draft-ietf-capwap-protocol-specification-07.txt   draft-ietf-capwap-protocol-specification-08.txt 
Network Working Group P. Calhoun, Editor Network Working Group P. Calhoun, Editor
Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc. Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc.
Expires: December 13, 2007 M. Montemurro, Editor Expires: May 19, 2008 M. Montemurro, Editor
Research In Motion Research In Motion
D. Stanley, Editor D. Stanley, Editor
Aruba Networks Aruba Networks
June 11, 2007 November 16, 2007
CAPWAP Protocol Specification CAPWAP Protocol Specification
draft-ietf-capwap-protocol-specification-07 draft-ietf-capwap-protocol-specification-08
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
skipping to change at page 1, line 37 skipping to change at page 1, line 37
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on December 13, 2007. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 19, 2008.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
This specification defines the Control And Provisioning of Wireless This specification defines the Control And Provisioning of Wireless
Access Points (CAPWAP) Protocol. The CAPWAP protocol meets the IETF Access Points (CAPWAP) Protocol. The CAPWAP protocol meets the IETF
CAPWAP working group protocol requirements. The CAPWAP protocol is CAPWAP working group protocol requirements. The CAPWAP protocol is
designed to be flexible, allowing it to be used for a variety of designed to be flexible, allowing it to be used for a variety of
wireless technologies. This document describes the base CAPWAP wireless technologies. This document describes the base CAPWAP
protocol. The CAPWAP protocol binding which defines extensions for protocol. The CAPWAP protocol binding which defines extensions for
use with the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN protocol is available in [12]. use with the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN protocol is available in [16].
Extensions are expected to be defined to enable use of the CAPWAP Extensions are expected to be defined to enable use of the CAPWAP
protocol with additional wireless technologies. protocol with additional wireless technologies.
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes the CAPWAP Protocol, a standard, This document describes the CAPWAP Protocol, a standard,
interoperable protocol which enables an Access Controller (AC) to interoperable protocol which enables an Access Controller (AC) to
manage a collection of Wireless Termination Points (WTPs). The manage a collection of Wireless Termination Points (WTPs). The
CAPWAP protocol is defined to be independent of layer 2 technology. CAPWAP protocol is defined to be independent of layer 2 technology.
The emergence of centralized IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network The emergence of centralized IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN) architectures, in which simple IEEE 802.11 WTPs are managed by (WLAN) architectures, in which simple IEEE 802.11 WTPs are managed by
an Access Controller (AC) suggested that a standards based, an Access Controller (AC) suggested that a standards based,
interoperable protocol could radically simplify the deployment and interoperable protocol could radically simplify the deployment and
management of wireless networks. WTPs require a set of dynamic management of wireless networks. WTPs require a set of dynamic
management and control functions related to their primary task of management and control functions related to their primary task of
connecting the wireless and wired mediums. Traditional protocols for connecting the wireless and wired mediums. Traditional protocols for
managing WTPs are either manual static configuration via HTTP, managing WTPs are either manual static configuration via HTTP,
proprietary Layer 2 specific or non-existent (if the WTPs are self- proprietary Layer 2 specific or non-existent (if the WTPs are self-
contained). An IEEE 802.11 binding is defined in [12] to support use contained). An IEEE 802.11 binding is defined in [16] to support use
of the CAPWAP protocol with IEEE 802.11 WLAN networks. of the CAPWAP protocol with IEEE 802.11 WLAN networks.
CAPWAP assumes a network configuration consisting of multiple WTPs CAPWAP assumes a network configuration consisting of multiple WTPs
communicating via the Internet Protocol (IP) to an AC. WTPs are communicating via the Internet Protocol (IP) to an AC. WTPs are
viewed as remote RF interfaces controlled by the AC. The CAPWAP viewed as remote RF interfaces controlled by the AC. The CAPWAP
protocol supports two modes of operation: Split and Local MAC. In protocol supports two modes of operation: Split and Local MAC. In
Split MAC mode all L2 wireless data and management frames are Split MAC mode all L2 wireless data and management frames are
encapsulated via the CAPWAP protocol and exchanged between the AC and encapsulated via the CAPWAP protocol and exchanged between the AC and
the WTP. As shown in Figure 1, the wireless frames received from a the WTP. As shown in Figure 1, the wireless frames received from a
mobile device, which is referred to in this specification as a mobile device, which is referred to in this specification as a
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packets are sent and received. packets are sent and received.
Station (STA): A device that contains an IEEE 802.11 conformant Station (STA): A device that contains an IEEE 802.11 conformant
medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) interface to the medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) interface to the
wireless medium (WM). wireless medium (WM).
Wireless Termination Point (WTP): The physical or network entity that Wireless Termination Point (WTP): The physical or network entity that
contains an RF antenna and wireless PHY to transmit and receive contains an RF antenna and wireless PHY to transmit and receive
station traffic for wireless access networks. station traffic for wireless access networks.
This document uses additional terminology defined in [15]. This document uses additional terminology defined in [19].
2. Protocol Overview 2. Protocol Overview
The CAPWAP protocol is a generic protocol defining AC and WTP control The CAPWAP protocol is a generic protocol defining AC and WTP control
and data plane communication via a CAPWAP protocol transport and data plane communication via a CAPWAP protocol transport
mechanism. CAPWAP control messages, and optionally CAPWAP data mechanism. CAPWAP control messages, and optionally CAPWAP data
messages, are secured using Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) messages, are secured using Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)
[7]. DTLS is a standards-track IETF protocol based upon TLS. The [7]. DTLS is a standards-track IETF protocol based upon TLS. The
underlying security-related protocol mechanisms of TLS have been underlying security-related protocol mechanisms of TLS have been
successfully deployed for many years. successfully deployed for many years.
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information. During this exchange the WTP may receive provisioning information. During this exchange the WTP may receive provisioning
settings. The WTP is then enabled for operation. settings. The WTP is then enabled for operation.
When the WTP and AC have completed the version and provision exchange When the WTP and AC have completed the version and provision exchange
and the WTP is enabled, the CAPWAP protocol is used to encapsulate and the WTP is enabled, the CAPWAP protocol is used to encapsulate
the wireless data frames sent between the WTP and AC. The CAPWAP the wireless data frames sent between the WTP and AC. The CAPWAP
protocol will fragment the L2 frames if the size of the encapsulated protocol will fragment the L2 frames if the size of the encapsulated
wireless user data (Data) or protocol control (Management) frames wireless user data (Data) or protocol control (Management) frames
causes the resulting CAPWAP protocol packet to exceed the MTU causes the resulting CAPWAP protocol packet to exceed the MTU
supported between the WTP and AC. Fragmented CAPWAP packets are supported between the WTP and AC. Fragmented CAPWAP packets are
reassembled to reconstitute the original encapsulated payload. reassembled to reconstitute the original encapsulated payload. MTU
Discovery and Fragmentation is described in Section 3.
The CAPWAP protocol provides for the delivery of commands from the AC The CAPWAP protocol provides for the delivery of commands from the AC
to the WTP for the management of stations that are communicating with to the WTP for the management of stations that are communicating with
the WTP. This may include the creation of local data structures in the WTP. This may include the creation of local data structures in
the WTP for the stations and the collection of statistical the WTP for the stations and the collection of statistical
information about the communication between the WTP and the stations. information about the communication between the WTP and the stations.
The CAPWAP protocol provides a mechanism for the AC to obtain The CAPWAP protocol provides a mechanism for the AC to obtain
statistical information collected by the WTP. statistical information collected by the WTP.
The CAPWAP protocol provides for a keep alive feature that preserves The CAPWAP protocol provides for a keep alive feature that preserves
the communication channel between the WTP and AC. If the AC fails to the communication channel between the WTP and AC. If the AC fails to
appear alive, the WTP will try to discover a new AC. appear alive, the WTP will try to discover a new AC.
2.1. Wireless Binding Definition 2.1. Wireless Binding Definition
The CAPWAP protocol is independent of a specific WTP radio The CAPWAP protocol is independent of a specific WTP radio
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Discovery, Primary Discovery and Join Request and Response Discovery, Primary Discovery and Join Request and Response
messages, indicating the binding specific radio types supported at messages, indicating the binding specific radio types supported at
the WTP and AC. the WTP and AC.
If technology specific message elements are required for any of the If technology specific message elements are required for any of the
existing CAPWAP messages defined in this specification, they MUST existing CAPWAP messages defined in this specification, they MUST
also be defined in the technology binding document. also be defined in the technology binding document.
The naming of binding-specific message elements MUST begin with the The naming of binding-specific message elements MUST begin with the
name of the technology type, e.g., the binding for IEEE 802.11, name of the technology type, e.g., the binding for IEEE 802.11,
provided in [12], begins with "IEEE 802.11". provided in [16], begins with "IEEE 802.11".
The CAPWAP binding concept is also used in any future specifications The CAPWAP binding concept is also used in any future specifications
that add functionality to either the base CAPWAP protocol that add functionality to either the base CAPWAP protocol
specification, or any published CAPWAP binding specification. A specification, or any published CAPWAP binding specification. A
separate WTP Radio Information message element MUST be created to separate WTP Radio Information message element MUST be created to
properly advertise support for the specification. This mechanism properly advertise support for the specification. This mechanism
allows for future protocol extensibility, while providing the allows for future protocol extensibility, while providing the
necessary capabilities advertisement, through the WTP Radio necessary capabilities advertisement, through the WTP Radio
Information message element, to ensure WTP/AC interoperability. Information message element, to ensure WTP/AC interoperability.
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ChangeCipherSpec, ChangeCipherSpec,
Finished* Finished*
<------------------------------------ <------------------------------------
(-- DTLS session is established now --) (-- DTLS session is established now --)
Join Request Join Request
------------------------------------> ------------------------------------>
Join Response Join Response
<------------------------------------ <------------------------------------
[-- Join State Complete --]
(-- assume image is up to date --) (-- assume image is up to date --)
Configuration Status Request Configuration Status Request
------------------------------------> ------------------------------------>
Configuration Status Response Configuration Status Response
<------------------------------------ <------------------------------------
[-- Configure State Complete --]
Change State Event Request
------------------------------------>
Change State Event Response
<------------------------------------
[-- Data Check State Complete --]
(-- enter RUN state --) (-- enter RUN state --)
: :
: :
Echo Request Echo Request
------------------------------------> ------------------------------------>
Echo Response Echo Response
<------------------------------------ <------------------------------------
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The following state diagram represents the lifecycle of a WTP-AC The following state diagram represents the lifecycle of a WTP-AC
session. Use of DTLS by the CAPWAP protocol results in the session. Use of DTLS by the CAPWAP protocol results in the
juxtaposition of two nominally separate yet tightly bound state juxtaposition of two nominally separate yet tightly bound state
machines. The DTLS and CAPWAP state machines are coupled through an machines. The DTLS and CAPWAP state machines are coupled through an
API consisting of commands (see Section 2.3.2.1) and notifications API consisting of commands (see Section 2.3.2.1) and notifications
(see Section 2.3.2.2). Certain transitions in the DTLS state machine (see Section 2.3.2.2). Certain transitions in the DTLS state machine
are triggered by commands from the CAPWAP state machine, while are triggered by commands from the CAPWAP state machine, while
certain transitions in the CAPWAP state machine are triggered by certain transitions in the CAPWAP state machine are triggered by
notifications from the DTLS state machine. notifications from the DTLS state machine.
/-------------------------\ /-------------------------------------\
w| | | /-------------------------\|
5+----------+ x +------------+ | | w| ||
| Run |-->| Reset |-\| | 5+----------+ x +------------+ ||
+----------+ +------------+ || | | Run |-->| Reset |-\||
u ^ ^ ^ y|| | +----------+ +------------+ |||
+------------+--------/ | | || 6| u ^ ^ ^ y|||
| Data Check | /-------/ | || +------------+--------/ | | |||
+------------+<-------\ | | || | Data Check | /-------/ | |||
| | || +------------+<-------\ | | |||
/------------------+--------\ | || | | | |||
r| t| s| 4 v o| || /------------------+--------\ | |||
+--------+ +-----------+ +--------------+|| r| t| s| 4 v o| |||
| Join |---->| Configure | | Image Data ||| +--------+ +-----------+ +--------------+|||
+--------+ q +-----------+ +--------------+|| | Join |---->| Configure | | Image Data ||||
^ p| V| x| || +--------+ q +-----------+ +--------------+|||
| | \-------------------\ | || ^ p| V| x| |||
| \--------------------------------------\| | || | | \-------------------\ | |||
\------------------------\ || | || | \--------------------------------------\| | |||
/--------------<----------------+--------------\ || | || \------------------------\ || | |||
| /------------<-------------\ | | || | || /--------------<----------------+--------------\ || | |||
| | m| |n z| vv v vv | /------------<-------------\ | | || | |||
| | m| |n z| vv v vvv
| | +----------------+ +--------------+ +-----------+ | | +----------------+ +--------------+ +-----------+
| | | DTLS Setup | | DTLS Connect | | DTLS TD | | | | DTLS Setup | | DTLS Connect | | DTLS TD |
| | +----------------+ +--------------+ +-----------+ | | +----------------+ +--------------+ +-----------+
| | g| ^ ^ |h ^ ^ | | g| ^ ^ |h ^ ^
v v | | | | | | v v | | | | | |
| | | | | \-------\ | /-----------/ | | | | | \-------\ | /-----------/
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | v |e f| 2 v |j |k | | v |e f| 2 v |j |k
| \->+------+ +------+ +-----------+ | \->+------+ +------+ +-----------+
| | Idle |-->| Disc | | Authorize | | | Idle |-->| Disc | | Authorize |
skipping to change at page 19, line 31 skipping to change at page 19, line 31
non-volatile storage (see Section 9.1 for a full description of non-volatile storage (see Section 9.1 for a full description of
the firmware download process). The WTP initializes the the firmware download process). The WTP initializes the
EchoInterval timer (see Section 4.7), and transmits the Image EchoInterval timer (see Section 4.7), and transmits the Image
Data Request message (see Section 9.1.1) requesting the start Data Request message (see Section 9.1.1) requesting the start
of the firmware download. of the firmware download.
AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Image AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Image
Data Request message from the WTP. The AC MUST transmit an Data Request message from the WTP. The AC MUST transmit an
Image Data Response message (see Section 9.1.2) to the WTP, Image Data Response message (see Section 9.1.2) to the WTP,
which includes a portion of the firmware. The AC MUST start which includes a portion of the firmware. The AC MUST start
the NeighborDeadInterval timer (see Section 4.7). the ImageDataStartTimer timer (see Section 4.7).
Join to Configure (q): This state transition is used by the WTP and Join to Configure (q): This state transition is used by the WTP and
the AC to exchange configuration information. the AC to exchange configuration information.
WTP: The WTP enters the Configure state when it receives a WTP: The WTP enters the Configure state when it receives a
successful Join Response, and determines that the included successful Join Response, and determines that the included
Image Identifier message element is the same as its currently Image Identifier message element is the same as its currently
running image. The WTP transmits the Configuration Status running image. The WTP transmits the Configuration Status
message (see Section 8.2) to the AC with message elements message (see Section 8.2) to the AC with message elements
describing its current configuration. The WTP also starts the describing its current configuration. The WTP also starts the
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Image Data to Image Data (4): The Image Data state is used by the Image Data to Image Data (4): The Image Data state is used by the
WTP and the AC during the firmware download phase. WTP and the AC during the firmware download phase.
WTP: The WTP enters the Image Data state when it receives an WTP: The WTP enters the Image Data state when it receives an
Image Data Response message indicating that the AC has more Image Data Response message indicating that the AC has more
data to send. data to send.
AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Image AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Image
Data Request message from the WTP while already in the Image Data Request message from the WTP while already in the Image
Data state, and it detects that the firmware download has not Data state. The AC resets the ImageDataStartTimer timer.
completed.
Image Data to Reset (o): This state transition is used to reset the Image Data to Reset (o): This state transition is used to reset the
DTLS connection prior to restarting the WTP after an image DTLS connection prior to restarting the WTP after an image
download. download.
WTP: When an image download completes, the WTP enters the Reset WTP: When an image download completes, the WTP enters the Reset
state. The WTP MAY also transition to this state upon state. The WTP MAY also transition to this state upon
receiving an Image Data Response message from the AC (see receiving an Image Data Response message from the AC (see
Section 9.1.2) indicating a failure. Section 9.1.2) indicating a failure.
AC: The AC enters the Reset state when the image download is AC: The AC enters the Reset state when an error occurs during the
complete, or if an error occurs during the image download image download process or if the ImageDataStartTimer timer
process. expires.
Image Data to DTLS Teardown (x): This transition occurs when the Image Data to DTLS Teardown (x): This transition occurs when the
firmware download process aborts due to a DTLS error. firmware download process aborts due to a DTLS error.
WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives one of the WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives one of the
following DTLS notifications: DTLSAborted, following DTLS notifications: DTLSAborted,
DTLSReassemblyFailure or DTLSPeerDisconnect (see DTLSReassemblyFailure or DTLSPeerDisconnect (see
Section 2.3.2.2). The WTP MAY tear down the DTLS session if it Section 2.3.2.2). The WTP MAY tear down the DTLS session if it
receives frequent DTLSDecapFailure notifications. receives frequent DTLSDecapFailure notifications.
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WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives a successful WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives a successful
Configuration Status Response message from the AC. The WTP Configuration Status Response message from the AC. The WTP
initializes the EchoInterval timer (see Section 4.7), and initializes the EchoInterval timer (see Section 4.7), and
transmits the Change State Event Request message (see transmits the Change State Event Request message (see
Section 8.6). Section 8.6).
AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Change AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Change
State Event Request message (see Section 8.6) from the WTP. State Event Request message (see Section 8.6) from the WTP.
The AC responds with a Change State Event Response message (see The AC responds with a Change State Event Response message (see
Section 8.7). The AC MUST start the NeighborDeadInterval timer Section 8.7). The AC MUST start the DataCheckTimer timer (see
(see Section 4.7). Section 4.7).
Data Check to DTLS Teardown (6): This transition occurs when the WTP
does not complete the Data Check exchange.
WTP: This state transition occurs if the WTP does not receive the
Change State Event Response before a CAPWAP transmission
timeout occurs.
AC: The AC enters this state when the DataCheckTimer timer
expires (see Section 4.7).
Data Check to Run (u): This state transition occurs when the linkage Data Check to Run (u): This state transition occurs when the linkage
between the control and data channels has occured, causing the WTP between the control and data channels has occured, causing the WTP
and AC to enter their normal state of operation. and AC to enter their normal state of operation.
WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives a successful WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives a successful
Change State Event Response message from the AC. The WTP Change State Event Response message from the AC. The WTP
initiates the data channel, which MAY require the establishment initiates the data channel, which MAY require the establishment
of a DTLS session, starts the DataChannelKeepAlive timer (see of a DTLS session, starts the DataChannelKeepAlive timer (see
Section 4.7) and transmits a Data Channel Keep Alive packet Section 4.7) and transmits a Data Channel Keep Alive packet
(see Section 4.4.1). The WTP then starts the (see Section 4.4.1). The WTP then starts the
DataChannelDeadInterval timer (see Section 4.7). DataChannelDeadInterval timer (see Section 4.7).
AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Data AC: This state transition occurs when the AC receives the Data
Channel Keep Alive packet (see Section 4.4.1), with a Session Channel Keep Alive packet (see Section 4.4.1), with a Session
ID message element matching that included by the WTP in the ID message element matching that included by the WTP in the
Join Request message. Note that if AC policy is to require the Join Request message. The AC disables the DataCheckTimer
data channel to be encrypted, this process would also require timer. Note that if AC policy is to require the data channel
the establishment of a data channel DTLS session. Upon to be encrypted, this process would also require the
receiving the Data Channel Keep Alive packet, the AC transmits establishment of a data channel DTLS session. Upon receiving
its own Data Channel Keep Alive packet. the Data Channel Keep Alive packet, the AC transmits its own
Data Channel Keep Alive packet.
Run to DTLS Teardown (u): This state transition occurs when an error Run to DTLS Teardown (u): This state transition occurs when an error
has occured in the DTLS stack, causing the DTLS session to be has occured in the DTLS stack, causing the DTLS session to be
torndown. torndown.
WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives one of the WTP: The WTP enters this state when it receives one of the
following DTLS notifications: DTLSAborted, following DTLS notifications: DTLSAborted,
DTLSReassemblyFailure or DTLSPeerDisconnect (see DTLSReassemblyFailure or DTLSPeerDisconnect (see
Section 2.3.2.2). The WTP MAY tear down the DTLS session if it Section 2.3.2.2). The WTP MAY tear down the DTLS session if it
receives frequent DTLSDecapFailure notifications. The WTP also receives frequent DTLSDecapFailure notifications. The WTP also
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o DTLSAbortSession is sent to the DTLS component to cause the o DTLSAbortSession is sent to the DTLS component to cause the
session that is in the process of being established to be aborted. session that is in the process of being established to be aborted.
This command is also sent when the WaitDTLS timer expires. When This command is also sent when the WaitDTLS timer expires. When
this command is executed, the FailedDTLSSessionCount counter is this command is executed, the FailedDTLSSessionCount counter is
incremented. incremented.
o DTLSShutdown is sent to the DTLS component to cause session o DTLSShutdown is sent to the DTLS component to cause session
teardown. teardown.
o DTLSMtuUpdate is sent by the CAPWAP component to modify the MTU o DTLSMtuUpdate is sent by the CAPWAP component to modify the MTU
size used by the DTLS component. The default size is 1468 bytes. size used by the DTLS component. See Section 3.5 for more
information on MTU Discovery. The default size is 1468 bytes.
2.3.2.2. DTLS to CAPWAP Notifications 2.3.2.2. DTLS to CAPWAP Notifications
DTLS notifications are defined for the DTLS to CAPWAP API. These DTLS notifications are defined for the DTLS to CAPWAP API. These
"notifications" are conceptual, and may be implemented in numerous "notifications" are conceptual, and may be implemented in numerous
ways (e.g. as function return values). This API definition is ways (e.g. as function return values). This API definition is
provided to clarify interactions between the DTLS and CAPWAP provided to clarify interactions between the DTLS and CAPWAP
components of the integrated CAPWAP state machine. It is important components of the integrated CAPWAP state machine. It is important
to note that the notifications listed below MAY cause the CAPWAP to note that the notifications listed below MAY cause the CAPWAP
state machine to jump from one state to another using a state state machine to jump from one state to another using a state
skipping to change at page 30, line 31 skipping to change at page 30, line 31
DTLSDecapFailure notification to the CAPWAP component when such DTLSDecapFailure notification to the CAPWAP component when such
errors occur. If a malformed DTLS record header is detected, the errors occur. If a malformed DTLS record header is detected, the
packets SHOULD be silently discarded, and the receiver MAY log an packets SHOULD be silently discarded, and the receiver MAY log an
error message. error message.
There is currently only one encapsulation error defined: MTU There is currently only one encapsulation error defined: MTU
exceeded. As part of DTLS session establishment, the CAPWAP exceeded. As part of DTLS session establishment, the CAPWAP
component informs the DTLS component of the MTU size. This may be component informs the DTLS component of the MTU size. This may be
dynamically modified at any time when the CAPWAP component sends the dynamically modified at any time when the CAPWAP component sends the
DTLSMtuUpdate command to the DTLS component (see Section 2.3.2.1). DTLSMtuUpdate command to the DTLS component (see Section 2.3.2.1).
The DTLS component returns this notification to the CAPWAP component The value provided to the DTLS stack is the result of the MTU
whenever a transmission request will result in a packet which exceeds Discovery process, which is described in Section 3.5. The DTLS
the MTU. component returns this notification to the CAPWAP component whenever
a transmission request will result in a packet which exceeds the MTU.
2.4.4. DTLS EndPoint Authentication and Authorization 2.4.4. DTLS EndPoint Authentication and Authorization
DTLS supports endpoint authentication with certificates or preshared DTLS supports endpoint authentication with certificates or preshared
keys. The TLS algorithm suites for each endpoint authentication keys. The TLS algorithm suites for each endpoint authentication
method are described below. method are described below.
2.4.4.1. Authenticating with Certificates 2.4.4.1. Authenticating with Certificates
Note that only block ciphers are currently recommended for use with Note that only block ciphers are currently recommended for use with
DTLS. To understand the reasoning behind this, see [17]. At DTLS. To understand the reasoning behind this, see [21]. At
present, the following algorithms MUST be supported when using present, the following algorithms MUST be supported when using
certificates for CAPWAP authentication: certificates for CAPWAP authentication:
o TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA o TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
The following algorithms SHOULD be supported when using certificates: The following algorithms SHOULD be supported when using certificates:
o TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA o TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
The following algorithms MAY be supported when using certificates: The following algorithms MAY be supported when using certificates:
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If a single PSK is being used for multiple devices on a CAPWAP If a single PSK is being used for multiple devices on a CAPWAP
network, which is NOT RECOMMENDED, the PSK Hint and Identity can no network, which is NOT RECOMMENDED, the PSK Hint and Identity can no
longer be a MAC address, so appropriate hints and identities SHOULD longer be a MAC address, so appropriate hints and identities SHOULD
be selected to identify the group of devices to which the PSK is be selected to identify the group of devices to which the PSK is
provisioned. provisioned.
3. CAPWAP Transport 3. CAPWAP Transport
Communication between a WTP and an AC is established using the Communication between a WTP and an AC is established using the
standard UDP client/server model. The CAPWAP protocol supports both standard UDP client/server model. The CAPWAP protocol supports both
UDP and UDP-Lite [11] transport protocols. The UDP protocol is used UDP and UDP-Lite [11] transport protocols. When run over IPv4, UDP
with IPv4. When CAPWAP is used over IPv6, the UDP-Lite protocol is is used for the CAPWAP control and data channels.
used. This section describes how the CAPWAP protocol is carried over
IP and UDP/UDP-Lite transport protocols. When run over IPv6, the CAPWAP control channel always uses UDP, while
the CAPWAP data channel may use either UDP or UDP-Lite. UDP-Lite is
the default transport protocol for the CAPWAP data channel. However,
if a middlebox or IPv4 to IPv6 gateway has been discovered, UDP is
used for the CAPWAP data channel.
This section describes how the CAPWAP protocol is carried over IP and
UDP/UDP-Lite transport protocols. The CAPWAP Transport Protocol
message element Section 4.6.12 describes the rules to use in
determing which transport protocol is to be used.
3.1. UDP Transport 3.1. UDP Transport
One of the CAPWAP protocol requirements is to allow a WTP to reside One of the CAPWAP protocol requirements is to allow a WTP to reside
behind a firewall and/or Network Address Translation (NAT) device. behind a middlebox, firewall and/or Network Address Translation (NAT)
Since a CAPWAP session is initiated by the WTP (client) to the well- device. Since a CAPWAP session is initiated by the WTP (client) to
known UDP port of the AC (server), the use of UDP is a logical the well-known UDP port of the AC (server), the use of UDP is a
choice. The UDP checksum field in CAPWAP packets MUST be set to logical choice. The UDP checksum field in CAPWAP packets MUST be set
zero. to zero.
CAPWAP protocol control packets sent from the WTP to the AC use the CAPWAP protocol control packets sent from the WTP to the AC use the
CAPWAP control channel, as defined in Section 1.4. The CAPWAP CAPWAP control channel, as defined in Section 1.4. The CAPWAP
control port at the AC is the well known UDP port [to be IANA control port at the AC is the well known UDP port [to be IANA
assigned]. The CAPWAP control port at the WTP can be any port assigned]. The CAPWAP control port at the WTP can be any port
selected by the WTP. selected by the WTP.
CAPWAP protocol data packets sent from the WTP to the AC use the CAPWAP protocol data packets sent from the WTP to the AC use the
CAPWAP data channel, as defined in Section 1.4. The CAPWAP data port CAPWAP data channel, as defined in Section 1.4. The CAPWAP data port
at the AC is the well known UDP port [to be IANA assigned]. The at the AC is the well known UDP port [to be IANA assigned]. The
CAPWAP data port at the WTP can be any port selected by the WTP. CAPWAP data port at the WTP can be any port selected by the WTP.
3.2. UDP-Lite Transport 3.2. UDP-Lite Transport
When CAPWAP is run over IPv6, UDP-Lite is used as the transport When CAPWAP is run over IPv6, UDP-Lite is the default transport
protocol, reducing the checksum processing required for each packet protocol, which reduces the checksum processing required for each
(compared to UDP and IPv6). When UDP-Lite is used, the checksum packet (compared to the use of UDP over IPv6 [13]). When UDP-Lite is
field MUST have a coverage of 8 [11]. used, the checksum field MUST have a coverage of 8 [11].
UDP-Lite uses the same port assignments as UDP. UDP-Lite uses the same port assignments as UDP.
3.3. AC Discovery 3.3. AC Discovery
The AC discovery phase allows the WTP to determine which ACs are The AC discovery phase allows the WTP to determine which ACs are
available, and chose the best AC with which to establish a CAPWAP available, and chose the best AC with which to establish a CAPWAP
session. The discovery phase occurs when the WTP enters the optional session. The discovery phase occurs when the WTP enters the optional
Discovery state. A WTP does not need to complete the AC Discovery Discovery state. A WTP does not need to complete the AC Discovery
phase if it uses a pre-configured AC. This section details the phase if it uses a pre-configured AC. This section details the
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WTP use of a limited IP broadcast, multicast or unicast IP address is WTP use of a limited IP broadcast, multicast or unicast IP address is
implementation dependent. implementation dependent.
When a WTP transmits a Discovery Request message to a unicast When a WTP transmits a Discovery Request message to a unicast
address, the WTP must first obtain the IP address of the AC. Any address, the WTP must first obtain the IP address of the AC. Any
static configuration of an AC's IP address on the WTP non-volatile static configuration of an AC's IP address on the WTP non-volatile
storage is implementation dependent. However, additional dynamic storage is implementation dependent. However, additional dynamic
schemes are possible, for example: schemes are possible, for example:
DHCP: See [13] for more information on the use of DHCP to discover DHCP: See [17] for more information on the use of DHCP to discover
AC IP addresses. AC IP addresses.
DNS: The DNS name "CAPWAP-AC-Address" MAY be resolvable to one or DNS: The DNS name "CAPWAP-AC-Address" MAY be resolvable to one or
more AC addresses. more AC addresses.
An AC MAY also communicate alternative ACs to the WTP within the An AC MAY also communicate alternative ACs to the WTP within the
Discovery Response message through the AC IPv4 List (see Discovery Response message through the AC IPv4 List (see
Section 4.6.2) and AC IPv6 List (see Section 4.6.2). The addresses Section 4.6.2) and AC IPv6 List (see Section 4.6.2). The addresses
provided in these two message elements are intended to help the WTP provided in these two message elements are intended to help the WTP
discover additional ACs through means other than those listed above. discover additional ACs through means other than those listed above.
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While fragmentation and reassembly services are provided by IP, the While fragmentation and reassembly services are provided by IP, the
CAPWAP protocol also provides such services. Environments where the CAPWAP protocol also provides such services. Environments where the
CAPWAP protocol is used involve firewall, NAT and "middle box" CAPWAP protocol is used involve firewall, NAT and "middle box"
devices, which tend to drop IP fragments to minimize possible DoS devices, which tend to drop IP fragments to minimize possible DoS
attacks. By providing fragmentation and reassembly at the attacks. By providing fragmentation and reassembly at the
application layer, any fragmentation required due to the tunneling application layer, any fragmentation required due to the tunneling
component of the CAPWAP protocol becomes transparent to these component of the CAPWAP protocol becomes transparent to these
intermediate devices. Consequently, the CAPWAP protocol can be used intermediate devices. Consequently, the CAPWAP protocol can be used
in any network configuration. in any network configuration.
3.5. MTU Discovery
Once a WTP has discovered the AC it wishes to establish a CAPWAP
session with, it SHOULD perform a Path MTU (PMTU) discovery. The MTU
discovered is used to configure the DTLS component (see
Section 2.3.2.1), while non-DTLS frames need to be fragmented to fit
the MTU, defined in Section 3.4. The procedures described in [14],
for IPv4, or [15], for IPv6 SHOULD be used. The WTP SHOULD also
periodically re-evaluate the MTU using the guidelines provided in
these two RFCs.
4. CAPWAP Packet Formats 4. CAPWAP Packet Formats
This section contains the CAPWAP protocol packet formats. A CAPWAP This section contains the CAPWAP protocol packet formats. A CAPWAP
protocol packet consists of one or more CAPWAP Transport Layer packet protocol packet consists of one or more CAPWAP Transport Layer packet
headers followed by a CAPWAP message. The CAPWAP message can be headers followed by a CAPWAP message. The CAPWAP message can be
either of type Control or Data, where Control packets carry either of type Control or Data, where Control packets carry
signaling, and Data packets carry user payloads. The CAPWAP frame signaling, and Data packets carry user payloads. The CAPWAP frame
formats for CAPWAP Data packets, and for DTLS encapsulated CAPWAP formats for CAPWAP Data packets, and for DTLS encapsulated CAPWAP
Data and Control packets are defined below. Data and Control packets are defined below.
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Message Elements: A CAPWAP Control packet includes one or more Message Elements: A CAPWAP Control packet includes one or more
message elements, which are found immediately following the message elements, which are found immediately following the
Control Header. These message elements are in a Type/Length/value Control Header. These message elements are in a Type/Length/value
style header, defined in Section 4.6. style header, defined in Section 4.6.
A CAPWAP implementation MUST be capable of receiving a reassembled A CAPWAP implementation MUST be capable of receiving a reassembled
CAPWAP message of length 4096 bytes. A CAPWAP implementation MAY CAPWAP message of length 4096 bytes. A CAPWAP implementation MAY
indicate that it supports a higher maximum message length, by indicate that it supports a higher maximum message length, by
including the Maximum Message Length message element, see including the Maximum Message Length message element, see
Section 4.6.29 in the Join Request message or the Join Response Section 4.6.32 in the Join Request message or the Join Response
message. message.
4.1. CAPWAP Preamble 4.1. CAPWAP Preamble
The CAPWAP preamble is common to all CAPWAP transport headers and is The CAPWAP preamble is common to all CAPWAP transport headers and is
used to identify the header type that immediately follows. The used to identify the header type that immediately follows. The
reason for this header is to avoid needing to perform byte reason for this header is to avoid needing to perform byte
comparisons in order to guess whether the frame is DTLS encrypted or comparisons in order to guess whether the frame is DTLS encrypted or
not. It also provides an extensibility framework that can be used to not. It also provides an extensibility framework that can be used to
support additional transport types. The format of the preamble is as support additional transport types. The format of the preamble is as
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field MUST be padded with zeroes (0x00) if it is not 4 byte field MUST be padded with zeroes (0x00) if it is not 4 byte
aligned. aligned.
The field contains the basic format: The field contains the basic format:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Length | MAC Address | Length | MAC Address
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Length: The length of the MAC Address field [18] [19]. Length: The length of the MAC Address field [22] [23].
MAC Address: The MAC Address of the receiving radio. MAC Address: The MAC Address of the receiving radio.
Wireless Specific Information: This optional field contains Wireless Specific Information: This optional field contains
technology specific information that may be used to carry per technology specific information that may be used to carry per
packet wireless information. This field is only present if the packet wireless information. This field is only present if the
'W' bit is set. The HLEN field assumes 4 byte alignment, and this 'W' bit is set. The HLEN field assumes 4 byte alignment, and this
field MUST be padded with zeroes (0x00) if it is not 4 byte field MUST be padded with zeroes (0x00) if it is not 4 byte
aligned. aligned.
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| Message Element Length | Message Element [0..N] ... | Message Element Length | Message Element [0..N] ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Message Element Length: The Length field indicates the number of Message Element Length: The Length field indicates the number of
bytes following the CAPWAP Header. bytes following the CAPWAP Header.
Message Element[0..N]: The message element(s) carry the information Message Element[0..N]: The message element(s) carry the information
pertinent to each of the CAPWAP Data Keepalive message. The pertinent to each of the CAPWAP Data Keepalive message. The
following message elements MUST be present in this CAPWAP message: following message elements MUST be present in this CAPWAP message:
Session ID, see Section 4.6.35 Session ID, see Section 4.6.37
4.4.2. Data Payload 4.4.2. Data Payload
A CAPWAP protocol Data Payload packet encapsulates a forwarded A CAPWAP protocol Data Payload packet encapsulates a forwarded
wireless frame. The CAPWAP protocol defines two different modes of wireless frame. The CAPWAP protocol defines two different modes of
encapsulation; IEEE 802.3 and native wireless. IEEE 802.3 encapsulation; IEEE 802.3 and native wireless. IEEE 802.3
encapsulation requires that the bridging function be performed in the encapsulation requires that the bridging function be performed in the
WTP. An IEEE 802.3 encapsulated user payload frame has the following WTP. An IEEE 802.3 encapsulated user payload frame has the following
format: format:
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alterations to the original Request message MUST have a new Sequence alterations to the original Request message MUST have a new Sequence
Number, and be treated as a new Request message by the receiver. Number, and be treated as a new Request message by the receiver.
After transmitting a Request message, the RetransmitInterval (see After transmitting a Request message, the RetransmitInterval (see
Section 4.7) timer and MaxRetransmit (see Section 4.8) variable are Section 4.7) timer and MaxRetransmit (see Section 4.8) variable are
used to determine if the original Request message needs to be used to determine if the original Request message needs to be
retransmitted. The RetransmitInterval timer is used the first time retransmitted. The RetransmitInterval timer is used the first time
the Request is retransmitted. The timer is then doubled every the Request is retransmitted. The timer is then doubled every
subsequent time the same Request message is retransmitted, up to subsequent time the same Request message is retransmitted, up to
MaxRetransmit but no more than half the EchoInterval timer (see MaxRetransmit but no more than half the EchoInterval timer (see
Section 4.7.5). Response messages are not subject to these timers. Section 4.7.7). Response messages are not subject to these timers.
When a Request message is retransmitted, it MUST be re-encrypted via When a Request message is retransmitted, it MUST be re-encrypted via
the DTLS stack. If the peer had received the Request message, and the DTLS stack. If the peer had received the Request message, and
the corresponding Response message was lost, it is necessary to the corresponding Response message was lost, it is necessary to
ensure that retransmitted Request messages are not identified as ensure that retransmitted Request messages are not identified as
replays by the DTLS stack. Similarly, any cached Response messages replays by the DTLS stack. Similarly, any cached Response messages
that are retransmitted as a result of receiving a retransmitted that are retransmitted as a result of receiving a retransmitted
Request message MUST be re-encrypted via DTLS. Request message MUST be re-encrypted via DTLS.
Duplicate Response messages, identified by the Sequence Number field Duplicate Response messages, identified by the Sequence Number field
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AC IPv4 List 2 AC IPv4 List 2
AC IPv6 List 3 AC IPv6 List 3
AC Name 4 AC Name 4
AC Name with Index 5 AC Name with Index 5
AC Timestamp 6 AC Timestamp 6
Add MAC ACL Entry 7 Add MAC ACL Entry 7
Add Station 8 Add Station 8
Add Static MAC ACL Entry 9 Add Static MAC ACL Entry 9
CAPWAP Control IPV4 Address 10 CAPWAP Control IPV4 Address 10
CAPWAP Control IPV6 Address 11 CAPWAP Control IPV6 Address 11
CAPWAP Transport Protocol TBD
CAPWAP Local IPV4 Address TBD
CAPWAP Local IPV6 Address TBD
CAPWAP Timers 12 CAPWAP Timers 12
Data Transfer Data 13 Data Transfer Data 13
Data Transfer Mode 14 Data Transfer Mode 14
Decryption Error Report 15 Decryption Error Report 15
Decryption Error Report Period 16 Decryption Error Report Period 16
Delete MAC ACL Entry 17 Delete MAC ACL Entry 17
Delete Station 18 Delete Station 18
Delete Static MAC ACL Entry 19 Delete Static MAC ACL Entry 19
Discovery Type 20 Discovery Type 20
Duplicate IPv4 Address 21 Duplicate IPv4 Address 21
Duplicate IPv6 Address 22 Duplicate IPv6 Address 22
Idle Timeout 23 Idle Timeout 23
Image Data 24 Image Data 24
Image Identifier 25 Image Identifier 25
Image Info 26 Image Info 26
Initiate Download 27 Initiate Download 27
Location Data 28 Location Data 28
Maximum Message Length 29 Maximum Message Length 29
MTU Discovery Padding 30
Radio Administrative State 31 CAPWAP Message Element Type Value
Radio Operational State 32
Result Code 33 AC Descriptor 1
Returned Message Element 34 AC IPv4 List 2
Session ID 35 AC IPv6 List 3
Statistics Timer 36 AC Name 4
Vendor Specific Payload 37 AC Name with Index 5
WTP Board Data 38 AC Timestamp 6
WTP Descriptor 39 Add MAC ACL Entry 7
WTP Fallback 40 Add Station 8
WTP Frame Tunnel Mode 41 Add Static MAC ACL Entry 9
WTP IPv4 IP Address 42 CAPWAP Control IPV4 Address 10
WTP IPv6 IP Address 43 CAPWAP Control IPV6 Address 11
WTP MAC Type 44 CAPWAP Transport Protocol TBD
WTP Name 45 CAPWAP Local IPV4 Address TBD
WTP Operational Statistics 46 CAPWAP Local IPV6 Address TBD
WTP Radio Statistics 47 CAPWAP Timers 12
WTP Reboot Statistics 48 Data Transfer Data 13
WTP Static IP Address Information 49 Data Transfer Mode 14
Decryption Error Report 15
Decryption Error Report Period 16
Delete MAC ACL Entry 17
Delete Station 18
Delete Static MAC ACL Entry 19
Discovery Type 20
Duplicate IPv4 Address 21
Duplicate IPv6 Address 22
Idle Timeout 23
Image Data 24
Image Identifier 25
Image Info 26
Initiate Download 27
Location Data 28
Maximum Message Length 29
4.6.1. AC Descriptor 4.6.1. AC Descriptor
The AC Descriptor message element is used by the AC to communicate The AC Descriptor message element is used by the AC to communicate
its current state. The value contains the following fields. its current state. The value contains the following fields.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Stations | Limit | | Stations | Limit |
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+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 11 for CAPWAP Control IPv6 Address Type: 11 for CAPWAP Control IPv6 Address
Length: 18 Length: 18
IP Address: The IP Address of an interface. IP Address: The IP Address of an interface.
WTP Count: The number of WTPs currently connected to the interface. WTP Count: The number of WTPs currently connected to the interface.
4.6.12. CAPWAP Timers 4.6.12. CAPWAP Transport Protocol
When CAPWAP is run over IPv6, the UDP-Lite or UDP transports MAY be
used (see Section 3). The CAPWAP IPv6 Transport Protocol message
element is used by either the WTP or the AC to signal which transport
protocol is to be used for the CAPWAP data channel.
Upon receiving the Join Request, the AC MAY set the CAPWAP Transport
Protocol to UDP-Lite in the Configuration Status Request or Image
Data Request message if the CAPWAP message was received over IPv6,
and the CAPWAP Local IPv6 Address message element (see
Section 4.6.14) is present and the address matches the packet's
source IP address.
Upon receiving the Configuration Status Request or Image Data Request
message, the WTP MAY set the CAPWAP Transport Protocol to UDP-Lite in
the Configuration Status Response or Image Data Response message if
the message was received over IPv6, and the CAPWAP Local IPv6 Address
message element (see Section 4.6.14) is present and the address
matches the packet's source IP address.
For any other condition, the CAPWAP Transport Protocol MUST be set to
UDP.
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Transport |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: TBD for CAPWAP Transport Protocol
Length: 1
Transport: The transport to use for the CAPWAP data channel.
1 - UDP-Lite The UDP-Lite transport protocol is to be used for
the CAPWAP data channel. Note that this option is illegal is
either the WTP or the AC uses IPv4.
2 - UDP The UDP transport protocol is to be used for the CAPWAP
data channel.
4.6.13. CAPWAP Local IPv4 Address
The CAPWAP Local IPv4 Address message element is sent by either the
WTP or the AC in the Join Request, Configuration Status Request or
Image Data Request message in order to communicate the IP Address of
the transmitter. The receiver uses this to determine whether a
middlebox exists between the two peers, by comparing the source IP
address of the packet against the value of the message element.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: TBD for CAPWAP Local IPv4 Address
Length: 4
IP Address: The IP Address of the sender.
4.6.14. CAPWAP Local IPv6 Address
The CAPWAP Local IPv6 Address message element is sent by either the
WTP or the AC in the Discovery Response or Join Request in order to
communicate the IP Address of the transmitter. The receiver uses
this to determine whether a middlebox exists between the two peers,
by comparing the source IP address of the packet against the value of
the message element.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: TBD for CAPWAP Local IPv6 Address
Length: 16
IP Address: The IP Address of the sender.
4.6.15. CAPWAP Timers
The CAPWAP Timers message element is used by an AC to configure The CAPWAP Timers message element is used by an AC to configure
CAPWAP timers on a WTP. CAPWAP timers on a WTP.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Discovery | Echo Request | | Discovery | Echo Request |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 12 for CAPWAP Timers Type: 12 for CAPWAP Timers
Length: 2 Length: 2
Discovery: The number of seconds between CAPWAP Discovery messages, Discovery: The number of seconds between CAPWAP Discovery messages,
when the WTP is in the discovery phase. when the WTP is in the discovery phase.
Echo Request: The number of seconds between WTP Echo Request CAPWAP Echo Request: The number of seconds between WTP Echo Request CAPWAP
messages. The default value for this message element is specified messages. The default value for this message element is specified
in Section 4.7.5. in Section 4.7.7.
4.6.13. Data Transfer Data 4.6.16. Data Transfer Data
The Data Transfer Data message element is used by the WTP to provide The Data Transfer Data message element is used by the WTP to provide
information to the AC for debugging purposes. information to the AC for debugging purposes.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Data Type | Data Length | Data .... | Data Type | Data Length | Data ....
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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Type: 13 for Data Transfer Data Type: 13 for Data Transfer Data
Length: >= 3 Length: >= 3
Data Type: An 8-bit value the type of information being sent. The Data Type: An 8-bit value the type of information being sent. The
following values are supported: following values are supported:
1 - WTP Crash Data 1 - WTP Crash Data
2 - WTP Memory Dump 2 - WTP Memory Dump
Data Length: Length of data field. Data Length: Length of data field.
Data: Debug information. Data: Debug information.
4.6.14. Data Transfer Mode 4.6.17. Data Transfer Mode
The Data Transfer Mode message element is used by the WTP to indicate The Data Transfer Mode message element is used by the WTP to indicate
the type of data transfer information it is sending to the AC for the type of data transfer information it is sending to the AC for
debugging purposes. debugging purposes.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Data Type | | Data Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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Length: 1 Length: 1
Data Type: An 8-bit value the type of information being requested. Data Type: An 8-bit value the type of information being requested.
The following values are supported: The following values are supported:
1 - WTP Crash Data 1 - WTP Crash Data
2 - WTP Memory Dump 2 - WTP Memory Dump
4.6.15. Decryption Error Report 4.6.18. Decryption Error Report
The Decryption Error Report message element value is used by the WTP The Decryption Error Report message element value is used by the WTP
to inform the AC of decryption errors that have occurred since the to inform the AC of decryption errors that have occurred since the
last report. Note that this error reporting mechanism is not used if last report. Note that this error reporting mechanism is not used if
encryption and decryption services are provided in the AC. encryption and decryption services are provided in the AC.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Radio ID |Num Of Entries | Length |MAC Address... | Radio ID |Num Of Entries | Length |MAC Address...
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WTP. WTP.
Num of Entries: The number of instances of the Type/MAC Addresses Num of Entries: The number of instances of the Type/MAC Addresses
fields in the array. fields in the array.
Length: The length of the MAC Address field. Length: The length of the MAC Address field.
MAC Address: MAC addresses of the station that has caused MAC Address: MAC addresses of the station that has caused
decryption errors. decryption errors.
4.6.16. Decryption Error Report Period 4.6.19. Decryption Error Report Period
The Decryption Error Report Period message element value is used by The Decryption Error Report Period message element value is used by
the AC to inform the WTP how frequently it should send decryption the AC to inform the WTP how frequently it should send decryption
error report messages. Note that this error reporting mechanism is error report messages. Note that this error reporting mechanism is
not used if encryption and decryption services are provided in the not used if encryption and decryption services are provided in the
AC. AC.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Radio ID | Report Interval | | Radio ID | Report Interval |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 16 for Decryption Error Report Period Type: 16 for Decryption Error Report Period
Length: 3 Length: 3
Radio ID: The Radio Identifier refers to an interface index on the Radio ID: The Radio Identifier refers to an interface index on the
WTP. WTP.
Report Interval: A 16-bit unsigned integer indicating the time, in Report Interval: A 16-bit unsigned integer indicating the time, in
seconds. The default value for this message element can be found seconds. The default value for this message element can be found
in Section 4.8.8. in Section 4.8.8.
4.6.17. Delete MAC ACL Entry 4.6.20. Delete MAC ACL Entry
The Delete MAC ACL Entry message element is used by an AC to delete a The Delete MAC ACL Entry message element is used by an AC to delete a
MAC ACL entry on a WTP, ensuring that the WTP provides service to the MAC ACL entry on a WTP, ensuring that the WTP provides service to the
MAC addresses provided in the message. MAC addresses provided in the message.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Num of Entries| Length | MAC Address ... | Num of Entries| Length | MAC Address ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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Length: >= 8 Length: >= 8
Num of Entries: The number of instances of the Type/MAC Addresses Num of Entries: The number of instances of the Type/MAC Addresses
fields in the array. fields in the array.
Length: The length of the MAC Address field. Length: The length of the MAC Address field.
MAC Address: An array of MAC Addresses to delete from the ACL. MAC Address: An array of MAC Addresses to delete from the ACL.
4.6.18. Delete Station 4.6.21. Delete Station
The Delete Station message element is used by the AC to inform a WTP The Delete Station message element is used by the AC to inform a WTP
that it should no longer provide service to a particular station. that it should no longer provide service to a particular station.
The WTP MUST terminate service to the station immediately upon The WTP MUST terminate service to the station immediately upon
receiving this message element. receiving this message element.
The transmission of a Delete Station message element could occur for The transmission of a Delete Station message element could occur for
various reasons, including for administrative reasons, or if the various reasons, including for administrative reasons, or if the
station has roamed to another WTP. station has roamed to another WTP.
skipping to change at page 64, line 5 skipping to change at page 66, line 21
Type: 18 for Delete Station Type: 18 for Delete Station
Length: >= 8 Length: >= 8
Radio ID: An 8-bit value representing the radio Radio ID: An 8-bit value representing the radio
Length: The length of the MAC Address field. Length: The length of the MAC Address field.
MAC Address: The station's MAC Address MAC Address: The station's MAC Address
4.6.19. Delete Static MAC ACL Entry 4.6.22. Delete Static MAC ACL Entry
The Delete Static MAC ACL Entry message element is used by an AC to The Delete Static MAC ACL Entry message element is used by an AC to
delete a previously added static MAC ACL entry on a WTP, ensuring delete a previously added static MAC ACL entry on a WTP, ensuring
that the WTP provides service to the MAC addresses provided in the that the WTP provides service to the MAC addresses provided in the
message. message.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Num of Entries| Length | MAC Address ... | Num of Entries| Length | MAC Address ...
skipping to change at page 64, line 30 skipping to change at page 66, line 46
Length: >= 8 Length: >= 8
Num of Entries: The number of instances of the Type/MAC Addresses Num of Entries: The number of instances of the Type/MAC Addresses
fields in the array. fields in the array.
Length: The length of the MAC Address field. Length: The length of the MAC Address field.
MAC Address: An array of MAC Addresses to delete from the static MAC Address: An array of MAC Addresses to delete from the static
MAC ACL entry. MAC ACL entry.
4.6.20. Discovery Type 4.6.23. Discovery Type
The Discovery Type message element is used by the WTP to indicate how The Discovery Type message element is used by the WTP to indicate how
it has come to know about the existence of the AC to which it is it has come to know about the existence of the AC to which it is
sending the Discovery Request message. sending the Discovery Request message.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Discovery Type| | Discovery Type|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 65, line 4 skipping to change at page 67, line 19
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 20 for Discovery Type Type: 20 for Discovery Type
Length: 1 Length: 1
Discovery Type: An 8-bit value indicating how the WTP discovered Discovery Type: An 8-bit value indicating how the WTP discovered
the AC. The following values are supported: the AC. The following values are supported:
0 - Unknown 0 - Unknown
1 - Static Configuration 1 - Static Configuration
2 - DHCP 2 - DHCP
3 - DNS 3 - DNS
4 - AC Referral (used when the AC was configured either through 4 - AC Referral (used when the AC was configured either through
the AC IPv4 List or AC IPv6 List message element) the AC IPv4 List or AC IPv6 List message element)
4.6.21. Duplicate IPv4 Address 4.6.24. Duplicate IPv4 Address
The Duplicate IPv4 Address message element is used by a WTP to inform The Duplicate IPv4 Address message element is used by a WTP to inform
an AC that it has detected another IP device using the same IP an AC that it has detected another IP device using the same IP
address that the WTP is currently using. address that the WTP is currently using.
The WTP MUST transmit this message element with the status set to 1 The WTP MUST transmit this message element with the status set to 1
after it has detected a duplicate IP address. When the WTP detects after it has detected a duplicate IP address. When the WTP detects
that the duplicate IP address has been cleared, it MUSY send this that the duplicate IP address has been cleared, it MUSY send this
message element with the status set to 0. message element with the status set to 0.
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IP Address: The IP Address currently used by the WTP. IP Address: The IP Address currently used by the WTP.
Status: The status of the duplicate IP address. The value MUST be Status: The status of the duplicate IP address. The value MUST be
set to 1 when a duplicate address is detected, and 0 when the set to 1 when a duplicate address is detected, and 0 when the
duplicate address has been cleared. duplicate address has been cleared.
Length: The length of the MAC Address field. Length: The length of the MAC Address field.
MAC Address: The MAC Address of the offending device. MAC Address: The MAC Address of the offending device.
4.6.22. Duplicate IPv6 Address 4.6.25. Duplicate IPv6 Address
The Duplicate IPv6 Address message element is used by a WTP to inform The Duplicate IPv6 Address message element is used by a WTP to inform
an AC that it has detected another host using the same IP address an AC that it has detected another host using the same IP address
that the WTP is currently using. that the WTP is currently using.
The WTP MUST transmit this message element with the status set to 1 The WTP MUST transmit this message element with the status set to 1
after it has detected a duplicate IP address. When the WTP detects after it has detected a duplicate IP address. When the WTP detects
that the duplicate IP address has been cleared, it MUST send this that the duplicate IP address has been cleared, it MUST send this
message element with the status set to 0. message element with the status set to 0.
skipping to change at page 66, line 38 skipping to change at page 69, line 9
IP Address: The IP Address currently used by the WTP. IP Address: The IP Address currently used by the WTP.
Status: The status of the duplicate IP address. The value MUST be Status: The status of the duplicate IP address. The value MUST be
set to 1 when a duplicate address is detected, and 0 when the set to 1 when a duplicate address is detected, and 0 when the
duplicate address has been cleared. duplicate address has been cleared.
Length: The length of the MAC Address field. Length: The length of the MAC Address field.
MAC Address: The MAC Address of the offending device. MAC Address: The MAC Address of the offending device.
4.6.23. Idle Timeout 4.6.26. Idle Timeout
The Idle Timeout message element is sent by the AC to the WTP to The Idle Timeout message element is sent by the AC to the WTP to
provide the idle timeout value that the WTP SHOULD enforce for its provide the idle timeout value that the WTP SHOULD enforce for its
active stations. The value applies to all radios on the WTP. active stations. The value applies to all radios on the WTP.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Timeout | | Timeout |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 67, line 4 skipping to change at page 69, line 20
The Idle Timeout message element is sent by the AC to the WTP to The Idle Timeout message element is sent by the AC to the WTP to
provide the idle timeout value that the WTP SHOULD enforce for its provide the idle timeout value that the WTP SHOULD enforce for its
active stations. The value applies to all radios on the WTP. active stations. The value applies to all radios on the WTP.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Timeout | | Timeout |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 23 for Idle Timeout Type: 23 for Idle Timeout
Length: 4 Length: 4
Timeout: The current idle timeout to be enforced by the WTP. The Timeout: The current idle timeout to be enforced by the WTP. The
default value for this message element is specified in default value for this message element is specified in
Section 4.8.5. Section 4.8.5.
4.6.24. Image Data 4.6.27. Image Data
The Image Data message element is present in the Image Data Request The Image Data message element is present in the Image Data Request
message sent by the AC and contains the following fields. message sent by the AC and contains the following fields.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Opcode | Value ... | Opcode | Value ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 67, line 33 skipping to change at page 70, line 4
Type: 24 for Image Data Type: 24 for Image Data
Length: >= 1 Length: >= 1
Opcode: An 8-bit value representing the transfer opcode. The Opcode: An 8-bit value representing the transfer opcode. The
following values are supported: following values are supported:
1 - Image data is included 1 - Image data is included
2 - Last Image Data Block is included (EOF) 2 - Last Image Data Block is included (EOF)
5 - An error occurred. Transfer is aborted 5 - An error occurred. Transfer is aborted
Value: The Image Data field contains up to 1024 characters. If the Value: The Image Data field contains up to 1024 characters. If the
block being sent is the last one, the Opcode is set to 2. The AC block being sent is the last one, the Opcode is set to 2. The AC
MAY opt to abort the data transfer by setting the Opcode to 5. MAY opt to abort the data transfer by setting the Opcode to 5.
When the Opcode is 5, the Value field has a zero length. When the Opcode is 5, the Value field has a zero length.
4.6.25. Image Identifier 4.6.28. Image Identifier
The Image Identifier message element is sent by the AC to the WTP and The Image Identifier message element is sent by the AC to the WTP and
is used to indicate the expected active software version that is to is used to indicate the expected active software version that is to
be run on the WTP. The value is a variable length UTF-8 encoded be run on the WTP. The value is a variable length UTF-8 encoded
string, which is NOT zero terminated. string, which is NOT zero terminated.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Vendor Identifier | | Vendor Identifier |
skipping to change at page 68, line 20 skipping to change at page 70, line 33
| Value... | Value...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 25 for Image Identifier Type: 25 for Image Identifier
Length: >= 1 Length: >= 1
Value: A variable length UTF-8 encoded string containing the Value: A variable length UTF-8 encoded string containing the
firmware identifier to be run on the WTP. firmware identifier to be run on the WTP.
4.6.26. Image Information 4.6.29. Image Information
The Image Information message element is present in the Image Data The Image Information message element is present in the Image Data
Response message sent by the AC to the WTP and contains the following Response message sent by the AC to the WTP and contains the following
fields. fields.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| File Size | Hash | | File Size |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Hash | | Hash |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Hash | | Hash |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Hash | | Hash |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Hash | | Hash |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 26 for Image Information Type: 26 for Image Information
Length: 18 Length: 18
File Size: A 16-bit value containing the size of the file that will File Size: A 32-bit value containing the size of the file, in
be transfered by the AC to the WTP. bytes, that will be transfered by the AC to the WTP.
Hash: A 16 octet hash of the image. The hash is computed using Hash: A 16 octet hash of the image. The hash is computed using
MD5, using the following pseudo-code: MD5, using the following pseudo-code:
#include <md5.h> #include <md5.h>
CapwapCreateHash(char *hash, char *image, int image_len) CapwapCreateHash(char *hash, char *image, int image_len)
{ {
MD_CTX context; MD_CTX context;
MDInit (&context); MDInit (&context);
MDUpdate (&context, buffer, len); MDUpdate (&context, buffer, len);
MDFinal (hash, &context); MDFinal (hash, &context);
} }
4.6.27. Initiate Download 4.6.30. Initiate Download
The Initiate Download message element is used by the AC to inform the The Initiate Download message element is used by the AC to inform the
WTP that the WTP SHOULD initiate a firmware upgrade. The WTP WTP that the WTP SHOULD initiate a firmware upgrade. The WTP
subsequently transmits an Image Data Request message which includes subsequently transmits an Image Data Request message which includes
the Image Download message element. This message element does not the Image Download message element. This message element does not
contain any data. contain any data.
Type: 27 for Initiate Download Type: 27 for Initiate Download
Length: 0 Length: 0
4.6.28. Location Data 4.6.31. Location Data
The Location Data message element is a variable length byte UTF-8 The Location Data message element is a variable length byte UTF-8
encoded string containing user defined location information (e.g. encoded string containing user defined location information (e.g.
"Next to Fridge"). This information is configurable by the network "Next to Fridge"). This information is configurable by the network
administrator, and allows the WTP location to be determined. The administrator, and allows the WTP location to be determined. The
string is not zero terminated. string is not zero terminated.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
skipping to change at page 69, line 40 skipping to change at page 72, line 4
encoded string containing user defined location information (e.g. encoded string containing user defined location information (e.g.
"Next to Fridge"). This information is configurable by the network "Next to Fridge"). This information is configurable by the network
administrator, and allows the WTP location to be determined. The administrator, and allows the WTP location to be determined. The
string is not zero terminated. string is not zero terminated.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| Location ... | Location ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Type: 28 for Location Data Type: 28 for Location Data
Length: > 0 Length: > 0
Location: A non-zero terminated UTF-8 encoded string containing the Location: A non-zero terminated UTF-8 encoded string containing the
WTP location. WTP location.
4.6.29. Maximum Message Length 4.6.32. Maximum Message Length
The Maximum Message Length message element is included in the Join The Maximum Message Length message element is included in the Join
Request message by the WTP to indicate the maximum CAPWAP message Request message by the WTP to indicate the maximum CAPWAP message
length that it supports to the AC. The Maximum Message Length length that it supports to the AC. The Maximum Message Length
message element is optionally included in Join Response message by message element is optionally included in Join Response message by
the AC to indicate the maximum CAPWAP message length that it supports the AC to indicate the maximum CAPWAP message length that it supports
to the WTP. to the WTP.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
skipping to change at page 70, line 21 skipping to change at page 72, line 33
| Maximum Message Length | | Maximum Message Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Type: 29 for Maximim Message Length Type: 29 for Maximim Message Length
Length: 2 Length: 2
Maximum Message Length An 16-bit unsigned integer indicating the Maximum Message Length An 16-bit unsigned integer indicating the
maximum message length. maximum message length.
4.6.30. MTU Discovery Padding 4.6.33. Radio Administrative State
The MTU Discovery Padding message element is used as padding to
perform MTU discovery, and MUST contain octets of value 0xFF, of any
length
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Padding...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Type: 30 for MTU Discovery Padding
Length: variable
Pad: A variable length pad.
4.6.31. Radio Administrative State
The Radio Administrative State message element is used to communicate The Radio Administrative State message element is used to communicate
the state of a particular radio. The Radio Administrative State the state of a particular radio. The Radio Administrative State
message element is sent by the AC to change the state of the WTP. message element is sent by the AC to change the state of the WTP.
The WTP saves the value, to ensure that it remains across WTP resets. The WTP saves the value, to ensure that it remains across WTP resets.
The WTP communicates this message element during the configuration The WTP communicates this message element during the configuration
phase, in the Configuration Status Request message, to ensure that AC phase, in the Configuration Status Request message, to ensure that AC
has the WTP radio current administrative state settings. The message has the WTP radio current administrative state settings. The message
element contains the following fields. element contains the following fields.
skipping to change at page 71, line 28 skipping to change at page 73, line 21
state of a WTP, it includes 0xff in the Radio ID field. state of a WTP, it includes 0xff in the Radio ID field.
Admin State: An 8-bit value representing the administrative state Admin State: An 8-bit value representing the administrative state
of the radio. The default value for the Admin State field is of the radio. The default value for the Admin State field is
listed in Section 4.8.1. The following values are supported: listed in Section 4.8.1. The following values are supported:
1 - Enabled 1 - Enabled
2 - Disabled 2 - Disabled
4.6.32. Radio Operational State 4.6.34. Radio Operational State
The Radio Operational State message element is sent by the WTP to the The Radio Operational State message element is sent by the WTP to the
AC to communicate a radio's operational state. This message element AC to communicate a radio's operational state. This message element
is included in the Configuration Update Response message by the WTP is included in the Configuration Update Response message by the WTP
if it was requested to change the state of its radio, via the Radio if it was requested to change the state of its radio, via the Radio
Administrative State message element, but was unable to comply to the Administrative State message element, but was unable to comply to the
request. This message element is included in the Change State Event request. This message element is included in the Change State Event
message when a WTP radio state was changed unexpectedly. This could message when a WTP radio state was changed unexpectedly. This could
occur due to a hardware failure. Note that the operational state occur due to a hardware failure. Note that the operational state
setting is not saved on the WTP, and therefore does not remain across setting is not saved on the WTP, and therefore does not remain across
skipping to change at page 72, line 24 skipping to change at page 74, line 17
supported: supported:
0 - Normal 0 - Normal
1 - Radio Failure 1 - Radio Failure
2 - Software Failure 2 - Software Failure
3 - Administratively Set 3 - Administratively Set
4.6.33. Result Code 4.6.35. Result Code
The Result Code message element value is a 32-bit integer value, The Result Code message element value is a 32-bit integer value,
indicating the result of the Request message corresponding to the indicating the result of the Request message corresponding to the
Sequence Number included in the Response message. Sequence Number included in the Response message.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Result Code | | Result Code |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 73, line 42 skipping to change at page 75, line 34
17 Image Data Error (Image Already Present) 17 Image Data Error (Image Already Present)
18 Message Unexpected (Invalid in current state) 18 Message Unexpected (Invalid in current state)
19 Message Unexpected (Unrecognized Request) 19 Message Unexpected (Unrecognized Request)
20 Failure - Missing Mandatory Message Element 20 Failure - Missing Mandatory Message Element
21 Failure - Unrecognized Message Element 21 Failure - Unrecognized Message Element
4.6.34. Returned Message Element 4.6.36. Returned Message Element
The Returned Message Element is sent by the WTP in the Change State The Returned Message Element is sent by the WTP in the Change State
Event Request message to communicate to the AC which message elements Event Request message to communicate to the AC which message elements
in the Configuration Status Response it was unable to apply locally. in the Configuration Status Response it was unable to apply locally.
The Returned Message Element message element contains a result code The Returned Message Element message element contains a result code
indicating the reason that the configuration could not be applied, indicating the reason that the configuration could not be applied,
and encapsulates the failed message element. and encapsulates the failed message element.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
skipping to change at page 74, line 30 skipping to change at page 76, line 23
2 - Unsupported Message Element 2 - Unsupported Message Element
3 - Unknown Message Element Value 3 - Unknown Message Element Value
4 - Unsupported Message Element Value 4 - Unsupported Message Element Value
Message Element: The Message Element field encapsulates the message Message Element: The Message Element field encapsulates the message
element sent by the AC in the Configuration Status Response element sent by the AC in the Configuration Status Response
message that caused the error. message that caused the error.
4.6.35. Session ID 4.6.37. Session ID
The Session ID message element value contains a randomly generated The Session ID message element value contains a randomly generated
unsigned 32-bit integer. unsigned 32-bit integer.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Session ID | | Session ID |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 35 for Session ID Type: 35 for Session ID
Length: 16 Length: 16
Session ID: A 32-bit unsigned integer used as a random session Session ID: A 32-bit unsigned integer used as a random session
identifier identifier
4.6.36. Statistics Timer 4.6.38. Statistics Timer
The Statistics Timer message element value is used by the AC to The Statistics Timer message element value is used by the AC to
inform the WTP of the frequency with which it expects to receive inform the WTP of the frequency with which it expects to receive
updated statistics. updated statistics.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Statistics Timer | | Statistics Timer |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 36 for Statistics Timer Type: 36 for Statistics Timer
Length: 2 Length: 2
Statistics Timer: A 16-bit unsigned integer indicating the time, in Statistics Timer: A 16-bit unsigned integer indicating the time, in
seconds. The default value for this timer is specified in seconds. The default value for this timer is specified in
Section 4.7.12. Section 4.7.14.
4.6.37. Vendor Specific Payload 4.6.39. Vendor Specific Payload
The Vendor Specific Payload message element is used to communicate The Vendor Specific Payload message element is used to communicate
vendor specific information between the WTP and the AC. The message vendor specific information between the WTP and the AC. The message
element uses the following format: element uses the following format:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Vendor Identifier | | Vendor Identifier |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Element ID | Value... | | Element ID | Value... |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 37 for Vendor Specific Type: 37 for Vendor Specific
Length: >= 7 Length: >= 7
Vendor Identifier: A 32-bit value containing the IANA assigned "SMI Vendor Identifier: A 32-bit value containing the IANA assigned "SMI
Network Management Private Enterprise Codes" [14] Network Management Private Enterprise Codes" [18]
Element ID: A 16-bit Element Identifier which is managed by the Element ID: A 16-bit Element Identifier which is managed by the
vendor. vendor.
Value: The value associated with the vendor specific element. Value: The value associated with the vendor specific element.
4.6.38. WTP Board Data 4.6.40. WTP Board Data
The WTP Board Data message element is sent by the WTP to the AC and The WTP Board Data message element is sent by the WTP to the AC and
contains information about the hardware present. contains information about the hardware present.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Vendor Identifier | | Vendor Identifier |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type=0 | Length | | Type=0 | Length |
skipping to change at page 77, line 5 skipping to change at page 78, line 45
2 - Board ID: A hardware identifier, which MAY be included in 2 - Board ID: A hardware identifier, which MAY be included in
the WTP Board Data mesage element. the WTP Board Data mesage element.
3 - Board Revision A revision number of the board, which MAY be 3 - Board Revision A revision number of the board, which MAY be
included in the WTP Board Data message element. included in the WTP Board Data message element.
4 - Base MAC Addres The WTP's Base MAC Address, which MAY be 4 - Base MAC Addres The WTP's Base MAC Address, which MAY be
assigned to the primary Ethernet interface. assigned to the primary Ethernet interface.
4.6.39. WTP Descriptor 4.6.41. WTP Descriptor
The WTP Descriptor message element is used by a WTP to communicate The WTP Descriptor message element is used by a WTP to communicate
its current hardware and software (firmware) configuration. The its current hardware and software (firmware) configuration. The
value contains the following fields. value contains the following fields.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Max Radios | Radios in use | Encryption Capabilities | | Max Radios | Radios in use | Encryption Capabilities |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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2 - Boot Version: The WTP boot loader version number. 2 - Boot Version: The WTP boot loader version number.
3 - Other Software Version: The WTP non-running software 3 - Other Software Version: The WTP non-running software
(firmware) version number. (firmware) version number.
Length: Length of vendor specific encoding of WTP information. Length: Length of vendor specific encoding of WTP information.
Value: Vendor specific data of WTP information encoded in the UTF-8 Value: Vendor specific data of WTP information encoded in the UTF-8
format. format.
4.6.40. WTP Fallback 4.6.42. WTP Fallback
The WTP Fallback message element is sent by the AC to the WTP to The WTP Fallback message element is sent by the AC to the WTP to
enable or disable automatic CAPWAP fallback in the event that a WTP enable or disable automatic CAPWAP fallback in the event that a WTP
detects its preferred AC, and is not currently connected to it. detects its preferred AC, and is not currently connected to it.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Mode | | Mode |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 79, line 20 skipping to change at page 81, line 9
current AC and reconnect to its primary AC. If disabled, the WTP current AC and reconnect to its primary AC. If disabled, the WTP
will only reconnect to its primary AC through manual intervention will only reconnect to its primary AC through manual intervention
(e.g., through the Reset Request message). The default value for (e.g., through the Reset Request message). The default value for
this field is specified in Section 4.8.10. The following values this field is specified in Section 4.8.10. The following values
are supported: are supported:
1 - Enabled 1 - Enabled
2 - Disabled 2 - Disabled
4.6.41. WTP Frame Tunnel Mode 4.6.43. WTP Frame Tunnel Mode
The WTP Frame Tunnel Mode message element allows the WTP to The WTP Frame Tunnel Mode message element allows the WTP to
communicate the tunneling modes of operation which it supports to the communicate the tunneling modes of operation which it supports to the
AC. A WTP that advertises support for all types allows the AC to AC. A WTP that advertises support for all types allows the AC to
select which type will be used, based on its local policy. select which type will be used, based on its local policy.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tunnel Mode | | Tunnel Mode |
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WTP MAC Type is set to Split-MAC. WTP MAC Type is set to Split-MAC.
4 - Native Frame Tunnel Mode: Native Frame Tunnel mode requires 4 - Native Frame Tunnel Mode: Native Frame Tunnel mode requires
the WTP and AC to encapsulate all user payloads as native the WTP and AC to encapsulate all user payloads as native
wireless frames, as defined by the wireless binding (see for wireless frames, as defined by the wireless binding (see for
example Section 4.4). example Section 4.4).
7 - All: The WTP is capable of supporting all frame tunnel 7 - All: The WTP is capable of supporting all frame tunnel
modes. modes.
4.6.42. WTP IPv4 IP Address 4.6.44. WTP IPv4 IP Address
The WTP IPv4 address is used to perform NAT detection. The WTP IPv4 address is used to perform NAT detection.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| WTP IPv4 IP Address | | WTP IPv4 IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 42 for WTP IPv4 IP Address Type: 42 for WTP IPv4 IP Address
Length: 4 Length: 4
WTP IPv4 IP Address: The IPv4 address from which the WTP is sending WTP IPv4 IP Address: The IPv4 address from which the WTP is sending
packets. This field is used for NAT detection. packets. This field is used for NAT detection.
4.6.43. WTP IPv6 IP Address 4.6.45. WTP IPv6 IP Address
The WTP IPv6 address is used to perform NAT detection (e.g., IPv4 to The WTP IPv6 address is used to perform NAT detection (e.g., IPv4 to
IPv6 NAT to help with technology transition). IPv6 NAT to help with technology transition).
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| WTP IPv6 IP Address | | WTP IPv6 IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| WTP IPv6 IP Address | | WTP IPv6 IP Address |
skipping to change at page 81, line 4 skipping to change at page 82, line 38
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| WTP IPv6 IP Address | | WTP IPv6 IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| WTP IPv6 IP Address | | WTP IPv6 IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| WTP IPv6 IP Address | | WTP IPv6 IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| WTP IPv6 IP Address | | WTP IPv6 IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 43 for WTP IPv6 IP Address Type: 43 for WTP IPv6 IP Address
Length: 32 Length: 32
WTP IPv6 IP Address: The IPv6 address from which the WTP is sending WTP IPv6 IP Address: The IPv6 address from which the WTP is sending
packets. This field is used for NAT detection. packets. This field is used for NAT detection.
4.6.44. WTP MAC Type 4.6.46. WTP MAC Type
The WTP MAC-Type message element allows the WTP to communicate its The WTP MAC-Type message element allows the WTP to communicate its
mode of operation to the AC. A WTP that advertises support for both mode of operation to the AC. A WTP that advertises support for both
modes allows the AC to select the mode to use, based on local policy. modes allows the AC to select the mode to use, based on local policy.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| MAC Type | | MAC Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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0 - Local-MAC: Local-MAC is the default mode that MUST be 0 - Local-MAC: Local-MAC is the default mode that MUST be
supported by all WTPs. supported by all WTPs.
1 - Split-MAC: Split-MAC support is optional, and allows the AC 1 - Split-MAC: Split-MAC support is optional, and allows the AC
to receive and process native wireless frames. to receive and process native wireless frames.
2 - Both: WTP is capable of supporting both Local-MAC and Split- 2 - Both: WTP is capable of supporting both Local-MAC and Split-
MAC. MAC.
4.6.45. WTP Name 4.6.47. WTP Name
The WTP Name message element is a variable length byte UTF-8 encoded The WTP Name message element is a variable length byte UTF-8 encoded
string. The string is not zero terminated. string. The string is not zero terminated.
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
| WTP Name ... | WTP Name ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Type: 45 for WTP Name Type: 45 for WTP Name
Length: variable Length: variable
WTP Name: A non-zero terminated UTF-8 encoded string containing the WTP Name: A non-zero terminated UTF-8 encoded string containing the
WTP name. WTP name.
4.6.46. WTP Operational Statistics 4.6.48. WTP Operational Statistics
The WTP Operational Statistics message element is sent by the WTP to The WTP Operational Statistics message element is sent by the WTP to
the AC to provide statistics related to the operation of the WTP. the AC to provide statistics related to the operation of the WTP.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Radio ID | Tx Queue Level | Wireless Link Frames per Sec | | Radio ID | Tx Queue Level | Wireless Link Frames per Sec |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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Wireless Transmit Queue Level: The percentage of Wireless Transmit Wireless Transmit Queue Level: The percentage of Wireless Transmit
queue utilization, calculated as the sum of utilized transmit queue utilization, calculated as the sum of utilized transmit
queue lengths divided by the sum of maximum transmit queue queue lengths divided by the sum of maximum transmit queue
lengths, multiplied by 100. The Wireless Transmit Queue Level is lengths, multiplied by 100. The Wireless Transmit Queue Level is
representative of congestion conditions over wireless interfaces representative of congestion conditions over wireless interfaces
between the WTP and stations. between the WTP and stations.
Wireless Link Frames per Sec: The number of frames transmitted or Wireless Link Frames per Sec: The number of frames transmitted or
received per second by the WTP over the air interface. received per second by the WTP over the air interface.
4.6.47. WTP Radio Statistics 4.6.49. WTP Radio Statistics
The WTP Radio Statistics message element is sent by the WTP to the AC The WTP Radio Statistics message element is sent by the WTP to the AC
to communicate statistics on radio behavior and reasons why the WTP to communicate statistics on radio behavior and reasons why the WTP
radio has been reset. radio has been reset.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Radio ID | Last Fail Type| Reset Count | | Radio ID | Last Fail Type| Reset Count |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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Channel Change Count: The number of times that the radio channel Channel Change Count: The number of times that the radio channel
has been changed. has been changed.
Band Change Count: The number of times that the radio has changed Band Change Count: The number of times that the radio has changed
frequency bands. frequency bands.
Current Noise Floor: A signed integer which indicates the noise Current Noise Floor: A signed integer which indicates the noise
floor of the radio receiver in units of dBm. floor of the radio receiver in units of dBm.
4.6.48. WTP Reboot Statistics 4.6.50. WTP Reboot Statistics
The WTP Reboot Statistics message element is sent by the WTP to the The WTP Reboot Statistics message element is sent by the WTP to the
AC to communicate reasons why WTP reboots have occurred. AC to communicate reasons why WTP reboots have occurred.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Reboot Count | AC Initiated Count | | Reboot Count | AC Initiated Count |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Link Failure Count | SW Failure Count | | Link Failure Count | SW Failure Count |
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2 - Link Failure 2 - Link Failure
3 - Software Failure 3 - Software Failure
4 - Hardware Failure 4 - Hardware Failure
5 - Other Failure 5 - Other Failure
255 - Unknown (e.g., WTP doesn't keep track of info) 255 - Unknown (e.g., WTP doesn't keep track of info)
4.6.49. WTP Static IP Address Information 4.6.51. WTP Static IP Address Information
The WTP Static IP Address Information message element is used by an The WTP Static IP Address Information message element is used by an
AC to configure or clear a previously configured static IP address on AC to configure or clear a previously configured static IP address on
a WTP. a WTP.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IP Address | | IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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This section contains the CAPWAP timers. This section contains the CAPWAP timers.
4.7.1. ChangeStatePendingTimer 4.7.1. ChangeStatePendingTimer
The maximum time, in seconds, the AC will wait for the Change State The maximum time, in seconds, the AC will wait for the Change State
Event Request from the WTP after having transmitted a successful Event Request from the WTP after having transmitted a successful
Configuration Status Response message. The default value is 25 Configuration Status Response message. The default value is 25
seconds. seconds.
4.7.2. DataChannelDeadInterval 4.7.2. DataChannelKeepAlive
The DataChannelKeepAlive timer is used by the WTP to determine the
next opportunity when it must transmit the Data Channel KeepAlive.
Default: 30
4.7.3. DataChannelDeadInterval
The minimum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait without having received The minimum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait without having received
a Data Channel Keep Alive packet before the destination for the Data a Data Channel Keep Alive packet before the destination for the Data
Channel Keep Alive packets may be considered dead. The value of this Channel Keep Alive packets may be considered dead. The value of this
timer MUST be no less than 2*DataChannelKeepAlive seconds and no timer MUST be no less than 2*DataChannelKeepAlive seconds and no
greater that 240 seconds. greater that 240 seconds.
Default: 5 Default: 5
4.7.3. DiscoveryInterval 4.7.4. DataCheckTimer
The number of seconds the AC will wait for the Data Channel Keep
Alive, which is required by the CAPWAP state machine's Data Check
state. The AC resets the state machine if this timer expires prior
to transitioning to the next state.
Default: 30
4.7.5. DiscoveryInterval
The minimum time, in seconds, that a WTP MUST wait after receiving a The minimum time, in seconds, that a WTP MUST wait after receiving a
Discovery Response message, before initiating a DTLS handshake. Discovery Response message, before initiating a DTLS handshake.
Default: 5 Default: 5
4.7.4. DTLSSessionDelete 4.7.6. DTLSSessionDelete
The minimum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait for DTLS session The minimum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait for DTLS session
deletion. deletion.
Default: 5 Default: 5
4.7.5. EchoInterval 4.7.7. EchoInterval
The minimum time, in seconds, between sending Echo Request messages The minimum time, in seconds, between sending Echo Request messages
to the AC with which the WTP has joined. to the AC with which the WTP has joined.
Default: 30 Default: 30
4.7.6. MaxDiscoveryInterval 4.7.8. ImageDataStartTimer
The number of seconds the AC will wait for the WTP to initiate the
Image Data process.
Default: 30
4.7.9. MaxDiscoveryInterval
The maximum time allowed between sending Discovery Request messages, The maximum time allowed between sending Discovery Request messages,
in seconds. This value MUST be no less than 2 seconds and no greater in seconds. This value MUST be no less than 2 seconds and no greater
than 180 seconds. than 180 seconds.
Default: 20 seconds. Default: 20 seconds.
4.7.7. MaxFailedDTLSSessionRetry 4.7.10. MaxFailedDTLSSessionRetry
The maximum number of failed DTLS session establishment attempts The maximum number of failed DTLS session establishment attempts
before the CAPWAP device enters a silent period. before the CAPWAP device enters a silent period.
Default: 3. Default: 3.
4.7.8. NeighborDeadInterval 4.7.11. ResponseTimeout
The minimum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait without having received
an Echo Response message to its Echo Request message, before the
destination for the Echo Request may be considered dead. This value
MUST be no less than 2*EchoInterval seconds and no greater than 240
seconds.
Default: 60
4.7.9. ResponseTimeout
The minimum time, in seconds, in which the WTP or AC MUST respond to The minimum time, in seconds, in which the WTP or AC MUST respond to
a CAPWAP Request message. a CAPWAP Request message.
Default: 1 Default: 1
4.7.10. RetransmitInterval 4.7.12. RetransmitInterval
The minimum time, in seconds, in which a non-acknowledged CAPWAP The minimum time, in seconds, in which a non-acknowledged CAPWAP
packet will be retransmitted. packet will be retransmitted.
Default: 3 Default: 3
4.7.11. SilentInterval 4.7.13. SilentInterval
For a WTP, this is the minimum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait For a WTP, this is the minimum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait
before it MAY again send Discovery Request messages or attempt to a before it MAY again send Discovery Request messages or attempt to a
establish DTLS session. For an AC, this is the minimum time, in establish DTLS session. For an AC, this is the minimum time, in
seconds, during which the AC SHOULD ignore all CAPWAP and DTLS seconds, during which the AC SHOULD ignore all CAPWAP and DTLS
packets received from the WTP that is in the Sulking state. packets received from the WTP that is in the Sulking state.
Default: 30 Default: 30
4.7.12. StatisticsTimer 4.7.14. StatisticsTimer
The default Statistics Interval is 120 seconds. The default Statistics Interval is 120 seconds.
4.7.13. WaitDTLS 4.7.15. WaitDTLS
The maximum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait without having received The maximum time, in seconds, a WTP MUST wait without having received
a DTLS Handshake message from an AC. This timer MUST be greater than a DTLS Handshake message from an AC. This timer MUST be greater than
30 seconds. 30 seconds.
Default: 60 Default: 60
4.7.14. WaitJoin 4.7.16. WaitJoin
The maximum time, in seconds, after which the DTLS session has been The maximum time, in seconds, after which the DTLS session has been
established that the AC will wait before receiving a Join Request established that the AC will wait before receiving a Join Request
message. This timer MUST be greater than 30 seconds. message. This timer MUST be greater than 30 seconds.
Default: 60 Default: 60
4.8. CAPWAP Protocol Variables 4.8. CAPWAP Protocol Variables
A WTP or AC that implements the CAPWAP Discovery phase MUST allow for A WTP or AC that implements the CAPWAP Discovery phase MUST allow for
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4.9. WTP Saved Variables 4.9. WTP Saved Variables
In addition to the values defined in Section 4.8, the following In addition to the values defined in Section 4.8, the following
values SHOULD be saved on the WTP in non-volatile memory. CAPWAP values SHOULD be saved on the WTP in non-volatile memory. CAPWAP
wireless bindings MAY define additional values that SHOULD be stored wireless bindings MAY define additional values that SHOULD be stored
on the WTP. on the WTP.
4.9.1. AdminRebootCount 4.9.1. AdminRebootCount
The number of times the WTP has rebooted administratively, defined in The number of times the WTP has rebooted administratively, defined in
Section 4.6.48. Section 4.6.50.
4.9.2. FrameEncapType 4.9.2. FrameEncapType
For WTPs that support multiple Frame Encapsulation Types, it is For WTPs that support multiple Frame Encapsulation Types, it is
useful to save the value configured by the AC. The Frame useful to save the value configured by the AC. The Frame
Encapsulation Type is defined in Section 4.6.41. Encapsulation Type is defined in Section 4.6.43.
4.9.3. LastRebootReason 4.9.3. LastRebootReason
The reason why the WTP last rebooted, defined in Section 4.6.48. The reason why the WTP last rebooted, defined in Section 4.6.50.
4.9.4. MacType 4.9.4. MacType
For WTPs that support multiple MAC Types, it is useful to save the For WTPs that support multiple MAC Types, it is useful to save the
value configured by the AC. The MACType is defined in value configured by the AC. The MACType is defined in
Section 4.6.44. Section 4.6.46.
4.9.5. PreferredACs 4.9.5. PreferredACs
The preferred ACs, with the index, defined in Section 4.6.5. The preferred ACs, with the index, defined in Section 4.6.5.
4.9.6. RebootCount 4.9.6. RebootCount
The number of times the WTP has rebooted, defined in Section 4.6.48. The number of times the WTP has rebooted, defined in Section 4.6.50.
4.9.7. Static ACL Table 4.9.7. Static ACL Table
The static ACL table saved on the WTP, as configured by the Add The static ACL table saved on the WTP, as configured by the Add
Static MAC ACL Entry message element, see Section 4.6.9. Static MAC ACL Entry message element, see Section 4.6.9.
4.9.8. Static IP Address 4.9.8. Static IP Address
The static IP Address assigned to the WTP, as configured by the WTP The static IP Address assigned to the WTP, as configured by the WTP
Static IP Address Information message element (see Section 4.6.49). Static IP Address Information message element (see Section 4.6.51).
4.9.9. WTPLinkFailureCount 4.9.9. WTPLinkFailureCount
The number of times the link to the AC has failed, see The number of times the link to the AC has failed, see
Section 4.6.48. Section 4.6.50.
4.9.10. WTPLocation 4.9.10. WTPLocation
The WTP Location, defined in Section 4.6.28. The WTP Location, defined in Section 4.6.31.
4.9.11. WTPName 4.9.11. WTPName
The WTP Name, defined in Section 4.6.45. The WTP Name, defined in Section 4.6.47.
5. CAPWAP Discovery Operations 5. CAPWAP Discovery Operations
The Discovery messages are used by a WTP to determine which ACs are The Discovery messages are used by a WTP to determine which ACs are
available to provide service, and the capabilities and load of the available to provide service, and the capabilities and load of the
ACs. ACs.
5.1. Discovery Request Message 5.1. Discovery Request Message
The Discovery Request message is used by the WTP to automatically The Discovery Request message is used by the WTP to automatically
skipping to change at page 92, line 31 skipping to change at page 94, line 31
state after waiting for a random delay less than state after waiting for a random delay less than
MaxDiscoveryInterval, after a WTP first comes up or is MaxDiscoveryInterval, after a WTP first comes up or is
(re)initialized. A WTP MUST send no more than the maximum of (re)initialized. A WTP MUST send no more than the maximum of
MaxDiscoveries Discovery Request messages, waiting for a random delay MaxDiscoveries Discovery Request messages, waiting for a random delay
less than MaxDiscoveryInterval between each successive message. less than MaxDiscoveryInterval between each successive message.
This is to prevent an explosion of WTP Discovery Request messages. This is to prevent an explosion of WTP Discovery Request messages.
An example of this occurring is when many WTPs are powered on at the An example of this occurring is when many WTPs are powered on at the
same time. same time.
Discovery Request messages MUST be sent by a WTP when no Echo
Response messages are received for NeighborDeadInterval and the WTP
returns to the Idle state. Discovery Request messages are sent after
NeighborDeadInterval. They MUST be sent after waiting for a random
delay less than MaxDiscoveryInterval. A WTP MAY send up to a maximum
of MaxDiscoveries Discovery Request messages, waiting for a random
delay less than MaxDiscoveryInterval between each successive message.
If a Discovery Response message is not received after sending the If a Discovery Response message is not received after sending the
maximum number of Discovery Request messages, the WTP enters the maximum number of Discovery Request messages, the WTP enters the
Sulking state and MUST wait for an interval equal to SilentInterval Sulking state and MUST wait for an interval equal to SilentInterval
before sending further Discovery Request messages. before sending further Discovery Request messages.
Upon receiving a Discovery Request message, the AC will respond with Upon receiving a Discovery Request message, the AC will respond with
a Discovery Response message sent to the address in the source a Discovery Response message sent to the address in the source
address of the received Discovery Request message. address of the received Discovery Request message. Once a Discovery
Response has been received, if the WTP decides to establish a session
with the responding AC, it SHOULD perform an MTU discovery, using the
process described in Section 3.5.
It is possible for the AC to receive a cleartext Discovery Request It is possible for the AC to receive a cleartext Discovery Request
message while a DTLS session is already active with the WTP. This is message while a DTLS session is already active with the WTP. This is
most likely the case if the WTP has rebooted, perhaps due to a most likely the case if the WTP has rebooted, perhaps due to a
software or power failure, but could also be caused by a DoS attack. software or power failure, but could also be caused by a DoS attack.
In such cases, any WTP state, including the state machine instance, In such cases, any WTP state, including the state machine instance,
MUST NOT be cleared until another DTLS session has been successfully MUST NOT be cleared until another DTLS session has been successfully
established, communicated via the DTLSSessionEstablished DTLS established, communicated via the DTLSSessionEstablished DTLS
notification (see Section 2.3.2.2). notification (see Section 2.3.2.2).
The binding specific WTP Radio Information message element (see The binding specific WTP Radio Information message element (see
Section 2.1) is included in the Discovery Request message to Section 2.1) is included in the Discovery Request message to
advertise WTP support for one or more CAPWAP bindings. advertise WTP support for one or more CAPWAP bindings.
The Discovery Request message is sent by the WTP when in the The Discovery Request message is sent by the WTP when in the
Discovery State. The AC does not transmit this message. Discovery State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The following message elements MUST be included in the Discovery The following message elements MUST be included in the Discovery
Request message: Request message:
o Discovery Type, see Section 4.6.20 o Discovery Type, see Section 4.6.23
o WTP Board Data, see Section 4.6.38 o WTP Board Data, see Section 4.6.40
o WTP Descriptor, see Section 4.6.39 o WTP Descriptor, see Section 4.6.41
o WTP Frame Tunnel Mode, see Section 4.6.41 o WTP Frame Tunnel Mode, see Section 4.6.43
o WTP MAC Type, see Section 4.6.44 o WTP MAC Type, see Section 4.6.46
o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the WTP supports; o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the WTP supports;
These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding
Protocols (see Section 2.1). Protocols (see Section 2.1).
5.2. Discovery Response Message 5.2. Discovery Response Message
The Discovery Response message provides a mechanism for an AC to The Discovery Response message provides a mechanism for an AC to
advertise its services to requesting WTPs. advertise its services to requesting WTPs.
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The frequency of the Primary Discovery Request messages should be no The frequency of the Primary Discovery Request messages should be no
more often than the sending of the Echo Request message. more often than the sending of the Echo Request message.
Upon receipt of a Primary Discovery Request message, the AC responds Upon receipt of a Primary Discovery Request message, the AC responds
with a Primary Discovery Response message sent to the address in the with a Primary Discovery Response message sent to the address in the
source address of the received Primary Discovery Request message. source address of the received Primary Discovery Request message.
The following message elements MUST be included in the Primary The following message elements MUST be included in the Primary
Discovery Request message. Discovery Request message.
o Discovery Type, see Section 4.6.20 o Discovery Type, see Section 4.6.23
o WTP Board Data, see Section 4.6.38
o WTP Descriptor, see Section 4.6.39 o WTP Board Data, see Section 4.6.40
o WTP Frame Tunnel Mode, see Section 4.6.41 o WTP Descriptor, see Section 4.6.41
o WTP Frame Tunnel Mode, see Section 4.6.43
o WTP MAC Type, see Section 4.6.44 o WTP MAC Type, see Section 4.6.46
o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the WTP supports; o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the WTP supports;
These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding
Protocols (see Section 2.1 for more information). Protocols (see Section 2.1 for more information).
5.4. Primary Discovery Response 5.4. Primary Discovery Response
The Primary Discovery Response message enables an AC to advertise its The Primary Discovery Response message enables an AC to advertise its
availability and services to requesting WTPs that are configured to availability and services to requesting WTPs that are configured to
have the AC as its primary AC. have the AC as its primary AC.
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If an invalid (i.e. malformed) Join Request message is received, the If an invalid (i.e. malformed) Join Request message is received, the
message MUST be silently discarded by the AC. No response is sent to message MUST be silently discarded by the AC. No response is sent to
the WTP. The AC SHOULD log this event. the WTP. The AC SHOULD log this event.
The Join Request is sent by the WTP when in the Join State. The AC The Join Request is sent by the WTP when in the Join State. The AC
does not transmit this message. does not transmit this message.
The following message elements MUST be included in the Join Request The following message elements MUST be included in the Join Request
message. message.
o Location Data, see Section 4.6.28 o Location Data, see Section 4.6.31
o WTP Board Data, see Section 4.6.38 o WTP Board Data, see Section 4.6.40
o WTP Descriptor, see Section 4.6.39 o WTP Descriptor, see Section 4.6.41
o WTP Name, see Section 4.6.45 o WTP Name, see Section 4.6.47
o Session ID, see Section 4.6.35 o Session ID, see Section 4.6.37
o WTP Frame Tunnel Mode, see Section 4.6.41 o WTP Frame Tunnel Mode, see Section 4.6.43
o WTP MAC Type, see Section 4.6.44 o WTP MAC Type, see Section 4.6.46
o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the WTP supports; o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the WTP supports;
These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding
Protocols (see Section 2.1 for more information). Protocols (see Section 2.1 for more information).
At least one of the following message element MUST be included in the At least one of the following message element MUST be included in the
Join Request message. Join Request message.
o WTP IPv4 IP Address, see Section 4.6.42 o WTP IPv4 IP Address, see Section 4.6.44
o WTP IPv6 IP Address, see Section 4.6.43 o WTP IPv6 IP Address, see Section 4.6.45
The following message element MAY be included in the Join Request The following message element MAY be included in the Join Request
message. message.
o Maximum Message Length, see Section 4.6.29 o Maximum Message Length, see Section 4.6.32
o WTP Reboot Statistics, see Section 4.6.48 o WTP Reboot Statistics, see Section 4.6.50
o WTP IPv4 IP Address, see Section 4.6.42 o WTP IPv4 IP Address, see Section 4.6.44
o WTP IPv6 IP Address, see Section 4.6.43 o WTP IPv6 IP Address, see Section 4.6.45
6.2. Join Response 6.2. Join Response
The Join Response message is sent by the AC to indicate to a WTP that The Join Response message is sent by the AC to indicate to a WTP that
it is capable and willing to provide service to the WTP. it is capable and willing to provide service to the WTP.
The WTP, receiving a Join Response message, checks for success or The WTP, receiving a Join Response message, checks for success or
failure. If the message indicates success, the WTP clears the failure. If the message indicates success, the WTP clears the
WaitDTLS timer for the session and proceeds to the Configure state. WaitDTLS timer for the session and proceeds to the Configure state.
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The Join Response message is sent by the AC when in the Join State. The Join Response message is sent by the AC when in the Join State.
The WTP does not transmit this message. The WTP does not transmit this message.
The following message elements MAY be included in the Join Response The following message elements MAY be included in the Join Response
message. message.
o AC IPv4 List, see Section 4.6.2 o AC IPv4 List, see Section 4.6.2
o AC IPv6 List, see Section 4.6.3 o AC IPv6 List, see Section 4.6.3
o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.25 o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.28
o Maximum Message Length, see Section 4.6.29 o Maximum Message Length, see Section 4.6.32
The following message elements MUST be included in the Join Response The following message elements MUST be included in the Join Response
message. message.
o Result Code, see Section 4.6.33 o Result Code, see Section 4.6.35
o AC Descriptor, see Section 4.6.1 o AC Descriptor, see Section 4.6.1
o AC Name, see Section 4.6.4 o AC Name, see Section 4.6.4
o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the AC supports; o WTP Radio Information message element(s)that the AC supports;
These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding These are defined by the individual link layer CAPWAP Binding
Protocols (see Section 2.1). Protocols (see Section 2.1).
One of the following message elements MUST be included in the One of the following message elements MUST be included in the
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messages are used to maintain the control communication channel. messages are used to maintain the control communication channel.
7.1. Echo Request 7.1. Echo Request
The Echo Request message is a keep-alive mechanism for CAPWAP control The Echo Request message is a keep-alive mechanism for CAPWAP control
messages. messages.
Echo Request messages are sent periodically by a WTP in the Run state Echo Request messages are sent periodically by a WTP in the Run state
(see Section 2.3) to determine the state of the control connection (see Section 2.3) to determine the state of the control connection
between the WTP and the AC. The Echo Request message is sent by the between the WTP and the AC. The Echo Request message is sent by the
WTP when the EchoInterval timer expires. The WTP MUST start its WTP when the EchoInterval timer expires.
NeighborDeadInterval timer when the EchoInterval timer expires.
The Echo Request message is sent by the WTP when in the Run State. The Echo Request message is sent by the WTP when in the Run State.
The AC does not transmit this message. The AC does not transmit this message.
The Echo Request message carries no message elements. The Echo Request message carries no message elements.
When an AC receives an Echo Request message it responds with an Echo When an AC receives an Echo Request message it responds with an Echo
Response message. Response message.
7.2. Echo Response 7.2. Echo Response
The Echo Response message acknowledges the Echo Request message. The Echo Response message acknowledges the Echo Request message.
An Echo Response message is sent by an AC after receiving an An Echo Response message is sent by an AC after receiving an Echo
EchoRequest message. After transmitting the Echo Response message, Request message. After transmitting the Echo Response message, the
the AC SHOULD reset its EchoInterval timer. If another Echo Request AC SHOULD reset its EchoInterval timer. If another Echo Request
message or other control message is not received by the AC when the message or other control message is not received by the AC when the
timer expires, the AC SHOULD consider the WTP to be no longer timer expires, the AC SHOULD consider the WTP to be no longer
reachable. reachable.
The Echo Response message is sent by the AC when in the Run State. The Echo Response message is sent by the AC when in the Run State.
The WTP does not transmit this message. The WTP does not transmit this message.
The Echo Response message carries no message elements. The Echo Response message carries no message elements.
When a WTP receives an Echo Response message it stops the When a WTP receives an Echo Response message it initializes the
NeighborDeadInterval timer, and initializes the EchoInterval to the EchoInterval to the configured value.
configured value.
If the NeighborDeadInterval timer expires prior to receiving an Echo
Response message, or other control message, the WTP enters the Idle
state.
8. WTP Configuration Management 8. WTP Configuration Management
WTP Configuration messages are used to exchange configuration WTP Configuration messages are used to exchange configuration
information between the AC and the WTP. information between the AC and the WTP.
8.1. Configuration Consistency 8.1. Configuration Consistency
The CAPWAP protocol provides flexibility in how WTP configuration is The CAPWAP protocol provides flexibility in how WTP configuration is
managed. A WTP has two options: managed. A WTP has two options:
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The Configuration Status message is sent by the WTP when in the The Configuration Status message is sent by the WTP when in the
Configure State. The AC does not transmit this message. Configure State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The following message elements MUST be included in the Configuration The following message elements MUST be included in the Configuration
Status message. Status message.
o AC Name, see Section 4.6.4 o AC Name, see Section 4.6.4
o AC Name with Index, see Section 4.6.5 o AC Name with Index, see Section 4.6.5
o Radio Administrative State, see Section 4.6.31 o Radio Administrative State, see Section 4.6.33
o Statistics Timer, see Section 4.6.36 o Statistics Timer, see Section 4.6.38
o WTP Reboot Statistics, see Section 4.6.48 o WTP Reboot Statistics, see Section 4.6.50
The following message elements MAY be included in the Configuration The following message elements MAY be included in the Configuration
Status message. Status message.
o WTP Static IP Address Information, see Section 4.6.49 o WTP Static IP Address Information, see Section 4.6.51
8.3. Configuration Status Response 8.3. Configuration Status Response
The Configuration Status Response message is sent by an AC and The Configuration Status Response message is sent by an AC and
provides a mechanism for the AC to override a WTP's requested provides a mechanism for the AC to override a WTP's requested
configuration. configuration.
A Configuration Status Response message is sent by an AC after A Configuration Status Response message is sent by an AC after
receiving a Configuration Request message. receiving a Configuration Request message.
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The Configuration Status Response message is sent by the AC when in The Configuration Status Response message is sent by the AC when in
the Configure State. The WTP does not transmit this message. the Configure State. The WTP does not transmit this message.
The following message elements MUST be included in the Configuration The following message elements MUST be included in the Configuration
Status Response message. Status Response message.
o AC IPv4 List, see Section 4.6.2 o AC IPv4 List, see Section 4.6.2
o AC IPv6 List, see Section 4.6.3 o AC IPv6 List, see Section 4.6.3
o CAPWAP Timers, see Section 4.6.12 o CAPWAP Timers, see Section 4.6.15
o Decryption Error Report Period, see Section 4.6.16 o Decryption Error Report Period, see Section 4.6.19
o Idle Timeout, see Section 4.6.23 o Idle Timeout, see Section 4.6.26
o WTP Fallback, see Section 4.6.40 o WTP Fallback, see Section 4.6.42
The following message element MAY be included in the Configuration The following message element MAY be included in the Configuration
Status Response message. Status Response message.
o WTP Static IP Address Information, see Section 4.6.49 o WTP Static IP Address Information, see Section 4.6.51
8.4. Configuration Update Request 8.4. Configuration Update Request
Configuration Update Request messages are sent by the AC to provision Configuration Update Request messages are sent by the AC to provision
the WTP while in the Run state. This is used to modify the the WTP while in the Run state. This is used to modify the
configuration of the WTP while it is operational. configuration of the WTP while it is operational.
When a WTP receives a Configuration Update Request message, it When a WTP receives a Configuration Update Request message, it
responds with a Configuration Update Response message, with a Result responds with a Configuration Update Response message, with a Result
Code message element indicating the result of the configuration Code message element indicating the result of the configuration
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Configuration Update message. Configuration Update message.
o AC Name with Index, see Section 4.6.5 o AC Name with Index, see Section 4.6.5
o AC Timestamp, see Section 4.6.6 o AC Timestamp, see Section 4.6.6
o Add MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.7 o Add MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.7
o Add Static MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.9 o Add Static MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.9
o CAPWAP Timers, see Section 4.6.12 o CAPWAP Timers, see Section 4.6.15
o Decryption Error Report Period, see Section 4.6.16 o Decryption Error Report Period, see Section 4.6.19
o Delete MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.17 o Delete MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.20
o Delete Static MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.19 o Delete Static MAC ACL Entry, see Section 4.6.22
o Idle Timeout, see Section 4.6.23 o Idle Timeout, see Section 4.6.26
o Location Data, see Section 4.6.28 o Location Data, see Section 4.6.31
o Radio Administrative State, see Section 4.6.31 o Radio Administrative State, see Section 4.6.33
o Statistics Timer, see Section 4.6.36 o Statistics Timer, see Section 4.6.38
o WTP Fallback, see Section 4.6.40 o WTP Fallback, see Section 4.6.42
o WTP Name, see Section 4.6.45 o WTP Name, see Section 4.6.47
o WTP Static IP Address Information, see Section 4.6.49 o WTP Static IP Address Information, see Section 4.6.51
o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.25 o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.28
o Initiate Download, see Section 4.6.27 o Initiate Download, see Section 4.6.30
8.5. Configuration Update Response 8.5. Configuration Update Response
The Configuration Update Response message is the acknowledgement The Configuration Update Response message is the acknowledgement
message for the Configuration Update Request message. message for the Configuration Update Request message.
The Configuration Update Response message is sent by a WTP after The Configuration Update Response message is sent by a WTP after
receiving a Configuration Update Request message. receiving a Configuration Update Request message.
When an AC receives a Configuration Update Response message the When an AC receives a Configuration Update Response message the
result code indicates if the WTP successfully accepted the result code indicates if the WTP successfully accepted the
configuration. configuration.
The Configuration Update Response message is sent by the WTP when in The Configuration Update Response message is sent by the WTP when in
the Run State. The AC does not transmit this message. the Run State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The following message element MUST be present in the Configuration The following message element MUST be present in the Configuration
Update message. Update message.
Result Code, see Section 4.6.33 Result Code, see Section 4.6.35
The following message elements MAY be present in the Configuration The following message elements MAY be present in the Configuration
Update Response message. Update Response message.
o Radio Operational State, see Section 4.6.32 o Radio Operational State, see Section 4.6.34
8.6. Change State Event Request 8.6. Change State Event Request
The Change State Event Request message is used by the WTP for two The Change State Event Request message is used by the WTP for two
main purposes: main purposes:
o When sent by the WTP following the reception of a Configuration o When sent by the WTP following the reception of a Configuration
Status Response message from the AC, the WTP uses the Change State Status Response message from the AC, the WTP uses the Change State
Event Request message to provide an update on the WTP radio's Event Request message to provide an update on the WTP radio's
operational state and to confirm that the configuration provided operational state and to confirm that the configuration provided
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service to the WTP if it receives an error, based on local policy, service to the WTP if it receives an error, based on local policy,
and to transition to the Reset state. and to transition to the Reset state.
The Change State Event Request message is sent by a WTP to The Change State Event Request message is sent by a WTP to
acknowledge or report an error condition to the AC for a requested acknowledge or report an error condition to the AC for a requested
configuration in the Configuration Status Response message. The configuration in the Configuration Status Response message. The
Change State Event Request message includes the Result Code message Change State Event Request message includes the Result Code message
element, which indicates whether the configuration was successfully element, which indicates whether the configuration was successfully
applied. If the WTP is unable to apply a specfic configuration applied. If the WTP is unable to apply a specfic configuration
request, it indicates the failure by including one or more Returned request, it indicates the failure by including one or more Returned
Message Element message elements (see Section 4.6.34). Message Element message elements (see Section 4.6.36).
The Change State Event Request message is sent by the WTP in the The Change State Event Request message is sent by the WTP in the
Configure or Run State. The AC does not transmit this message. Configure or Run State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The WTP MAY save its configuration to persistent storage prior to The WTP MAY save its configuration to persistent storage prior to
transmitting the response. However, this is implementation specific transmitting the response. However, this is implementation specific
and is not required. and is not required.
The following message elements MUST be present in the Change State The following message elements MUST be present in the Change State
Event Request message. Event Request message.
o Radio Operational State, see Section 4.6.32 o Radio Operational State, see Section 4.6.34
o Result Code, see Section 4.6.33 o Result Code, see Section 4.6.35
One or more of the following message elements MAY be present in the One or more of the following message elements MAY be present in the
Change State Event Request message. Change State Event Request message.
o Returned Message Element(s), see Section 4.6.34 o Returned Message Element(s), see Section 4.6.36
8.7. Change State Event Response 8.7. Change State Event Response
The Change State Event Response message acknowledges the Change State The Change State Event Response message acknowledges the Change State
Event Request message. Event Request message.
A Change State Event Response message is sent by an AC in response to A Change State Event Response message is sent by an AC in response to
a Change State Event Request message. a Change State Event Request message.
The Change State Event Response message is sent by the AC when in the The Change State Event Response message is sent by the AC when in the
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The Clear Configuration Response message is sent by the WTP after The Clear Configuration Response message is sent by the WTP after
receiving a Clear Configuration Request message and resetting its receiving a Clear Configuration Request message and resetting its
configuration parameters to the manufacturing default values. configuration parameters to the manufacturing default values.
The Clear Configuration Response is sent by the WTP when in the Run The Clear Configuration Response is sent by the WTP when in the Run
State. The AC does not transmit this message. State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The Clear Configuration Request message MUST include the following The Clear Configuration Request message MUST include the following
message element. message element.
o Result Code, see Section 4.6.33 o Result Code, see Section 4.6.35
9. Device Management Operations 9. Device Management Operations
This section defines CAPWAP operations responsible for debugging, This section defines CAPWAP operations responsible for debugging,
gathering statistics, logging, and firmware management. gathering statistics, logging, and firmware management.
9.1. Firmware Management 9.1. Firmware Management
This section describes the firmware download procedures used by the This section describes the firmware download procedures used by the
CAPWAP protocol. Firmware download can occur during the Image Data CAPWAP protocol. Firmware download can occur during the Image Data
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it begins the transfer process by transmitting an Image Data Request it begins the transfer process by transmitting an Image Data Request
message that includes the Image Data message element. This continues message that includes the Image Data message element. This continues
until the firmware image has been transfered. until the firmware image has been transfered.
The Image Data Request message is sent by the WTP or the AC when in The Image Data Request message is sent by the WTP or the AC when in
the Image Data or Run State. the Image Data or Run State.
The following message elements MAY be included in the Image Data The following message elements MAY be included in the Image Data
Request message. Request message.
o Image Data, see Section 4.6.24 o Image Data, see Section 4.6.27
o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.25 o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.28
9.1.2. Image Data Response 9.1.2. Image Data Response
The Image Data Response message acknowledges the Image Data Request The Image Data Response message acknowledges the Image Data Request
message. message.
An Image Data Response message is sent in response to a received An Image Data Response message is sent in response to a received
Image Data Request message. Its purpose is to acknowledge the Image Data Request message. Its purpose is to acknowledge the
receipt of the Image Data Request message. The Result Code is receipt of the Image Data Request message. The Result Code is
included to indicate whether a previously sent Image Data Request included to indicate whether a previously sent Image Data Request
message was invalid. message was invalid.
The Image Data Response message is sent by the WTP or the AC when in The Image Data Response message is sent by the WTP or the AC when in
the Image Data or Run State. the Image Data or Run State.
The following message element MUST be included in the Image Data The following message element MUST be included in the Image Data
Response message. Response message.
o Result Code, see Section 4.6.33 o Result Code, see Section 4.6.35
The following message elements MAY be included in the Image Data The following message elements MAY be included in the Image Data
Response message. Response message.
o Image Information, see Section 4.6.26 o Image Information, see Section 4.6.29
o Initiate Download, see Section 4.6.27 o Initiate Download, see Section 4.6.30
Upon receiving an Image Data Response message indicating an error, Upon receiving an Image Data Response message indicating an error,
the WTP MAY retransmit a previous Image Data Reqest message, or the WTP MAY retransmit a previous Image Data Reqest message, or
abandon the firmware download to the WTP by transitioning to the abandon the firmware download to the WTP by transitioning to the
Reset state. Reset state.
9.2. Reset Request 9.2. Reset Request
The Reset Request message is used to cause a WTP to reboot. The Reset Request message is used to cause a WTP to reboot.
A Reset Request message is sent by an AC to cause a WTP to A Reset Request message is sent by an AC to cause a WTP to
reinitialize its operation. reinitialize its operation.
The Reset Request is sent by the AC when in the Run State. The WTP The Reset Request is sent by the AC when in the Run State. The WTP
does not transmit this message. does not transmit this message.
The following message elements MUST be included in the Reset Request The following message elements MUST be included in the Reset Request
message. message.
o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.25 o Image Identifier, see Section 4.6.28
When a WTP receives a Reset Request message, it responds with a Reset When a WTP receives a Reset Request message, it responds with a Reset
Response message indicating success and then reinitialize itself. If Response message indicating success and then reinitialize itself. If
the WTP is unable to write to its non-volatile storage, to ensure the WTP is unable to write to its non-volatile storage, to ensure
that it runs the requested software version indicated in the Image that it runs the requested software version indicated in the Image
Identifier message element, it MAY send the appropriate Result Code Identifier message element, it MAY send the appropriate Result Code
message element, but MUST reboot. If the WTP is unable to reset, message element, but MUST reboot. If the WTP is unable to reset,
including a hardware reset, it sends a Reset Response message to the including a hardware reset, it sends a Reset Response message to the
AC with a Result Code message element indicating failure. The AC no AC with a Result Code message element indicating failure. The AC no
longer provides service to the WTP. longer provides service to the WTP.
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A Reset Response message is sent by the WTP after receiving a Reset A Reset Response message is sent by the WTP after receiving a Reset
Request message. Request message.
The Reset Response is sent by the WTP when in the Run State. The AC The Reset Response is sent by the WTP when in the Run State. The AC
does not transmit this message. does not transmit this message.
The following message element MAY be included in the Image Data The following message element MAY be included in the Image Data
Request message. Request message.
o Result Code, see Section 4.6.33 o Result Code, see Section 4.6.35
When an AC receives a successful Reset Response message, it is When an AC receives a successful Reset Response message, it is
notified that the WTP will reinitialize its operation. An AC that notified that the WTP will reinitialize its operation. An AC that
receives a Reset Response message indicating failure may opt to no receives a Reset Response message indicating failure may opt to no
longer provide service to the WTP. longer provide service to the WTP.
9.4. WTP Event Request 9.4. WTP Event Request
The WTP Event Request message is used by a WTP to send information to The WTP Event Request message is used by a WTP to send information to
its AC. The WTP Event Request message MAY be sent periodically, or its AC. The WTP Event Request message MAY be sent periodically, or
sent in response to an asynchronous event on the WTP. For example, a sent in response to an asynchronous event on the WTP. For example, a
WTP MAY collect statistics and use the WTP Event Request message to WTP MAY collect statistics and use the WTP Event Request message to
transmit the statistics to the AC. transmit the statistics to the AC.
When an AC receives a WTP Event Request message it will respond with When an AC receives a WTP Event Request message it will respond with
a WTP Event Response message. a WTP Event Response message.
The presence of the Delete Station message element is used by the WTP The presence of the Delete Station message element is used by the WTP
to inform the AC that it is no longer providing service to the to inform the AC that it is no longer providing service to the
station. This could be the result of an Idle Timeout (see station. This could be the result of an Idle Timeout (see
Section 4.6.23), due to to resource shortages, or some other reason. Section 4.6.26), due to to resource shortages, or some other reason.
The WTP Event Request message is sent by the WTP when in the Run The WTP Event Request message is sent by the WTP when in the Run
State. The AC does not transmit this message. State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The WTP Event Request message MUST contain one of the message The WTP Event Request message MUST contain one of the message
elements listed below, or a message element that is defined for a elements listed below, or a message element that is defined for a
specific wireless technology. More than one of each messsage element specific wireless technology. More than one of each messsage element
listed MAY be included in the WTP Event Request message. listed MAY be included in the WTP Event Request message.
o Decryption Error Report, see Section 4.6.15 o Decryption Error Report, see Section 4.6.18
o Duplicate IPv4 Address, see Section 4.6.21 o Duplicate IPv4 Address, see Section 4.6.24
o Duplicate IPv6 Address, see Section 4.6.22 o Duplicate IPv6 Address, see Section 4.6.25
o WTP Operational Statistics, see Section 4.6.46 o WTP Operational Statistics, see Section 4.6.48
o WTP Radio Statistics, see Section 4.6.47 o WTP Radio Statistics, see Section 4.6.49
o WTP Reboot Statistics, see Section 4.6.48 o WTP Reboot Statistics, see Section 4.6.50
o Delete Station, see Section 4.6.18 o Delete Station, see Section 4.6.21
9.5. WTP Event Response 9.5. WTP Event Response
The WTP Event Response message acknowledges receipt of the WTP Event The WTP Event Response message acknowledges receipt of the WTP Event
Request message. Request message.
A WTP Event Response message is sent by an AC after receiving a WTP A WTP Event Response message is sent by an AC after receiving a WTP
Event Request message. Event Request message.
The WTP Event Response message is sent by the AC when in the Run The WTP Event Response message is sent by the AC when in the Run
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When the AC receives a Data Transfer Request message it responds to When the AC receives a Data Transfer Request message it responds to
the WTP with a Data Transfer Response message. The AC MAY log the the WTP with a Data Transfer Response message. The AC MAY log the
information received. information received.
The Data Transfer Request message is sent by the WTP when in the Run The Data Transfer Request message is sent by the WTP when in the Run
State. The AC does not transmit this message. State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The Data Transfer Request message MUST contain one of the message The Data Transfer Request message MUST contain one of the message
elements listed below. elements listed below.
o Data Transfer Data, see Section 4.6.13 o Data Transfer Data, see Section 4.6.16
o Data Transfer Mode, see Section 4.6.14 o Data Transfer Mode, see Section 4.6.17
9.7. Data Transfer Response 9.7. Data Transfer Response
The Data Transfer Response message acknowledges the Data Transfer The Data Transfer Response message acknowledges the Data Transfer
Request message. Request message.
A Data Transfer Response message is sent in response to a received A Data Transfer Response message is sent in response to a received
Data Transfer Request message. Its purpose is to acknowledge receipt Data Transfer Request message. Its purpose is to acknowledge receipt
of the Data Transfer Request message. of the Data Transfer Request message.
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The Station Configuration Request message is sent by the AC when in The Station Configuration Request message is sent by the AC when in
the Run State. The WTP does not transmit this message. the Run State. The WTP does not transmit this message.
The following CAPWAP Control message elements MAY be included in the The following CAPWAP Control message elements MAY be included in the
Station Configuration Request message. More than one of each message Station Configuration Request message. More than one of each message
element listed MAY be included in the Station Configuration Request element listed MAY be included in the Station Configuration Request
message. message.
o Add Station, see Section 4.6.8 o Add Station, see Section 4.6.8
o Delete Station, see Section 4.6.18 o Delete Station, see Section 4.6.21
10.2. Station Configuration Response 10.2. Station Configuration Response
The Station Configuration Response message is used to acknowledge a The Station Configuration Response message is used to acknowledge a
previously received Station Configuration Request message. previously received Station Configuration Request message.
The Station Configuration Response message is sent by the WTP when in The Station Configuration Response message is sent by the WTP when in
the Run State. The AC does not transmit this message. the Run State. The AC does not transmit this message.
The following message element MUST be present in the Station The following message element MUST be present in the Station
Configuration Response message. Configuration Response message.
o Result Code, see Section 4.6.33 o Result Code, see Section 4.6.35
The Result Code message element indicates that the requested The Result Code message element indicates that the requested
configuration was successfully applied, or that an error related to configuration was successfully applied, or that an error related to
processing of the Station Configuration Request message occurred on processing of the Station Configuration Request message occurred on
the WTP. the WTP.
11. NAT Considerations 11. NAT Considerations
There are three specific situations in which a NAT deployment may be There are three specific situations in which a NAT deployment may be
used in conjunction with a CAPWAP-enabled deployment. The first used in conjunction with a CAPWAP-enabled deployment. The first
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the connection requests. The CAPWAP Data Check state, which the connection requests. The CAPWAP Data Check state, which
establishes the data plane connection and communicates the Data establishes the data plane connection and communicates the Data
Keepalive, includes the Session Identifier message element, which is Keepalive, includes the Session Identifier message element, which is
used to bind the control and data plane. Use of the Session used to bind the control and data plane. Use of the Session
Identifier message element enables the AC to match the control and Identifier message element enables the AC to match the control and
data plane flows from multiple WTPs behind the same NAT system data plane flows from multiple WTPs behind the same NAT system
(multiple WTPs sharing the same IP address). (multiple WTPs sharing the same IP address).
In the third configuration, the AC is deployed behind a NAT. Two In the third configuration, the AC is deployed behind a NAT. Two
issues exist in this situation. First, an AC communicates its issues exist in this situation. First, an AC communicates its
interfaces and corresponding WTP load using the CAPWAP Control interfaces and corresponding WTP load using the CAPWAP Control IPv4
IP(v4/v6) Address message element. This message element is currently Address and CAPWAP Control IPv6 Address message elements. This
mandatory, and if NAT compliance becomes an issue, it is possible to message element is mandatory, but contains invalid information if a
either: middlebox is present between the AC and WTP. The WTP MUST NOT
utilize the information in these message elements if it detects a NAT
1. Make the CAPWAP Control IP (v4/v6) Address optional, allowing the (as described in the CAPWAP Transport Protocol message element).
WTP to use the known IP Address. Note that this approach Note this would disable the load balancing capabilities of the CAPWAP
eliminates the ability to perform load balancing of WTP across protocol. Alternatively, the AC could have a configured NAT'ed
ACs, and therefore is not the recommended approach. address, which it would include in either of the two control address
message elements.
2. Allow an AC to configure a NAT'ed address for every AC that would
otherwise be communicated in the CAPWAP Control IP (v4/v6) Address
message element.
3. Require that if a WTP determines that the AC List message element
contains a set of IP Addresses that are different from the AC IP
Address the WTP is currently using, then assume that NAT is
present, and require that the WTP communicate with the AC IP
Address (and ignore the CAPWAP Control IP (v4/v6) Address message
element(s)).
The CAPWAP protocol allows for all of the AC identities supporting a The CAPWAP protocol allows for all of the AC identities supporting a
group of WTPs to be communicated through the AC List message element. group of WTPs to be communicated through the AC List message element.
This feature MUST be disabled when the AC is behind a NAT and the IP This feature MUST be ignored by the WTP when it detects the AC is
Address that is embedded is invalid. behind a middlebox.
The CAPWAP protocol allows an AC to configure a static IP address on The CAPWAP protocol allows an AC to configure a static IP address on
a WTP using the WTP Static IP Address Information message element. a WTP using the WTP Static IP Address Information message element.
This message element SHOULD NOT be used in NAT'ed environments, This message element SHOULD NOT be used in NAT'ed environments,
unless the administrator is familiar with the internal IP addressing unless the administrator is familiar with the internal IP addressing
scheme within the WTP's private network, and does not rely on the scheme within the WTP's private network, and does not rely on the
public address seen by the AC. public address seen by the AC.
When a WTP detects the duplicate address condition, it generates a When a WTP detects the duplicate address condition, it generates a
message to the AC, which includes the Duplicate IP Address message message to the AC, which includes the Duplicate IP Address message
element. The IP Address embedded within this message element is element. The IP Address embedded within this message element is
different from the public IP address seen by the AC. different from the public IP address seen by the AC.
When CAPWAP is run over IPv6, NAT support can only be provided if the
IPv6 NAT system is capable of performing address translation over the
UDP-Lite 3828 protocol [11]. A protocol interoperability issues will
exist if the NAT system is being utilized for IPv4/IPv6 address
translation.
12. Security Considerations 12. Security Considerations
This section describes security considerations for the CAPWAP This section describes security considerations for the CAPWAP
protocol. It also provides security recommendations for protocols protocol. It also provides security recommendations for protocols
used in conjunction with CAPWAP. used in conjunction with CAPWAP.
12.1. CAPWAP Security 12.1. CAPWAP Security
As it is currently specified, the CAPWAP protocol sits between the As it is currently specified, the CAPWAP protocol sits between the
security mechanisms specified by the wireless link layer protocol security mechanisms specified by the wireless link layer protocol
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capability for generation of new random PSKs, taking RFC 4086 [2] capability for generation of new random PSKs, taking RFC 4086 [2]
into account. into account.
o Preshared keys SHOULD be periodically updated. Implementations o Preshared keys SHOULD be periodically updated. Implementations
MAY facilitate this by providing an administrative interface for MAY facilitate this by providing an administrative interface for
automatic key generation and periodic update, or it MAY be automatic key generation and periodic update, or it MAY be
accomplished manually instead. accomplished manually instead.
Every pairwise combination of WTP and AC on the network SHOULD have a Every pairwise combination of WTP and AC on the network SHOULD have a
unqiue PSK. This prevents the domino effect (see Guidance for AAA unqiue PSK. This prevents the domino effect (see Guidance for AAA
Key Management [16]). If PSKs are tied to specific WTPs, then Key Management [20]). If PSKs are tied to specific WTPs, then
knowledge of the PSK implies a binding to a specified identity that knowledge of the PSK implies a binding to a specified identity that
can be authorized. can be authorized.
If PSKs are shared, this binding between device and identity is no If PSKs are shared, this binding between device and identity is no
longer possible. Compromise of one WTP can yield compromise of longer possible. Compromise of one WTP can yield compromise of
another WTP, violating the CAPWAP security hierarchy. Consequently, another WTP, violating the CAPWAP security hierarchy. Consequently,
sharing keys between WTPs is NOT RECOMMENDED. sharing keys between WTPs is NOT RECOMMENDED.
12.6. Use of Certificates in CAPWAP 12.6. Use of Certificates in CAPWAP
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The CAPWAP protocol assumes that it is the only configuration The CAPWAP protocol assumes that it is the only configuration
interface to the WTP to configure parameters that are specified in interface to the WTP to configure parameters that are specified in
the CAPWAP specifications. While the use of a separate management the CAPWAP specifications. While the use of a separate management
protocol MAY be used for the purposes of monitoring the WTP directly, protocol MAY be used for the purposes of monitoring the WTP directly,
configuring the WTP through a separate management interface is not configuring the WTP through a separate management interface is not
recommended. Configuring the WTP through a separate protocol, such recommended. Configuring the WTP through a separate protocol, such
as via a CLI or SNMP, could lead to the AC state being out of sync as via a CLI or SNMP, could lead to the AC state being out of sync
with the WTP. with the WTP.
14. IANA Considerations 14. Transport Considerations
The CAPWAP WG carefully considered the congestion control
requirements of the CAPWAP protocol, both for the CAPWAP control and
data channels.
CAPWAP specifies a single-threaded command/response protocol to be
used on the control channel, and we have specified that an
exponential back-off algorithm should be used when commands are
retransmitted. When CAPWAP runs in its default mode (Local MAC), the
control channel is the only CAPWAP channel.
However, CAPWAP can also be run in Split MAC mode, in which case
there will be a DTLS-encrypted data channel between each WTP and the
AC. The WG discussed various options for providing congestion
control on this channel. However, due to performance problems with
TCP when it is run over another congestion control mechanism and the
fact that the vast majority of traffic run over the CAPWAP data
channel is likely to be congestion-controlled IP traffic, the CAPWAP
WG felt that specifying a congestion control mechanism for the CAPWAP
data channel would be more likely to cause problems than to resolve
any.
Because there is no congestion control mechanism specified for the
CAPWAP data channel, it is recommended that non-congestion-controlled
traffic not be tunneled over CAPWAP. When a significant amount of
non-congestion-controlled traffic is expected to be present on a
WLAN, the CAPWAP connection between the AC and the WTP for that LAN
should be configured to remain in Local MAC mode with Distribution
function at the WTP.
The lock step nature of the CAPWAP protocol's control channel can
cause the firmware download process to take some time, depending upon
the RTT. This is not expected to be a problem since the CAPWAP
protocol allows firmware to be downloaded while the WTP provides
service to wireless clients/devices.
It is necessary for the WTP and AC to configure their MTU based on
the capabilities of the path. See Section 3.5 for more information.
15. IANA Considerations
A separate UDP port for data channel communications is (currently) A separate UDP port for data channel communications is (currently)
the selected demultiplexing mechanism, and a port must be assigned the selected demultiplexing mechanism, and a port must be assigned
for this purpose in Section 3.1. The UDP port numbers are listed by for this purpose in Section 3.1. The UDP port numbers are listed by
IANA at http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers. IANA at http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers.
IANA needs to assign an organization local multicast address called IANA needs to assign an organization local multicast address called
the "All ACs multicast address" from the IPv6 multicast address the "All ACs multicast address" from the IPv6 multicast address
registry in Section 3.3 registry in Section 3.3
14.1. CAPWAP Message Types 15.1. CAPWAP Message Types
The Message Type field in the CAPWAP header (Section 4.5.1.1) is used The Message Type field in the CAPWAP header (Section 4.5.1.1) is used
to identify the operation performed by the message. There are to identify the operation performed by the message. There are
multiple namespaces, which is identified via the first three octets multiple namespaces, which is identified via the first three octets
of the field containing the IANA Enterprise Number [10]. When the of the field containing the IANA Enterprise Number [10]. When the
Enterprise Number is set to zero, the message types are reserved for Enterprise Number is set to zero, the message types are reserved for
use by the base CAPWAP specification which are controlled and use by the base CAPWAP specification which are controlled and
maintained by IANA and requires a Standards Action. maintained by IANA and requires a Standards Action.
14.2. Wireless Binding Identifiers 15.2. Wireless Binding Identifiers
The Wireless Binding Identifier (WBID) field in the CAPWAP header The Wireless Binding Identifier (WBID) field in the CAPWAP header
(Section 4.3) is used to identify the wireless technology associated (Section 4.3) is used to identify the wireless technology associated
with the packet. Due to the limited address space available, a new with the packet. Due to the limited address space available, a new
WBID request requires Standards Action. WBID request requires Standards Action.
15. Acknowledgements 16. Acknowledgements
The following individuals are acknowledged for their contributions to The following individuals are acknowledged for their contributions to
this protocol specification: Puneet Agarwal, Saravanan Govindan, this protocol specification: Puneet Agarwal, Saravanan Govindan,
Peter Nilsson, and David Perkins. Peter Nilsson, and David Perkins.
Michael Vakulenko contributed text to describe how CAPWAP can be used Michael Vakulenko contributed text to describe how CAPWAP can be used
over layer 3 (IP/UDP) networks. over layer 3 (IP/UDP) networks.
16. References 17. References
16.1. Normative References 17.1. Normative References
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[2] Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness [2] Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness
Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005. Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005.
[3] Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, [3] Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification,
Implementation", RFC 1305, March 1992. Implementation", RFC 1305, March 1992.
skipping to change at page 129, line 45 skipping to change at page 130, line 45
Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997. Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997.
[10] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA [10] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
October 1998. October 1998.
[11] Larzon, L-A., Degermark, M., Pink, S., Jonsson, L-E., and G. [11] Larzon, L-A., Degermark, M., Pink, S., Jonsson, L-E., and G.
Fairhurst, "The Lightweight User Datagram Protocol (UDP-Lite)", Fairhurst, "The Lightweight User Datagram Protocol (UDP-Lite)",
RFC 3828, July 2004. RFC 3828, July 2004.
[12] Calhoun, P., Montemurro, M., Stanley, D., "CAPWAP Protocol [12] Mathis, M. and J. Heffner, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
Binding for IEEE 802.11", draft-ietf-capwap-protocol- Discovery", RFC 4821, March 2007.
binding-ieee80211-04 (work in progress), June 2007.
[13] Calhoun, P., "CAPWAP Access Controller DHCP Option", [13] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
draft-ietf-capwap-dhc-ac-option-00 (work in progress), Specification", RFC 1883, December 1995.
June 2007.
16.2. Informational References [14] Mogul, J. and S. Deering, "Path MTU discovery", RFC 1191,
November 1990.
[14] Reynolds, J., "Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced by an On- [15] McCann, J., Deering, S., and J. Mogul, "Path MTU Discovery for
IP version 6", RFC 1981, August 1996.
[16] Calhoun, P., "CAPWAP Protocol Binding for IEEE 802.11",
draft-ietf-capwap-protocol-binding-ieee80211-04 (work in
progress), June 2007.
[17] Calhoun, P., "CAPWAP Access Controller DHCP Option",
draft-calhoun-dhc-capwap-ac-option-00 (work in progress),
April 2007.
17.2. Informational References
[18] Reynolds, J., "Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced by an On-
line Database", RFC 3232, January 2002. line Database", RFC 3232, January 2002.
[15] Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology", [19] Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology",
RFC 3753, June 2004. RFC 3753, June 2004.
[16] Housley, R. and B. Aboba, "Guidance for AAA Key Management", [20] Housley, R. and B. Aboba, "Guidance for AAA Key Management",
draft-housley-aaa-key-mgmt-09 (work in progress), draft-housley-aaa-key-mgmt-09 (work in progress),
February 2007. February 2007.
[17] Modadugu et al, N., "The Design and Implementation of Datagram [21] Modadugu et al, N., "The Design and Implementation of Datagram
TLS", Feb 2004. TLS", Feb 2004.
[18] IEEE, "Guidelines for use of a 48-bit Extended Unique [22] IEEE, "Guidelines for use of a 48-bit Extended Unique
Identifier", Dec 2005. Identifier", Dec 2005.
[19] IEEE, "GUIDELINES FOR 64-BIT GLOBAL IDENTIFIER (EUI-64) [23] IEEE, "GUIDELINES FOR 64-BIT GLOBAL IDENTIFIER (EUI-64)
REGISTRATION AUTHORITY". REGISTRATION AUTHORITY".
Editors' Addresses Editors' Addresses
Pat R. Calhoun Pat R. Calhoun
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive 170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
Phone: +1 408-853-5269 Phone: +1 408-853-5269
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