draft-ietf-bmwg-secperf-05.txt   draft-ietf-bmwg-secperf-06.txt 
Network Working Group D. Newman Network Working Group D. Newman
INTERNET-DRAFT Data Communications INTERNET-DRAFT Data Communications
Expires in July 1999 January 1999 Expires in November 1999 May 1999
Benchmarking Terminology for Firewall Performance Benchmarking Terminology for Firewall Performance
<draft-ietf-bmwg-secperf-05.txt> <draft-ietf-bmwg-secperf-06.txt>
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
To view the entire list of current Internet-Drafts, please check the The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
"1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa), ftp.nordu.net (Europe),
munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).
1. Introduction ....................................................2 The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
2. Existing definitions ............................................3 1. Introduction......................................................2
3. Term definitions ................................................3 2. Existing definitions..............................................3
3.1 Allowed traffic ..............................................3 3. Term definitions..................................................3
3.2 Application proxy.............................................4 3.1 Allowed traffic..................................................3
3.3 Authentication ...............................................4 3.2 Application proxy................................................4
3.4 Bit forwarding rate ..........................................5 3.3 Authentication...................................................4
3.5 Circuit proxy ................................................5 3.4 Bit forwarding rate..............................................5
3.6 Concurrent connections .......................................6 3.5 Circuit proxy....................................................5
3.7 Connection ...................................................7 3.6 Concurrent connections...........................................6
3.8 Connection establishment .....................................8 3.7 Connection.......................................................7
3.9 Connection establishment time ................................9 3.8 Connection establishment.........................................8
3.10 Connection maintenance ......................................9 3.9 Connection establishment time....................................9
3.11 Conection overhead .........................................10 3.10 Connection maintenance..........................................9
3.12 Connection teardown ........................................10 Newman Page [1]
3.13 Connection teardown time ...................................11 3.11 Conection overhead.............................................10
3.14 Data source ................................................11
3.15 Demilitarized zone .........................................12 3.12 Connection teardown............................................10
3.16 Firewall ...................................................12 3.13 Connection teardown time.......................................11
3.17 Goodput ....................................................13 3.14 Data source....................................................11
3.18 Homed ......................................................13 3.15 Demilitarized zone.............................................12
3.19 Illegal traffic.............................................14 3.16 Firewall.......................................................12
3.20 Logging ....................................................14 3.17 Goodput........................................................13
3.21 Network address translation ................................15 3.18 Homed..........................................................13
3.22 Packet filtering ...........................................15 3.19 Illegal traffic................................................14
3.23 Policy .....................................................16 3.20 Logging........................................................14
3.24 Protected network ..........................................16 3.21 Network address translation....................................15
3.25 Proxy ......................................................17 3.22 Packet filtering...............................................15
3.26 Rejected traffic ...........................................17 3.23 Policy.........................................................16
3.27 Rule set ...................................................18 3.24 Protected network..............................................16
3.28 Security association .......................................18 3.25 Proxy..........................................................17
3.29 Stateful packet filtering ..................................19 3.26 Rejected traffic...............................................17
3.30 Tri-homed ..................................................19 3.27 Rule set.......................................................18
3.31 Unit of transfer ...........................................20 3.28 Security association...........................................18
3.32 Unprotected network ........................................20 3.29 Stateful packet filtering......................................19
3.33 User .......................................................21 3.30 Tri-homed......................................................19
4. Security considerations ...........................................21 3.31 Unit of transfer...............................................20
5. References ........................................................22 3.32 Unprotected network............................................20
6. Acknowledgments ...................................................22 3.33 User...........................................................21
7. Contact information ...............................................23 4. Security considerations..........................................21
5. References.......................................................22
6. Acknowledgments..................................................22
7. Contact information..............................................23
Newman Page [2]
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines terms used in measuring the performance of This document defines terms used in measuring the performance of
firewalls. It extends the terminology already used for benchmarking firewalls. It extends the terminology already used for benchmarking
routers and switches with definitions specific to firewalls. routers and switches with definitions specific to firewalls.
Forwarding rate and connection-oriented measurements are the primary Forwarding rate and connection-oriented measurements are the primary
Newman Page [2]
metrics used in this document. metrics used in this document.
Why do we need firewall performance measurements? First, despite the Why do we need firewall performance measurements? First, despite the
rapid rise in firewall deployment, there is no standard method of rapid rise in firewall deployment, there is no standard method of
performance measurement. Second, implementations vary widely, making performance measurement. Second, implementations vary widely, making
it difficult to do direct performance comparisons. Finally, more and it difficult to do direct performance comparisons. Finally, more and
more organizations are deploying firewalls on internal networks more organizations are deploying firewalls on internal networks
operating at relatively high speeds, while most firewall operating at relatively high speeds, while most firewall
implementations remain optimized for use over relatively low-speed implementations remain optimized for use over relatively low-speed
wide-area connections. As a result, users are often unsure whether wide-area connections. As a result, users are often unsure whether
skipping to change at line 157 skipping to change at line 163
Firewalls typically are configured to forward only those packets Firewalls typically are configured to forward only those packets
explicitly permitted in the rule set. Forwarded packets MUST be explicitly permitted in the rule set. Forwarded packets MUST be
included in calculating the bit forwarding rate or maximum bit included in calculating the bit forwarding rate or maximum bit
forwarding rate of the DUT/SUT. All other packets MUST NOT be forwarding rate of the DUT/SUT. All other packets MUST NOT be
included in bit forwarding rate calculations. included in bit forwarding rate calculations.
This document assumes 1:1 correspondence of allowed traffic offered This document assumes 1:1 correspondence of allowed traffic offered
to the DUT/SUT and forwarded by the DUT/SUT. There are cases where to the DUT/SUT and forwarded by the DUT/SUT. There are cases where
the DUT/SUT may forward more traffic than it is offered; for example, the DUT/SUT may forward more traffic than it is offered; for example,
the DUT/SUT may act as a mail exploder or a multicast server. Any the DUT/SUT may act as a mail exploder or a multicast server. Any
attempt to benchmark forwarding rates of such traffic must include a
Newman Page [3]
attempt to benchmark forwarding rates of such traffic MUST include a
description of how much traffic the tester expects to be forwarded. description of how much traffic the tester expects to be forwarded.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
policy policy
Newman Page [3]
rule set rule set
3.2 Application proxy 3.2 Application proxy
Definition: Definition:
A proxy service that is set up and torn down in response to a client A proxy service that is set up and torn down in response to a client
request, rather than existing on a static basis. request, rather than existing on a static basis.
Discussion: Discussion:
Circuit proxies always forward packets containing a given port number Circuit proxies always forward packets containing a given port number
if that port number is permitted by the rule set. Application if that port number is permitted by the rule set. Application
proxies, in contrast, forward packets only once a connection has been proxies, in contrast, forward packets only once a connection has been
established using some known protocol. When the connection closes, a established using some known protocol. When the connection closes, a
firewall using applicaton proxies rejects individual packets, even if firewall using applicaton proxies rejects individual packets, even if
they contain port numbers allowed by a rule set. they contain port numbers allowed by a rule set.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
circuit proxy circuit proxy
rule sets rule sets
See also: See also:
allowed traffic allowed traffic
circuit proxy circuit proxy
proxy proxy
skipping to change at line 207 skipping to change at line 213
rule set rule set
3.3 Authentication 3.3 Authentication
Definition: Definition:
The process of verifying that a user requesting a network resource is The process of verifying that a user requesting a network resource is
who he, she, or it claims to be, and vice versa. who he, she, or it claims to be, and vice versa.
Discussion: Discussion:
Trust is a critical concept in network security. Any network resource Trust is a critical concept in network security. Any network resource
(such as a file server or printer) with restricted access MUST (such as a file server or printer) typically requires authentication
require authentication before granting access. before granting access.
Authentication takes many forms, including but not limited to IP Authentication takes many forms, including but not limited to IP
addresses; TCP or UDP port numbers; passwords; external token addresses; TCP or UDP port numbers; passwords; external token
Newman Page [4]
authentication cards; and biometric identification such as signature, authentication cards; and biometric identification such as signature,
speech, or retina recognition systems. speech, or retina recognition systems.
The entity being authenticated MAY be the client machine (for The entity being authenticated might be the client machine (for
example, by proving that a given IP source address really is that example, by proving that a given IP source address really is that
address, and not a rogue machine spoofing that address) or a user (by address, and not a rogue machine spoofing that address) or a user (by
proving that the user really is who he, she, or it claims to be). proving that the user really is who he, she, or it claims to be).
Servers SHOULD also authenticate themselves to clients. Servers might also authenticate themselves to clients.
Testers should be aware that in an increasingly mobile society, Testers should be aware that in an increasingly mobile society,
authentication based on machine-specific criteria such as an IP authentication based on machine-specific criteria such as an IP
Newman Page [4]
address or port number is not equivalent to verifying that a given address or port number is not equivalent to verifying that a given
individual is making an access request. At this writing systems that individual is making an access request. At this writing systems that
verify the identity of users are typically external to the firewall, verify the identity of users are typically external to the firewall,
and may introduce additional latency to the overall SUT. and may introduce additional latency to the overall SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
user user
3.4 Bit forwarding rate 3.4 Bit forwarding rate
Definition: Definition:
The number of bits per second of allowed traffic a DUT/SUT can be The number of bits per second of allowed traffic a DUT/SUT can be
observed to transmit to the correct destination interface(s) in observed to transmit to the correct destination interface(s) in
response to a specified offered load. response to a specified offered load.
Discussion: Discussion:
This definition differs substantially from section 3.17 of RFC 1242 This definition differs substantially from section 3.17 of RFC 1242
and section 3.6.1 of RFC 2285. and section 3.6.1 of RFC 2285.
Unlike both RFCs 1242 and 2285, this definition introduces the notion Unlike both RFCs 1242 and 2285, this definition introduces the notion
of different classes of traffic: allowed, illegal, and rejected (see of different classes of traffic: allowed, illegal, and rejected (see
definitions for each term). Any bit forwarding rate measurement MUST definitions for each term). For benchmarking purposes, it is assumed
include only allowed traffic. that bit forwarding rate measurements include only allowed traffic.
Unlike RFC 1242, there is no reference to lost or retransmitted data. Unlike RFC 1242, there is no reference to lost or retransmitted data.
Forwarding rate is assumed to be a goodput measurement, in that only Forwarding rate is assumed to be a goodput measurement, in that only
data successfully forwarded to the destination interface is measured. data successfully forwarded to the destination interface is measured.
Bit forwarding rate MUST be measured in relation to the offered load. Bit forwarding rate MUST be measured in relation to the offered load.
Bit forwarding rate MAY be measured with differed load levels, Bit forwarding rate MAY be measured with differed load levels,
traffic orientation, and traffic distribution. traffic orientation, and traffic distribution.
Unlike RFC 2285, this measurement counts bits per second rather than Unlike RFC 2285, this measurement counts bits per second rather than
frames per second. Testers interested in frame (or frame-like) frames per second. Testers interested in frame (or frame-like)
measurements should use units of transfer. measurements should use units of transfer.
Units of measurement: Unit of measurement:
bits per second bits per second
Newman Page [5]
Issues: Issues:
Allowed traffic vs. rejected traffic Allowed traffic vs. rejected traffic
See also: See also:
allowed traffic allowed traffic
goodput goodput
illegal traffic illegal traffic
rejected traffic rejected traffic
unit of transfer unit of transfer
3.5 Circuit proxy 3.5 Circuit proxy
Newman Page [5]
Definition: Definition:
A proxy service that statically defines which traffic will be A proxy service that statically defines which traffic will be
forwarded. forwarded.
Discussion: Discussion:
The key difference between application and circuit proxies is that The key difference between application and circuit proxies is that
the latter are static and thus will always set up a connection if the the latter are static and thus will always set up a connection if the
DUT/SUT's rule set allows it. For example, if a firewall's rule set DUT/SUT's rule set allows it. For example, if a firewall's rule set
permits ftp connections, a circuit proxy will always forward traffic permits ftp connections, a circuit proxy will always forward traffic
on TCP port 20 (ftp-data) even if no control connection was first on TCP port 20 (ftp-data) even if no control connection was first
established on TCP port 21 (ftp-control). established on TCP port 21 (ftp-control).
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
application proxy application proxy
rule sets rule sets
See also: See also:
allowed traffic allowed traffic
application proxy application proxy
proxy proxy
skipping to change at line 323 skipping to change at line 330
Discussion: Discussion:
The number of concurrent connections a firewall can support is just The number of concurrent connections a firewall can support is just
as important a metric for some users as maximum bit forwarding rate. as important a metric for some users as maximum bit forwarding rate.
While "connection" describes only a state and not necessarily the While "connection" describes only a state and not necessarily the
transfer of data, concurrency assumes that all existing connections transfer of data, concurrency assumes that all existing connections
are in fact capable of transferring data. If a data cannot be sent are in fact capable of transferring data. If a data cannot be sent
over a connection, that connection should not be counted toward the over a connection, that connection should not be counted toward the
number of concurrent connections. number of concurrent connections.
Newman Page [6]
Further, this definition assumes that the ability (or lack thereof) Further, this definition assumes that the ability (or lack thereof)
to transfer data on a given connection is solely the responsibility to transfer data on a given connection is solely the responsibility
of the DUT/SUT. For example, a TCP connection that a DUT/SUT has left of the DUT/SUT. For example, a TCP connection that a DUT/SUT has left
in a FIN_WAIT_2 state clearly should not be counted. But another in a FIN_WAIT_2 state clearly should not be counted. But another
connection that has temporarily stopped transferring data because connection that has temporarily stopped transferring data because
some external device has restricted the flow of data is not some external device has restricted the flow of data is not
necessarily defunct. The tester should take measures to isolate necessarily defunct. The tester should take measures to isolate
changes in connection state to those effected by the DUT/SUT. changes in connection state to those effected by the DUT/SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
Concurrent connections Concurrent connections
Newman Page [6]
Maximum number of concurrent connections Maximum number of concurrent connections
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
connections connections
connection establishment time connection establishment time
connection overhead connection overhead
3.7 Connection 3.7 Connection
Definition: Definition:
A state in which two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT, agree to A state in which two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT, agree to
exchange data using a known protocol. exchange data using a known protocol.
Discussion: Discussion:
A connection is an abstraction describing an agreement between two A connection is an abstraction describing an agreement between two
nodes: One agrees to send data and the other agrees to receive it. nodes: One agrees to send data and the other agrees to receive it.
Connections MAY use TCP, but they don't have to. Other protocols such Connections might use TCP, but they don't have to. Other protocols
as ATM also may be used, either instead of or in addition to TCP such as ATM also might be used, either instead of or in addition to
connections. TCP connections.
What constitutes a connection depends on the application. For a What constitutes a connection depends on the application. For a
native ATM application, connections and virtual circuits may be native ATM application, connections and virtual circuits may be
synonymous. For TCP/IP applications on ATM networks (where multiple synonymous. For TCP/IP applications on ATM networks (where multiple
TCP connections may ride over a single ATM virtual circuit), the TCP connections may ride over a single ATM virtual circuit), the
number of TCP connections may be the most important consideration. number of TCP connections may be the most important consideration.
Additionally, in some cases firewalls may handle a mixture of native Additionally, in some cases firewalls may handle a mixture of native
TCP and native ATM connections. In this situation, the wrappers TCP and native ATM connections. In this situation, the wrappers
around user data will differ. The most meaningful metric describes around user data will differ. The most meaningful metric describes
what an end-user will see. what an end-user will see.
Data connections describe state, not data transfer. The existence of Data connections describe state, not data transfer. The existence of
a connection does not imply that data travels on that connection at a connection does not imply that data travels on that connection at
any any given time, although if data cannot be forwarded on a previously
given time, although if data cannot be forwarded on a previously
established connection that connection should not be considered in established connection that connection should not be considered in
any aggregrate connection count (see concurrent connections). any aggregrate connection count (see concurrent connections).
A firewall's architecture dictates where a connection terminates. In A firewall's architecture dictates where a connection terminates. In
the case of application or circuit proxy firewalls, a connection the case of application or circuit proxy firewalls, a connection
terminates at the DUT/SUT. But firewalls using packet filtering or terminates at the DUT/SUT. But firewalls using packet filtering or
Newman Page [7]
stateful packet filtering designs act only as passthrough devices, in stateful packet filtering designs act only as passthrough devices, in
that they reside between two connection endpoints. Regardless of that they reside between two connection endpoints. Regardless of
firewall architecture, the number of data connections is still firewall architecture, the number of data connections is still
relevant, since all firewalls perform some form of connection relevant, since all firewalls perform some form of connection
maintenance; at the very least, all check connection requests maintenance; at the very least, all check connection requests
against their rule sets. against their rule sets.
Further, note that connection is not an atomic unit of measurement in Further, note that connection is not an atomic unit of measurement in
that it does not describe the various steps involved in connection that it does not describe the various steps involved in connection
setup, maintenance, and teardown. Testers may wish to take separate setup, maintenance, and teardown. Testers may wish to take separate
Newman Page [7]
measurements of each of these components. measurements of each of these components.
When benchmarking firewall performance, it's important to identify When benchmarking firewall performance, it's important to identify
the connection establishment and teardown procedures, as these MUST the connection establishment and teardown procedures, as these MUST
NOT be included when measuring steady-state forwarding rates. NOT be included when measuring steady-state forwarding rates.
Further, forwarding rates MUST be measured only after any security Further, forwarding rates MUST be measured only after any security
associations have been established. associations have been established.
Though it seems paradoxical, connectionless protocols such as UDP may Though it seems paradoxical, connectionless protocols such as UDP may
also involve connections, at least for the purposes of firewall also involve connections, at least for the purposes of firewall
performance measurement. For example, one host may send UDP packets performance measurement. For example, one host may send UDP packets
to another across a firewall. If the destination host is listening on to another across a firewall. If the destination host is listening on
the correct UDP port, it receives the UDP packets. For the purposes the correct UDP port, it receives the UDP packets. For the purposes
of firewall performance measurement, this is considered a connection. of firewall performance measurement, this is considered a connection.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
concurrent connections concurrent connections
connections connection
connection establishment time connection establishment time
maximum number of concurrent connections maximum number of concurrent connections
connection teardown time connection teardown time
Issues: Issues:
proxy-based vs. stateful packet filtering application proxy vs. stateful packet filtering
TCP/IP vs. ATM TCP/IP vs. ATM
connection-oriented vs. connectionless connection-oriented vs. connectionless
See also: See also:
data source data source
concurrent connections concurrent connections
connection establishment connection establishment
connection establishment time connection establishment time
connection teardown connection teardown
connection teardown time connection teardown time
3.8 Connection establishment 3.8 Connection establishment
Definition: Definition:
The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT, The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT,
to initiate a connection. to initiate a connection.
Discussion: Discussion:
Connection-oriented protocols like TCP have a proscribed handshaking Connection-oriented protocols like TCP have a proscribed handshaking
procedure when launching a connection. When benchmarking firewall procedure when launching a connection. When benchmarking firewall
Newman Page [8]
performance, it is import to identify this handshaking procedure so performance, it is import to identify this handshaking procedure so
that it is not included in measurements of bit forwarding rate or that it is not included in measurements of bit forwarding rate or
UOTs per second. UOTs per second.
Testers may also be interested in measurements of connection Testers may also be interested in measurements of connection
establishment time through or with a given DUT/SUT. establishment time through or with a given DUT/SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
none not applicable
Newman Page [8]
See also: See also:
connection connection
connection establishement time connection establishement time
connection maintenance connection maintenance
connection teardown connection teardown
Issues: Issues:
none not applicable
3.9 Connection establishment time 3.9 Connection establishment time
Definition: Definition:
The length of time needed for two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT, The length of time needed for two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT,
to agree to set up a connection using a known protocol. to agree to set up a connection using a known protocol.
Discussion: Discussion:
Each connection-oriented protocol has its own defined mechanisms for Each connection-oriented protocol has its own defined mechanisms for
setting up a connection. For purposes of benchmarking firewall setting up a connection. For purposes of benchmarking firewall
performance, this shall be the interval between receipt of the first performance, this shall be the interval between receipt of the first
bit of the first octet of the packet carrying a connection bit of the first octet of the packet carrying a connection
establishment request on a DUT/SUT interface until transmission of establishment request on a DUT/SUT interface until transmission of
the last bit of the last octet of the last packet of the connection the last bit of the last octet of the last packet of the connection
setup traffic headed in the opposite direction. setup traffic headed in the opposite direction.
This definition applies only to connection-oriented protocols such as This definition applies only to connection-oriented protocols such as
TCP. For connectionless protocols such as UDP, the notion of TCP. For connectionless protocols such as UDP, the notion of
connection establishment time is not meaningful. connection establishment time is not meaningful.
Metric Unit of measurement:
Connection establishment time Connection establishment time
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
concurrent connections concurrent connections
connection connection
connection overhead connection maintenance
3.10 Connection maintenance 3.10 Connection maintenance
Definition: Definition:
The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT, The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT,
to ensure a connection is kept alive. to ensure a connection is kept alive.
Newman Page [9]
Discussion: Discussion:
Some implementations of TCP and other connection-oriented protocols Some implementations of TCP and other connection-oriented protocols
use "keep-alive" data to maintain a connection during periods where use "keep-alive" data to maintain a connection during periods where
no user data is exchanged. no user data is exchanged.
When benchmarking firewall performance, it is useful to identfy When benchmarking firewall performance, it is useful to identfy
connection maintenance traffic as distinct from UOTs per second. connection maintenance traffic as distinct from UOTs per second.
Given that maintenance traffic may be characterized by short bursts Given that maintenance traffic may be characterized by short bursts
at periodical intervals, it may not be possible to describe a steady- at periodical intervals, it may not be possible to describe a steady-
state forwarding rate for maintenance traffic. One possible approach state forwarding rate for maintenance traffic. One possible approach
Newman Page [9]
is to identify the quantity of maintenance traffic, in bytes or bits, is to identify the quantity of maintenance traffic, in bytes or bits,
over a given interval, and divide through to derive a measurement of over a given interval, and divide through to derive a measurement of
maintenance traffic forwarding rate. maintenance traffic forwarding rate.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
maintenance traffic forwarding rate maintenance traffic
forwarding rate
See also: See also:
connection connection
connection establishment time connection establishment time
connection teardown connection teardown
connection teardown time connection teardown time
Issues: Issues:
none not applicable
3.11 Connection overhead 3.11 Connection overhead
Definition: Definition:
The degradation in bit forwarding rate, if any, observed as a result The degradation in bit forwarding rate, if any, observed as a result
of the addition of one connection between two hosts through the of the addition of one connection between two hosts through the
DUT/SUT, or the addition of one connection from a host to the DUT/SUT, or the addition of one connection from a host to the
DUT/SUT. DUT/SUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
The memory cost of connection establishment and maintenance is highly The memory cost of connection establishment and maintenance is highly
implementation-specific. This metric is intended to describe that implementation-specific. This metric is intended to describe that
cost in a method visible outside the firewall. cost in a method visible outside the firewall.
It may also be desirable to invert this metric to show the It may also be desirable to invert this metric to show the
performance improvement as a result of tearing down one connection. performance improvement as a result of tearing down one connection.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
bit forwarding rate bit forwarding rate
Issues: Issues:
3.12 Connection teardown 3.12 Connection teardown
Definition: Definition:
The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT, The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT,
to close a connection. to close a connection.
Newman Page [10]
Discussion: Discussion:
Connection-oriented protocols like TCP follow a stated procedure when Connection-oriented protocols like TCP follow a stated procedure when
ending a connection. When benchmarking firewall performance, it is ending a connection. When benchmarking firewall performance, it is
important to identify the teardown procedure so that it is not important to identify the teardown procedure so that it is not
included in measurements of bit forwarding rate or UOTs per second. included in measurements of bit forwarding rate or UOTs per second.
Testers may also be interested in measurements of connection teardown Testers may also be interested in measurements of connection teardown
time through or with a given DUT/SUT. time through or with a given DUT/SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
none not applicable
Newman Page [10]
See also: See also:
connection teardown time connection teardown time
Issues: Issues:
none not applicable
3.13 Connection teardown time 3.13 Connection teardown time
Definition: Definition:
The length of time needed for two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT, The length of time needed for two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT,
to agree to tear down a connection using a known protocol. to agree to tear down a connection using a known protocol.
Discussion: Discussion:
Each connection-oriented protocol has its own defined mechanisms for Each connection-oriented protocol has its own defined mechanisms for
dropping a connection. For purposes of benchmarking firewall dropping a connection. For purposes of benchmarking firewall
performance, this shall be the interval between receipt of the first performance, this shall be the interval between receipt of the first
bit of the first octet of the packet carrying a connection teardown bit of the first octet of the packet carrying a connection teardown
request on a DUT/SUT interface until transmission of the last bit of request on a DUT/SUT interface until transmission of the last bit of
the last octet of the last packet of the connection teardown traffic the last octet of the last packet of the connection teardown traffic
headed in the opposite direction. headed in the opposite direction.
This definition applies only to connection-oriented protocols such as This definition applies only to connection-oriented protocols such as
TCP. For connectionless protocols such as UDP, the notion of TCP. For connectionless protocols such as UDP, the notion of
connection teardown time is not meaningful. connection teardown time is not meaningful.
Metric Unit of measurement:
Connection teardown time Connection teardown time
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
concurrent connections concurrent connections
connection connection
connection overhead connection maintenance
3.14 Data source 3.14 Data source
Definition: Definition:
A host capable of generating traffic to the DUT/SUT. A host capable of generating traffic to the DUT/SUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Newman Page [11]
One data source MAY emulate multiple users or hosts. In addition, one One data source MAY emulate multiple users or hosts. In addition, one
data source MAY offer traffic to multiple network interfaces on the data source MAY offer traffic to multiple network interfaces on the
DUT/SUT. DUT/SUT.
The term "data source" is deliberately independent of any number of The term "data source" is deliberately independent of any number of
users. It is useful to think of data sources simply as traffic users. It is useful to think of data sources simply as traffic
generators, without any correlation to any given number of users. generators, without any correlation to any given number of users.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
Newman Page [11]
user user
See also: See also:
connection connection
user user
3.15 Demilitarized zone 3.15 Demilitarized zone
Definition: Definition:
A network segment or segments located between protected and A network segment or segments located between protected and
unprotected networks. unprotected networks.
Discussion: Discussion:
As an extra security measure, networks may be designed such that As an extra security measure, networks may be designed such that
protected and unprotected segments are never directly connected. protected and unprotected segments are never directly connected.
Instead, firewalls (and possibly public resources such as WWW or FTP Instead, firewalls (and possibly public resources such as HTTP or FTP
servers) reside on a so-called DMZ network. To connect protected, servers) reside on a so-called DMZ network.
DMZ, and unprotected networks with one device, the device MUST have
at least three network interfaces.
Multiple firewalls MAY bound the DMZ. In this case, the firewalls
connecting the protected network with the DMZ and the DMZ with the
unprotected network MUST each have at least two network interfaces.
DMZ networks are sometimes called perimeter networks. DMZ networks are sometimes called perimeter networks.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
Homed Homed
See also: See also:
unprotected network
protected network protected network
unprotected network
3.16 Firewall 3.16 Firewall
Definition: Definition:
A device or group of devices that enforces an access control policy A device or group of devices that enforces an access control policy
between networks. between networks.
Discussion: Discussion:
While there are many different ways to accomplish it, all firewalls While there are many different ways to accomplish it, all firewalls
do the same thing: control access between networks. do the same thing: control access between networks.
The most common configuration involves a firewall connecting two The most common configuration involves a firewall connecting two
segments (one protected and one unprotected), but this is not the segments (one protected and one unprotected), but this is not the
Newman Page [12]
only possible configuration. Many firewalls support tri-homing, only possible configuration. Many firewalls support tri-homing,
allowing use of a DMZ network. It is possible for a firewall to allowing use of a DMZ network. It is possible for a firewall to
accommodate more than three interfaces, each attached to a different accommodate more than three interfaces, each attached to a different
network segment. network segment.
The criteria by which access are controlled is deliberately not The criteria by which access are controlled are not specified here.
Typically this has been done using network- or transport-layer
Newman Page [12] criteria (such as IP subnet or TCP port number), but there is no
specified here. Typically this has been done using network- or reason this must always be so. A growing number of firewalls are
transport-layer criteria (such as IP subnet or TCP port number), but controlling access at the application layer, using user
there is no reason this must always be so. A growing number of
firewalls are controlling access at the application layer, using user
identification as the criterion. And firewalls for ATM networks may identification as the criterion. And firewalls for ATM networks may
control access based on data link-layer criteria. control access based on data link-layer criteria.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
DMZ DMZ
tri-homed tri-homed
user user
3.17 Goodput 3.17 Goodput
skipping to change at line 718 skipping to change at line 720
bits per second bits per second
Issues: Issues:
allowed vs. rejected traffic allowed vs. rejected traffic
See also: See also:
allowed traffic allowed traffic
bit forwarding rate bit forwarding rate
rejected traffic rejected traffic
Newman Page [13]
3.18 Homed 3.18 Homed
Definition: Definition:
The number of logical interfaces a DUT/SUT contains. The number of logical interfaces a DUT/SUT contains.
Discussion: Discussion:
Newman Page [13] Firewalls typically contain at least two logical interfaces. In
Firewalls MUST contain at least two logical interfaces. In network network topologies where a DMZ is used, the firewall usually contains
topologies where a DMZ is used, the firewall contains at least three at least three interfaces and is said to be tri-homed. Additional
interfaces and is said to be tri-homed. Additional interfaces would interfaces would make a firewall quad-homed, quint-homed, and so on.
make a firewall quad-homed, quint-homed, and so on.
It is theoretically possible for a firewall to contain one physical It is theoretically possible for a firewall to contain one physical
interface and multiple logical interfaces. This configuration is interface and multiple logical interfaces. This configuration is
strongly discouraged for testing purposes because of the difficulty discouraged for testing purposes because of the difficulty in
in verifying that no leakage occurs between protected and unprotected verifying that no leakage occurs between protected and unprotected
segments. segments.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
tri-homed tri-homed
3.19 Illegal traffic 3.19 Illegal traffic
Definition: Definition:
Packets specified for rejection in the rule set of the DUT/SUT. Packets specified for rejection in the rule set of the DUT/SUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
A buggy or misconfigured firewall may forward packets even though its A buggy or misconfigured firewall might forward packets even though
rule set specifies that these packets be dropped. Illegal traffic its rule set specifies that these packets be dropped. Illegal traffic
differs from rejected traffic in that it describes all traffic differs from rejected traffic in that it describes all traffic
specified for rejection by the rule set, while rejected traffic specified for rejection by the rule set, while rejected traffic
specifies only those packets actually dropped by the DUT/SUT. specifies only those packets actually dropped by the DUT/SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
accepted traffic accepted traffic
policy policy
rejected traffic rejected traffic
rule set rule set
3.20 Logging 3.20 Logging
Definition: Definition:
The recording of user requests made to the firewall. The recording of user requests made to the firewall.
Newman Page [14]
Discussion: Discussion:
Firewalls MUST log all requests they handle, both allowed and Firewalls typically log all requests they handle, both allowed and
rejected. For many firewall designs, logging requires a significant rejected. For many firewall designs, logging requires a significant
amount of processing overhead, especially when complex rule sets are amount of processing overhead, especially when complex rule sets are
in use. in use.
The type and amount of data logged varies by implementation. Testers The type and amount of data logged varies by implementation. Testers
may find it desirable to log equivalent data when comparing different
Newman Page [14]
SHOULD attempt to log equivalent data when comparing different
DUT/SUTs. DUT/SUTs.
Logging MAY take place on systems other than the DUT/SUT. Some systems allow logging to take place on systems other than the
DUT/SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
rule sets rule sets
See also: See also:
allowed traffic allowed traffic
connection connection
rejected traffic rejected traffic
skipping to change at line 818 skipping to change at line 822
that translates one or more RFC 1918 addresses to one or more public that translates one or more RFC 1918 addresses to one or more public
addresses--a network address translator (NAT). addresses--a network address translator (NAT).
The use of private addressing also introduces a security benefit in The use of private addressing also introduces a security benefit in
that RFC 1918 addresses are not visible to hosts on the public that RFC 1918 addresses are not visible to hosts on the public
Internet. Internet.
Some NAT implementations are computationally intensive, and may Some NAT implementations are computationally intensive, and may
affect bit forwarding rate. affect bit forwarding rate.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
3.22 Packet filtering 3.22 Packet filtering
Definition: Definition:
Newman Page [15]
The process of controlling access by examining packets based on the The process of controlling access by examining packets based on the
content of packet headers. content of packet headers.
Discussion: Discussion:
Packet-filtering devices forward or deny packets based on information Packet-filtering devices forward or deny packets based on information
in each packet's header, such as IP address or TCP port number. A in each packet's header, such as IP address or TCP port number. A
packet-filtering firewall uses a rule set to determine which traffic packet-filtering firewall uses a rule set to determine which traffic
should be forwarded and which should be blocked. should be forwarded and which should be blocked.
Newman Page [15] Unit of measurement:
Measurement units:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
static versus stateful packet filtering static vs. stateful packet filtering
See also: See also:
application proxy application proxy
circuit proxy circuit proxy
proxy proxy
rule set rule set
stateful packet filtering stateful packet filtering
3.23 Policy 3.23 Policy
skipping to change at line 865 skipping to change at line 870
unprotected networks. unprotected networks.
Discussion: Discussion:
Security policies generally do not spell out specific configurations Security policies generally do not spell out specific configurations
for firewalls; rather, they set general guidelines for what is and is for firewalls; rather, they set general guidelines for what is and is
not acceptable network access. not acceptable network access.
The actual mechanism for controlling access is usually the rule set The actual mechanism for controlling access is usually the rule set
implemented in the DUT/SUT. implemented in the DUT/SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
rule set rule set
3.24 Protected network 3.24 Protected network
Definition: Definition:
A network segment or segments to which access is controlled by the A network segment or segments to which access is controlled by the
DUT/SUT. DUT/SUT.
Discussion: Discussion:
Firewalls are intended to prevent unauthorized access either to or Firewalls are intended to prevent unauthorized access either to or
from the protected network. Depending on the configuration specified from the protected network. Depending on the configuration specified
by the policy and rule set, the DUT/SUT may allow hosts on the by the policy and rule set, the DUT/SUT may allow hosts on the
Newman Page [16]
protected segment to act as clients for servers on either the DMZ or protected segment to act as clients for servers on either the DMZ or
the unprotected network, or both. the unprotected network, or both.
Protected networks are often called "internal networks." That term is Protected networks are often called "internal networks." That term is
not used here because firewalls increasingly are deployed within an not used here because firewalls increasingly are deployed within an
organization, where all segments are by definition internal. organization, where all segments are by definition internal.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
Newman Page [16]
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
demilitarized zone (DMZ) demilitarized zone (DMZ)
unprotected network unprotected network
policy policy
rule set rule set
unprotected network unprotected network
skipping to change at line 921 skipping to change at line 927
Instead, two connections are established: one between the client host Instead, two connections are established: one between the client host
and the DUT/SUT, and another between the DUT/SUT and server host. and the DUT/SUT, and another between the DUT/SUT and server host.
As with packet-filtering firewalls, proxy-based devices use a rule As with packet-filtering firewalls, proxy-based devices use a rule
set to determine which traffic should be forwarded and which should set to determine which traffic should be forwarded and which should
be rejected. be rejected.
There are two types of proxies: application proxies and circuit There are two types of proxies: application proxies and circuit
proxies. proxies.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
application application
See also: See also:
application proxy application proxy
circuit proxy circuit proxy
packet filtering packet filtering
stateful packet filtering stateful packet filtering
3.26 Rejected traffic 3.26 Rejected traffic
Definition: Definition:
Packets dropped as a result of the rule set of the DUT/SUT. Packets dropped as a result of the rule set of the DUT/SUT.
Newman Page [17]
Discussion: Discussion:
Firewalls MUST reject any traffic not explicitly permitted in the For purposes of benchmarking firewall performance, it is expected
rule set. Dropped packets MUST NOT be included in calculating the bit that firewalls will reject all traffic not explicitly permitted in
forwarding rate or maximum bit forwarding rate of the DUT/SUT. the rule set. Dropped packets MUST NOT be included in calculating the
bit forwarding rate or maximum bit forwarding rate of the DUT/SUT.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
Newman Page [17]
See also: See also:
allowed traffic allowed traffic
illegal traffic illegal traffic
policy policy
rule set rule set
3.27 Rule set 3.27 Rule set
Definition: Definition:
The collection of access control rules that determines which packets The collection of access control rules that determines which packets
the DUT/SUT will forward and which it will reject. the DUT/SUT will forward and which it will reject.
Discussion: Discussion:
Rule sets control access to and from the network interfaces of the Rule sets control access to and from the network interfaces of the
DUT/SUT. By definition, rule sets MUST NOT apply equally to all DUT/SUT. By definition, rule sets do not apply equally to all network
network interfaces; otherwise there would be no need for the interfaces; otherwise there would be no need for the firewall. For
firewall. Therefore, a specific rule set MUST be applied to each benchmarking purposes, a specific rule set is typically applied to
network interface in the DUT/SUT. each network interface in the DUT/SUT.
The tester must describe the complete contents of the rule set of The tester MUST describe the complete contents of the rule set of
each DUT/SUT. each DUT/SUT.
To ensure that testers measure only traffic forwarded or rejected by To ensure measurements reflect only traffic forwarded by the DUT/SUT,
the DUT/SUT, each rule set MUST include a rule denying all access testers are encouraged to include a rule denying all access except
except for those packets allowed by the rule set. for those packets allowed by the rule set.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
allowed traffic allowed traffic
demilitarized zone (DMZ) demilitarized zone (DMZ)
illegal traffic illegal traffic
policy policy
protected network protected network
rejected traffic rejected traffic
unprotected network unprotected network
3.28 Security association 3.28 Security association
Definition: Definition:
Newman Page [18]
The set of security information relating to a given network The set of security information relating to a given network
connection or set of connections. connection or set of connections.
Discussion: Discussion:
This definition, taken verbatim from RFC 1825, covers the This definition covers the relationship between policy and
relationship between policy and connections. Security associations connections. Security associations (SAs) are typically set up during
(SAs) are typically set up during connection establishment, and they connection establishment, and they may be reiterated or revoked
may be reiterated or revoked during a connection. during a connection.
For purposes of benchmarking firewall performance, measurements of For purposes of benchmarking firewall performance, measurements of
Newman Page [18]
bit forwarding rate or UOTs per second MUST be taken after all bit forwarding rate or UOTs per second MUST be taken after all
security associations have been established. security associations have been established.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
See also: See also:
connection connection
connection establishment connection establishment
policy policy
rule set rule set
3.29 Stateful packet filtering 3.29 Stateful packet filtering
skipping to change at line 1034 skipping to change at line 1042
they always forward or reject packets based on the contents of the they always forward or reject packets based on the contents of the
rule set. rule set.
In contrast, devices using stateful packet filtering will only In contrast, devices using stateful packet filtering will only
forward packets if they correspond with state information maintained forward packets if they correspond with state information maintained
by the device about each connection. For example, a stateful packet by the device about each connection. For example, a stateful packet
filtering device will reject a packet on port 20 (ftp-data) if no filtering device will reject a packet on port 20 (ftp-data) if no
connection has been established over the ftp control port (usually connection has been established over the ftp control port (usually
port 21). port 21).
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
applicaton proxy applicaton proxy
packet filter packet filtering
proxy proxy
3.30 Tri-homed 3.30 Tri-homed
Definition: Definition:
A firewall with three network interfaces. A firewall with three network interfaces.
Newman Page [19]
Discussion: Discussion:
Tri-homed firewalls connect three network segments with different Tri-homed firewalls connect three network segments with different
network addresses. Typically, these would be protected, DMZ, and network addresses. Typically, these would be protected, DMZ, and
unprotected segments. unprotected segments.
A tri-homed firewall may offer some security advantages over A tri-homed firewall may offer some security advantages over
firewalls with two interfaces. An attacker on an unprotected network firewalls with two interfaces. An attacker on an unprotected network
may compromise hosts on the DMZ but still not reach any hosts on the may compromise hosts on the DMZ but still not reach any hosts on the
protected network. protected network.
Newman Page [19] Unit of measurement:
Measurement units:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
Usually the differentiator between one segment and another is its IP Usually the differentiator between one segment and another is its IP
address. However, firewalls may connect different networks of other address. However, firewalls may connect different networks of other
types, such as ATM or Netware segments. types, such as ATM or Netware segments.
See also: See also:
homed homed
skipping to change at line 1098 skipping to change at line 1107
the DUT/SUT, and MUST offer these UOTs at a consistent rate. Traffic the DUT/SUT, and MUST offer these UOTs at a consistent rate. Traffic
measurement MUST begin after all connection establishment routines measurement MUST begin after all connection establishment routines
complete and before any connection completion routine begins. complete and before any connection completion routine begins.
Further, measurements MUST begin after any security associations Further, measurements MUST begin after any security associations
(SAs) are established and before any SA is revoked. (SAs) are established and before any SA is revoked.
Testers also MUST compare only like UOTs. It is not appropriate, for Testers also MUST compare only like UOTs. It is not appropriate, for
example, to compare forwarding rates by offering 1,500-byte Ethernet example, to compare forwarding rates by offering 1,500-byte Ethernet
UOTs to one DUT/SUT and 53-byte ATM cells to another. UOTs to one DUT/SUT and 53-byte ATM cells to another.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
Units of transfer Units of transfer
Units of transfer per second Units of transfer per second
Issues: Issues:
Newman Page [20]
See also: See also:
Bit forwarding rate bit forwarding rate
connection connection
3.32 Unprotected network 3.32 Unprotected network
Definition: Definition:
A network segment or segments to which access is not controlled by A network segment or segments to which access is not controlled by
the DUT/SUT. the DUT/SUT.
Newman Page [20]
Discussion: Discussion:
Firewalls are deployed between protected and unprotected segments. Firewalls are deployed between protected and unprotected segments.
The unprotected network is not protected by the DUT/SUT. The unprotected network is not protected by the DUT/SUT.
Note that a DUT/SUT's policy MAY specify hosts on an unprotected Note that a DUT/SUT's policy MAY specify hosts on an unprotected
network. For example, a user on a protected network may be permitted network. For example, a user on a protected network may be permitted
to access an FTP server on an unprotected network. But the DUT/SUT to access an FTP server on an unprotected network. But the DUT/SUT
cannot control access between hosts on the unprotected network. cannot control access between hosts on the unprotected network.
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
demilitarized zone (DMZ) demilitarized zone (DMZ)
policy policy
protected network protected network
rule set rule set
skipping to change at line 1157 skipping to change at line 1167
organization to another, making it difficult to characterize the load organization to another, making it difficult to characterize the load
offered by a typical user. offered by a typical user.
For these reasons, testers SHOULD NOT attempt to measure DUT/SUT For these reasons, testers SHOULD NOT attempt to measure DUT/SUT
performance in terms of users supported. Instead, testers SHOULD performance in terms of users supported. Instead, testers SHOULD
describe performance in terms of maximum bit forwarding rate and describe performance in terms of maximum bit forwarding rate and
maximum number of connections sustained. Further, testers SHOULD use maximum number of connections sustained. Further, testers SHOULD use
the term "data source" rather than user to describe traffic the term "data source" rather than user to describe traffic
generator(s). generator(s).
Measurement units: Unit of measurement:
Newman Page [21]
not applicable not applicable
Issues: Issues:
See also: See also:
data source data source
4. Security considerations 4. Security considerations
The primary goal of this memo is to describe terms used in The primary goal of this memo is to describe terms used in
Newman Page [21]
benchmarking firewall performance. However, readers should be aware benchmarking firewall performance. However, readers should be aware
that there is some overlap between performance and security issues. that there is some overlap between performance and security issues.
Specifically, the optimal configuration for firewall performance may Specifically, the optimal configuration for firewall performance may
not be the most secure, and vice-versa. not be the most secure, and vice-versa.
Further, certain forms of attack may degrade performance. One common Further, certain forms of attack may degrade performance. One common
form of denial-of-service (DoS) attack bombards a firewall with so form of denial-of-service (DoS) attack bombards a firewall with so
much rejected traffic that it cannot forward allowed traffic. DoS much rejected traffic that it cannot forward allowed traffic. DoS
attacks do not always involve heavy loads; by definition, DoS attacks do not always involve heavy loads; by definition, DoS
describes any state in which a firewall is offered rejected traffic describes any state in which a firewall is offered rejected traffic
that prohibits it from forwarding some or all allowed traffic. Even a that prohibits it from forwarding some or all allowed traffic. Even a
small amount of traffic--such as the recent Teardrop2 attack small amount of traffic--such as the recent Teardrop2 attack
involving a few packet fragments--may significantly degrade firewall involving a few packet fragments--may significantly degrade firewall
performance, or stop the firewall altogether. Further, the safeguards performance, or stop the firewall altogether. Further, the safeguards
in firewalls to guard against such attacks may have have a in firewalls to guard against such attacks may have have a
significant negative impact on performance. significant negative impact on performance.
Since the library of attacks is constantly expanding, no attempt is Since the library of attacks is constantly expanding, no attempt is
made here to define specific attacks that may affect performance. made here to define specific attacks that may affect performance.
Nonetheless, any reasonable performance benchmark must take Nonetheless, any reasonable performance benchmark should take into
safeguards against such attacks into consideration. Specifically, the consideration safeguards against such attacks. Specifically, the same
same safeguards must be in place when comparing performance of safeguards should be in place when comparing performance of different
different firewall implementations. firewall implementations.
5. References 5. References
Atkinson, R. "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol." RFC
1825.
Bradner, S., editor. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network Bradner, S., editor. "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
Interconnection Devices." RFC 1242. Interconnection Devices." RFC 1242.
Bradner, S., and McQuaid, J. "Benchmarking Methodology for Network Bradner, S., and McQuaid, J. "Benchmarking Methodology for Network
Interconnect Devices." RFC 1944. Interconnect Devices." RFC 1944.
Mandeville, R. "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching Devices." Mandeville, R. "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching Devices."
RFC 2285. RFC 2285.
Rekhter, Y., et al. "Address Allocation for Private Internets." RFC Rekhter, Y., et al. "Address Allocation for Private Internets." RFC
1918. 1918.
Newman Page [22]
6. Acknowledgments 6. Acknowledgments
The author wishes to thank the IETF Benchmarking Working Group for The author wishes to thank the IETF Benchmarking Working Group for
agreeing to review this document. Several other persons offered agreeing to review this document. Several other persons offered
valuable contributions and critiques during this project: Ted Doty valuable contributions and critiques during this project: Ted Doty
(Internet Security Systems), Kevin Dubray (Ironbridge Networks), (Internet Security Systems), Kevin Dubray (Ironbridge Networks),
Helen Holzbaur (NSTL), Jim Hurd (NSTL), Dale Lancaster (Axent Helen Holzbaur (NSTL), Dale Lancaster (Axent Technologies), Robert
Technologies), Robert Mandeville (European Network Laboratories), Mandeville (European Network Laboratories), Brent Melson (NSTL),
Brent Melson (NSTL), Steve Platt (NSTL), Marcus Ranum (Network Flight Steve Platt (NSTL), Marcus Ranum (Network Flight Recorder), Greg
Recorder Inc.), Greg Shannon (Ascend Communications), Christoph Shannon (Ascend Communications), Christoph Schuba (Sun Microsystems),
Schuba (Sun Microsystems), Rick Siebenaler (Cyberguard), and Greg Rick Siebenaler (Cyberguard), and Greg Smith (Check Point Software
Smith (Check Point Software Technologies). Technologies).
Newman Page [22]
7. Contact information 7. Contact information
David Newman David Newman
Data Communications magazine Data Communications magazine
3 Park Ave. 3 Park Ave.
31st Floor 31st Floor
New York, NY 10016 New York, NY 10016
USA USA
212-592-8256 voice 212-592-8256 voice
 End of changes. 

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.23, available from http://www.levkowetz.com/ietf/tools/rfcdiff/