | |
| |G-ARP (D1) | | | | |G-ARP (D1) | | |
| |------------>| | | | |------------>| | |
 End of changes. 116 change blocks. 
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