draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt   draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt 
Network Working Group Eric Mannie (Ebone) - Editor Network Working Group Eric Mannie (Ebone) - Editor
Internet Draft Internet Draft
Expiration date: Dec. 2001 Peter Ashwood-Smith (Nortel) Expiration date: May 2002 Peter Ashwood-Smith (Nortel)
Daniel Awduche (Movaz) Daniel Awduche (Movaz)
Ayan Banerjee (Calient) Ayan Banerjee (Calient)
Debashis Basak (Accelight) Debashis Basak (Accelight)
Lou Berger (Movaz) Lou Berger (Movaz)
Greg Bernstein (Ciena) Greg Bernstein (Ciena)
Sudheer Dharanikota (Nayna)
John Drake (Calient) John Drake (Calient)
Yanhe Fan (Axiowave) Yanhe Fan (Axiowave)
Don Fedyk (Nortel) Don Fedyk (Nortel)
Gert Grammel (Alcatel) Gert Grammel (Alcatel)
Dan Guo (Turin)
Kireeti Kompella (Juniper) Kireeti Kompella (Juniper)
Alan Kullberg (NetPlane) Alan Kullberg (NetPlane)
Jonathan P. Lang (Calient) Jonathan P. Lang (Calient)
Fong Liaw (Zaffire) Fong Liaw (Zaffire)
Thomas D. Nadeau (Cisco) Thomas D. Nadeau (Cisco)
Lyndon Ong (Ciena)
Dimitri Papadimitriou (Alcatel) Dimitri Papadimitriou (Alcatel)
Dimitrios Pendarakis (Tellium) Dimitrios Pendarakis (Tellium)
Bala Rajagopalan (Tellium) Bala Rajagopalan (Tellium)
Yakov Rekhter (Juniper) Yakov Rekhter (Juniper)
Debanjan Saha (Tellium) Debanjan Saha (Tellium)
Hal Sandick (Nortel) Hal Sandick (Nortel)
Vishal Sharma (Metanoia) Vishal Sharma (Metanoia)
George Swallow (Cisco) George Swallow (Cisco)
Z. Bo Tang (Tellium) Z. Bo Tang (Tellium)
Jennifer Yates (AT&T)
George R. Young (Edgeflow)
John Yu (Zaffire) John Yu (Zaffire)
Alex Zinin (Cisco) Alex Zinin (Cisco)
June 2001 November 2001
Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1]. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1].
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts. Drafts.
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draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as
reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 1
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
Status of this Memo................................................1
Table of Contents..................................................2
1. Abstract........................................................4 1. Abstract........................................................4
1.1 List of open issues............................................4 1.1. List of open issues...........................................4
2. Conventions used in this document...............................4 2. Conventions used in this document...............................4
3. Introduction....................................................4 3. Introduction....................................................4
3.1. Acronyms & abbreviations......................................5 3.1. Acronyms & abbreviations......................................5
3.2. Multiple Types of Switching and Forwarding Hierarchies........5 3.2. Multiple Types of Switching and Forwarding Hierarchies........5
3.3. Extension of the MPLS Control Plane...........................7 3.3. Extension of the MPLS Control Plane...........................7
3.4. Key Differences Between MPLS-TE and GMPLS....................10 3.4. GMPLS Key Extensions to MPLS-TE..............................10
4. Routing and addressing model...................................11 4. Routing and addressing model...................................11
4.1 Addressing of PSC and non-PSC layers..........................12 4.1. Addressing of PSC and non-PSC layers.........................12
4.2 GMPLS scalability enhancements................................12 4.2. GMPLS scalability enhancements...............................12
4.3 Extensions to IP TE routing protocols.........................13 4.3. TE Extensions to IP routing protocols........................13
5. Unnumbered links...............................................14 5. Unnumbered links...............................................14
5.1 Unnumbered Forwarding Adjacencies.............................15 5.1. Unnumbered Forwarding Adjacencies............................15
6. Link bundling..................................................15 6. Link bundling..................................................15
6.1 Restrictions on bundling......................................16 6.1. Restrictions on bundling.....................................15
6.2 Routing considerations for bundling...........................16 6.2. Routing considerations for bundling..........................16
6.3 Signaling considerations......................................17 6.3. Signaling considerations.....................................16
6.3.1 Mechanism 1: Implicit Indication............................17 6.3.1. Mechanism 1: Implicit Indication...........................17
6.3.2 Mechanism 2: Explicit Indication by IP Address..............17 6.3.2. Mechanism 2: Explicit Indication by Numbered Interface ID..17
6.3.3 Mechanism 3: Explicit Indication by Component Interface ID..17 6.3.3. Mechanism 3: Explicit Indication by Unnumbered Interface ID17
6.4 Unnumbered Bundled Link.......................................18 6.4. Unnumbered Bundled Link......................................18
6.5 Forming TE links..............................................18 6.5. Forming TE links.............................................18
7. UNI and NNI....................................................19 7. Relationship with the UNI......................................18
7.1 OIF UNI versus GMPLS..........................................19 7.1. Relationship with the OIF UNI................................19
7.2 Routing at the UNI............................................20 7.2. Reachability across the UNI..................................19
8. Link Management................................................20 8. Link Management................................................20
8.1 Control channel and control channel management................21 8.1. Control channel and control channel management...............21
8.2 Link property correlation.....................................22 8.2. Link property correlation....................................22
8.3 Link connectivity verification................................22 8.3. Link connectivity verification...............................22
8.4 Fault management..............................................23 8.4. Fault management.............................................23
9. Generalized Signaling..........................................23 9. Generalized Signaling..........................................24
9.1. Overview: How to Request an LSP..............................25 9.1. Overview: How to Request an LSP..............................25
9.2. Generalized Label Request....................................26 9.2. Generalized Label Request....................................26
9.3. SONET/SDH Traffic Parameters.................................27 9.3. SONET/SDH Traffic Parameters.................................27
9.4. Bandwidth Encoding...........................................28 9.4. G.709 Traffic Parameters.....................................28
9.5. Generalized Label............................................28 9.5. Bandwidth Encoding...........................................29
9.6. Waveband Switching...........................................29 9.6. Generalized Label............................................29
9.7. Label Suggestion by the Upstream.............................29 9.7. Waveband Switching...........................................30
9.8. Label Restriction by the Upstream............................29
9.9. Bi-directional LSP...........................................30
9.10. Bi-directional LSP Contention Resolution....................31
9.11. Rapid Notification of Failure...............................31
9.12. Link Protection.............................................31
9.13. Explicit Routing and Explicit Label Control.................32
9.14. LSP modification and LSP re-routing.........................33
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9.15. Route recording.............................................33 9.8. Label Suggestion by the Upstream.............................30
10. Forwarding Adjacencies (FA)...................................34 9.9. Label Restriction by the Upstream............................30
10.1 Routing and Forwarding Adjacencies...........................34 9.10. Bi-directional LSP..........................................31
10.2. Signaling aspects...........................................35 9.11. Bi-directional LSP Contention Resolution....................32
10.3 Cascading of Forwarding Adjacencies..........................35 9.12. Rapid Notification of Failure...............................32
11.1 Network Management Systems (NMS).............................36 9.13. Link Protection.............................................33
12. Security considerations.......................................38 9.14. Explicit Routing and Explicit Label Control.................34
13. Acknowledgements..............................................39 9.15. Route recording.............................................35
14. References....................................................39 9.16. LSP modification and LSP re-routing.........................35
15. Author's Addresses............................................41 9.17. LSP administrative status handling..........................35
Full Copyright Statement..........................................43 9.18. Control channel separation..................................36
Appendix 1 Brief overview of the ITU-T work on G.ASTN/G.ASON......45 10. Forwarding Adjacencies (FA)...................................37
A.1 Terminology issues............................................45 10.1. Routing and Forwarding Adjacencies..........................38
A.2 Common Equipment Management [G.cemr]..........................45 10.2. Signaling aspects...........................................39
A.3 Data Communications Network [G.dcn]...........................46 10.3. Cascading of Forwarding Adjacencies.........................39
A.4 Distributed Connection Management [G.dcm].....................46 11. Control Plane Fault Handling..................................39
A.5 Generalized Automatic Neighbor Discovery [G.ndisc]............47 12. LSP Protection and Restoration................................40
A.6 Generalized Automatic Service Discovery [G.sdisc].............47 12.1. Protection escalation across domains and layers.............41
A.7 OTN routing [G.rtg]...........................................47 12.2. Mapping of Services to P&R Resources........................42
A.8 OTN Connection Admission Control [G.cac]......................47 12.3. Classification of P&R mechanism characteristics.............42
A.9 OTN Link Management [G.lm]....................................48 12.4. Different Stages in P&R.....................................43
12.5. Recovery Strategies.........................................43
12.6. Recovery mechanisms: Protection schemes.....................44
12.7. Recovery mechanisms: Restoration schemes....................44
12.8. Schema selection criteria...................................45
13. Network Management............................................46
13.1. Network Management Systems (NMS)............................47
13.2. Management Information Base (MIB)...........................47
13.3. Tools.......................................................48
13.4. Fault Correlation Between Multiple Layers...................48
14. Security considerations.......................................49
15. Acknowledgements..............................................49
16. References....................................................50
17. Author's Addresses............................................53
Full Copyright Statement..........................................55
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1. Abstract 1. Abstract
Future data and transmission networks will consist of elements such Future data and transmission networks will consist of elements such
as routers, switches, DWDM systems, Add-Drop Multiplexors (ADMs), as routers, switches, DWDM systems, Add-Drop Multiplexors (ADMs),
photonic cross-connects (PXCs), optical cross-connects (OXCs), etc photonic cross-connects (PXCs), optical cross-connects (OXCs), etc
that will use Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) to dynamically provision that will use Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) to dynamically provision
resources and to provide network survivability using protection and resources and to provide network survivability using protection and
restoration techniques. restoration techniques.
This document describes the architecture of GMPLS. GMPLS extends This document describes the architecture of GMPLS. GMPLS extends
MPLS to encompass time-division (e.g. SDH/SONET, PDH, G.709), MPLS to encompass time-division (e.g. SDH/SONET, PDH, G.709),
wavelength (lambdas), and spatial switching (e.g. incoming port or wavelength (lambdas), and spatial switching (e.g. incoming port or
fiber to outgoing port or fiber). The main focus of GMPLS is on the fiber to outgoing port or fiber). The main focus of GMPLS is on the
control plane of these various layers since each of them can use control plane of these various layers since each of them can use
physically diverse data or forwarding planes. The intention is to physically diverse data or forwarding planes. The intention is to
cover both the signaling and the routing part of that control plane. cover both the signaling and the routing part of that control plane.
1.1 List of open issues 1.1. List of open issues
This section lists several open issues on which the various people This section lists several open issues on which the various people
are currently working. are currently working.
- Inter-domain operations (e.g. routing with BGP-4). - Inter-domain operations (e.g. routing with BGP-4).
- Protection and restoration for GMPLS. - Protection and restoration for GMPLS.
- Multicasting in GMPLS.
- Extensions for new technologies like G.709.
- VPN support. - VPN support.
2. Conventions used in this document 2. Conventions used in this document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [2]. this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [2].
3. Introduction 3. Introduction
The architecture presented in this document covers the main building The architecture presented in this document covers the main building
blocks needed to build a consistent control plane for multiple blocks needed to build a consistent control plane for multiple
switching layers. It does not restrict the way that these layers switching layers. It does not restrict the way that these layers
work together. Different models can be applied: e.g. overlay, work together. Different models can be applied: e.g. overlay,
augmented or integrated. Moreover, each pair of contiguous layer may augmented or integrated. Moreover, each pair of contiguous layer may
work jointly in a different way, resulting in a number of possible work jointly in a different way, resulting in a number of possible
combinations, at the discretion of manufacturers and operators. combinations, at the discretion of manufacturers and operators.
This architecture clearly separates the control plane and the
forwarding plane. In addition, it also clearly separates the control
plane in two parts, the signaling plane containing the signaling
protocols and the routing plane containing the routing protocols.
This document is a generalization of the MPLS architecture [MPLS- This document is a generalization of the MPLS architecture [MPLS-
ARCH], and in some cases may differ slightly from that architecture ARCH], and in some cases may differ slightly from that architecture
since non packet-based forwarding planes are now considered. It is since non packet-based forwarding planes are now considered. It is
not the intention of this document to describe concepts already not the intention of this document to describe concepts already
described in the current MPLS architecture. The goal is to describe described in the current MPLS architecture. The goal is to describe
specific concepts of Generalized MPLS (GMPLS). specific concepts of Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
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However, some of the concepts explained hereafter are not part of However, some of the concepts explained hereafter are not part of
the current MPLS architecture and are applicable to both MPLS and the current MPLS architecture and are applicable to both MPLS and
GMPLS (i.e. link bundling, unnumbered links, and LSP hierarchy). GMPLS (i.e. link bundling, unnumbered links, and LSP hierarchy).
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Since these concepts were introduced together with GMPLS and since Since these concepts were introduced together with GMPLS and since
they are of paramount importance for an operational GMPLS network, they are of paramount importance for an operational GMPLS network,
they will be discussed here. they will be discussed here.
The organization of the remainder of this draft is as follows. We The organization of the remainder of this draft is as follows. We
begin with an introduction of GMPLS. We then present the specific begin with an introduction of GMPLS. We then present the specific
GMPLS building blocks and explain how they can be combined together GMPLS building blocks and explain how they can be combined together
to build an operational GMPLS networks. Specific details of the to build an operational GMPLS networks. Specific details of the
separate building blocks can be found in the corresponding separate building blocks can be found in the corresponding
documents. documents.
skipping to change at line 247 skipping to change at line 263
Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) differs from traditional MPLS in that it Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) differs from traditional MPLS in that it
supports multiple types of switching, i.e. the addition of support supports multiple types of switching, i.e. the addition of support
for TDM, lambda, and fiber (port) switching. The support for the for TDM, lambda, and fiber (port) switching. The support for the
additional types of switching has driven GMPLS to extend certain additional types of switching has driven GMPLS to extend certain
base functions of traditional MPLS and, in some cases, to add base functions of traditional MPLS and, in some cases, to add
functionality. These changes and additions impact basic LSP functionality. These changes and additions impact basic LSP
properties, how labels are requested and communicated, the properties, how labels are requested and communicated, the
unidirectional nature of LSPs, how errors are propagated, and unidirectional nature of LSPs, how errors are propagated, and
information provided for synchronizing the ingress and egress LSRs. information provided for synchronizing the ingress and egress LSRs.
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The MPLS architecture [MPLS-ARCH] was defined to support the The MPLS architecture [MPLS-ARCH] was defined to support the
forwarding of data based on a label. In this architecture, Label forwarding of data based on a label. In this architecture, Label
Switching Routers (LSRs) were assumed to have a forwarding plane Switching Routers (LSRs) were assumed to have a forwarding plane
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that is capable of (a) recognizing either packet or cell boundaries, that is capable of (a) recognizing either packet or cell boundaries,
and (b) being able to process either packet headers (for LSRs and (b) being able to process either packet headers (for LSRs
capable of recognizing packet boundaries) or cell headers (for LSRs capable of recognizing packet boundaries) or cell headers (for LSRs
capable of recognizing cell boundaries). capable of recognizing cell boundaries).
The original MPLS architecture is here being extended to include The original MPLS architecture is here being extended to include
LSRs whose forwarding plane recognizes neither packet, nor cell LSRs whose forwarding plane recognizes neither packet, nor cell
boundaries, and therefore, can't forward data based on the boundaries, and therefore, can't forward data based on the
information carried in either packet or cell headers. Specifically, information carried in either packet or cell headers. Specifically,
such LSRs include devices where the forwarding decision is based on such LSRs include devices where the forwarding decision is based on
skipping to change at line 289 skipping to change at line 304
based on the content of the frame/cell header. Examples include based on the content of the frame/cell header. Examples include
interfaces on Ethernet bridges that forward data based on the interfaces on Ethernet bridges that forward data based on the
content of the MAC header and interfaces on ATM-LSRs that forward content of the MAC header and interfaces on ATM-LSRs that forward
data based on the ATM VPI/VCI. data based on the ATM VPI/VCI.
3. Time-Division Multiplex Capable (TDM) interfaces: 3. Time-Division Multiplex Capable (TDM) interfaces:
Interfaces that forward data based on the data's time slot in a Interfaces that forward data based on the data's time slot in a
repeating cycle. An example of such an interface is that of a repeating cycle. An example of such an interface is that of a
SDH/SONET Cross-Connect (XC), Terminal Multiplexer (TM), or Add-Drop SDH/SONET Cross-Connect (XC), Terminal Multiplexer (TM), or Add-Drop
Multiplexer (ADM). Other examples include interfaces implementing Multiplexer (ADM). Other examples include interfaces providing G.709
G.709 (the "digital wrapper") and PDH interfaces. TDM capabilities (the "digital wrapper") and PDH interfaces.
4. Lambda Switch Capable (LSC) interfaces: 4. Lambda Switch Capable (LSC) interfaces:
Interfaces that forward data based on the wavelength on which the Interfaces that forward data based on the wavelength on which the
data is received. An example of such an interface is that of a data is received. An example of such an interface is that of a
Photonic Cross-Connect (PXC) or Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) that can Photonic Cross-Connect (PXC) or Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) that can
operate at the level of an individual wavelength. Additional operate at the level of an individual wavelength. Additional
examples include PXC interfaces that can operate at the level of a examples include PXC interfaces that can operate at the level of a
group of wavelengths, i.e. a waveband. group of wavelengths, i.e. a waveband and G.709 interfaces providing
optical capabilities.
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5. Fiber-Switch Capable (FSC) interfaces: 5. Fiber-Switch Capable (FSC) interfaces:
Interfaces that forward data based on a position of the data in the Interfaces that forward data based on a position of the data in the
real world physical spaces. An example of such an interface is that real world physical spaces. An example of such an interface is that
of a PXC or OXC that can operate at the level of a single or of a PXC or OXC that can operate at the level of a single or
multiple fibers. multiple fibers.
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A circuit can be established only between, or through, interfaces of A circuit can be established only between, or through, interfaces of
the same type. Depending on the particular technology being used for the same type. Depending on the particular technology being used for
each interface, different circuit names can be used, e.g. SDH each interface, different circuit names can be used, e.g. SDH
circuit, optical trail, light path, etc. In the context of GMPLS, circuit, optical trail, light-path, etc. In the context of GMPLS,
all these circuits are referenced by a common name: Label Switched all these circuits are referenced by a common name: Label Switched
Path (LSP). Path (LSP).
The concept of nested LSP (LSP within LSP), already available in the The concept of nested LSP (LSP within LSP), already available in the
traditional MPLS, facilitates building a forwarding hierarchy, i.e. traditional MPLS, facilitates building a forwarding hierarchy, i.e.
a hierarchy of LSPs. This hierarchy of LSPs can occur on the same a hierarchy of LSPs. This hierarchy of LSPs can occur on the same
interface, or between different interfaces. interface, or between different interfaces.
For example, a hierarchy can be built if an interface is capable of For example, a hierarchy can be built if an interface is capable of
multiplexing several LSPs from the same technology (layer), e.g. a multiplexing several LSPs from the same technology (layer), e.g. a
skipping to change at line 358 skipping to change at line 374
Note that the GMPLS control plane supports an overlay model, an Note that the GMPLS control plane supports an overlay model, an
augmented model, and a peer (integrated) model. In the near term, augmented model, and a peer (integrated) model. In the near term,
GMPLS is very suitable for controlling each layer independently. GMPLS is very suitable for controlling each layer independently.
This elegant approach will facilitate the future deployment of other This elegant approach will facilitate the future deployment of other
models. models.
The GMPLS control plane is made of several building blocks are The GMPLS control plane is made of several building blocks are
described in more detail in the following sections. These building described in more detail in the following sections. These building
blocks are based on well-known signaling and routing protocols that blocks are based on well-known signaling and routing protocols that
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have been extended and/or modified to support GMPLS. They use IPv4 have been extended and/or modified to support GMPLS. They use IPv4
and/or IPv6 addresses. Only one new specialized protocol is required and/or IPv6 addresses. Only one new specialized protocol is required
to support the operations of GMPLS, a signaling protocol for link to support the operations of GMPLS, a signaling protocol for link
management [LMP]. management [LMP].
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GMPLS is indeed based on the Traffic Engineering (TE) extensions to GMPLS is indeed based on the Traffic Engineering (TE) extensions to
MPLS, a.k.a. MPLS-TE. This is because most of the technologies that MPLS, a.k.a. MPLS-TE. This because most of the technologies that can
can be used below the PSC level require some traffic engineering. be used below the PSC level require some traffic engineering. The
The placement of LSPs at these levels needs in general to take placement of LSPs at these levels needs in general to take several
several constraints into consideration (such as framing, bandwidth, constraints into consideration (such as framing, bandwidth,
protection capability, etc) and to bypass the legacy Shortest-Path protection capability, etc) and to bypass the legacy Shortest-Path
First (SPF) algorithm. Note, however, that this is not mandatory and First (SPF) algorithm. Note, however, that this is not mandatory and
that in some cases SPF routing can be applied. that in some cases SPF routing can be applied.
In order to facilitate constrained-based SPF routing of LSPs, the In order to facilitate constrained-based SPF routing of LSPs, the
nodes performing LSP establishment need more information about the nodes performing LSP establishment need more information about the
links in the network than standard intra-domain routing protocols links in the network than standard intra-domain routing protocols
provide. These TE attributes are distributed using the transport provide. These TE attributes are distributed using the transport
mechanisms already available in IGPs (e.g. flooding) and taken into mechanisms already available in IGPs (e.g. flooding) and taken into
consideration by the LSP routing algorithm. Optimization of the LSP consideration by the LSP routing algorithm. Optimization of the LSP
trajectories may also require some external simulations using routes may also require some external simulations using heuristics
heuristics that serve as input for the actual path calculation and that serve as input for the actual path calculation and LSP
LSP establishment process. establishment process.
Extensions to traditional routing protocols and algorithms are Extensions to traditional routing protocols and algorithms are
needed to uniformly encode and carry TE link information, and needed to uniformly encode and carry TE link information, and
explicit routes (e.g. source routes) are required in the signaling. explicit routes (e.g. source routes) are required in the signaling.
In addition, the signaling must now be capable of transporting the In addition, the signaling must now be capable of transporting the
required circuit (LSP) parameters such as the bandwidth, the type of required circuit (LSP) parameters such as the bandwidth, the type of
signal, the desired protection, the position in a particular signal, the desired protection and/or restoration, the position in a
multiplex, etc. Most of these extensions have already been defined particular multiplex, etc. Most of these extensions have already
for PSC and L2SC traffic engineering with MPLS. GMPLS primarily adds been defined for PSC and L2SC traffic engineering with MPLS. GMPLS
additional extensions for TDM, LSC, and FSC traffic engineering. primarily defines additional extensions for TDM, LSC, and FSC
Only a very few elements are technology specific. traffic engineering. A very few elements are technology specific.
Thus, GMPLS extends the two signaling protocols defined for MPLS-TE Thus, GMPLS extends the two signaling protocols defined for MPLS-TE
signaling, i.e. RSVP-TE and CR-LDP. However, GMPLS does not specify signaling, i.e. RSVP-TE and CR-LDP. However, GMPLS does not specify
which one of these two signaling protocols must be used. It is the which one of these two signaling protocols must be used. It is the
role of manufacturers and operators to evaluate the two possible role of manufacturers and operators to evaluate the two possible
solutions for their own interest. solutions for their own interest.
Since GMPLS is based on RSVP-TE and CR-LDP, it mandates a Since GMPLS is based on RSVP-TE and CR-LDP, it mandates a
downstream-on-demand label allocation and distribution, with an downstream-on-demand label allocation and distribution, with an
ingress initiated ordered control. Liberal label retention is ingress initiated ordered control. Liberal label retention is
normally used, but conservative label retention mode could also be normally used, but conservative label retention mode could also be
used. Furthermore, there is no restriction on the label allocation used. Furthermore, there is no restriction on the label allocation
strategy, it can be request/signaling driven (obvious for circuit strategy, it can be request/signaling driven (obvious for circuit
switching technologies), traffic/data driven, or even topology switching technologies), traffic/data driven, or even topology
driven. There is also no restriction on the route selection; driven. There is also no restriction on the route selection;
explicit routing is normally used (strict or loose) but hop-by-hop explicit routing is normally used (strict or loose) but hop-by-hop
routing could be used as well. routing could be used as well.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 8
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
GMPLS also extends two traditional intra-domain link-state routing GMPLS also extends two traditional intra-domain link-state routing
protocols already extended for TE, i.e. OSPF-TE and IS-IS-TE. protocols already extended for TE purposes, i.e. OSPF-TE and IS-IS-
However, if explicit (source) routing is used, the routing TE. However, if explicit (source) routing is used, the routing
algorithms used by these protocols no longer need to be algorithms used by these protocols no longer need to be
standardized. Extensions for inter-domain routing (e.g. BGP) are for standardized. Extensions for inter-domain routing (e.g. BGP) are for
further study. further study.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 8
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
The use of technologies like DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division The use of technologies like DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplexing) implies that we can now have a very large number of Multiplexing) implies that we can now have a very large number of
parallel links between two directly adjacent nodes (hundreds of parallel links between two directly adjacent nodes (hundreds of
wavelengths, or even thousands of wavelengths if multiple fibers are wavelengths, or even thousands of wavelengths if multiple fibers are
used). Such a large number of links was not originally considered used). Such a large number of links was not originally considered
for an IP or MPLS control plane. Some slight adaptations of that for an IP or MPLS control plane, although it could be done. Some
control plane are thus required if we want to reuse it in the GMPLS slight adaptations of that control plane are thus required if we
context. want to better reuse it in the GMPLS context.
For instance, the traditional IP routing model assumes the For instance, the traditional IP routing model assumes the
establishment of a routing adjacency over each link connecting two establishment of a routing adjacency over each link connecting two
adjacent nodes. Having such a large number of adjacencies does not adjacent nodes. Having such a large number of adjacencies does not
scale well. Each node needs to maintain each of its adjacencies one scale well. Each node needs to maintain each of its adjacencies one
by one, and link state routing information must be flooded by one, and link state routing information must be flooded
throughout the network. throughout the network.
To solve this issue the concept of link bundling was introduced. To solve this issue the concept of link bundling was introduced.
Moreover, the manual configuration and control of these links, even Moreover, the manual configuration and control of these links, even
if they are unnumbered, becomes impractical. The Link Management if they are unnumbered, becomes impractical. The Link Management
Protocol (LMP) was specified to solve these issues. Protocol (LMP) was specified to solve these issues.
LMP runs between data-plane adjacent nodes and is used to manage TE LMP runs between data plane adjacent nodes and is used to manage TE
links. Specifically, LMP provides mechanisms to maintain control links. Specifically, LMP provides mechanisms to maintain control
channel connectivity, verify the physical connectivity of the data- channel connectivity (IP Control Channel Maintenance), verify the
bearing links, correlate the link property information, and manage physical connectivity of the data-bearing links (Link Verification),
link failures. A unique feature of LMP is that it is able to correlate the link property information (Link Property Correlation),
localize faults in both opaque and transparent networks, independent and manage link failures (Fault Localization and Fault
of the encoding scheme and bit rate used for the data. Notification). A unique feature of LMP is that it is able to
localize faults in both opaque and transparent networks (i.e.
independent of the encoding scheme and bit rate used for the data).
LMP is defined in the context of GMPLS, but is specified LMP is defined in the context of GMPLS, but is specified
independently of the GMPLS signaling specification since it is a independently of the GMPLS signaling specification since it is a
local protocol run between data-plane adjacent nodes. As a result, local protocol running between data-plane adjacent nodes. As a
LMP can be reused in other contexts with non-GMPLS signaling result, LMP can be used in other contexts with non-GMPLS signaling
protocols. protocols.
The MPLS signaling and routing protocols require at least one bi- The MPLS signaling and routing protocols require at least one bi-
directional control channel to communicate even if two adjacent directional control channel to communicate even if two adjacent
nodes are connected by unidirectional links. Several control nodes are connected by unidirectional links. Several control
channels can be used. LMP can be used to establish, maintain and channels can be used. LMP can be used to establish, maintain and
manage these control channels. manage these control channels.
GMPLS does not specify how these control channels must be GMPLS does not specify how these control channels must be
implemented, but GMPLS requires IP to transport the signaling and implemented, but GMPLS requires IP to transport the signaling and
routing protocols over them. Control channels can be either in-band routing protocols over them. Control channels can be either in-band
or out-of-band, and several solutions can be used to carry IP. Note or out-of-band, and several solutions can be used to carry IP. Note
also that one type of LMP message is used in-band in the data plane
and may not be transported over IP, but this is a particular case,
needed to verify connectivity in the data plane.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 9 E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 9
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001 draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
3.4. Key Differences Between MPLS-TE and GMPLS also that one type of LMP message (the Test message) is used in-band
in the data plane and may not be transported over IP, but this is a
particular case, needed to verify connectivity in the data plane.
Some key differences between MPLS-TE and GMPLS are highlighted in 3.4. GMPLS Key Extensions to MPLS-TE
Some key extensions brought by GMPLS to MPLS-TE are highlighted in
the following. Some of them are key advantages of GMPLS to control the following. Some of them are key advantages of GMPLS to control
TDM, LSC and FSC layers. TDM, LSC and FSC layers.
- In MPLS-TE, links traversed by an LSP can include an intermix of - In MPLS-TE, links traversed by an LSP can include an intermix of
links with heterogeneous label encoding (e.g. links between routers, links with heterogeneous label encoding (e.g. links between routers,
links between routers and ATM-LSRs, and links between ATM-LSRs. links between routers and ATM-LSRs, and links between ATM-LSRs.
GMPLS extends this by including links where the label is encoded as GMPLS extends this by including links where the label is encoded as
a time slot, or a wavelength, or a position in the real world a time slot, or a wavelength, or a position in the real world
physical space. physical space.
- In MPLS-TE, an LSP that carries IP has to start and end on a - In MPLS-TE, an LSP that carries IP has to start and end on a
router. GMPLS extends this by requiring an LSP to start and end on router. GMPLS extends this by requiring an LSP to start and end on
similar type of LSR. similar type of LSR.
- The type of a payload that can be carried in GMPLS by an LSP is - The type of a payload that can be carried in GMPLS by an LSP is
extended to allow such payloads as SONET/SDH, G.709, 1 or 10Gb extended to allow such payloads as SONET/SDH, G.709, 1 or 10Gb
Ethernet, etc. Ethernet, etc.
- For TDM, LSC and FSC interfaces, bandwidth allocation for an LSP
can be performed only in discrete units.
- It is expected to have (much) fewer labels on TDM, LSC or FSC
links than on PSC or L2SC links.
- The use of Forwarding Adjacencies (FA), provides a mechanism that - The use of Forwarding Adjacencies (FA), provides a mechanism that
can improve bandwidth utilization, when bandwidth allocation can be can improve bandwidth utilization, when bandwidth allocation can be
performed only in discrete units, as well as a mechanism to performed only in discrete units, as well as a mechanism to
aggregate forwarding state, thus allowing the number of required aggregate forwarding state, thus allowing the number of required
labels to be reduced labels to be reduced.
- GMPLS allows for a label to be suggested by an upstream node to - GMPLS allows for a label to be suggested by an upstream node to
reduce the setup latency. This suggestion may be overridden by a reduce the setup latency. This suggestion may be overridden by a
downstream node but, in some cases, at the cost of higher LSP setup downstream node but, in some cases, at the cost of higher LSP setup
time. time.
- GMPLS extends on the notion of restricting the range of labels - GMPLS extends on the notion of restricting the range of labels
that may be selected by a downstream node. In GMPLS, an upstream that may be selected by a downstream node. In GMPLS, an upstream
node may restrict the labels for an LSP along either a single hop or node may restrict the labels for an LSP along either a single hop or
along the entire LSP path. This feature is useful in photonic along the entire LSP path. This feature is useful in photonic
skipping to change at line 529 skipping to change at line 543
- While traditional TE-based (and even LDP-based) LSPs are - While traditional TE-based (and even LDP-based) LSPs are
unidirectional, GMPLS supports the establishment of bi-directional unidirectional, GMPLS supports the establishment of bi-directional
LSPs. LSPs.
- GMPLS supports the termination of an LSP on a specific egress - GMPLS supports the termination of an LSP on a specific egress
port, i.e. the port selection at the destination side. port, i.e. the port selection at the destination side.
- GMPLS with RSVP-TE supports an RSVP specific mechanism for rapid - GMPLS with RSVP-TE supports an RSVP specific mechanism for rapid
failure notification. failure notification.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 10 Note also some other key differences between MPLS-TE and GMPLS:
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 10
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
- For TDM, LSC and FSC interfaces, bandwidth allocation for an LSP
can be performed only in discrete units.
- It is expected to have (much) fewer labels on TDM, LSC or FSC
links than on PSC or L2SC links, because the former are physical
labels instead of logical labels.
4. Routing and addressing model 4. Routing and addressing model
GMPLS is based on the IP routing and addressing models. This assumes GMPLS is based on the IP routing and addressing models. This assumes
that IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses are used to identify interfaces and that IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses are used to identify interfaces and
that traditional (distributed) IP routing protocols are also reused. that traditional (distributed) IP routing protocols are also reused.
Indeed, the discovery of the topology and the resource state of all Indeed, the discovery of the topology and the resource state of all
links in a routing domain is achieved via these routing protocols. links in a routing domain is achieved via these routing protocols.
Since control and data planes are de-coupled in GMPLS, one cannot do Since control and data planes are de-coupled in GMPLS, control-plane
anymore the assumption that control-plane neighbors (i.e. IGP-learnt neighbors (i.e. IGP-learnt neighbors) may not be anymore data-plane
neighbors) are data-plane neighbors, hence mechanisms like LMP are neighbors, hence mechanisms like LMP are needed to associate TE
needed to associate TE links with neighboring nodes. links with neighboring nodes.
IP addresses are not used only to identify interfaces of IP hosts IP addresses are not used only to identify interfaces of IP hosts
and routers, but more generally to identify any PSC and non-PSC and routers, but more generally to identify any PSC and non-PSC
interfaces. Similarly, IP routing protocols are used to find routes interfaces. Similarly, IP routing protocols are used to find routes
for IP datagrams with a SPF algorithm, and are also used to find for IP datagrams with a SPF algorithm, and are also used to find
routes for non-PSC circuits by using a CSPF algorithm. routes for non-PSC circuits by using a CSPF algorithm.
However, some additional mechanisms are needed to increase the However, some additional mechanisms are needed to increase the
scalability of these models and to deal with specific traffic scalability of these models and to deal with specific traffic
engineering requirements of non-PSC layers. These mechanisms will be engineering requirements of non-PSC layers. These mechanisms will be
introduced in the following. introduced in the following.
Re-using existing IP routing protocols allows for non-PSC layers to Re-using existing IP routing protocols allows for non-PSC layers to
take advantages of all the valuable developments that took place take advantages of all the valuable developments that took place
since years for IP routing, in particular in the context of intra- since years for IP routing, in particular in the context of intra-
domain routing (link-state routing) and inter-domain routing (policy domain routing (link-state routing) and inter-domain routing (policy
routing). routing).
Each particular non-PSC layer can be seen as a set of Autonomous In an overlay model, each particular non-PSC layer can be seen as a
Systems (ASs) interconnected in an arbitrary way. Similarly to the set of Autonomous Systems (ASs) interconnected in an arbitrary way.
traditional IP routing, each AS is managed by a single Similarly to the traditional IP routing, each AS is managed by a
administrative authority. For instance, an AS can be an SDH/SONET single administrative authority. For instance, an AS can be an
network operated by a given carrier. The set of interconnected ASs SDH/SONET network operated by a given carrier. The set of
being an SDH/SONET Internetwork. interconnected ASs being an SDH/SONET Internetwork.
Exchange of routing information between ASs can be done via an Exchange of routing information between ASs can be done via an
inter-domain routing protocol like BGP-4. There is obviously a huge inter-domain routing protocol like BGP-4. There is obviously a huge
value of re-using well-known policy routing facilities provided by value of re-using well-known policy routing facilities provided by
BGP in a non-PSC context. Extensions for BGP traffic engineering in BGP in a non-PSC context. Extensions for BGP traffic engineering
the context of non-PSC layers are for further study. (BGP-TE) in the context of non-PSC layers are left for further
study.
Each AS can be subdivided in different routing domains, and each can Each AS can be subdivided in different routing domains, and each can
run a different intra-domain routing protocol. In turn, each run a different intra-domain routing protocol. In turn, each
routing-domain can be divided in areas. routing-domain can be divided in areas.
A routing domain is made of GMPLS nodes. These nodes can be either E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 11
edge nodes (i.e. hosts, ingress LSRs or egress LSRs), or internal draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
LSRs. An example of non-PSC host is an SDH/SONET Terminal
Multiplexer (TM). Another example, is an SDH/SONET interface card
within an IP router or ATM switch.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 11 A routing domain is made of GMPLS enabled nodes (i.e. a network
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001 device including a GMPLS entity). These nodes can be either edge
nodes (i.e. hosts, ingress LSRs or egress LSRs), or internal LSRs.
An example of non-PSC host is an SDH/SONET Terminal Multiplexer
(TM). Another example is an SDH/SONET interface card within an IP
router or ATM switch.
Note that traffic engineering in the intra-domain requires the use Note that traffic engineering in the intra-domain requires the use
of link-state routing protocols like OSPF or IS-IS. of link-state routing protocols like OSPF or IS-IS.
GMPLS defines extensions to these protocols. These extensions are GMPLS defines extensions to these protocols. These extensions are
needed to disseminate specific TDM, LSC and FSC static and dynamic needed to disseminate specific TDM, LSC and FSC static and dynamic
characteristics related to nodes and links. The current focus is on characteristics related to nodes and links. The current focus is on
intra-area traffic engineering. However, inter-area traffic intra-area traffic engineering. However, inter-area traffic
engineering is also under investigation. engineering is also under investigation.
4.1 Addressing of PSC and non-PSC layers 4.1. Addressing of PSC and non-PSC layers
The fact that IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses are used doesn't imply at The fact that IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses are used doesn't imply at
all that they should be allocated in the same addressing space than all that they should be allocated in the same addressing space than
public IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses used for the Internet. Each layer public IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses used for the Internet. Private IP
could have a different addressing authority responsible for address addresses can be used if they don't require to be exchanged with any
allocation and re-using the full addressing space, completely other operator, public IP addresses are otherwise required. Of
independently. course, if an integrated model is used, two layers could share the
same addressing space.
Private IP addresses can be used if they don't require to be
exchanged with any other operator, public IP addresses are otherwise
required. Of course, if an integrated model is used, two layers
could share the same addressing space.
Note that there is a benefit of using public IPv4 and/or IPv6 Note that there is a benefit of using public IPv4 and/or IPv6
Internet addresses for non-PSC layers if an integrated model with Internet addresses for non-PSC layers if an integrated model with
the IP layer is foreseen. the IP layer is foreseen.
If we consider the scalability enhancements proposed in the next If we consider the scalability enhancements proposed in the next
section, the IPv4 (32 bits) and the IPv6 (128 bits) addressing section, the IPv4 (32 bits) and the IPv6 (128 bits) addressing
spaces are both more than sufficient to accommodate any non-PSC spaces are both more than sufficient to accommodate any non-PSC
layer. We can reasonably expect to have much less non-PSC devices layer. We can reasonably expect to have much less non-PSC devices
(e.g. SDH/SONET nodes) than we have today IP hosts and routers. (e.g. SDH/SONET nodes) than we have today IP hosts and routers.
Other kinds of addressing schemes (e.g. NSAP) are not considered 4.2. GMPLS scalability enhancements
here since this would imply a modification of the already existing
signaling and routing protocols that uses IPv4 and/or IPv6
addresses. This would be incompatible to our objectives of re-using
existing IP protocols.
4.2 GMPLS scalability enhancements
TDM, LSC and FSC layers introduce new constraints on the IP TDM, LSC and FSC layers introduce new constraints on the IP
addressing and routing models since several hundreds of parallel addressing and routing models since several hundreds of parallel
physical links (e.g. wavelengths) can now connect two nodes. Most of physical links (e.g. wavelengths) can now connect two nodes. Most of
the carriers already have today several tens of wavelengths per the carriers already have today several tens of wavelengths per
fiber between two nodes. New generation of DWDM systems will allow fiber between two nodes. New generation of DWDM systems will allow
several hundreds of wavelengths per fiber. several hundreds of wavelengths per fiber.
It becomes rather impractical to associate an IP address with each It becomes rather impractical to associate an IP address with each
end of each physical link, to represent each link as a separate end of each physical link, to represent each link as a separate
routing adjacency, and to advertise and to maintain link states for routing adjacency, and to advertise and to maintain link states for
each of these links. For that purpose, GMPLS enhances the MPLS each of these links. For that purpose, GMPLS enhances the MPLS
routing and addressing models to increase their scalability. routing and addressing models to increase their scalability.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 12
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
Two optional mechanisms can be used to increase the scalability of Two optional mechanisms can be used to increase the scalability of
the addressing and the routing: unnumbered links and link bundling. the addressing and the routing: unnumbered links and link bundling.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 12
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
These two mechanisms can also be combined. They require extensions These two mechanisms can also be combined. They require extensions
to signaling (RSVP-TE and CR-LDP) and routing (OSPF-TE and IS-IS-TE) to signaling (RSVP-TE and CR-LDP) and routing (OSPF-TE and IS-IS-TE)
protocols. protocols.
4.3 Extensions to IP TE routing protocols 4.3. TE Extensions to IP routing protocols
Traditionally, a TE link is advertised as an adjunct to a "regular" Traditionally, a TE link is advertised as an adjunct to a "regular"
OSPF or IS-IS link, i.e., an adjacency is brought up on the link, OSPF or IS-IS link, i.e., an adjacency is brought up on the link,
and when the link is up, both the regular IGP properties of the link and when the link is up, both the regular IGP properties of the link
(basically, the SPF metric) and the TE properties of the link are (basically, the SPF metric) and the TE properties of the link are
then advertised. then advertised.
However, GMPLS challenges this notion in three ways: However, GMPLS challenges this notion in three ways:
- First, links that are non-PSC may yet have TE properties; however, - First, links that are non-PSC may yet have TE properties; however,
an OSPF adjacency cannot be brought up directly on such links. an OSPF adjacency could not be brought up directly on such links.
- Second, an LSP can be advertised as a point-to-point TE link in - Second, an LSP can be advertised as a point-to-point TE link in
the routing protocol, i.e. as a Forwarding Adjacency (FA); thus, an the routing protocol, i.e. as a Forwarding Adjacency (FA); thus, an
advertised TE link need no longer be between two OSPF direct advertised TE link need no longer be between two OSPF direct
neighbors. Forwarding Adjacencies (FA) are further described in a neighbors. Forwarding Adjacencies (FA) are further described in a
separate section. separate section.
- Third, a number of links may be advertised as a single TE link - Third, a number of links may be advertised as a single TE link
(e.g. for improved scalability), so again, there is no longer a one- (e.g. for improved scalability), so again, there is no longer a one-
to-one association of a regular adjacency and a TE link. to-one association of a regular adjacency and a TE link.
skipping to change at line 699 skipping to change at line 715
link state updates based on bandwidth thresholds and link-dampening link state updates based on bandwidth thresholds and link-dampening
mechanism can be implemented. mechanism can be implemented.
TE properties associated with a link should also capture protection TE properties associated with a link should also capture protection
and restoration related characteristics. For instance, shared and restoration related characteristics. For instance, shared
protection can be elegantly combined with bundling. Protection and protection can be elegantly combined with bundling. Protection and
restoration are mainly generic mechanisms also applicable to MPLS. restoration are mainly generic mechanisms also applicable to MPLS.
It is expected that they will first be developed for MPLS and later It is expected that they will first be developed for MPLS and later
on generalized to GMPLS. on generalized to GMPLS.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 13
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
A TE link between a pair of LSRs doesn't imply the existence of an A TE link between a pair of LSRs doesn't imply the existence of an
IGP adjacency between these LSRs. A TE link must also have some IGP adjacency between these LSRs. A TE link must also have some
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 13
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
means by which the advertising LSR can know of its liveness (e.g. by means by which the advertising LSR can know of its liveness (e.g. by
using LMP hellos). When an LSR knows that a TE link is up, and can using LMP hellos). When an LSR knows that a TE link is up, and can
determine the TE link's TE properties, the LSR may then advertise determine the TE link's TE properties, the LSR may then advertise
that link to its GMPLS enhanced OSPF or IS-IS neighbors using the TE that link to its GMPLS enhanced OSPF or IS-IS neighbors using the TE
objects/TLVs. We call the interfaces over which GMPLS enhanced OSPF objects/TLVs. We call the interfaces over which GMPLS enhanced OSPF
or ISIS adjacencies are established "control channels". or ISIS adjacencies are established "control channels".
5. Unnumbered links 5. Unnumbered links
Unnumbered links (or interfaces) are links (or interfaces) that do Unnumbered links (or interfaces) are links (or interfaces) that do
not have IP addresses. Using such links involves two capabilities: not have IP addresses. Using such links involves two capabilities:
the ability to specify unnumbered links in MPLS TE signaling, and the ability to specify unnumbered links in MPLS TE signaling, and
the ability to carry (TE) information about unnumbered links in IGP the ability to carry (TE) information about unnumbered links in IGP
TE extensions of ISIS-TE and OSPF-TE. TE extensions of ISIS-TE and OSPF-TE.
A. The ability to specify unnumbered links in MPLS TE signaling A. The ability to specify unnumbered links in MPLS TE signaling
requires extensions to RSVP-TE and CR-LDP. The MPLS-TE signaling requires extensions to RSVP-TE and CR-LDP. The MPLS-TE signaling
doesn't provide support for unnumbered links, because it doesnÆt doesn't provide support for unnumbered links, because it doesnÆt
provide a way to indicate an unnumbered link in its Explicit Route provide a way to indicate an unnumbered link in its Explicit Route
Object/TLV and in its Record Route Object (there is no such TLV for Object/TLV and in its Record Route Object (there is no such TLV
CR-LDP). GMPLS defines simple extensions to indicate an unnumbered for CR-LDP). GMPLS defines simple extensions to indicate an
link in these two Objects/TLVs, using a new Unnumbered Interface ID unnumbered link in these two Objects/TLVs, using a new Unnumbered
sub-object/sub-TLV. Interface ID sub-object/sub-TLV.
Since unnumbered links are not identified by an IP address, then for Since unnumbered links are not identified by an IP address, then
the purpose of MPLS TE each end need some other identifier, local to for the purpose of MPLS TE each end need some other identifier,
the LSR to which the link belongs. Note that links are directed, local to the LSR to which the link belongs. Note that links are
i.e., a link l is from some LSR A to some other LSR B. LSR A chooses directed, i.e., a link l is from some LSR A to some other LSR B.
the interface identifier for link l, we call this the "outgoing LSR A chooses the interface identifier for link l, we call this
interface identifier from LSR A's point of view". If there is a the "outgoing interface identifier from LSR A's point of view". If
reverse link from LSR B to LSR A, B chooses the outgoing interface there is a reverse link from LSR B to LSR A, B chooses the
identifier for the reverse link, we call this the linkÆs "incoming outgoing interface identifier for the reverse link, we call this
interface identifier" from LSR AÆs point of view. There is no a the linkÆs "incoming interface identifier" from LSR AÆs point of
priori relationship between the two interface identifiers. Both ends view. There is no a priori relationship between the two interface
must also agree on each of these identifiers. identifiers. Both ends must also agree on each of these
identifiers.
The new Unnumbered Interface ID sub-object/sub-TLV for the ER The new Unnumbered Interface ID sub-object/sub-TLV for the ER
Object/TLV contains the Router ID of the LSR at the upstream end of Object/TLV contains the Router ID of the LSR at the upstream end
the unnumbered link and the outgoing interface identifier with of the unnumbered link and the outgoing interface identifier with
respect to that upstream LSR. respect to that upstream LSR.
The new Unnumbered Interface ID sub-object/sub-TLV for the RR Object The new Unnumbered Interface ID sub-object/sub-TLV for the RR
contains the outgoing interface identifier with respect to the LSR Object contains the outgoing interface identifier with respect to
that adds it in the RR Object. the LSR that adds it in the RR Object.
B. The ability to carry (TE) information about unnumbered links in B. The ability to carry (TE) information about unnumbered links in
IGP TE extensions requires new sub-TLVs for the extended IS IGP TE extensions requires new sub-TLVs for the extended IS
reachability TLV defined in ISIS-TE and for the TE LSA (which is an reachability TLV defined in ISIS-TE and for the TE LSA (which is
opaque LSA) defined in OSPF-TE. An Outgoing Interface Identifier an opaque LSA) defined in OSPF-TE. An Outgoing Interface
sub-TLV and an Incoming Interface Identifier sub-TLV are defined. Identifier sub-TLV and an Incoming Interface Identifier sub-TLV
are defined.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 14 E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 14
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001 draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
5.1 Unnumbered Forwarding Adjacencies 5.1. Unnumbered Forwarding Adjacencies
If an LSR that originates an LSP advertises this LSP as an If an LSR that originates an LSP advertises this LSP as an
unnumbered FA in IS-IS or OSPF, the LSR must allocate an Interface unnumbered FA in IS-IS or OSPF, or the LSR uses this FA as an
ID to that FA. If the LSP is bi-directional, the tail end LSR unnumbered component link of a bundled link, the LSR must allocate
advertises the reverse LSP as an unnumbered FA, the tail end LSR an Interface ID to that FA. If the LSP is bi-directional, the tail
must allocate an Interface ID to the reverse FA. end does the same and allocates an Interface ID to the reverse FA.
Signaling has been enhanced to carry the Interface ID. When an LSP
is created which will be advertised as an FA, the head-end LSR
includes its Interface ID in the Path/REQUEST. The tail end LSR
responds by including its reverse LSPÆs Interface ID in the
Resv/MAPPING.
The Interface ID is transported in the new LSP Tunnel Interface ID Signaling has been enhanced to carry the Interface ID of a FA in the
object/TLV called the Forward Interface ID when it appears in a new LSP Tunnel Interface ID object/TLV. This object/TLV contains the
Path/REQUEST message, and the Reverse Interface ID when it appears Router ID of the LSR that generates it, and the Interface ID. It is
called the Forward Interface ID when it appears in a Path/REQUEST
message, and it is called the Reverse Interface ID when it appears
in the Resv/MAPPING message. in the Resv/MAPPING message.
The LSP Tunnel Interface ID object/TLV contains the Router ID of the
LSR that generates it, and the Interface ID. Note that if the
forward or reverse LSP is part of a bundled link, the Interface ID
is set to the Component Interface ID of that LSP (as defined in the
next section).
6. Link bundling 6. Link bundling
The concept of link bundling is essential in certain networks The concept of link bundling is essential in certain networks
employing the GMPLS control plane. A typical example is an optical employing the GMPLS control plane as is defined in [BUNDLE]. A
meshed network where adjacent optical cross-connects (LSRs) are typical example is an optical meshed network where adjacent optical
connected by several hundreds of parallel wavelengths. In this cross-connects (LSRs) are connected by several hundreds of parallel
network, consider the application of link state routing protocols, wavelengths. In this network, consider the application of link state
like OSPF or IS-IS, with suitable extensions for resource discovery routing protocols, like OSPF or IS-IS, with suitable extensions for
and dynamic route computation. Each wavelength must be advertised resource discovery and dynamic route computation. Each wavelength
separately in order to be used, except if link bundling is used. must be advertised separately in order to be used, except if link
bundling is used.
When a pair of LSRs is connected by multiple links, it is possible When a pair of LSRs is connected by multiple links, it is possible
to advertise several (or all) of these links as a single link into to advertise several (or all) of these links as a single link into
OSPF and/or IS-IS. This process is called link bundling, or just OSPF and/or IS-IS. This process is called link bundling, or just
bundling. The resulting logical link is called a bundled link as its bundling. The resulting logical link is called a bundled link as its
physical links are called component links. physical links are called component links (and are identified by
interface indexes).
The purpose of link bundling is to improve routing scalability by The purpose of link bundling is to improve routing scalability by
reducing the amount of information that has to be handled by OSPF reducing the amount of information that has to be handled by OSPF
and/or IS-IS. This reduction is accomplished by performing and/or IS-IS. This reduction is accomplished by performing
information aggregation/abstraction. As with any other information information aggregation/abstraction. As with any other information
aggregation/abstraction, this results in losing some of the aggregation/abstraction, this results in losing some of the
information. To limit the amount of losses one need to restrict the information. To limit the amount of losses one need to restrict the
type of the information that can be aggregated/abstracted. type of the information that can be aggregated/abstracted.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 15 6.1. Restrictions on bundling
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6.1 Restrictions on bundling
The following restrictions are required for bundling links. All The following restrictions are required for bundling links. All
component links in a bundle must begin and end on the same pair of component links in a bundle must begin and end on the same pair of
LSRs; and share some common characteristics or properties, i.e. they LSRs; and share some common characteristics or properties defined in
must have the same: [OSPF-TE] and [ISIS-TE], i.e. they must have the same:
- Link Type (i.e. point-to-point or multi-access) [OSPF-TE/ISIS-TE], - Link Type (i.e. point-to-point or multi-access),
- TE Metric (i.e. an administrative cost) [OSPF- TE/ISIS-TE], - TE Metric (i.e. an administrative cost),
- Set of Resource Classes (i.e. colors) [OSPF-TE/ISIS-TE], - Set of Resource Classes at each end of the links (i.e. colors).
- Link Multiplex Capability (e.g. FSC, LSC or TDM) [HIERARCHY].
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Note that bundling may be applied recursively; a component link may Note that bundling may be applied recursively; a component link may
itself be a bundled link. An FA may also be a component link. In itself be a bundled link. An FA may also be a component link. In
fact, a bundle can consist of a mix of point-to-point links, FAs, fact, a bundle can consist of a mix of point-to-point links, FAs,
and bundled links, but all sharing some common properties. and bundled links, but all sharing some common properties.
6.2 Routing considerations for bundling 6.2. Routing considerations for bundling
A bundled link is just another kind of TE link such as those defined A bundled link is just another kind of TE link such as those defined
by OSPF-TE or IS-IS-TE. The liveness of the bundled link is by [GMPLS-ROUTING]. The liveness of the bundled link is determined
determined by the liveness of each of the component links within the by the liveness of each its component links, a bundled link is alive
bundled link. The liveness of a component link can be determined by when at least one of its component links is alive. The liveness of a
any of several means: IS-IS or OSPF hellos over the component link, component link can be determined by any of several means: IS-IS or
or RSVP Hello (hop local), or LMP hellos (link local), or from layer OSPF hellos over the component link, or RSVP Hello (hop local), or
1 or layer 2 indications. LMP hellos (link local), or from layer 1 or layer 2 indications.
Note that according to the RSVP-TE Tunnel specification the RSVP Note that according to the RSVP-TE Tunnel specification the RSVP
Hello mechanism is intended to be used when notification of link Hello mechanism is intended to be used when notification of link
layer failures is not available and unnumbered links are not used, layer failures is not available and unnumbered links are not used,
or when the failure detection mechanisms provided by the link layer or when the failure detection mechanisms provided by the link layer
are not sufficient for timely node failure detection. are not sufficient for timely node failure detection.
Once a bundled link is determined to be alive, it can be advertised Once a bundled link is determined to be alive, it can be advertised
as a TE link and the TE information can be flooded. If IS-IS/OSPF as a TE link and the TE information can be flooded. If IS-IS/OSPF
hellos are run over the component links, IS-IS/OSPF flooding can be hellos are run over the component links, IS-IS/OSPF flooding can be
skipping to change at line 858 skipping to change at line 868
Note that advertising a (bundled) TE link between a pair of LSRs Note that advertising a (bundled) TE link between a pair of LSRs
doesn't imply that there is an IGP adjacency between these LSRs that doesn't imply that there is an IGP adjacency between these LSRs that
is associated with just that link. In fact, in certain cases a TE is associated with just that link. In fact, in certain cases a TE
link between a pair of LSRs could be advertised even if there is no link between a pair of LSRs could be advertised even if there is no
IGP adjacency at all between the LSR (e.g. when the TE link is an IGP adjacency at all between the LSR (e.g. when the TE link is an
FA). FA).
Forming a bundled link consist in aggregating the identical TE Forming a bundled link consist in aggregating the identical TE
parameters of each individual component link to produce aggregated parameters of each individual component link to produce aggregated
TE parameters. A TE link as defined by [OSPF-TE-GMPLS] and [ISIS-TE- TE parameters. A TE link as defined by [GMPLS-ROUTING] has many
GMPLS] has many parameters, adequate aggregation rules must be parameters, adequate aggregation rules must be defined for each one.
defined for each one.
Some parameters can be sums of component characteristics such as the Some parameters can be sums of component characteristics such as the
unreserved bandwidth and the maximum reservable bandwidth. Bandwidth unreserved bandwidth and the maximum reservable bandwidth. Bandwidth
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information is an important part of a bundle advertisement and it information is an important part of a bundle advertisement and it
must be clearly defined since an abstraction is done. must be clearly defined since an abstraction is done.
A GMPLS node with bundled links must apply admission control on a A GMPLS node with bundled links must apply admission control on a
per-component link basis. per-component link basis.
6.3 Signaling considerations 6.3. Signaling considerations
Typically, an LSP's explicit route (contained in an explicit route) Typically, an LSP's explicit route (e.g. contained in an explicit
will choose the bundled link to be used for the LSP, but not the route TLV/Object) will choose the bundled link to be used for the
component link(s), since information about the bundled link is LSP, but not the component link(s), since information about the
flooded, but information about the component links is kept local to bundled link is flooded, but information about the component links
the LSR. is not.
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The choice of the component link to use is always made by an The choice of the component link to use is always made by an
upstream node. If the LSP is bidirectional, the upstream node upstream node. If the LSP is bidirectional, the upstream node
chooses a component link in each direction. chooses a component link in each direction.
Three mechanisms for indicating this choice to the downstream node Three mechanisms for indicating this choice to the downstream node
are possible. are possible.
6.3.1 Mechanism 1: Implicit Indication 6.3.1. Mechanism 1: Implicit Indication
This mechanism requires that each component link has a dedicated This mechanism requires that each component link has a dedicated
signaling channel (e.g. the link is a Sonet/SDH link using the DCC signaling channel (e.g. the link is a Sonet/SDH link using the DCC
for in-band signaling). The upstream node tells the receiver which for in-band signaling). The upstream node tells the receiver which
component link to use by sending the message over the chosen component link to use by sending the message over the chosen
component link's dedicated signaling channel. Note that this component link's dedicated signaling channel. Note that this
signaling channel can be in-band or out-of-band. In this last case, signaling channel can be in-band or out-of-band. In this last case,
the association between the signaling channel and that component the association between the signaling channel and that component
link need to be explicitly configured. link need to be explicitly configured.
6.3.2 Mechanism 2: Explicit Indication by IP Address 6.3.2. Mechanism 2: Explicit Indication by Numbered Interface ID
This mechanism requires that the component link has a unique remote
IP address. The upstream node indicates the choice of the component
link by including a new IF_ID RSVP_HOP object/IF_ID TLV carrying
either an IPv4 or an IPv6 address in the Path/Label Request message
[RSVP-TE-GMPLS] [CR-LDP-GMPLS]. For a bi-directional LSP, a component
link is provided for each direction by the upstream node.
This mechanism requires that each component link has a unique remote
IP address. The upstream node can either send messages addressed to
the remote IP address for the component link or encapsulate messages
in an IP header whose destination address is the remote IP address.
This mechanism does not require each component link to have its own This mechanism does not require each component link to have its own
control channel. In fact, it doesn't even require the whole control channel. In fact, it doesn't even require the whole
(bundled) link to have its own control channel. (bundled) link to have its own control channel.
6.3.3 Mechanism 3: Explicit Indication by Component Interface ID 6.3.3. Mechanism 3: Explicit Indication by Unnumbered Interface ID
With this mechanism, each component link in unnumbered and is With this mechanism, each component link that is unnumbered is
assigned a unique Component Interface Identifier (32 bits value). assigned a unique Interface Identifier (32 bits value). The upstream
The two LSRs at each end of the bundled link exchange these node indicates the choice of the component link by including a new
identifiers. An upstream node indicates the choice of a component IF_ID RSVP_HOP object/IF_ID TLV in the Path/Label Request message
link by including the corresponding identifier in signaling [RSVP-TE-GMPLS] [CR-LDP-GMPLS].
messages.
Discovering Component Interface Identifiers at bootstrap may be This object/TLV carries the component interface ID in the downstream
accomplished by configuration, by means of a protocol such as LMP direction for a unidirectional LSP, and in addition the component
(preferred solution), by means of RSVP/CR-LDP (especially in the interface ID in the upstream direction for a bi-directional LSP.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 17 The two LSRs at each end of the bundled link exchange these
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001 identifiers. Exchanging the identifiers may be accomplished by
configuration, by means of a protocol such as LMP (preferred
solution), by means of RSVP/CR-LDP (especially in the case where a
component link is a Forwarding Adjacency), or by means of IS-IS or
OSPF extensions.
case where a component link is a Forwarding Adjacency), or by means This mechanism does not require each component link to have its own
of IS-IS or OSPF extensions. control channel. In fact, it doesn't even require the whole
(bundled) link to have its own control channel.
New objects are needed to indicate Component Interface Identifiers E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 17
in signaling. GMPLS defines one Component Upstream Interface ID draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
object/TLV used to indicate the component interface to be used for
traffic flowing in the upstream direction; and one Component
Downstream Interface ID object/TLV used to indicate the component
interface to be used for traffic flowing in the downstream
direction. Since the choice of the component link to use is always
made by an upstream node, these objects/TLVs are included in the
Path/REQUEST message send downstream. With RSVP-TE they are included
in the sendor descriptor of the Path message.
6.4 Unnumbered Bundled Link 6.4. Unnumbered Bundled Link
A bundled link may itself be numbered or unnumbered independent of A bundled link may itself be numbered or unnumbered independent of
whether the component links are numbered or not. This affects how whether the component links are numbered or not. This affects how
the bundled link is advertised in IS-IS/OSPF, and the format of LSP the bundled link is advertised in IS-IS/OSPF, and the format of LSP
EROs that traverse the bundled link. Furthermore, unnumbered EROs that traverse the bundled link. Furthermore, unnumbered
Interface Identifiers for all unnumbered outgoing links of a given Interface Identifiers for all unnumbered outgoing links of a given
LSR (whether component links, Forwarding Adjacencies or bundled LSR (whether component links, Forwarding Adjacencies or bundled
links) MUST be unique in the context of that LSR. links) must be unique in the context of that LSR.
6.5 Forming TE links 6.5. Forming TE links
The generic rule for bundling component links is to place those The generic rule for bundling component links is to place those
links that are correlated in some manner in the same bundle. If links that are correlated in some manner in the same bundle. If
links may be correlated based on multiple properties then the links may be correlated based on multiple properties then the
bundling may be applied sequentially based on these properties. For bundling may be applied sequentially based on these properties. For
instance, links may be first grouped based on the first property. instance, links may be first grouped based on the first property.
Each of these groups may be then divided into smaller groups based Each of these groups may be then divided into smaller groups based
on the second property and so on. The main principle followed in on the second property and so on. The main principle followed in
this process is that the properties of the resulting bundles should this process is that the properties of the resulting bundles should
be concisely summarizable. Link bundling may be done automatically be concisely summarizable. Link bundling may be done automatically
or by configuration. Automatic link bundling can apply bundling or by configuration. Automatic link bundling can apply bundling
rules sequentially to produce bundles. rules sequentially to produce bundles.
For instance, the first property on which component links may be For instance, the first property on which component links may be
correlated could be the Link Multiplex Capability, the second correlated could be the Interface Switching Capability [GMPLS-
property could be the Link Type, the third property could be the ROUTING], the second property could be the Encoding [GMPLS-ROUTING],
Administrative Weight (cost), the fourth property could be the the third property could be the Administrative Weight (cost), the
Resource Classes and finally links may be correlated based on other fourth property could be the Resource Classes and finally links may
metrics such as SRLG (Shared Risk Link Groups) or delay. be correlated based on other metrics such as SRLG (Shared Risk Link
Groups).
When routing an alternate path for protection purposes, the general When routing an alternate path for protection purposes, the general
principle followed is that the alternate path is not routed over any principle followed is that the alternate path is not routed over any
link belonging to an SRLG that some link in the primary path belongs link belonging to an SRLG that some link in the primary path belongs
to. Thus, the rule to be followed is to group links belonging to to. Thus, the rule to be followed is to group links belonging to
exactly the same set of SRLGs. exactly the same set of SRLGs.
This type of sequential sub-division may result in a number of This type of sequential sub-division may result in a number of
bundles between two adjacent nodes. In practice, however, the link bundles between two adjacent nodes. In practice, however, the link
properties may not be very heterogeneous among component links properties may not be very heterogeneous among component links
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between two adjacent nodes. Thus, the number of bundles in practice between two adjacent nodes. Thus, the number of bundles in practice
may not be large. may not be large.
7. UNI and NNI 7. Relationship with the UNI
The interface between an edge GMPLS node and a GMPLS LSR on the The interface between an edge GMPLS node and a GMPLS LSR on the
network side may be referred to as a User to Network Interface network side may be referred to as a User to Network Interface
(UNI), while the interface between two network side LSRs may be (UNI), while the interface between two network side LSRs may be
referred to as a Network to Network Interface (NNI). referred to as a Network to Network Interface (NNI).
GMPLS does not specify separately a UNI and an NNI. Edge nodes are GMPLS does not specify separately a UNI and an NNI. Edge nodes are
connected to LSRs on the network side, and these LSRs are in turn connected to LSRs on the network side, and these LSRs are in turn
connected between them. Of course, the behavior of an edge node is connected between them. Of course, the behavior of an edge node is
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not exactly the same as the behavior of an LSR on the network side. not exactly the same as the behavior of an LSR on the network side.
Note also, that an edge node may run a routing protocol, however it Note also, that an edge node may run a routing protocol, however it
is expected that in most of the cases it will not (see also section is expected that in most of the cases it will not (see also section
7.2 and the section about signaling with an explicit route). 7.2 and the section about signaling with an explicit route).
Conceptually, a difference between UNI and NNI make sense either if Conceptually, a difference between UNI and NNI make sense either if
both interface uses completely different protocols, or if they use both interface uses completely different protocols, or if they use
the same protocols but with some outstanding differences. In the the same protocols but with some outstanding differences. In the
first case, separate protocols are often defined successively, with first case, separate protocols are often defined successively, with
more or less success. more or less success.
The GMPLS approach consisted in building a consistent model from day The GMPLS approach consisted in building a consistent model from day
one, considering both the UNI and NNI interfaces at the same time. one, considering both the UNI and NNI interfaces at the same time.
For that purpose a very few specific UNI particularities have been For that purpose a very few specific UNI particularities have been
ignored in a first time. GMPLS is being enhanced to support such ignored in a first time. GMPLS has been enhanced to support such
particularities at the UNI by some other standardization bodies, particularities at the UNI by some other standardization bodies (see
like the OIF. hereafter).
7.1 OIF UNI versus GMPLS 7.1. Relationship with the OIF UNI
The current OIF UNI specification [OIF-UNI] defines an interface This section is only given for reference to the OIF work related to
between a client SDH/SONET equipment and an SDH/SONET network, each GMPLS. The current OIF UNI specification [OIF-UNI] defines an
belonging to a distinct administrative authority. The OIF UNI interface between a client SDH/SONET equipment and an SDH/SONET
defines additional mechanisms on the top of GMPLS for the UNI. network, each belonging to a distinct administrative authority. It
is designed for an overlay model. The OIF UNI defines additional
mechanisms on the top of GMPLS for the UNI.
For instance, the OIF service discovery procedure is a precursor to For instance, the OIF service discovery procedure is a precursor to
obtaining UNI services. Service discovery allows a client to obtaining UNI services. Service discovery allows a client to
determine the static parameters of the interconnection with the determine the static parameters of the interconnection with the
network, including the UNI signaling protocols, the type of network, including the UNI signaling protocol, the type of
concatenation, the transparency levels as well as the type of concatenation, the transparency level as well as the type of
diversity (node, link, SRLG) supported by the network. diversity (node, link, SRLG) supported by the network.
Since the current OIF UNI interface does not cover photonic Since the current OIF UNI interface does not cover photonic
networks, G.709 Digital Wrapper, etc, it is a sub-set of the GMPLS networks, G.709 Digital Wrapper, etc, it is from that perspective a
Architecture. subset of the GMPLS Architecture at the UNI.
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7.2 Routing at the UNI 7.2. Reachability across the UNI
This section discusses the selection of an explicit route by an edge This section discusses the selection of an explicit route by an edge
node. The selection of the first LSR by an edge node connected to node. The selection of the first LSR by an edge node connected to
multiple LSRs is part of that problem. multiple LSRs is part of that problem.
An edge node (host or LSR) can participate more or less deeply in An edge node (host or LSR) can participate more or less deeply in
the GMPLS routing. Four different routing models can be supported at the GMPLS routing. Four different routing models can be supported at
the UNI: configuration based, partial peering, silent listening and the UNI: configuration based, partial peering, silent listening and
full peering. full peering.
- Configuration based: this routing model requires the manual or - Configuration based: this routing model requires the manual or
automatic configuration of an edge node with a list of neighbor LSRs automatic configuration of an edge node with a list of neighbor LSRs
sorted by preference order. Automatic configuration can be achieved sorted by preference order. Automatic configuration can be achieved
using DHCP for instance. No routing information is exchanged at the using DHCP for instance. No routing information is exchanged at the
UNI, except maybe the ordered list of LSRs. The only routing UNI, except maybe the ordered list of LSRs. The only routing
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information used by the edge node is that list. The edge node sends information used by the edge node is that list. The edge node sends
by default an LSP request to the preferred LSR. ICMP redirects could by default an LSP request to the preferred LSR. ICMP redirects could
be send by this LSR to redirect some LSP requests to another LSR be send by this LSR to redirect some LSP requests to another LSR
connected to the edge node. GMPLS does not preclude that model. connected to the edge node. GMPLS does not preclude that model.
- Partial peering: limited routing information (mainly reachability) - Partial peering: limited routing information (mainly reachability)
can be exchanged across the UNI using some extensions in the can be exchanged across the UNI using some extensions in the
signaling plane. The reachability information exchanged at the UNI signaling plane. The reachability information exchanged at the UNI
may be used to initiate edge node specific routing decision over the may be used to initiate edge node specific routing decision over the
network. GMPLS does not have any capability to support this model network. GMPLS does not have any capability to support this model
skipping to change at line 1090 skipping to change at line 1101
In the context of GMPLS, a pair of nodes (e.g., a photonic switch) In the context of GMPLS, a pair of nodes (e.g., a photonic switch)
may be connected by tens of fibers, and each fiber may be used to may be connected by tens of fibers, and each fiber may be used to
transmit hundreds of wavelengths if DWDM is used. Multiple fibers transmit hundreds of wavelengths if DWDM is used. Multiple fibers
and/or multiple wavelengths may also be combined into one or more and/or multiple wavelengths may also be combined into one or more
bundled links for routing purposes. Furthermore, to enable bundled links for routing purposes. Furthermore, to enable
communication between nodes for routing, signaling, and link communication between nodes for routing, signaling, and link
management, control channels must be established between a node management, control channels must be established between a node
pair. pair.
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Link management is a collection of useful procedures between Link management is a collection of useful procedures between
adjacent nodes that provide local services such as control channel adjacent nodes that provide local services such as control channel
management, link connectivity verification, link property management, link connectivity verification, link property
correlation, and fault management. The Link Management Protocol correlation, and fault management. The Link Management Protocol
(LMP) has been defined to fulfill these operations. LMP was (LMP) has been defined to fulfill these operations. LMP was
initiated in the context of GMPLS but is a generic toolbox that can initiated in the context of GMPLS but is a generic toolbox that can
be also used in other contexts. be also used in other contexts.
Control channel management and link property correlation are Control channel management and link property correlation are
mandatory procedures of LMP. Link connectivity verification and mandatory procedures of LMP. Link connectivity verification and
fault management are optional procedures. fault management are optional procedures.
8.1 Control channel and control channel management E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 20
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8.1. Control channel and control channel management
LMP control channel management is used to establish and maintain LMP control channel management is used to establish and maintain
control channels between nodes. Control channels exist independently control channels between nodes. Control channels exist independently
of TE links, and can be used to exchange MPLS control-plane of TE links, and can be used to exchange MPLS control-plane
information such as signaling, routing, and link management information such as signaling, routing, and link management
information. information.
An "LMP adjacency" is formed between two nodes that support the same An "LMP adjacency" is formed between two nodes that support the same
LMP capabilities. Multiple control channels may be active LMP capabilities. Multiple control channels may be active
simultaneously for each adjacency. A control channel can be either simultaneously for each adjacency. A control channel can be either
explicitly configured or automatically selected, however, LMP explicitly configured or automatically selected, however, LMP
currently assume that control channels are explicitly configured. currently assume that control channels are explicitly configured
while the configuration of the control channel capabilities can be
dynamically negotiated.
For the purposes of LMP, the exact implementation of the control For the purposes of LMP, the exact implementation of the control
channel is left unspecified. The control channel(s) between two channel is left unspecified. The control channel(s) between two
adjacent nodes is no longer required to use the same physical medium adjacent nodes is no longer required to use the same physical medium
as the data-bearing links between those nodes. For example, a as the data-bearing links between those nodes. For example, a
control channel could use a separate wavelength or fiber, an control channel could use a separate wavelength or fiber, an
Ethernet link, or an IP tunnel through a separate management Ethernet link, or an IP tunnel through a separate management
network. network.
A consequence of allowing the control channel(s) between two nodes A consequence of allowing the control channel(s) between two nodes
to be physically diverse from the associated data-bearing links is to be physically diverse from the associated data-bearing links is
that the health of a control channel does not necessarily correlate that the health of a control channel does not necessarily correlate
to the health of the data-bearing links, and vice-versa. Therefore, to the health of the data-bearing links, and vice-versa. Therefore,
new mechanisms must be developed to manage links, both in terms of new mechanisms have been developed in LMP to manage links, both in
link provisioning and fault isolation. terms of link provisioning and fault isolation.
LMP does not specify how control channels are implemented, however LMP does not specify the signaling transport mechanism used in the
it states that messages transported over a control channel must be control channel, however it states that messages transported over a
IP encoded. Furthermore, since the messages are IP encoded, the link control channel must be IP encoded. Furthermore, since the messages
level encoding is not part of LMP. A 32-bit non-zero integer control are IP encoded, the link level encoding is not part of LMP. A 32-bit
channel identifier (CCId) is assigned to each direction of a control non-zero integer control channel identifier (CCId) is assigned to
channel. each direction of a control channel.
Each control channel individually negotiates its control channel Each control channel individually negotiates its control channel
parameters and maintains connectivity using a fast Hello protocol. parameters and maintains connectivity using a fast Hello protocol.
The latter is required if lower-level mechanisms are not available The latter is required if lower-level mechanisms are not available
to detect link failures. to detect link failures.
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The Hello protocol of LMP is intended to be a lightweight keep-alive The Hello protocol of LMP is intended to be a lightweight keep-alive
mechanism that will react to control channel failures rapidly so mechanism that will react to control channel failures rapidly so
that IGP Hellos are not lost and the associated link-state that IGP Hellos are not lost and the associated link-state
adjacencies are not removed unnecessarily. adjacencies are not removed unnecessarily.
The Hello protocol consists of two phases: a negotiation phase and a The Hello protocol consists of two phases: a negotiation phase and a
keep-alive phase. The negotiation phase allows negotiation of some keep-alive phase. The negotiation phase allows negotiation of some
basic Hello protocol parameters, like the Hello frequency. The keep- basic Hello protocol parameters, like the Hello frequency. The keep-
alive phase consists of a fast lightweight bi-directional Hello alive phase consists of a fast lightweight bi-directional Hello
message exchange. message exchange.
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If a group of control channels share a common node pair and support If a group of control channels share a common node pair and support
the same LMP capabilities, then LMP control channel messages (except the same LMP capabilities, then LMP control channel messages (except
Configuration messages, and Hello) may be transmitted over any of Configuration messages, and Hello) may be transmitted over any of
the active control channels without coordination between the local the active control channels without coordination between the local
and remote nodes. and remote nodes.
For LMP, it is essential that at least one control channel is always For LMP, it is essential that at least one control channel is always
available. In the event of a control channel failure, it may be available. In the event of a control channel failure, it may be
possible to use an alternate active control channel without possible to use an alternate active control channel without
coordination. coordination.
8.2 Link property correlation 8.2. Link property correlation
As part of LMP, a link property correlation exchange is defined. As part of LMP, a link property correlation exchange is defined.
The exchange is used to aggregate multiple data-bearing links (i.e. The exchange is used to aggregate multiple data-bearing links (i.e.
component links) into a bundled link and exchange, correlate, or component links) into a bundled link and exchange, correlate, or
change TE link parameters. The link property correlation exchange change TE link parameters. The link property correlation exchange
may be done at any time a link is up and not in the Verification may be done at any time a link is up and not in the Verification
process (see next section). process (see next section).
It allows for instance to add component links to a link bundle, It allows for instance to add component links to a link bundle,
change a link's protection mechanism, change port identifiers, or change a link's protection mechanism, change port identifiers, or
change component identifiers in a bundle. This mechanism is change component identifiers in a bundle. This mechanism is
supported by an exchange of link summary messages. supported by an exchange of link summary messages.
8.3 Link connectivity verification 8.3. Link connectivity verification
Link connectivity verification is an optional procedure that may be Link connectivity verification is an optional procedure that may be
used to verify the physical connectivity of data-bearing links as used to verify the physical connectivity of data-bearing links as
well as to exchange the link identifiers that are used in the GMPLS well as to exchange the link identifiers that are used in the GMPLS
signaling. signaling.
The use of this procedure is negotiated as part of the configuration The use of this procedure is negotiated as part of the configuration
exchange that take place during the negotiation phase of the Hello exchange that take place during the negotiation phase of the Hello
protocol. This procedure should be done initially when a data- protocol. This procedure should be done initially when a data-
bearing link is first established, and subsequently, on a periodic bearing link is first established, and subsequently, on a periodic
basis for all unallocated (free) data-bearing links. basis for all unallocated (free) data-bearing links.
The verification procedure consists of sending Test messages in-band The verification procedure consists of sending Test messages in-band
over the data-bearing links. This requires that the unallocated over the data-bearing links. This requires that the unallocated
links must be opaque; however, multiple degrees of opaqueness (e.g., links must be opaque; however, multiple degrees of opaqueness (e.g.,
examining overhead bytes, terminating the payload, etc.), and hence examining overhead bytes, terminating the payload, etc.), and hence
different mechanisms to transport the Test messages, are specified. different mechanisms to transport the Test messages, are specified.
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Note that the Test message is the only LMP message that is Note that the Test message is the only LMP message that is
transmitted over the link, and that Hello messages continue to be transmitted over the link, and that Hello messages continue to be
exchanged over the control channel during the link verification exchanged over the control channel during the link verification
process. Data-bearing links are tested in the transmit direction as process. Data-bearing links are tested in the transmit direction as
they are unidirectional. As such, it is possible for both nodes to they are unidirectional. As such, it is possible for LMP neighboring
exchange the Test messages simultaneously. nodes to exchange the Test messages simultaneously in both
directions.
To initiate the link verification procedure, a node must first To initiate the link verification procedure, a node must first
notify the adjacent node that it will begin sending Test messages notify the adjacent node that it will begin sending Test messages
over a particular data-bearing link, or over the component links of over a particular data-bearing link, or over the component links of
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a particular bundled link. The node must also indicate the number of a particular bundled link. The node must also indicate the number of
data-bearing links that are to be verified; the interval at which data-bearing links that are to be verified; the interval at which
the test messages will be sent; the encoding scheme, the transport the test messages will be sent; the encoding scheme, the transport
mechanism that are supported, data rate for Test messages; and, in mechanism that are supported, data rate for Test messages; and, in
the case where the data-bearing links correspond to fibers, the the case where the data-bearing links correspond to fibers, the
wavelength over which the Test messages will be transmitted. wavelength over which the Test messages will be transmitted.
Furthermore, the local and remote bundled link identifiers are Furthermore, the local and remote bundled link identifiers are
transmitted at this time to perform the component link association transmitted at this time to perform the component link association
with the bundled link identifiers. with the bundled link identifiers.
8.4 Fault management 8.4. Fault management
Fault management is an important requirement from the operational Fault management is an important requirement from the operational
point of view. When a failure occurs an operator needs to know point of view. Fault management includes usually: fault detection,
exactly where it happened. It can also be used to support some fault localization and fault notification. When a failure occurs and
specific local protection/restoration mechanisms. Logically, fault is detected (fault detection), an operator needs to know exactly
localization can occur only after a fault is detected. LMP provides where it happened (fault localization) and a source node may need to
a fault notification procedure that can be used to rapidly localize be notified in order to take some actions (fault notification).
link failures.
Note that fault localization can also be used to support some
specific local protection/restoration mechanisms.
In new technologies such as transparent photonic switching currently In new technologies such as transparent photonic switching currently
no method is defined to locate a fault, and the mechanism by which no method is defined to locate a fault, and the mechanism by which
the fault information is propagated must be sent "out of band" (via the fault information is propagated must be sent "out of band" (via
the control plane). the control plane).
As part of the fault notification procedure, the downstream LMP LMP provides a fault localization procedure that can be used to
neighbor that detects data link failures will send an LMP message to rapidly localize link failures, by notifying a fault up to the node
its upstream neighbor notifying it of the failure. When an upstream upstream of that fault (i.e. through a fault notification
node receives a failure notification, it can correlate the failure procedure).
with the corresponding input ports to determine if the failure is
between the two nodes. Once the failure has been localized, the A downstream LMP neighbor that detects data link failures will send
signaling protocols can be used to initiate span or path an LMP message to its upstream neighbor notifying it of the failure.
protection/restoration procedures. When an upstream node receives a failure notification, it can
correlate the failure with the corresponding input ports to
determine if the failure is between the two nodes. Once the failure
has been localized, the signaling protocols can be used to initiate
link or path protection/restoration procedures.
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9. Generalized Signaling 9. Generalized Signaling
The GMPLS signaling extends certain base functions of the RSVP-TE The GMPLS signaling extends certain base functions of the RSVP-TE
and CR-LDP signaling and, in some cases, adds functionality. These and CR-LDP signaling and, in some cases, adds functionality. These
changes and additions impact basic LSP properties, how labels are changes and additions impact basic LSP properties, how labels are
requested and communicated, the unidirectional nature of LSPs, how requested and communicated, the unidirectional nature of LSPs, how
errors are propagated, and information provided for synchronizing errors are propagated, and information provided for synchronizing
the ingress and egress. the ingress and egress.
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The core GMPLS signaling specification is available in three parts: The core GMPLS signaling specification is available in three parts:
1. A signaling functional description [GMPLS-SIG]. 1. A signaling functional description [GMPLS-SIG].
2. RSVP-TE extensions [RSVP-TE-GMPLS]. 2. RSVP-TE extensions [RSVP-TE-GMPLS].
3. CR-LDP extensions [CR-LDP-GMPLS]. 3. CR-LDP extensions [CR-LDP-GMPLS].
In addition, independent parts are available per technology: In addition, independent parts are available per technology:
1. GMPLS extensions for SONET and SDH control [SONETSDH-GMPLS]. 1. GMPLS extensions for SONET and SDH control [SONETSDH-GMPLS].
2. GMPLS extensions for G.709 control [G709-GMPLS].
The following MPLS profile applies to GMPLS: The following MPLS profile expressed in terms of MPLS features
[RFC3031] applies to GMPLS:
- Downstream-on-demand label allocation and distribution. - Downstream-on-demand label allocation and distribution.
- Ingress initiated ordered control. - Ingress initiated ordered control.
- Liberal (typical), or conservative (could) label retention - Liberal (typical), or conservative (could) label retention
mode. mode.
- Request, traffic/data, or topology driven label allocation - Request, traffic/data, or topology driven label allocation
strategy. strategy.
- Explicit routing (typical), or hop-by-hop routing (could). - Explicit routing (typical), or hop-by-hop routing.
The GMPLS signaling defines the following new building blocks on the The GMPLS signaling defines the following new building blocks on the
top of MPLS-TE: top of MPLS-TE:
1. A new generic label request format. 1. A new generic label request format.
2. Labels for TDM, LSC and FSC interfaces, generically known as 2. Labels for TDM, LSC and FSC interfaces, generically known as
Generalized Label. Generalized Label.
3. Waveband switching support. 3. Waveband switching support.
4. Label suggestion by the upstream for optimization purposes 4. Label suggestion by the upstream for optimization purposes
(e.g. latency). (e.g. latency).
5. Label restriction by the upstream to support some optical 5. Label restriction by the upstream to support some optical
constraints. constraints.
6. Bi-directional LSP establishment with contention 6. Bi-directional LSP establishment with contention
resolution. resolution.
7. Rapid failure notification to ingress node. 7. Rapid failure notification extensions.
8. Protection information currently focusing on link protection, 8. Protection information currently focusing on link protection,
plus primary and secondary LSP indication. plus primary and secondary LSP indication.
9. Explicit routing with explicit label control for a fine 9. Explicit routing with explicit label control for a fine
degree of control. degree of control.
10. Specific traffic parameters per technology. 10. Specific traffic parameters per technology.
11. LSP administrative status handling.
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These building blocks will be described in mode details in the These building blocks will be described in mode details in the
following. A complete specification can be found in the following. A complete specification can be found in the
corresponding documents. corresponding documents.
Note that GMPLS is highly generic and has many options. Only Note that GMPLS is highly generic and has many options. Only
building blocks 1, 2 and 10 are mandatory, and only within the building blocks 1, 2 and 10 are mandatory, and only within the
specific format that is needed. Typically building blocks 6 and 9 specific format that is needed. Typically building blocks 6 and 9
should be implemented. Building blocks 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 are should be implemented. Building blocks 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 11 are
optional. optional.
A typical SDH/SONET switching network would implement building A typical SDH/SONET switching network would implement building
blocks: 1, 2 (the SDH/SONET label), 6, 9 and 10. Building blocks 7 blocks: 1, 2 (the SDH/SONET label), 6, 9, 10 and 11. Building blocks
and 8 are optional since the protection/restoration can be achieved 7 and 8 are optional since the protection/restoration can be
using SDH/SONET overhead bytes. achieved using SDH/SONET overhead bytes.
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A typical wavelength switching network would implement building A typical wavelength switching network would implement building
blocks: 1, 2 (the generic format), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Building blocks: 1, 2 (the generic format), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11. Building
block 3 is only needed in the particular case of waveband switching. block 3 is only needed in the particular case of waveband switching.
A typical fiber switching network would implement building blocks: A typical fiber switching network would implement building blocks:
1, 2 (the generic format), 6, 7, 8 and 9. 1, 2 (the generic format), 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11.
A typical MPLS-IP network would not implement any of these building A typical MPLS-IP network would not implement any of these building
blocks, since the absence of building block 1 would indicate regular blocks, since the absence of building block 1 would indicate regular
MPLS-IP. Note however that building block 1 and 8 can be used to MPLS-IP. Note however that building block 1 and 8 can be used to
signal MPLS-IP as well. In that case, the MPLS-IP network can signal MPLS-IP as well. In that case, the MPLS-IP network can
benefit from the link protection type (not available in CR-LDP, some benefit from the link protection type (not available in CR-LDP, some
very basic form being available in RSVP-TE). Building block 2 is very basic form being available in RSVP-TE). Building block 2 is
here a regular MPLS label and no new label format is required. here a regular MPLS label and no new label format is required.
GMPLS does not specify any profile for RSVP-TE and CR-LDP GMPLS does not specify any profile for RSVP-TE and CR-LDP
skipping to change at line 1357 skipping to change at line 1380
message downstream to the destination. This message contains a message downstream to the destination. This message contains a
Generalized Label Request with the type of LSP (i.e. the layer Generalized Label Request with the type of LSP (i.e. the layer
concerned), and its payload type. An Explicit Route (ERO) is also concerned), and its payload type. An Explicit Route (ERO) is also
normally added to the message, but this can be added and/or normally added to the message, but this can be added and/or
completed by the first/default LSR. completed by the first/default LSR.
The requested bandwidth is encoded in the RSVP-TE SENDER_TSPEC The requested bandwidth is encoded in the RSVP-TE SENDER_TSPEC
object, or in the CR-LDP Traffic Parameters TLV. Specific parameters object, or in the CR-LDP Traffic Parameters TLV. Specific parameters
for a given technology are given in these traffic parameters, such for a given technology are given in these traffic parameters, such
as the type of signal, concatenation and/or transparency for a as the type of signal, concatenation and/or transparency for a
SDH/SONET LSP. For some other technology there could just one SDH/SONET LSP. For some other technology there be could just one
bandwidth parameter indicating the bandwidth as a floating-point bandwidth parameter indicating the bandwidth as a floating-point
value. value.
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The requested local protection per link may be requested using the The requested local protection per link may be requested using the
Protection Information Object/TLV. The end-to-end protection type is Protection Information Object/TLV. The end-to-end LSP protection is
for further study. for further study and is introduced LSP protection/restoration
section (see after).
If the LSP is a bi-directional LSP, an Upstream Label is also If the LSP is a bi-directional LSP, an Upstream Label is also
specified in the Path/Label request message. This label will be the specified in the Path/Label Request message. This label will be the
one to use in the downstream to upstream direction. one to use in the upstream direction.
Additionally, a Suggested Label, a Label Set and a Waveband Label Additionally, a Suggested Label, a Label Set and a Waveband Label
can also be included in the message. Other operations are defined in can also be included in the message. Other operations are defined in
MPLS-TE. MPLS-TE.
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The downstream node will send back a Resv/Label Mapping message The downstream node will send back a Resv/Label Mapping message
including one Generalized Label object/TLV that can contain several including one Generalized Label object/TLV that can contain several
Generalized Labels. For instance, if a concatenated SDH/SONET signal Generalized Labels. For instance, if a concatenated SDH/SONET signal
is requested, several labels can be returned. is requested, several labels can be returned.
In case of SDH/SONET virtual concatenation, a list of labels is In case of SDH/SONET virtual concatenation, a list of labels is
returned. Each label identifying one element of the virtual returned. Each label identifying one element of the virtual
concatenated signal. This limits virtual concatenation to remain concatenated signal. This limits virtual concatenation to remain
within a single (component) link. within a single (component) link.
In case of any type of SDH/SONET contiguous concatenation, only one In case of any type of SDH/SONET contiguous concatenation, only one
label is returned. That label is the lowest signal of the contiguous label is returned. That label is the lowest signal of the contiguous
concatenated signal (given an order specified in [SONETSDH-GMPLS]). concatenated signal (given an order specified in [SONETSDH-GMPLS]).
In case of SDH/SONET "multiplication", i.e. co-routing of circuits In case of SDH/SONET "multiplication", i.e. co-routing of circuits
of the same type but without concatenation but all belonging to the of the same type but without concatenation but all belonging to the
same LSP, the explicit list of all signals that take part in the LSP same LSP, the explicit ordered list of all signals that take part in
is returned. the LSP is returned.
9.2. Generalized Label Request 9.2. Generalized Label Request
The Generalized Label Request is a new object/TLV to be added in an The Generalized Label Request is a new object/TLV to be added in an
RSVP-TE Path message instead of the regular Label Request, or in a RSVP-TE Path message instead of the regular Label Request, or in a
CR-LDP Request message in addition to the already existing TLVs. CR-LDP Request message in addition to the already existing TLVs.
Only one label request can be used per message, so a single LSP can Only one label request can be used per message, so a single LSP can
be requested at a time per signaling message. be requested at a time per signaling message.
The Generalized Label Request gives two major characteristics The Generalized Label Request gives two major characteristics
skipping to change at line 1415 skipping to change at line 1439
encoding type, and the LSP payload type called Generalized PID (G- encoding type, and the LSP payload type called Generalized PID (G-
PID). PID).
The LSP encoding type indicates the encoding type that will be used The LSP encoding type indicates the encoding type that will be used
with the data associated with the LSP, i.e. the type of technology with the data associated with the LSP, i.e. the type of technology
being considered. For instance, it can be SDH, SONET, Ethernet, ANSI being considered. For instance, it can be SDH, SONET, Ethernet, ANSI
PDH, etc. It represents the nature of the LSP, and not the nature of PDH, etc. It represents the nature of the LSP, and not the nature of
the links that the LSP traverses. This is used hop-by-hop by each the links that the LSP traverses. This is used hop-by-hop by each
node. node.
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A link may support a set of encoding formats, where support means A link may support a set of encoding formats, where support means
that a link is able to carry and switch a signal of one or more of that a link is able to carry and switch a signal of one or more of
these encoding formats. these encoding formats.
The LSP payload type (G-PID) identifies the payload carried by the The LSP payload type (G-PID) identifies the payload carried by the
LSP, i.e. an identifier of the client layer of that LSP. For some LSP, i.e. an identifier of the client layer of that LSP. For some
technologies it also indicates the mapping used by the client layer, technologies it also indicates the mapping used by the client layer,
e.g. byte synchronous mapping of E1. This must be interpreted e.g. byte synchronous mapping of E1. This must be interpreted
according to the LSP encoding type of the LSP and is used by the according to the LSP encoding type of the LSP and is used by the
nodes at the endpoints of the LSP to know to which client layer a nodes at the endpoints of the LSP to know to which client layer a
request is destined, and in some cases by the penultimate hop. request is destined, and in some cases by the penultimate hop.
Other technology specific parameters are not transported in the Other technology specific parameters are not transported in the
Generalized Label Request but in technology specific traffic Generalized Label Request but in technology specific traffic
parameters as explained hereafter. Currently, two set of traffic
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 26 parameters are defined, one for SONET/SDH and one for G.709.
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
parameters as explained hereafter. Currently, only one specific set
of traffic parameters is defined, for SONET/SDH.
Note that it is expected than specific traffic parameters will be Note that it is expected than specific traffic parameters will be
defined in the future for photonic (all optical) switching. defined in the future for photonic (all optical) switching.
9.3. SONET/SDH Traffic Parameters 9.3. SONET/SDH Traffic Parameters
The SDH/SONET traffic parameters [SONETSDH-GMPLS] specify indeed a The GMPLS SDH/SONET traffic parameters [SONETSDH-GMPLS] specify a
powerful set of capabilities for SONET (ANSI T1.105) and SDH (ITU-T powerful set of capabilities for SONET (ANSI T1.105) and SDH (ITU-T
G.707). Optional non-standard capabilities are also available. G.707). Optional non-standard capabilities are also available in
[SONETSDH-EXT-GMPLS].
The first traffic parameter specifies the type of the elementary The first traffic parameter specifies the type of the elementary
SONET/SDH signal that comprises the requested LSP, e.g. VC-11, VT6, SONET/SDH signal that comprises the requested LSP, e.g. VC-11, VT6,
VC-4, STS-3c, etc. Several transforms can then be applied VC-4, STS-3c, etc. Several transforms can then be applied
successively on the elementary Signal to build the final signal successively on the elementary Signal to build the final signal
being actually requested for the LSP. being actually requested for the LSP.
These transforms are the contiguous concatenation, the virtual These transforms are the contiguous concatenation, the virtual
concatenation, the transparency and the multiplication. Each one is concatenation, the transparency and the multiplication. Each one is
optional. They must be applied strictly in the following order: optional. They must be applied strictly in the following order:
skipping to change at line 1471 skipping to change at line 1495
- Third, some transparency can be optionally specified when - Third, some transparency can be optionally specified when
requesting a frame as signal rather than a container. Several requesting a frame as signal rather than a container. Several
transparency packages are defined. transparency packages are defined.
- Fourth, a multiplication can be optionally applied either directly - Fourth, a multiplication can be optionally applied either directly
on the elementary Signal, or on the contiguously concatenated on the elementary Signal, or on the contiguously concatenated
signal obtained from the first phase, or on the virtually signal obtained from the first phase, or on the virtually
concatenated signal obtained from the second phase, or on these concatenated signal obtained from the second phase, or on these
signals combined with some transparency. signals combined with some transparency.
For RSVP-TE, the SONET/SDH traffic parameters are carried in a new For RSVP-TE, the SONET/SDH traffic parameters are carried in a new
SENDER-TSPEC and FLOWSPEC. The same format is used for both. There SENDER_TSPEC and FLOWSPEC. The same format is used for both. There
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is no Adspec associated with the SENDER_TSPEC, either it is omitted is no Adspec associated with the SENDER_TSPEC, either it is omitted
or a default value is used. The content of the FLOWSPEC object or a default value is used. The content of the FLOWSPEC object
received in a Resv message must be identical to the content of the received in a Resv message should be identical to the content of the
SENDER_TSPEC of the corresponding Path message. In other words, the SENDER_TSPEC of the corresponding Path message. In other words, the
receiver is not allowed to change the values of the traffic receiver is normally not allowed to change the values of the traffic
parameters. However some level of negotiation may be achieved as parameters. However some level of negotiation may be achieved as
explained in [SONETSDH-GMPLS] explained in [SONETSDH-GMPLS]
For CR-LDP, the SONET/SDH traffic parameters are simply carried in a For CR-LDP, the SONET/SDH traffic parameters are simply carried in a
new TLV. new TLV.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 27 9.4. G.709 Traffic Parameters
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9.4. Bandwidth Encoding Simply said, an ITU-T G.709 based network is decomposed in two major
layers: an optical layer (i.e. made of wavelengths) and a digital
layer. These two layers are divided into sub-layers and switching
occurs at two specific sub-layers: at the OCh (Optical Channel)
optical layer and at the ODU (Optical channel Data Unit) electrical
layer. The ODUk notation is used to denotes ODUs at different
bandwidths.
The GMPLS G.709 traffic parameters [G709-GMPLS] specify a powerful
set of capabilities for ITU-T G.709 networks.
The first traffic parameter specifies the type of the elementary
G.709 signal that comprises the requested LSP, e.g. ODU1, OCh at 40
Gbps, etc. Several transforms can then be applied successively on
the elementary Signal to build the final signal being actually
requested for the LSP.
These transforms are the virtual concatenation and the
multiplication. Each one of these transforms is optional. They must
be applied strictly in the following order:
- First, virtual concatenation can be optionally applied directly on
the elementary Signal,
- Second, a multiplication can be optionally applied, either
directly on the elementary Signal, or on the virtually
concatenated signal obtained from the first phase.
Additional ODUk Multiplexing traffic parameters allow indicating an
ODUk mapping (ODUj into ODUk) for an ODUk multiplexing LSP request.
G.709 supports the following multiplexing capabilities: ODUj into
ODUk (k > j); and ODU1 with ODU2 multiplexing into ODU3.
For RSVP-TE, the SONET/SDH traffic parameters are carried in a new
SENDER-TSPEC and FLOWSPEC. The same format is used for both. There
is no Adspec associated with the SENDER_TSPEC, either it is omitted
or a default value is used. The content of the FLOWSPEC object
received in a Resv message should be identical to the content of the
SENDER_TSPEC of the corresponding Path message.
For CR-LDP, the SONET/SDH traffic parameters are simply carried in a
new TLV.
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9.5. Bandwidth Encoding
Some technologies that do not have (yet) specific traffic parameters Some technologies that do not have (yet) specific traffic parameters
just require a bandwidth encoding transported in a generic form. just require a bandwidth encoding transported in a generic form.
Bandwidth is carried in 32-bit number in IEEE floating-point format Bandwidth is carried in 32-bit number in IEEE floating-point format
(the unit is bytes per second). Values are carried in a per protocol (the unit is bytes per second). Values are carried in a per protocol
specific manner. For non-packet LSPs, it is useful to define specific manner. For non-packet LSPs, it is useful to define
discrete values to identify the bandwidth of the LSP. discrete values to identify the bandwidth of the LSP.
It should be noted that this bandwidth encoding do not apply to It should be noted that this bandwidth encoding do not apply to
SONET/SDH, for which bandwidth the traffic parameters fully defined SONET/SDH and G.709, for which the traffic parameters fully define
the requested SONET/SDH signal. the requested SONET/SDH or G.709 signal.
The bandwidth is coded in the Peak Data Rate field of Int-Serv The bandwidth is coded in the Peak Data Rate field of Int-Serv
objects for RSVP-TE and in the Peak and Committed Data Rate fields objects for RSVP-TE in the SENDER_TSPEC and FLOWSPEC objects; and in
of the CR-LDP Traffic Parameters TLV. the Peak and Committed Data Rate fields of the CR-LDP Traffic
Parameters TLV.
9.5. Generalized Label 9.6. Generalized Label
The Generalized Label extends the traditional MPLS label by allowing The Generalized Label extends the traditional MPLS label by allowing
the representation of not only labels that travel in-band with the representation of not only labels that travel in-band with
associated data packets, but also (virtual) labels that identify associated data packets, but also (virtual) labels that identify
time-slots, wavelengths, or space division multiplexed positions. time-slots, wavelengths, or space division multiplexed positions.
For example, the Generalized Label may identify (a) a single fiber For example, the Generalized Label may identify (a) a single fiber
in a bundle, (b) a single waveband within fiber, (c) a single in a bundle, (b) a single waveband within fiber, (c) a single
wavelength within a waveband (or fiber), or (d) a time-slot within a wavelength within a waveband (or fiber), or (d) a set of time-slots
wavelength (or fiber). It may also be a generic MPLS label, a Frame within a wavelength (or fiber). It may also be a generic MPLS label,
Relay label, or an ATM label (VCI/VPI). The format of a label can be a Frame Relay label, or an ATM label (VCI/VPI). The format of a
as simple as an integer value such as a wavelength label or can be label can be as simple as an integer value such as a wavelength
more elaborated such as an SDH/SONET label. label or can be more elaborated such as an SDH/SONET or a G.709
label.
SDH and SONET define each a multiplexing structure. These SDH and SONET define each a multiplexing structure. These
multiplexing structures will be used as naming trees to create multiplexing structures will be used as naming trees to create
unique labels. Such a label will identify the exact position (times- unique labels. Such a label will identify the exact position (times-
lot(s)) of a signal in a multiplexing structure. Since the SONET lot(s)) of a signal in a multiplexing structure. Since the SONET
multiplexing structure may be seen as a subset of the SDH multiplexing structure may be seen as a subset of the SDH
multiplexing structure, the same format of label is used for SDH and multiplexing structure, the same format of label is used for SDH and
SONET. SONET. A similar concept is applied to build a label at the G.709
ODU layer.
Since the nodes sending and receiving the Generalized Label know Since the nodes sending and receiving the Generalized Label know
what kinds of link they are using, the Generalized Label does not what kinds of link they are using, the Generalized Label does not
identify its type, instead the nodes are expected to know from the identify its type, instead the nodes are expected to know from the
context what type of label to expect. context what type of label to expect.
A Generalized Label only carries a single level of label, i.e. it is A Generalized Label only carries a single level of label, i.e. it is
non-hierarchical. When multiple levels of labels (LSPs within LSPs) non-hierarchical. When multiple levels of labels (LSPs within LSPs)
are required, each LSP must be established separately. are required, each LSP must be established separately.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 28 E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 29
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9.6. Waveband Switching 9.7. Waveband Switching
A special case of wavelength switching is waveband switching. A A special case of wavelength switching is waveband switching. A
waveband represents a set of contiguous wavelengths, which can be waveband represents a set of contiguous wavelengths, which can be
switched together to a new waveband. For optimization reasons it may switched together to a new waveband. For optimization reasons it may
be desirable for a photonic cross-connect to optically switch be desirable for a photonic cross-connect to optically switch
multiple wavelengths as a unit. This may reduce the distortion on multiple wavelengths as a unit. This may reduce the distortion on
the individual wavelengths and may allow tighter separation of the the individual wavelengths and may allow tighter separation of the
individual wavelengths. A Waveband label is defined to support this individual wavelengths. A Waveband label is defined to support this
special case. special case.
Waveband switching naturally introduces another level of label Waveband switching naturally introduces another level of label
hierarchy and as such the waveband is treated the same way all other hierarchy and as such the waveband is treated the same way all other
upper layer labels are treated. As far as the MPLS protocols are upper layer labels are treated. As far as the MPLS protocols are
concerned there is little difference between a waveband label and a concerned there is little difference between a waveband label and a
wavelength label except that semantically the waveband can be wavelength label except that semantically the waveband can be
subdivided into wavelengths whereas the wavelength can only be subdivided into wavelengths whereas the wavelength can only be
subdivided into time or statistically multiplexed labels. subdivided into time or statistically multiplexed labels.
9.7. Label Suggestion by the Upstream In the context of waveband switching, the generalized label used to
indicate a waveband contains three fields, a waveband ID, a Start
Label and an End Label. The Start and End Labels are channel
identifiers from the sender perspective that identify respectively,
the lowest value wavelength and the highest value wavelength making
up the waveband.
9.8. Label Suggestion by the Upstream
GMPLS allows for a label to be optionally suggested by an upstream GMPLS allows for a label to be optionally suggested by an upstream
node. This suggestion may be overridden by a downstream node but in node. This suggestion may be overridden by a downstream node but in
some cases, at the cost of higher LSP setup time. The suggested some cases, at the cost of higher LSP setup time. The suggested
label is valuable when establishing LSPs through certain kinds of label is valuable when establishing LSPs through certain kinds of
optical equipment where there may be a lengthy (in electrical terms) optical equipment where there may be a lengthy (in electrical terms)
delay in configuring the switching fabric. For example micro mirrors delay in configuring the switching fabric. For example micro mirrors
may have to be elevated or moved, and this physical motion and may have to be elevated or moved, and this physical motion and
subsequent damping takes time. If the labels and hence switching subsequent damping takes time. If the labels and hence switching
fabric are configured in the reverse direction (the norm) the fabric are configured in the reverse direction (the norm) the
MAPPING/Resv message may need to be delayed by 10's of milliseconds MAPPING/Resv message may need to be delayed by 10's of milliseconds
per hop in order to establish a usable forwarding path. It can be per hop in order to establish a usable forwarding path. It can be
important for restoration purposes where alternate LSPs may need to important for restoration purposes where alternate LSPs may need to
be rapidly established as a result of network failures. be rapidly established as a result of network failures.
9.8. Label Restriction by the Upstream 9.9. Label Restriction by the Upstream
An upstream node can optionally restrict (limit) the choice of label An upstream node can optionally restrict (limit) the choice of label
of a downstream node to a set of acceptable labels. Giving lists of a downstream node to a set of acceptable labels. Giving lists
and/or ranges of inclusive (acceptable) or exclusive (unacceptable) and/or ranges of inclusive (acceptable) or exclusive (unacceptable)
labels in a Label Set provides this restriction. If not applied, all labels in a Label Set provides this restriction. If not applied, all
labels from the valid label range may be used. There are four cases labels from the valid label range may be used. There are at least
where a label restriction is useful in the "optical" domain. four cases where a label restriction is useful in the "optical"
domain.
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1. The first case is where the end equipment is only capable of 1. The first case is where the end equipment is only capable of
transmitting and receiving on a small specific set of transmitting and receiving on a small specific set of
wavelengths/bands. wavelengths/bands.
2. The second case is where there is a sequence of interfaces, which 2. The second case is where there is a sequence of interfaces, which
cannot support wavelength conversion and require the same wavelength cannot support wavelength conversion and require the same wavelength
be used end-to-end over a sequence of hops, or even an entire path. be used end-to-end over a sequence of hops, or even an entire path.
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3. The third case is where it is desirable to limit the amount of 3. The third case is where it is desirable to limit the amount of
wavelength conversion being performed to reduce the distortion on wavelength conversion being performed to reduce the distortion on
the optical signals. the optical signals.
4. The last case is where two ends of a link support different sets 4. The last case is where two ends of a link support different sets
of wavelengths. of wavelengths.
The receiver of a Label Set must restrict its choice of labels to The receiver of a Label Set must restrict its choice of labels to
one that is in the Label Set. A Label Set may be present across one that is in the Label Set. A Label Set may be present across
multiple hops. In this case each node generates it's own outgoing multiple hops. In this case each node generates it's own outgoing
Label Set, possibly based on the incoming Label Set and the node's Label Set, possibly based on the incoming Label Set and the node's
hardware capabilities. This case is expected to be the norm for hardware capabilities. This case is expected to be the norm for
nodes with conversion incapable interfaces. nodes with conversion incapable interfaces.
9.9. Bi-directional LSP 9.10. Bi-directional LSP
GMPLS allows establishment of bi-directional symmetric LSPs (not of GMPLS allows establishment of bi-directional symmetric LSPs (not of
asymmetric LSPs). A symmetric bi-directional LSP has the same asymmetric LSPs). A symmetric bi-directional LSP has the same
traffic engineering requirements including fate sharing, protection traffic engineering requirements including fate sharing, protection
and restoration, LSRs, and resource requirements (e.g., latency and and restoration, LSRs, and resource requirements (e.g. latency and
jitter) in each direction. jitter) in each direction.
In the remainder of this section, the term "initiator" is used to In the remainder of this section, the term "initiator" is used to
refer to a node that starts the establishment of an LSP and the term refer to a node that starts the establishment of an LSP and the term
"terminator" is used to refer to the node that is the target of the "terminator" is used to refer to the node that is the target of the
LSP. For a bi-directional LSPs, there is only one initiator and one LSP. For a bi-directional LSPs, there is only one initiator and one
terminator. terminator.
Normally to establish a bi-directional LSP when using [RSVP-TE] or Normally to establish a bi-directional LSP when using [RSVP-TE] or
[CR-LDP] two unidirectional paths must be independently established. [CR-LDP] two unidirectional paths must be independently established.
skipping to change at line 1639 skipping to change at line 1722
for discovering an unsuccessful LSP to as much as two times the for discovering an unsuccessful LSP to as much as two times the
initiator-terminator transit delay. These delays are particularly initiator-terminator transit delay. These delays are particularly
significant for LSPs that are established for restoration purposes. significant for LSPs that are established for restoration purposes.
2. The control overhead is twice that of a unidirectional LSP. This 2. The control overhead is twice that of a unidirectional LSP. This
is because separate control messages (e.g. Path and Resv) must be is because separate control messages (e.g. Path and Resv) must be
generated for both segments of the bi-directional LSP. generated for both segments of the bi-directional LSP.
3. Because the resources are established in separate segments, route 3. Because the resources are established in separate segments, route
selection is complicated. There is also additional potential race selection is complicated. There is also additional potential race
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for conditions in assignment of resources, which decreases the for conditions in assignment of resources, which decreases the
overall probability of successfully establishing the bi-directional overall probability of successfully establishing the bi-directional
connection. connection.
4. It is more difficult to provide a clean interface for SDH/SONET 4. It is more difficult to provide a clean interface for SDH/SONET
equipment that may rely on bi-directional hop-by-hop paths for equipment that may rely on bi-directional hop-by-hop paths for
protection switching. Note that existing SDH/SONET gear transmits protection switching. Note that existing SDH/SONET gear transmits
the control information in-band with the data. the control information in-band with the data.
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5. Bi-directional optical LSPs (or lightpaths) are seen as a 5. Bi-directional optical LSPs (or lightpaths) are seen as a
requirement for many optical networking service providers. requirement for many optical networking service providers.
With bi-directional LSPs both the downstream and upstream data With bi-directional LSPs both the downstream and upstream data
paths, i.e. from initiator to terminator and terminator to paths, i.e. from initiator to terminator and terminator to
initiator, are established using a single set of signaling messages. initiator, are established using a single set of signaling messages.
This reduces the setup latency to essentially one initiator- This reduces the setup latency to essentially one initiator-
terminator round trip time plus processing time, and limits the terminator round trip time plus processing time, and limits the
control overhead to the same number of messages as a unidirectional control overhead to the same number of messages as a unidirectional
LSP. LSP.
For bi-directional LSPs, two labels must be allocated. Bi- For bi-directional LSPs, two labels must be allocated. Bi-
directional LSP setup is indicated by the presence of an Upstream directional LSP setup is indicated by the presence of an Upstream
Label in the appropriate signaling message. Label in the appropriate signaling message.
9.10. Bi-directional LSP Contention Resolution 9.11. Bi-directional LSP Contention Resolution
Contention for labels may occur between two bi-directional LSP setup Contention for labels may occur between two bi-directional LSP setup
requests traveling in opposite directions. This contention occurs requests traveling in opposite directions. This contention occurs
when both sides allocate the same resources (ports) at effectively when both sides allocate the same resources (ports) at effectively
the same time. The GMPLS signaling defines a procedure to resolve the same time. The GMPLS signaling defines a procedure to resolve
that contention, basically the node with the higher node ID will win that contention, basically the node with the higher node ID will win
the contention. To reduce the probability of contention, some the contention. To reduce the probability of contention, some
mechanisms are also suggested. mechanisms are also suggested.
9.11. Rapid Notification of Failure 9.12. Rapid Notification of Failure
GMPLS defines three signaling extensions for RSVP-TE that enable GMPLS defines several signaling extensions that enable expedited
expedited notification of failures and other events to nodes notification of failures and other events to nodes responsible for
responsible for restoring failed LSPs, and modify error handling. restoring failed LSPs, and error handling.
For CR-LDP there is not currently a similar mechanism.
The first extension identifies where event notifications are to be 1. Acceptable Label Set for notification on Label Error:
sent. The second provides for general expedited event notification.
Such extensions can be used by fast restoration mechanisms.
The final extension is an RSVP optimization to allow the faster There are cases in traditional MPLS and in GMPLS that result in an
removal of intermediate states in some cases. error message containing an "Unacceptable label value" indication.
When these cases occur, it can useful for the node generating the
error message to indicate which labels would be acceptable. To cover
this case, GMPLS introduces the ability to convey such information
via the "Acceptable Label Set". An Acceptable Label Set is carried
in appropriate protocol specific error messages. The format of an
Acceptable Label Set is identical to a Label Set.
9.12. Link Protection E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 32
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
2. Expedited notification:
Extensions to RSVP-TE enable expedited notification of failures and
other events to determined nodes. For CR-LDP there is not currently
a similar mechanism. The first extension identifies where event
notifications are to be sent. The second provides for general
expedited event notification with a Notify message. Such extensions
can be used by fast restoration mechanisms. Notifications may be
requested in both the upstream and downstream directions.
The Notify message differs from the currently defined error messages
in that it can be "targeted" to a node other than the immediate
upstream or downstream neighbor and that it is a generalized
notification mechanism. The Notify message does not replace existing
error messages. The Notify message may be sent either (a) normally,
where non-target nodes just forward the Notify message to the target
node, similar to ResvConf processing in [RSVP]; or (b) encapsulated
in a new IP header whose destination is equal to the target IP
address.
3. Faster removal of intermediate states:
A specific RSVP optimization allowing in some cases the faster
removal of intermediate states. This extension is used to deal with
specific RSVP mechanisms.
9.13. Link Protection
Protection information is carried in the new optional Protection Protection information is carried in the new optional Protection
Information Object/TLV. It currently indicates the desired link Information Object/TLV. It currently indicates the desired link
protection for each link of an LSP. If a particular protection type, protection for each link of an LSP. If a particular protection type,
i.e., 1+1, or 1:N, is requested, then a connection request is i.e., 1+1, or 1:N, is requested, then a connection request is
processed only if the desired protection type can be honored. Note processed only if the desired protection type can be honored. Note
that GMPLS advertises the protection capabilities of a link in the that GMPLS advertises the protection capabilities of a link in the
routing protocols. Path computation algorithms may take this routing protocols. Path computation algorithms may take this
information into account when computing paths for setting up LSPs. information into account when computing paths for setting up LSPs.
Protection information also indicates if the LSP is a primary or Protection information also indicates if the LSP is a primary or
secondary LSP. A secondary LSP is a backup to a primary LSP. The secondary LSP. A secondary LSP is a backup to a primary LSP. The
resources of a secondary LSP are normally not used until the primary resources of a secondary LSP are normally not used until the primary
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LSP fails, but they may be used by other LSPs until the primary LSP LSP fails, but they may be used by other LSPs until the primary LSP
fails over the secondary LSP. At that point, any LSP that is using fails over the secondary LSP. At that point, any LSP that is using
the resources for the secondary LSP must be preempted. the resources for the secondary LSP must be preempted.
Six link protection types are currently defined as individual flags Six link protection types are currently defined as individual flags
and can be combined: enhanced, dedicated 1+1, dedicated 1:1, shared, and can be combined: enhanced, dedicated 1+1, dedicated 1:1, shared,
unprotected, extra traffic. See [GMPLS-SIG] section 7.1 for a unprotected, extra traffic. See [GMPLS-SIG] section 7.1 for a
precise definition of each. precise definition of each.
9.13. Explicit Routing and Explicit Label Control E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 33
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9.14. Explicit Routing and Explicit Label Control
Using an explicit route can control the path taken by an LSP more or Using an explicit route can control the path taken by an LSP more or
less precisely. Typically, the node at the head-end of an LSP finds less precisely. Typically, the node at the head-end of an LSP finds
a more or less precise explicit route and builds an Explicit Route an explicit route and builds an Explicit Route Object (ERO)/
Object (ERO)/ Explicit Route (ER) TLV that contains that route. Explicit Route (ER) TLV that contains that route. Possibly, the edge
Possibly, the edge node doesnÆt build any explicit route, and just node does not build any explicit route, and just transmit a
transmit a signaling request to a default neighbor LSR (as IP hosts signaling request to a default neighbor LSR (as IP/MPLS hosts
today). For instance, an explicit route could be added to a would). For instance, an explicit route could be added to a
signaling message by the first switching node, on behalf of the edge signaling message by the first switching node, on behalf of the edge
node. Note also that an explicit route is altered by intermediate node. Note also that an explicit route is altered by intermediate
LSRs during its progression towards the destination. LSRs during its progression towards the destination.
The explicit route is originally defined by MPLS-TE as a list of The explicit route is originally defined by MPLS-TE as a list of
abstract nodes (i.e. groups of nodes) along the explicit route. Each abstract nodes (i.e. groups of nodes) along the explicit route. Each
abstract node can be an IPv4 address prefix, an IPv6 address prefix, abstract node can be an IPv4 address prefix, an IPv6 address prefix,
or an AS number. This capability allows the generator of the or an AS number. This capability allows the generator of the
explicit route to have imperfect information about the details of explicit route to have imperfect information about the details of
the path. In the simplest case, an abstract node can be a full IP the path. In the simplest case, an abstract node can be a full IP
skipping to change at line 1754 skipping to change at line 1869
abstract node. abstract node.
This explicit route was extended to include interface numbers as This explicit route was extended to include interface numbers as
abstract nodes to support unnumbered interfaces; and further abstract nodes to support unnumbered interfaces; and further
extended by GMPLS to include labels as abstract nodes. Having labels extended by GMPLS to include labels as abstract nodes. Having labels
in an explicit route is an important feature that allows controlling in an explicit route is an important feature that allows controlling
the placement of an LSP with a very fine granularity. This is more the placement of an LSP with a very fine granularity. This is more
likely to be used for TDM, LSC and FSC links. likely to be used for TDM, LSC and FSC links.
In particular, the explicit label control in the explicit route In particular, the explicit label control in the explicit route
allows terminating an LSP on a particular outgoing port to an egress allows terminating an LSP on a particular outgoing port of an egress
node. node. Indeed, a label sub-object/TLV must follow a sub-object/TLV
containing the IP address, or the interface identifier (in case of
unnumbered interface), associated with the link on which it is to be
used.
This can also be used when it is desirable to "splice" two LSPs This can also be used when it is desirable to "splice" two LSPs
together, i.e. where the tail of the first LSP would be "spliced" together, i.e. where the tail of the first LSP would be "spliced"
into the head of the second LSP. into the head of the second LSP.
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Another use is when an optimization algorithm is used for an Another use is when an optimization algorithm is used for an
SDH/SONET network. This algorithm can provide very detailed explicit SDH/SONET network. This algorithm can provide very detailed explicit
routes, including the label (time-slot) to use on a link, in order routes, including the label (time-slot) to use on a link, in order
to minimize the fragmentation of the SDH/SONET multiplex on the to minimize the fragmentation of the SDH/SONET multiplex on the
corresponding interface. corresponding interface.
Another use is when the label indicates a particular component in a E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 34
bundle in order to stay diverse with other components of that draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
bundle, i.e. to control the usage of components in a bundle for
different LSPs.
9.14. LSP modification and LSP re-routing 9.15. Route recording
In order to improve the reliability and the manageability of the LSP
being established, the concept of the route recording was introduced
in RSVP-TE to function as:
- First, a loop detection mechanism to discover L3 routing loops, or
loops inherent in the explicit route (this mechanism is strictly
exclusive with the use of explicit routing objects).
- Second, a route recording mechanism collects up-to-date detailed
path information on a hop-by-hop basis during the LSP setup process.
This mechanism provides valuable information to the source and
destination nodes. Any intermediate routing change at setup time, in
case of loose explicit routing, will be reported.
- Third, a recorded route can be used as input for an explicit
route. This is useful if a source node receives the recorded route
from a destination node and applies it as an explicit route in order
to "pin down the path".
Within the GMPLS architecture only the second and third functions
are mainly applicable for TDM, LSC and FSC layers.
9.16. LSP modification and LSP re-routing
LSP modification and re-routing are two features already available LSP modification and re-routing are two features already available
in MPLS-TE. GMPLS does not add anything new. Elegant re-routing is in MPLS-TE. GMPLS does not add anything new. Elegant re-routing is
possible with the concept of "make-before-break" whereby an old path possible with the concept of "make-before-break" whereby an old path
is still used while a new path is set up by avoiding double is still used while a new path is set up by avoiding double
reservation of resources. Then, the node performing the re-routing reservation of resources. Then, the node performing the re-routing
can swap on the new path and close the old path. This feature is can swap on the new path and close the old path. This feature is
supported with RSVP-TE (using shared explicit filters) and CR-LDP supported with RSVP-TE (using shared explicit filters) and CR-LDP
(using the action indicator flag). (using the action indicator flag).
LSP modification consists in changing some LSP parameters, but LSP modification consists in changing some LSP parameters, but
normally without changing the route. It is supported using the same normally without changing the route. It is supported using the same
mechanism as re-routing. However, the semantic of LSP modification mechanism as re-routing. However, the semantic of LSP modification
will differ from one technology to the other. For instance, further will differ from one technology to the other. For instance, further
studies are required to understand the impact of dynamically studies are required to understand the impact of dynamically
changing some SDH/SONET circuit characteristics such as the changing some SDH/SONET circuit characteristics such as the
bandwidth, the protection type, the transparency, the concatenation, bandwidth, the protection type, the transparency, the concatenation,
etc. etc.
9.15. Route recording 9.17. LSP administrative status handling
In order to improve the reliability and the manageability of the LSP GMPLS provides the optional capability to indicate the
being established, the concept of the route recording was introduced administrative status of an LSP by using a new Admin Status
in RSVP-TE to function as: object/TLV. Administrative Status Information is currently used in
two ways.
- First, a loop detection mechanism to discover L3 routing loops, or In the first usage, Admin Status the object/TLV is carried in a
loops inherent in the explicit route (this mechanism is strictly Path/Label Request or Resv/Label Mapping message to indicate the
exclusive with the use of explicit routing objects). administrative state of an LSP. In this usage, Administrative Status
- Second, a route recording mechanism collects up-to-date detailed E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 35
path information on a hop-by-hop basis during the LSP setup process. draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
This mechanism provides valuable information to the source and
destination nodes. Any intermediate routing change at setup time, in
case of loose explicit routing, will be reported.
- Third, a recorded route can be used as input for an explicit Information indicates the state of the LSP, which include "up" or
route. This is useful if a source node receives the recorded route "down", if it in a "testing" mode, and if deletion is in progress.
from a destination node and applies it as an explicit route in order
to "pin down the path".
Within the GMPLS architecture only the second and third functions Based on that administrative status, a node can take local
are mainly applicable for TDM, LSC and FSC layers. decisions, like to inhibit alarm reporting when an LSP is in "down"
or "testing" states, or to report alarms associated with the
connection at a priority equal to or less than "Non service
affecting".
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 33 It is possible that some nodes along an LSP will not support the
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001 Admin Status Object/TLV. In the case of a non-supporting transit
node, the object will pass through the node unmodified and normal
processing can continue.
In some circumstances, particularly optical networks, it is useful
to set the administrative status of an LSP to "being deleted" before
tearing it down in order to avoid non-useful generation of alarms.
The ingress LSR precedes an LSP deletion by inserting an appropriate
Admin Status Object/TLV in a Path/Label Request (with the
modification action indicator flag set to modify) message. Transit
LSRs process the Admin Status Object/TLV and forward it. The egress
LSR answers in a Resv/Label Mapping (with the modification action
indicator flag set to modify) message with the Admin Status object.
Upon receiving this message and object, the ingress node sends a
PathTear/Release message downstream to remove the LSP and normal
RSVP/CR-LDP processing takes place.
In the second usage, the Admin Status object/TLV is carried in a
Notification/Label Mapping (with the modification action indicator
flag set to modify) message to request that the ingress node change
the administrative state of an LSP. This allows intermediate and
egress nodes to trigger the setting of administrative status. In
particular this allows, intermediate or egress LSRs to request a
release of an LSP initiated by the ingress node.
9.18. Control channel separation
In GMPLS, a control channel can be separated from the data channel.
Indeed, the control channel can be implemented completely out-of-
band for various reasons, e.g. when the data channel cannot carry
in-band control information. This issue was even originally
introduced to MPLS in connection with link bundling.
In traditional MPLS there is an implicit one-to-one association of a
control channel to a data channel. When such an association is
present, no additional or special information is required to
associate a particular LSP setup transaction with a particular data
channel.
Otherwise it is necessary to convey additional information in
signaling to identify the particular data channel being controlled.
GMPLS supports explicit data channel identification by providing
interface identification information. GMPLS allows the use of a
number of interface identification schemes including IPv4 or IPv6
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 36
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addresses, interface indexes (for unnumbered interfaces) and
component interfaces (for bundled interfaces), unnumbered bunled
interfaces are also supported.
The choice of the data interface to use is always made by the sender
of the Path/Label Request message, and indicated by including the
data channel's interface identifier in the message using a new
RSVP_HOP object sub-type/Interface TLV.
For bi-directional LSPs, the sender chooses the data interface in
each direction. In all cases but bundling, the upstream interface is
implied by the downstream interface. For bundling, the Path/Label
Request sender explicitly identifies the component interface used in
each direction. The new object/TLV is used in Resv/Label Mapping
message to indicate the downstream node's usage of the indicated
interface(s).
The new object/TLV can contain a list of embedded TLVs, each
embedded TLV can be an IPv4 address, and IPv6 address, an interface
index, a downstream component interface ID or an upstream component
interface ID. In the last three cases, the embedded TLV contains
itself an IP address plus an Interface ID, the IP address being used
to identify the interface ID (it can be the router ID for instance).
There are cases where it is useful to indicate a specific interface
associated with an error. To support these cases the IF_ID
ERROR_SPEC RSVP Objects are defined.
10. Forwarding Adjacencies (FA) 10. Forwarding Adjacencies (FA)
To improve scalability of MPLS TE (and thus GMPLS) it may be useful To improve scalability of MPLS TE (and thus GMPLS) it may be useful
to aggregate multiple TE LSPs inside a bigger TE LSP. Intermediate to aggregate multiple TE LSPs inside a bigger TE LSP. Intermediate
nodes see the external LSP only, they don't have to maintain nodes see the external LSP only, they don't have to maintain
forwarding states for each internal LSP, less signaling messages forwarding states for each internal LSP, less signaling messages
need to be exchanged and the external LSP can be somehow protected need to be exchanged and the external LSP can be somehow protected
instead (or in addition) to the internal LSPs. This can considerably instead (or in addition) to the internal LSPs. This can considerably
increase the scalability of the signaling. increase the scalability of the signaling.
skipping to change at line 1848 skipping to change at line 2058
An LSR may (under its local configuration control) announce an LSP An LSR may (under its local configuration control) announce an LSP
as a link into ISIS/OSPF. When this link is advertised into the as a link into ISIS/OSPF. When this link is advertised into the
same instance of ISIS/OSPF as the one that determines the route same instance of ISIS/OSPF as the one that determines the route
taken by the LSP, we call such a link a "forwarding adjacency" (FA). taken by the LSP, we call such a link a "forwarding adjacency" (FA).
We refer to the LSP as the "forwarding adjacency LSP", or just FA- We refer to the LSP as the "forwarding adjacency LSP", or just FA-
LSP. Note that since the advertised entity is a link in ISIS/OSPF, LSP. Note that since the advertised entity is a link in ISIS/OSPF,
both the endpoint LSRs of the FA-LSP must belong to the same ISIS both the endpoint LSRs of the FA-LSP must belong to the same ISIS
level/OSPF area (intra-area improvement of scalability). level/OSPF area (intra-area improvement of scalability).
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In general, creation/termination of a FA and its FA-LSP could be In general, creation/termination of a FA and its FA-LSP could be
driven either by mechanisms outside of MPLS (e.g., via configuration driven either by mechanisms outside of MPLS (e.g., via configuration
control on the LSR at the head-end of the adjacency), or by control on the LSR at the head-end of the adjacency), or by
mechanisms within MPLS (e.g., as a result of the LSR at the head-end mechanisms within MPLS (e.g., as a result of the LSR at the head-end
of the adjacency receiving LSP setup requests originated by some of the adjacency receiving LSP setup requests originated by some
other LSRs). other LSRs).
ISIS/OSPF floods the information about FAs just as it floods the ISIS/OSPF floods the information about FAs just as it floods the
information about any other links. As a result of this flooding, an information about any other links. As a result of this flooding, an
LSR has in its TE link state database the information about not just LSR has in its TE link state database the information about not just
conventional links, but FAs as well. conventional links, but FAs as well.
An LSR, when performing path computation, uses not just conventional An LSR, when performing path computation, uses not just conventional
links, but FAs as well. Once a path is computed, the LSR uses RSVP- links, but FAs as well. Once a path is computed, the LSR uses RSVP-
TE/CR-LDP for establishing label binding along the path. FAs need TE/CR-LDP for establishing label binding along the path. FAs need
simple extensions to signaling and routing protocols. simple extensions to signaling and routing protocols.
10.1 Routing and Forwarding Adjacencies 10.1. Routing and Forwarding Adjacencies
Forwarding adjacencies may be represented as either unnumbered or Forwarding adjacencies may be represented as either unnumbered or
numbered links. A FA can also be a bundle of LSPs between two nodes. numbered links. A FA can also be a bundle of LSPs between two nodes.
FAs are advertised as GMPLS TE links such as defined in [HIERARCHY]. FAs are advertised as GMPLS TE links such as defined in [HIERARCHY].
GMPLS TE links are advertised in OSPF and ISIS such as defined in GMPLS TE links are advertised in OSPF and ISIS such as defined in
[OSPF-TE-GMPLS] and [ISIS-TE-GMPLS]. These last two specifications [OSPF-TE-GMPLS] and [ISIS-TE-GMPLS]. These last two specifications
enhance [OSPF-TE] and [ISIS-TE] that defines a base TE link. enhance [OSPF-TE] and [ISIS-TE] that defines a base TE link.
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When a FA is created dynamically, its TE attributes are inherited When a FA is created dynamically, its TE attributes are inherited
from the FA-LSP that induced its creation. [HIERARCHY] specifies how from the FA-LSP that induced its creation. [HIERARCHY] specifies how
each TE parameter of the FA is inherited from the FA-LSP. Note that each TE parameter of the FA is inherited from the FA-LSP. Note that
the bandwidth of the FA must be at least as big as the FA-LSP that the bandwidth of the FA must be at least as big as the FA-LSP that
induced it, but may be bigger if only discrete bandwidths are induced it, but may be bigger if only discrete bandwidths are
available for the FA-LSP. In general, for dynamically provisioned available for the FA-LSP. In general, for dynamically provisioned
forwarding adjacencies, a policy-based mechanism may be needed to forwarding adjacencies, a policy-based mechanism may be needed to
associate attributes to forwarding adjacencies. associate attributes to forwarding adjacencies.
A FA advertisement could contain the information about the path A FA advertisement could contain the information about the path
skipping to change at line 1905 skipping to change at line 2115
If forwarding adjacencies are bundled (via link bundling), and if If forwarding adjacencies are bundled (via link bundling), and if
the resulting bundled link carries a Path TLV, the underlying path the resulting bundled link carries a Path TLV, the underlying path
followed by each of the FA-LSPs that form the component links must followed by each of the FA-LSPs that form the component links must
be the same. be the same.
It is expected that forwarding adjacencies will not be used for It is expected that forwarding adjacencies will not be used for
establishing ISIS/OSPF peering relation between the routers at the establishing ISIS/OSPF peering relation between the routers at the
ends of the adjacency. ends of the adjacency.
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10.2. Signaling aspects 10.2. Signaling aspects
For the purpose of processing the explicit route in a Path/Request For the purpose of processing the explicit route in a Path/Request
message of an LSP that is to be tunneled over a forwarding message of an LSP that is to be tunneled over a forwarding
adjacency, an LSR at the head-end of the FA-LSP views the LSR at the adjacency, an LSR at the head-end of the FA-LSP views the LSR at the
tail of that FA-LSP as adjacent (one IP hop away). tail of that FA-LSP as adjacent (one IP hop away).
10.3 Cascading of Forwarding Adjacencies 10.3. Cascading of Forwarding Adjacencies
With an integrated model several layers are controlled using the With an integrated model several layers are controlled using the
same routing and signaling protocols. A network may then have links same routing and signaling protocols. A network may then have links
with different multiplexing/demultiplexing capabilities. For with different multiplexing/demultiplexing capabilities. For
example, a node may be able to multiplex/demultiplex individual example, a node may be able to multiplex/demultiplex individual
packets on a given link, and may be able to multiplex/demultiplex packets on a given link, and may be able to multiplex/demultiplex
channels within a SONET payload on other links. channels within a SONET payload on other links.
A new OSPF and IS-IS sub-TLV has been defined to advertise the A new OSPF and IS-IS sub-TLV has been defined to advertise the
multiplexing capability of each interface: PSC, L2SC, TDM, LSC or multiplexing capability of each interface: PSC, L2SC, TDM, LSC or
FSC. This sub-TLV is named the Link Multiplex Capability sub-TLV and FSC. This sub-TLV is named the Link Multiplex Capability sub-TLV and
complements the sub-TLVs defined in [OSPF-TE-GMPLS] and [ISIS-TE- complements the sub-TLVs defined in [OSPF-TE-GMPLS] and [ISIS-TE-
GMPLS]. The information carried in this sub-TLV is used to construct GMPLS]. The information carried in this sub-TLV is used to construct
LSP regions, and determine regionÆs boundaries. LSP regions, and determine regionÆs boundaries.
Path computation may take into account region boundaries when Path computation may take into account region boundaries when
computing a path for an LSP. For example, path computation may computing a path for an LSP. For example, path computation may
restrict the path taken by an LSP to only the links whose restrict the path taken by an LSP to only the links whose
multiplexing/demultiplexing capability is PSC. When an LSP need to multiplexing/demultiplexing capability is PSC. When an LSP need to
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cross a region boundary, it can trigger the establishment of an FA cross a region boundary, it can trigger the establishment of an FA
at the underlying layer (i.e. the L2SC layer). This can trigger a at the underlying layer (i.e. the L2SC layer). This can trigger a
cascading of FAs between layers with the following obvious order: cascading of FAs between layers with the following obvious order:
L2SC, then TDM, then LSC, and then finally FSC. L2SC, then TDM, then LSC, and then finally FSC.
11. Network Management 11. Control Plane Fault Handling
There are two major types of faults that can impact a control plane.
The first, referred to as control channel fault, relates to the case
where control communication is lost between two neighboring nodes.
If the control channel is embedded with the data channel, data
channel recovery procedure should solve the problem. If the control
channel is independent of the data channel additional procedures are
required to recover from that problem.
The second, referred to as nodal faults, relates to the case where a
node losses its control state (e.g., after a restart) but does not
loose its data forwarding state.
In transport networks, such types of control plane faults should not
have service impact on the existing connections. Under such
circumstances, a mechanism must exist to detect a control
communication failure and a recovery procedure must guarantee
connection integrity at both ends of the control channel.
For a control channel fault, once communication is restored routing
protocols are naturally able to recover but the underlying signaling
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protocols must indicate that the nodes have maintained their state
through the failure. The signaling protocol must also ensure that
any state changes that were instantiated during the failure are
synchronized between the nodes.
For a nodal fault, a node's control plane restarts and losses most
of it's state information. In this case, both upstream and
downstream nodes must synchronize their state information with the
restarted node. In order for any resynchronization to occur the node
undergoing the restart will need to preserve some information, such
as it's mappings of incoming to outgoing labels.
These issues are addressed in protocol specific fashions, see [RSVP-
TE-GMPLS] and [CR-LDP-GMPLS]. Note that these cases only apply when
there are mechanisms to detect data channel failures independent of
control channel failures.
The LDP Fault tolerant draft [LDP-FT] specifies the procedures to
recover from a control channel failure. [RSVP-TE-GMPLS] specifies
how to recover from both a control channel failure and a node
failure.
12. LSP Protection and Restoration
This section discusses Protection and Restoration (P&R) issues for
GMPLS LSPs. It is driven by the requirements outlined in [TEWG-
RESTORE] and some of the principles outlined in [MPLS-RECOVERY]. It
will be enhanced, as more GMPLS P&R mechanisms are defined. The
scope of this section is clarified hereafter:
- This section is only applicable when a fault impacting LSP(s)
happens in the data/transport plane. Section 11 deals with control
plane fault handling for nodal and control channel faults.
- This section focuses on P&R at the TDM, LSC and FSC layers. There
are specific P&R requirements at these layers not present at the
PSC layer.
- This section focuses on intra-area P&R as opposed to inter-area
P&R and even inter-domain P&R. Note that the P&R can even be more
restricted, e.g. to a collection of like customer equipment, or a
collection of equipment of like capabilities, in one single
routing area.
- This section focuses on intra-layer P&R (horizontal hierarchy as
defined in [TEWG-RESTORE]) as opposed to the inter-layer P&R
(vertical hierarchy).
- P&R mechanisms are in general designed to handle single failures,
which makes SRLG diversity a necessity. Recovery from multiple
failures requires further study.
- Both mesh and ring like topologies are supported.
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In the following, we assume that:
- TDM, LSC and FSC devices are more generally committing recovery
resources in a non best effort way. Recovery resources are either
allocated and used, or at least logically reserved (used or not by
preemptable extra traffic but unavailable anyway for regular
working traffic).
- Shared P&R mechanisms are valuable to operators in order to
maximize their network utilization.
- Sending preemptable excess traffic on recovery resources is a
valuable feature for operators.
12.1. Protection escalation across domains and layers
To describe the P&R architecture, one must consider two dimensions
of hierarchy [TE-RESTORE]:
- A horizontal hierarchy consisting of multiple P&R domains, which
is important in an LSP based protection scheme. The scope of P&R
may extend over a link (or span), an administrative domain or sub-
network, an entire LSP.
An administrative domain may consist of a single P&R domain or as
a concatenation of several smaller P&R domains. The operator can
configure P&R domains, based on customers' requirements, and on
network topology and traffic engineering constraints.
- A vertical hierarchy consisting of multiple layers of P&R with
varying granularities (packet flows, STS trails, lightpaths,
fibers, etc).
In the absence of adequate P&R coordination, a fault may propagate
from one level to the next within a P&R hierarchy. It can lead to
"collisions" and simultaneous recovery actions may lead to race
conditions, reduced resource utilization, or instabilities
[MANCHESTER]. Thus, a consistent escalation strategy is needed to
coordinate recovery across domains and layers. The fact that GMPLS
can be used at different layers could simplify this coordination.
There are two types of escalation strategies: bottom-up and top-
down. The bottom-up approach assumes that "lower-level" recovery
schemes are more expedient, and therefore we can inhibit or hold
off higher-level P&R. The Top-down approach attempts service P&R
at the higher levels before invoking "lower level" P&R. Higher-
layer P&R is service selective, and permits "per-CoS" or "per-LSP"
re-routing.
SLA's between network operators and their clients are needed to
determine the necessary timescales for P&R at each layer and at each
domain.
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12.2. Mapping of Services to P&R Resources
The choice of a P&R scheme is a tradeoff between network utilization
(cost) and service interruption time. In light of this tradeoff,
network service providers are expected to support a range of
different service offerings or service levels.
One can classify LSPs into one of a small set of service levels.
Among other things, these service levels define the reliability
characteristics of the LSP. The service level associated with a
given LSP is mapped to one or more P&R schemes during LSP
establishment. An advantage that mapping is that an LSP may use
different P&E schemes in different segments of a network (e.g. some
links may be span protected, whilst other segments of the LSP may
utilize ring protection). These details are likely to be service
provider specific.
An alternative to using service levels is for an application to
specify the set of specific P&R mechanisms to be used when
establishing the LSP. This allows greater flexibility in using
different mechanisms to meet the application requirements.
A differentiator between these service levels is service
interruption time in the event of network failures, which is defined
as the length of time between when a failure occurs and when
connectivity is re-established. The choice of service level (or P&R
scheme) should be dictated by the service requirements of different
applications.
12.3. Classification of P&R mechanism characteristics
The following figure provides a classification of the possible
provisioning types of recovery LSPs, and of the levels of
overbooking that is possible for them.
+ Computed on +Established +--Resources pre
| demand | on demand | allocated
Recovery LSP | | |
Provisioning -+ Pre computed +Pre established +--Resources
allocated on
demand
+--Dedicated - 1:1, 1
|
|
+-- Shared - 1:N, Ring, Shared mesh
Level of |
Overbooking ---+-- Best effort
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12.4. Different Stages in P&R
Recovery from a network fault or impairment takes place in several
stages as discussed in [MPLS-RECOVERY], including fault detection,
fault localization, notification, recovery (i.e. the P&R itself) and
restoral (i.e. returning the traffic to the original working LSP or
to a new one) of traffic.
- Fault detection is technology and implementation dependent. In
general, failures are detected by lower layer mechanisms (e.g.
SONET/SDH, Loss-of-Light (LOL)). When a node detects a failure, an
alarm may be passed up to a GMPLS entity, which will take
appropriate actions, or the alarm may be propagated at the lower
layer (e.g. SONET/SDH AIS).
- Fault localization can be done with the help of GMPLS, e.g. using
LMP for fault localization (see section 8.4).
- Fault notification can also be achieved through GMPLS, e.g. using
GMPLS RSVP-TE/CR-LDP notification (see section 9.12).
- This section focuses on the different mechanisms available for
recovery and restoral of traffic once fault detection,
localization and notification have taken place.
12.5. Recovery Strategies
Network P&R techniques can be divided into Protection and
Restoration. In protection, resources between the protection
endpoints are established before failure, and connectivity after
failure is achieved simply by switching performed at the protection
end-points. In contrast, restoration uses signaling after failure to
allocate resources along the recovery path.
- Protection aims at extremely fast reaction times and may rely on
the use of overhead control fields for achieving end-point
coordination. Protection for SONET/SDH networks is described in
[G.841] and [ANSI-T1.105]. Protection mechanisms can be further
classified by the level of redundancy and sharing.
- Restoration mechanisms rely on signaling protocols to coordinate
switching actions during recovery, and may involve simple re-
provisioning, i.e. signaling only at the time of recovery; or pre-
signaling, i.e., signaling prior to recovery.
In addition, P&R can be applied on a local or end-to-end basis. In
the local approach, P&R is focused on the local proximity of the
fault in order to reduce delay in restoring service. In the end-to-
end approach, the LSP originating and terminating nodes control
recovery.
Using these strategies, the following recovery mechanisms can be
defined.
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Editor's note: for each mechanism hereafter, it is intended to add
references to the appropriate GMPLS and/or technology specific
mechanisms.
12.6. Recovery mechanisms: Protection schemes
Note that protection schemes are usually defined in technology
specific ways, but this does not preclude other solutions.
- 1+1 Link Protection: Two pre-provisioned resources are used in
parallel. For example, data is transmitted simultaneously on two
parallel links and a selector is used at the receiving node to
choose the best source. [Mechanisms reference to be added].
- 1:N Link Protection: Working and protecting resources (N working,
1 backup) are pre-provisioned. If a working resource fails, the
data is switched to the protecting resource, using a coordination
mechanism (e.g. in overhead bytes). More generally, N working and
M protecting resources can be assigned for M:N link protection.
[Mechanisms reference to be added].
- Enhanced Protection: Various mechanisms such as protection rings
can be used to enhance the level of protection beyond single link
failures to include the ability to switch around a node failure or
multiple link failures within a span, based on a pre-established
topology of protection resources. [Mechanisms reference to be
added].
- 1+1 LSP Protection: Simultaneous data transmission on working and
protecting LSPs and tail-end selection can be applied. [Mechanisms
reference to be added].
12.7. Recovery mechanisms: Restoration schemes
Restoration is possible thanks to the use of a distributed control
plane like GMPLS in multiple of tenths of ms. It is much harder to
achieve when only an NMS is used, and can only be done in that case
in a multiple of seconds.
- End-to-end LSP restoration with re-provisioning: An end-to-end
restoration path is established after failure. The restoration
path may be dynamically calculated after failure, or pre-
calculated before failure (often during LSP establishment).
Importantly, no signaling is used along the restoration path
before failure, and no restoration bandwidth is reserved. As a
result, there is no guarantee that a given restoration path is
available when a failure occurs. Thus one may have to crankback to
search for an available path. [Mechanisms reference to be added].
- End-to-end LSP restoration with pre-signaled recovery bandwidth
reservation and no label pre-selection: An end-to-end restoration
path is pre-calculated before failure and a signaling message is
sent along this pre-selected path to reserve bandwidth, but labels
are not selected. [Mechanisms reference to be added].
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The resources reserved on each link of a restoration path may be
shared across different working LSPs that are not expected to fail
simultaneously. Local node policies can be applied to define the
degree to which capacity is shared across independent failures.
Upon failure detection, LSP signaling is initiated along the
restoration path to select labels, and to initiate the appropriate
cross-connections. [Mechanisms reference to be added].
- End-to-end LSP restoration with pre-signaled recovery bandwidth
reservation and label pre-selection: An end-to-end restoration
path is pre-calculated before failure and a signaling procedure is
initiated along this pre-selected path on which bandwidth is
reserved and labels are selected. Resources reserved on each link
may be shared across different working LSPs that are not expected
to fail simultaneously. In networks based on TDM, LSC and FSC
technology, LSP signaling is used after failure detection to
establish cross-connections at the intermediate switches on the
restoration path using the pre-selected labels. [Mechanisms
reference to be added].
- Local LSP restoration: the above approaches can be applied on a
local basis rather than end-to-end, in order to reduce recovery
time. [Mechanisms reference to be added].
12.8. Schema selection criteria
This section discusses criteria that could be used by the operator
in order to make a choice among the various P&R mechanisms.
- Robustness: In general, the less pre-planning of the restoration
path, the more robust the restoration scheme is to a variety of
failures, provided that adequate resources are available.
Restoration schemes with pre-planned paths, will not be able to
recover from network failures that simultaneously affect both the
working and restoration paths. Thus, these paths should ideally be
chosen to be as disjoint as possible (i.e. SRLG and node
disjoint), so that any single failure event will not affect both
paths. The risk of simultaneous failure of the two paths can be
reduced by recalculating the restoration path whenever a failure
occurs along it.
The pre-selection of a label gives less flexiblity for multiple
failure scenarios than no label pre-selection. If failures occur
that affect two LSPs that are sharing a label at a common node
along their restoration routes, then only one of these LSPs can be
recovered, unless the label assignment is changed.
The robustness of a restoration scheme is also determined by the
amount of reserved restoration bandwidth - as the amount of
restoration bandwidth sharing increases (reserved bandwidth
decreases), the restoration scheme becomes less robust to
failures. Restoration schemes with pre-signaled bandwidth
reservation (with or without label pre-selection) can reserve
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adequate bandwidth to ensure recovery from any specific set of
failure events, such as any single SRLG failure, any two SRLG
failures etc. Clearly, more restoration capacity is allocated if a
greater degree of failure recovery is required. Thus, the degree
to which the network is protected is determined by the policy that
defines the amount of reserved restoration bandwidth.
- Recovery time: In general, the more pre-planning of the
restoration route, the more rapid the P&R scheme. Protection
schemes generally recover faster than restoration schemes.
Restoration with pre-signaled bandwidth reservation are likely to
be (significantly) faster than path restoration with re-
provisioning, especially because of the elimination of any
crankback. Local restoration will generally be faster than end-to-
end schemes.
Recovery time objectives for SONET/SDH protection switching (not
including time to detect failure) are specified in [G.841] at 50
ms, taking into account constraints on distance, number of
connections involved, and in the case of ring enhanced protection,
number of nodes in the ring.
Recovery time objectives for restoration mechanisms are being
defined through a separate effort [TE-RESTORE].
- Resource Sharing: 1+1 and 1:N link and LSP protection require
dedicated recovery paths with limited ability to share resources:
1+1 allows no sharing, 1:N allows some sharing of protection
resources and support of extra (preemptable) traffic. Flexibility
is limited because of topology restrictions, e.g. fixed ring
topology for traditional enhanced protection schemes.
The degree to which restoration schemes allow sharing amongst
multiple independent failures is directly dictated by the size of
the restoration pool. In restoration schemes with re-provisioning,
a pool of restoration capacity can be defined from which all
restoration routes are selected after failure. Thus, the degree of
sharing is defined by the amount of available restoration
capacity. In restoration with pre-signaled bandwidth reservation,
the amount of reserved restoration capacity is determined by the
local bandwidth reservation policies. In all restoration schemes,
pre-emptable resources can use spare restoration capacity when
that capacity is not being used for failure recovery.
13. Network Management
Service Providers (SPs) use network management extensively to Service Providers (SPs) use network management extensively to
configure, monitor or provision various devices in their network. It configure, monitor or provision various devices in their network. It
is important to note that a SPÆs equipment may be distributed across is important to note that a SPÆs equipment may be distributed across
geographically separate sites, making distributed management even geographically separate sites, making distributed management even
more important. The service provider should utilize an NMS system more important. The service provider should utilize an NMS system
and standard management protocols such as SNMP [RFC1901] [RFC1902] and standard management protocols such as SNMP [RFC1901] [RFC1902]
[RFC1903] [RFC1904] [RFC1905] [RFC1906] and its associated MIBs as [RFC1903] [RFC1904] [RFC1905] [RFC1906] and its associated MIBs as
standard interfaces to configure, monitor and provision devices at standard interfaces to configure, monitor and provision devices at
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various locations. The service provider may also wish to use the various locations. The service provider may also wish to use the
command line interface (CLI) provided by vendors with their devices, command line interface (CLI) provided by vendors with their devices,
but this however, is not a standard or recommended solution due to but this however, is not a standard or recommended solution due to
the fact that there is no standard CLI language or interface, which the fact that there is no standard CLI language or interface, which
results in N different CLIÆs in a network with devices from N results in N different CLIÆs in a network with devices from N
different vendors. In the context of GMPLS, it is extremely different vendors. In the context of GMPLS, it is extremely
important for standard interfaces to the SPÆs devices (SNMP) to important for standard interfaces to the SPÆs devices (SNMP) to
exist due to the nature of the technology itself. Since GMPLS exist due to the nature of the technology itself. Since GMPLS
comprises many different layers of control-plane and data-plane comprises many different layers of control-plane and data-plane
technology, it is important for management interfaces in this area technology, it is important for management interfaces in this area
to be flexible enough to allow the manager to manage GMPLS easily, to be flexible enough to allow the manager to manage GMPLS easily,
and in a standard way. and in a standard way.
11.1 Network Management Systems (NMS) 13.1. Network Management Systems (NMS)
The NMS system should maintain the collective information about each The NMS system should maintain the collective information about each
device within the system. Note that the NMS system may actually be device within the system. Note that the NMS system may actually be
comprised of several distributed applications (i.e.: alarm comprised of several distributed applications (i.e.: alarm
aggregators, configuration consoles, polling applications, etc...) aggregators, configuration consoles, polling applications, etc...)
that collectively comprises the SPÆs NMS. In this way, it can make that collectively comprises the SPÆs NMS. In this way, it can make
provisioning and maintenance decisions with the full knowledge of provisioning and maintenance decisions with the full knowledge of
the entire SP network. Configuration or provisioning information the entire SP network. Configuration or provisioning information
(i.e.: requests for new services) could be entered into the NMS and (i.e.: requests for new services) could be entered into the NMS and
subsequently distributed via SNMP to the remote devices, making the subsequently distributed via SNMP to the remote devices, making the
SPÆs job of managing the network much more compact and effortless SPÆs job of managing the network much more compact and effortless
than having to manage each device individually (i.e.: via CLI). than having to manage each device individually (i.e.: via CLI).
Security and access control can be achieved through the use of Security and access control can be achieved through the use of
SNMPv3 and the View Access Control Model [SNMPv3VACM]. This approach SNMPv3 and the View Access Control Model [SNMPv3VACM]. This approach
can be very effectively used within an SP network, since the SP has can be very effectively used within an SP network, since the SP has
access to and control over all devices within its domain. access to and control over all devices within its domain.
Standardized MIBs will need to be developed before this approach can Standardized MIBs will need to be developed before this approach can
be used ubiquitously to provision, configure and monitor devices in be used ubiquitously to provision, configure and monitor devices in
non-heterogeneous networks or across SP boundaries. non-heterogeneous networks or across SP boundaries.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 36 13.2. Management Information Base (MIB)
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
11.2 Management Information Base (MIB)
In the context of GMPLS, it is extremely important for standard In the context of GMPLS, it is extremely important for standard
interfaces to devices to exist due to the nature of the technology interfaces to devices to exist due to the nature of the technology
itself. Since GMPLS comprises many different layers of control-plane itself. Since GMPLS comprises many different layers of control-plane
technology, it is important for SNMP MIBs in this area to be technology, it is important for SNMP MIBs in this area to be
flexible enough to allow the manager to manage the entire control flexible enough to allow the manager to manage the entire control
plane. This should be through a set of MIBs that may cooperate plane. This should be through a set of MIBs that may cooperate
(i.e.: coordinated row-creation on the agent), or through more (i.e.: coordinated row-creation on the agent), or through more
generalized MIBs that aggregate some of the desired actions to be generalized MIBs that aggregate some of the desired actions to be
taken and push those details down to the devices. It is important to taken and push those details down to the devices. It is important to
note that in certain circumstances, it may be necessary to duplicate note that in certain circumstances, it may be necessary to duplicate
some small subset of manageable objects in new MIBs for the some small subset of manageable objects in new MIBs for the
convenience of management. Control of some parts of GMPLS may also convenience of management. Control of some parts of GMPLS may also
be achieved though the use of existing MIB interfaces (i.e.: be achieved though the use of existing MIB interfaces (i.e.:
existing SONET MIB), or though separate ones, which are yet to be existing SONET MIB), or though separate ones, which are yet to be
defined. MIBs may have been previously defined in the IETF or ITU. defined. MIBs may have been previously defined in the IETF or ITU.
Existing MIBs may need to be extended to facilitate some of the new Existing MIBs may need to be extended to facilitate some of the new
functionality desired by GMPLS. In these cases, the working group functionality desired by GMPLS. In these cases, the working group
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 47
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
should work on new versions of these MIBs so that these extensions should work on new versions of these MIBs so that these extensions
can be added. can be added.
11.3 Tools 13.3. Tools
As in traditional networks, standard tools such as traceroute As in traditional networks, standard tools such as traceroute
[RFC1393] and ping [RFC1739] are needed for debugging and [RFC1393] and ping [RFC1739] are needed for debugging and
performance monitoring of GMPLS networks, and mainly for the control performance monitoring of GMPLS networks, and mainly for the control
plane topology that will mimic the data plane topology. Furthermore, plane topology that will mimic the data plane topology. Furthermore,
such tools provide network reachability information. The GMPLS such tools provide network reachability information. The GMPLS
control protocols will need to expose certain pieces of information control protocols will need to expose certain pieces of information
in order for these tools to function properly and to provide in order for these tools to function properly and to provide
information germane to GMPLS. These tools should be made available information germane to GMPLS. These tools should be made available
via the CLI. These tools should also be made available for remote via the CLI. These tools should also be made available for remote
invocation via the SNMP interface [RFC2925]. invocation via the SNMP interface [RFC2925].
11.4 Fault Correlation Between Multiple Layers 13.4. Fault Correlation Between Multiple Layers
Due to the nature of GMPLS and the fact that potential layers may be Due to the nature of GMPLS and the fact that potential layers may be
involved in the control and transmission of GMPLS data and control involved in the control and transmission of GMPLS data and control
information, it is therefore required that a fault in one layer be information, it is therefore required that a fault in one layer be
passed to the adjacent higher and lower layers in an effort to passed to the adjacent higher and lower layers in an effort to
notify them of the fault. However, due to nature of these many notify them of the fault. However, due to nature of these many
layers, it is possible and even probable, that hundreds or even layers, it is possible and even probable, that hundreds or even
thousands of notifications may need to transpire between layers. thousands of notifications may need to transpire between layers.
This is undesirable for several reasons. First, these notifications This is undesirable for several reasons. First, these notifications
will overwhelm the device. Second, if the device(s) are programmed will overwhelm the device. Second, if the device(s) are programmed
to emit SNMP Notifications [RFC1901] then the large number of to emit SNMP Notifications [RFC1901] then the large number of
notifications the device may attempt to emit may overwhelm the notifications the device may attempt to emit may overwhelm the
network with a storm of notifications. Furthermore, even if the network with a storm of notifications. Furthermore, even if the
device emits the notifications, the NMS that must process these device emits the notifications, the NMS that must process these
notifications will either be overwhelmed, or will be processing notifications will either be overwhelmed, or will be processing
redundant information. That is, if 1000 interfaces at layer B are redundant information. That is, if 1000 interfaces at layer B are
stacked above a single interface below it at layer A, and the stacked above a single interface below it at layer A, and the
interface at A goes down, the interfaces at layer B should not emit interface at A goes down, the interfaces at layer B should not emit
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 37
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
notifications. Instead, the interface at layer A should emit a notifications. Instead, the interface at layer A should emit a
single notification. The NMS receiving this notification should be single notification. The NMS receiving this notification should be
able to correlate the fact that this interface has many others able to correlate the fact that this interface has many others
stacked above it and take appropriate action, if necessary. stacked above it and take appropriate action, if necessary.
Devices that support GMPLS should provide mechanisms for Devices that support GMPLS should provide mechanisms for
aggregating, summarizing, enabling and disabling of inter-layer aggregating, summarizing, enabling and disabling of inter-layer
notifications for the reasons described above. In the context of notifications for the reasons described above. In the context of
SNMP MIBs, all MIBs that are used by GMPLS must provide SNMP MIBs, all MIBs that are used by GMPLS must provide
enable/disable objects for all notification objects. Furthermore, enable/disable objects for all notification objects. Furthermore,
these MIBs must also provide notification summarization objects or these MIBs must also provide notification summarization objects or
functionality (as described above) as well. NMS systems and standard functionality (as described above) as well. NMS systems and standard
tools which process notifications or keep track of the many layers tools which process notifications or keep track of the many layers
on any given devices must be capable of processing the vast amount on any given devices must be capable of processing the vast amount
of information which may potentially be emitted by network devices of information which may potentially be emitted by network devices
running GMPLS at any point in time. running GMPLS at any point in time.
12. Security considerations E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 48
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
14. Security considerations
GMPLS defines a new control plane architecture for multiple types of GMPLS defines a new control plane architecture for multiple types of
network elements. In general, since LSPs established using GMPLS are network elements. In general, since LSPs established using GMPLS are
expected to carry high volumes of data and consume significant expected to carry high volumes of data and consume significant
network resources, security mechanisms are required to safeguard the network resources, security mechanisms are required to safeguard the
underlying network against attacks on the control plane and/or underlying network against attacks on the control plane and/or
unauthorized usage of data transport resources. unauthorized usage of data transport resources.
Security requirements depend on the level of trust between nodes Security requirements depend on the level of trust between nodes
that exchange GMPLS control messages as well as the exposure of the that exchange GMPLS control messages as well as the exposure of the
skipping to change at line 2099 skipping to change at line 2718
[RFC2406], [RFC2409]) may be used to provide authentication, [RFC2406], [RFC2409]) may be used to provide authentication,
confidentiality or both, for a GMPLS control channel; this option confidentiality or both, for a GMPLS control channel; this option
offers the benefit of combined protection of all GMPLS component offers the benefit of combined protection of all GMPLS component
protocols. protocols.
Note however that GMPLS itself introduces no new security Note however that GMPLS itself introduces no new security
considerations to the current MPLS-TE signaling (RSVP-TE, CR-LDP), considerations to the current MPLS-TE signaling (RSVP-TE, CR-LDP),
routing protocols (OSPF-TE, IS-IS-TE) or network management routing protocols (OSPF-TE, IS-IS-TE) or network management
protocols (SNMP). protocols (SNMP).
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 38 15. Acknowledgements
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
13. Acknowledgements
This draft is the work of numerous authors and consists of a This draft is the work of numerous authors and consists of a
composition of a number of previous drafts in this area. composition of a number of previous drafts in this area.
Many thanks to Ben Mack-Crane (Tellabs) for all the useful SDH/SONET Many thanks to Ben Mack-Crane (Tellabs) for all the useful SDH/SONET
discussions that we had together. Thanks also to Pedro Falcao discussions that we had together. Thanks also to Pedro Falcao,
(Ebone) and Michael Moelants (Ebone) for their SDH/SONET and optical Alexandre Geyssens, Michael Moelants, Xavier Neerdaels, Philippe
Noel and Fuhua Yin from Ebone for their SDH/SONET and optical
technical advice and support. Finally, many thanks also to Krishna technical advice and support. Finally, many thanks also to Krishna
Mitra (Calient) and Curtis Villamizar (Avici). Mitra (Calient) and Curtis Villamizar (Avici).
A list of the drafts from which material and ideas were incorporated A list of the drafts from which material and ideas were incorporated
follows: follows:
[GMPLS-SIG] draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-signaling-04.txt [GMPLS-SIG] draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-signaling-06.txt
Generalized MPLS - Signaling Functional Description Generalized MPLS - Signaling Functional Description
[RSVP-TE-GMPLS] draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-rsvp-te-03.txt E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 49
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
[RSVP-TE-GMPLS] draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-rsvp-te-05.txt
Generalized MPLS Signaling - RSVP-TE Extensions Generalized MPLS Signaling - RSVP-TE Extensions
[CR-LDP-GMPLS] draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-cr-ldp-03.txt [CR-LDP-GMPLS] draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-cr-ldp-04.txt
Generalized MPLS Signaling - CR-LDP Extensions Generalized MPLS Signaling - CR-LDP Extensions
[SONETSDH-GMPLS] draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-sonet-sdh-01.txt [SONETSDH-GMPLS] draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-sonet-sdh-02.txt
GMPLS Extensions for SONET and SDH Control GMPLS Extensions for SONET and SDH Control
[LMP] draft-ietf-mpls-lmp-01.txt [SONETSDH-EXT-GMPLS] draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-sonet-sdh-extensions-
00.txt. GMPLS Extensions to Control Non-Standard
SONET and SDH Features
[G709-GMPLS] draft-fontana-ccamp-gmpls-g709-01.txt
GMPLS Signaling Extensions for G.709 Optical
Transport Networks Control
[LMP] draft-ietf-mpls-lmp-02.txt
Link Management Protocol (LMP) Link Management Protocol (LMP)
[HIERARCHY] draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-hierarchy-02.txt [HIERARCHY] draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-hierarchy-02.txt
LSP Hierarchy with MPLS TE LSP Hierarchy with MPLS TE
[RSVP-TE-UNNUM] draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-unnum-01.txt [RSVP-TE-UNNUM] draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-unnum-02.txt
Signalling Unnumbered Links in RSVP-TE Signalling Unnumbered Links in RSVP-TE
[CR-LDP-UNNUM] draft-ietf-mpls-crldp-unnum-01.txt [CR-LDP-UNNUM] draft-ietf-mpls-crldp-unnum-02.txt
Signalling Unnumbered Links in CR-LDP Signalling Unnumbered Links in CR-LDP
[BUNDLE] draft-kompella-mpls-bundle-05.txt [BUNDLE] draft-ietf-mpls-bundle-00.txt
Link Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering Link Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering
[OSPF-TE-GMPLS] draft-kompella-ospf-gmpls-extensions-01.txt [GMPLS-ROUTING] draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-routing-00.txt
Routing Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS
[OSPF-TE-GMPLS] draft-ietf-ccamp-ospf-gmpls-extensions-00.txt
OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS
[ISIS-TE-GMPLS] draft-ietf-isis-gmpls-extensions-02.txt [ISIS-TE-GMPLS] draft-ietf-isis-gmpls-extensions-04.txt
IS-IS Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS IS-IS Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS
14. References 16. References
[RFC1393] G. Malkin, "Traceroute Using an IP Option", IETF [RFC1393] G. Malkin, "Traceroute Using an IP Option", IETF
RFC 1393, January 1993. RFC 1393, January 1993.
[RFC1901] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S. [RFC1901] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S.
Waldbusser, "Introduction to Community-based Waldbusser, "Introduction to Community-based
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 39
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
SNMPv2", IETF RFC 1901, January 1996. SNMPv2", IETF RFC 1901, January 1996.
[RFC1902] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S. [RFC1902] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S.
Waldbusser, "Structure of Management Information for Waldbusser, "Structure of Management Information for
Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMPv2)", IETF RFC 1901, January 1996. (SNMPv2)", IETF RFC 1901, January 1996.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 50
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
[RFC1903] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S. [RFC1903] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S.
Waldbusser, "Textual Conventions for Version 2 of the Waldbusser, "Textual Conventions for Version 2 of the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)",
IETF RFC 1901, January 1996. IETF RFC 1901, January 1996.
[RFC1904] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S. [RFC1904] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S.
Waldbusser, "Conformance Statements for Version 2 of Waldbusser, "Conformance Statements for Version 2 of
the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)",
IETF RFC 1901, January 1996. IETF RFC 1901, January 1996.
skipping to change at line 2213 skipping to change at line 2843
[RFC2402] S. Kent and R. Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header," [RFC2402] S. Kent and R. Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header,"
RFC 2402. RFC 2402.
[RFC2406] S. Kent and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security [RFC2406] S. Kent and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security
Payload (ESP)," IETF RFC 2406. Payload (ESP)," IETF RFC 2406.
[RFC2409] D. Harkins and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange [RFC2409] D. Harkins and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
(IKE)", IETF RFC 2409. (IKE)", IETF RFC 2409.
[RFC2747] F. Baker et al. "RSVP Cryptographic Authentication", [RFC2747] F. Baker et al., "RSVP Cryptographic Authentication",
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 40
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
IETF RFC 2747. IETF RFC 2747.
[RFC2925] K. White , "Definitions of Managed Objects for Remote [RFC2925] K. White , "Definitions of Managed Objects for Remote
Ping, Traceroute, and Lookup Operations", IETF RFC Ping, Traceroute, and Lookup Operations", IETF RFC
2925, September 2000. 2925, September 2000.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 51
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
[RFC3031] E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan, R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
Label Switching Architecture", IETF RFC 3031, January
2001.
[RFC3032] E. Rosen, D. Tappan, G. Fedorkow, Y. Rekhter, D.
Farinacci, T. Li, A. Conta, " MPLS Label Stack
Encoding", IETF RFC 3032, January 2001.
[LPD] L. Andersson, P. Doolan, N. Feldman, A. Fredette, [LPD] L. Andersson, P. Doolan, N. Feldman, A. Fredette,
B. Thomas, "LDP Specification", IETF RFC 3036, January B. Thomas, "LDP Specification", IETF RFC 3036, January
2001. 2001.
[OSPF-TE] D. Katz, D. Yeung, and K. Kompella, "Traffic [OSPF-TE] D. Katz, D. Yeung, and K. Kompella, "Traffic
Engineering Extensions to OSPF" draft-katz-yeung-ospf- Engineering Extensions to OSPF", draft-katz-yeung-ospf-
traffic-05.txt. traffic-05.txt.
[LMP-WDM] A. Fredette et al., "Link Management Protocol (LMP) for [LMP-WDM] A. Fredette et al., "Link Management Protocol (LMP) for
WDM Transmission Systems," Internet Draft, Work in WDM Transmission Systems," Internet Draft, Work in
Progress, draft-fredette-lmp-wdm-01.txt, March 2001. Progress, draft-fredette-lmp-wdm-01.txt, March 2001.
[MPLS-TEO] D. Awduche et al., "Multi-Protocol Lambda Switching: [MPLS-TEO] D. Awduche et al., "Multi-Protocol Lambda Switching:
Combining MPLS Traffic Engineering Control With Optical Combining MPLS Traffic Engineering Control With Optical
Crossconnects," Internet Draft, Work in Progress, Crossconnects," Internet Draft, Work in Progress,
draft-awduche-mpls-te-optical-03.txt, April 2001. draft-awduche-mpls-te-optical-03.txt, April 2001.
15. Author's Addresses [G.841] ITU-T Recommendation G.841, "Types and Characteristics
of SDH Network Protection Architectures," July 1995.
[ANSI-T1.105] "Synchronous Optical Network (SONET): Basic
Description Including Multiplex Structure, Rates, and
Formats" ANSI T1.105, 2000.
[TE-RESTORE] W. Lai, D. McDysan, J. Boyle, et al, "Network Hierarchy
and Multi-layer Survivability", Internet Draft, Work in
Progress, draft-team-tewg-restore-hierarchy-00.txt,
July 2001.
[MPLS-RECOVERY] V. Sharma and F. Hellstrand (Editors), "A Framework
for MPLS Recovery", Internet Draft, Work in Progress,
draft-ietf-mpls-recovery-frmwrk-03.txt, July 2001.
[MANCHESTER] J. Manchester, P. Bonenfant, C. Newton, "The Evolution
of Transport Network Survivability," IEEE
Communications, August 1999.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 52
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
17. Author's Addresses
Peter Ashwood-Smith Eric Mannie (editor) Peter Ashwood-Smith Eric Mannie (editor)
Nortel Networks Corp. Ebone (GTS) Nortel Networks Corp. Ebone (GTS)
P.O. Box 3511 Station C, Terhulpsesteenweg 6A P.O. Box 3511 Station C, Terhulpsesteenweg 6A
Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7 1560 Hoeilaart Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7 1560 Hoeilaart
Canada Belgium Canada Belgium
Phone: +1 613 763 4534 Phone: +32 2 658 56 52 Phone: +1 613 763 4534 Phone: +32 2 658 56 52
Email: Email: eric.mannie@gts.com Email: Email: eric.mannie@gts.com
petera@nortelnetworks.com petera@nortelnetworks.com
Daniel O. Awduche Thomas D. Nadeau Daniel O. Awduche Thomas D. Nadeau
Movaz Networks Cisco Systems, Inc. Movaz Networks Cisco Systems, Inc.
7296 Jones Branch Drive 250 Apollo Drive 7296 Jones Branch Drive 250 Apollo Drive
Suite 615 Chelmsford, MA 01824 Suite 615 Chelmsford, MA 01824
McLean, VA 22102 USA McLean, VA 22102 USA
USA Phone: +1 978 244 3051 USA Phone: +1 978 244 3051
Phone: +1 703 847-7350 Email: tnadeau@cisco.com Phone: +1 703 847-7350 Email: tnadeau@cisco.com
Email: awduche@movaz.com Email: awduche@movaz.com
Ayan Banerjee Dimitri Papadimitriou Ayan Banerjee Lyndon Ong
Calient Networks Alcatel - IPO NSG Calient Networks Ciena Systems
5853 Rue Ferrari Francis Wellesplein, 1 5853 Rue Ferrari 10480 Ridgeview Ct
San Jose, CA 95138 B-2018 Antwerpen San Jose, CA 95138 Cupertino, CA 95014
USA USA
Phone: +1 408 972-3645 Email: lyong@ciena.com
Email: abanerjee@calient.net
Debashis Basak Dimitri Papadimitriou
Accelight Networks Alcatel - IPO NSG
70 Abele Road, Bldg.1200 Francis Wellesplein, 1
Bridgeville, PA 15017 B-2018 Antwerpen
USA Belgium USA Belgium
Phone: +1 408 972-3645 Phone: +32 3 240-84-91 Phone: +1 412 220-2102 (ext115) Phone: +32 3 240-84-91
Email: abanerjee@calient.net Email: email: dbasak@accelight.com Email:
dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel.be dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel.be
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 41 Lou Berger Dimitrios Pendarakis
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
Debashis Basak Dimitrios Pendarakis
Accelight Networks Tellium, Inc.
70 Abele Road, Bldg.1200 2 Crescent Place
Bridgeville, PA 15017 P.O. Box 901
USA Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901
Phone: +1 412 220-2102 (ext115) USA
email: dbasak@accelight.com Email: DPendarakis@tellium.com
Lou Berger Bala Rajagopalan
Movaz Networks, Inc. Tellium, Inc. Movaz Networks, Inc. Tellium, Inc.
7926 Jones Branch Drive 2 Crescent Place 7926 Jones Branch Drive 2 Crescent Place
Suite 615 P.O. Box 901 Suite 615 P.O. Box 901
MCLean VA, 22102 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901 MCLean VA, 22102 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901
USA USA USA USA
Phone: +1 703 847-1801 Phone: +1 732 923 4237 Phone: +1 703 847-1801 Email: DPendarakis@tellium.com
Email: lberger@movaz.com Email: braja@tellium.com Email: lberger@movaz.com
Greg Bernstein Yakov Rekhter E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 53
Ciena Corporation Juniper draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
10480 Ridgeview Court Email: yakov@juniper.net
Cupertino, CA 94014
USA
Phone: +1 408 366 4713
Email: greg@ciena.com
John Drake Hal Sandick Greg Bernstein Bala Rajagopalan
Calient Networks Nortel Networks Ciena Corporation Tellium, Inc.
5853 Rue Ferrari Email: 10480 Ridgeview Court 2 Crescent Place
San Jose, CA 95138 hsandick@nortelnetworks.com Cupertino, CA 94014 P.O. Box 901
USA Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901
Phone: +1 408 366 4713 USA
Email: greg@ciena.com Phone: +1 732 923 4237
Email: braja@tellium.com
Sudheer Dharanikota Yakov Rekhter
Nayna Networks Inc. Juniper
481 Sycamore Drive Email: yakov@juniper.net
Milpitas, CA 95035
USA USA
Phone: +1 408 972 3720 Email: sudheer@nayna.com
Email: jdrake@calient.net
Yanhe Fan Debanjan Saha John Drake Debanjan Saha
Axiowave Networks, Inc. Tellium Optical Systems Calient Networks Tellium Optical Systems
100 Nickerson Road 2 Crescent Place 5853 Rue Ferrari 2 Crescent Place
Marlborough, MA 01752 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901 San Jose, CA 95138 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901
USA USA USA USA
Phone: +1 508 460 6969 Ext. 627 Phone: +1 732 923 4264 Phone: +1 408 972 3720 Phone: +1 732 923 4264
Email: yfan@axiowave.com Email: dsaha@tellium.com Email: jdrake@calient.net Email: dsaha@tellium.com
Yanhe Fan Hal Sandick
Axiowave Networks, Inc. Nortel Networks
200 Nickerson Road Email:
Marlborough, MA 01752 hsandick@nortelnetworks.com
USA
Phone: +1 774 348 4627
Email: yfan@axiowave.com
Don Fedyk Vishal Sharma Don Fedyk Vishal Sharma
Nortel Networks Corp. Metanoia, Inc. Nortel Networks Corp. Metanoia, Inc.
600 Technology Park Drive 335 Elan Village Lane 600 Technology Park Drive 305 Elan Village Lane, Unit
Billerica, MA 01821 San Jose, CA 95134 Billerica, MA 01821 121
USA USA USA San Jose, CA 95134-2545
Phone: +1-978-288-4506 Phone: +1 408 943 1794 Phone: +1-978-288-4506 USA
Email: Email: vsharma87@yahoo.com Email: Phone: +1 408 895 50 30
dwfedyk@nortelnetworks.com dwfedyk@nortelnetworks.com Email: vsharma87@yahoo.com
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 42
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
Gert Grammel George Swallow Gert Grammel George Swallow
Alcatel Cisco Systems, Inc. Alcatel Cisco Systems, Inc.
Via Trento, 30 250 Apollo Drive Via Trento, 30 250 Apollo Drive
20059 Vimercate (Mi) Chelmsford, MA 01824 20059 Vimercate (Mi) Chelmsford, MA 01824
Italy USA Italy USA
Email: gert.grammel@alcatel.it Phone: +1 978 244 8143 Email: gert.grammel@alcatel.it Phone: +1 978 244 8143
Email: swallow@cisco.com Email: swallow@cisco.com
Kireeti Kompella Z. Bo Tang E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 54
Juniper Networks, Inc. Tellium, Inc. draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
1194 N. Mathilda Ave. 2 Crescent Place
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 P.O. Box 901 Dan Guo Z. Bo Tang
Turin Networks, Inc. Tellium, Inc.
1415 N. McDowell Blvd, 2 Crescent Place
Petaluma, CA 95454 P.O. Box 901
USA Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901 USA Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901
Email: kireeti@juniper.net USA Email: dguo@turinnetworks.com USA
Phone: +1 732 923 4231 Phone: +1 732 923 4231
Email: btang@tellium.com Email: btang@tellium.com
Alan Kullberg John Yu Kireeti Kompella Jennifer Yates
NetPlane Systems, Inc. Zaffire Inc. Juniper Networks, Inc. AT&T
888 Washington 2630 Orchard Parkway 1194 N. Mathilda Ave. 180 Park Avenue
St.Dedham, MA 02026 San Jose, CA 95134 Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Florham Park, NJ 07932
USA USA USA USA
Phone: +1 781 251-5319 Email: jzyu@zaffire.com Email: kireeti@juniper.net Email: jyates@research.att.com
Email: akullber@netplane.com
Jonathan P. Lang Alex Zinin Alan Kullberg George R. Young
Calient Networks Cisco Systems NetPlane Systems, Inc. Edgeflow
25 Castilian 150 W. Tasman Dr. 888 Washington 329 March Road
St.Dedham, MA 02026 Ottawa, Ontario, K2K 2E1
USA Canada
Phone: +1 781 251-5319 Email:
Email: akullber@netplane.com george.young@edgeflow.com
Jonathan P. Lang John Yu
Calient Networks Zaffire Inc.
25 Castilian 2630 Orchard Parkway
Goleta, CA 93117 San Jose, CA 95134 Goleta, CA 93117 San Jose, CA 95134
Email: jplang@calient.net Email: azinin@cisco.com Email: jplang@calient.net USA
Email: jzyu@zaffire.com
Fong Liaw Fong Liaw Alex Zinin
Zaffire Inc. Zaffire Inc. Cisco Systems
2630 Orchard Parkway 2630 Orchard Parkway 150 W. Tasman Dr.
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
USA USA Email: azinin@cisco.com
Email: fliaw@zaffire.com Email: fliaw@zaffire.com
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E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 43 E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 55
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001 draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-01.txt November 2001
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E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 44 E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft May 2002 56
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
Appendix 1 Brief overview of the ITU-T work on G.ASTN/G.ASON
This appendix gives a brief overview of the work performed in ITU-T
related to the control plane for transport networks, and briefly
links it to the IETF related work.
In ITU-T the work is performed in Study Group (SG) 13/Question 10
for G.astn, SG15/Q12 for G.ason and SG15/Q14 for G.dcn, G.dcm,
G.ndisc, G.sdisc and G.cemr.
G.astn describes the network level requirements for the control plane
of Automatically Switched Transport Networks (ASTNs). Such a network
provides a set of control functions for the purpose of setting up and
releasing connections across a network. It is recognized that
transport networks support multiple clients. As such, ASTNs are
intended to be client independent.
A.1 Terminology issues
A common misunderstanding is related to the usage of terms like
layer, LSP and client/server. In IETF the expression "layer" is
attached to a technology present in a network like e.g. OTN, SDH,
ATM, IP. However ITU-T uses the term "layer" for any kind of
mapping. This includes the mapping between different technologies
like SDH/SONET in OTN as well as internal mappings like SDH/SONET
low order layer and high order layer. In this case a client server
relationship between layers is automatically present. In order to
avoid misunderstandings the term "technology" is used hereafter to
represent the IETF understanding of a layer.
In GMPLS the notion of Label Switched Path (LSP) is defined to
describe connections between two Label Switch Routers (LSRs). In
packet switched networks LSPs can be "tunneled" by encapsulating a
packet into another packet within the same technology (also known as
"label stacking"). What is considered to be encapsulation in IETF is
considered to be a mapping in ITU-T that implies the use of a
client-server layer relationship.
In ITU-T the terms "client" and "server" are used to define the role
of a layer with respect to another layer e.g. SDH can be the client
layer of an OTN server layer network. This distinction is not used
in IETF where a layer is associated to a certain type of technology.
Instead the term "client" is used for a customer device attached to
a service provider network, both belonging to distinct
administrative authorities.
A.2 Common Equipment Management [G.cemr]
The G.cemr recommendation specifies those Equipment Management
Functions (EMF) requirements that are common for SDH and OTN.
The equipment management function (EMF) provides the means through
which a Network Element Level manager manages the Network Element
Function (NEF).
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 45
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
These kinds of functions are not detailed in the current GMPLS work
since it is focused on control plane related aspects. Network
Management aspects are subject of other working groups in IETF.
A.3 Data Communications Network [G.dcn]
According to G.dcn the various functions, which constitute a
telecommunications network, can be classified into two broad
functional groups. One is the transport functional group, which
transfers any telecommunications information from one point to
another point(s). The other is the control functional group, which
realizes various ancillary services and operations and maintenance
functions.
The Data Communications Network (DCN) provides transport for the
applications associated with the control functional group. Examples
of such applications that are transported by the DCN are: transport
network operations/management applications, DCN
operations/management applications, Automatic Switched Transport
Services (ASTN) control plane applications, voice communications,
etc.
The IP-based DCN provides Layer 1 (physical), Layer 2 (data-link)
and Layer 3 (network) functionality and consists of
routing/switching functionality interconnected via links. These
links can be implemented over various interfaces, including WAN and
LAN interfaces.
This recommendation provides the architecture requirements for an
IP-based DCN, the requirements for inter-working between an IP-based
DCN and an OSI-based DCN, and the IP-based DCN interface
specifications.
Since in GMPLS the signaling and management plane are orthogonal to
each other, different kinds of networks can be used for both tasks.
In GMLS, LMP defines mechanisms for the control channel management,
which is used to establish and maintain control channels between
nodes. However, GMPLS assume that messages are transported by IP but
doesnÆt specify how the DCN should be implemented.
A.4 Distributed Connection Management [G.dcm]
The G.dcm Recommendation covers the areas associated with the
signaling aspects of automatic switched transport network, such as
attribute specifications, the message sets, the interface
requirements, the DCM state diagrams, and the interworking functions
for the distributed connection management
This is the main purpose of the GMPLS signaling, using extensions to
protocols like CR-LDP and RSVP-TE.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 46
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
A.5 Generalized Automatic Neighbor Discovery [G.ndisc]
The G.ndisc Recommendation provides the requirements and message
sets for the automatic neighbor for the User-to-Network Interface
(UNI), Internal Node-to-Node Interface (I-NNI), External Node-to-
Node Interface (E-NNI) and Physical Interface (PI). These
requirements determine the discovery process across these interfaces
that aid automated connection management.
GMPLS is an IP centric control plane incorporating protocols defined
for routing and neighbor discovery such OSPF and IS-IS. In addition,
LMP fulfills some of these requirements as well, especially for the
component links of bundled link.
A.6 Generalized Automatic Service Discovery [G.sdisc]
The G.sdisc Recommendation provides the requirements and message
sets for the automatic service discovery for the User-to-Network
Interface (UNI), Internal Node-to-Node Interface (I-NNI), External
Node-to-Node Interface (E-NNI) and Physical Interface (PI). These
requirements determine the discovery process across these interfaces
that aid automated connection management.
GMPLS signaling and routing protocols LMP allows some level of
automatic service discovery.
A.7 OTN routing [G.rtg]
No ITU-T contribution available yet.
IP based intra-domain (e.g. OSPF, IS-IS) and inter-domain (e.g. BGP-
4) routing protocols are the strength of a GMPLS control plane.
Moreover, BGP-4 is the only practical solution for policy routing
between different operators that was proved on a very large scale.
GMPLS extends the TE extensions to OSPF and IS-IS. Work on BGP-4 is
ongoing.
A.8 OTN Connection Admission Control [G.cac]
According to G.astn, Connection Admission Control (CAC) is necessary
for authentication of the user and controlling access to network
resources. CAC shall be provided as part of the control plane
functionality. It is the role of the CAC function to determine if
there is sufficient free resource available to allow a new
connection. If there is, the CAC may permit the connection request to
proceed, alternatively, if there is not, it shall notify the
originator of the connection request that the request has been
denied. Connections may be denied on the basis of available free
capacity or alternatively on the basis of prioritization. CAC
policies are outside the scope of standardization.
GMPLS achieves authentication (and other security related features)
using the broad range of security mechanisms available in the GMPLS
protocols themselves and/or using IPSEC.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 47
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-00.txt June 2001
A.9 OTN Link Management [G.lm]
No ITU-T contribution available yet.
The Link Management Protocol (LMP) of GMPLS is a collection of
procedures between adjacent nodes that provide local services such
as control channel management, link connectivity verification, link
property correlation, and fault management.
E. Mannie et. al. Internet-Draft December 2001 48
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