draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-g-694-lambda-labels-11.txt   rfc6205.txt 
Network Working Group Tomohiro Otani(Ed.)
Internet Draft KDDI
Updates: 3471(if approved) Dan Li(Ed.)
Category: Standards Track Huawei
Expires: July 2011 January 11, 2011 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) T. Otani, Ed.
Request for Comments: 6205 KDDI
Updates: 3471 D. Li, Ed.
Category: Standards Track Huawei
ISSN: 2070-1721 March 2011
Generalized Labels for Lambda-Switching Capable Label Switching Generalized Labels for Lambda-Switch-Capable (LSC)
Routers Label Switching Routers
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-g-694-lambda-labels-11.txt Abstract
Status of this Memo Technology in the optical domain is constantly evolving, and, as a
consequence, new equipment providing lambda switching capability has
been developed and is currently being deployed.
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) is a family of protocols that can be used to
the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. operate networks built from a range of technologies including
wavelength (or lambda) switching. For this purpose, GMPLS defined a
wavelength label as only having significance between two neighbors.
Global wavelength semantics are not considered.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering In order to facilitate interoperability in a network composed of next
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that generation lambda-switch-capable equipment, this document defines a
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- standard lambda label format that is compliant with the Dense
Drafts. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and Coarse Wavelength
Division Multiplexing (CWDM) grids defined by the International
Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector.
The label format defined in this document can be used in GMPLS
signaling and routing protocols.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six Status of This Memo
months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at This is an Internet Standards Track document.
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
received public review and has been approved for publication by the
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 11, 2011. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6205.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Abstract
Technology in the optical domain is constantly evolving and as a
consequence new equipment providing lambda switching capability
has been developed and is currently being deployed.
Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) is a family of protocols that can be
used to operate networks built from a range of technologies
including wavelength (or lambda) switching. For this purpose,
GMPLS defined that a wavelength label only has significance
between two neighbors and global wavelength semantics are not
considered.
In order to facilitate interoperability in a network composed of
next generation lambda switch-capable equipment, this document
defines a standard lambda label format that is compliant with
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Coarse Wavelength
Division Multiplexing grids defined by the International
Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector.
The label format defined in this document can be used in GMPLS
signaling and routing protocols.
Conventions used in this document 1. Introduction
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL As described in [RFC3945], GMPLS extends MPLS from supporting only
NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and Packet Switching Capable (PSC) interfaces and switching to also
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in supporting four new classes of interfaces and switching:
[RFC2119].
1. Introduction o Layer-2 Switch Capable (L2SC)
As described in [RFC3945], Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) extends MPLS o Time-Division Multiplex (TDM) Capable
from supporting only packet (Packet Switching Capable - PSC)
interfaces and switching to also include support for four new
classes of interfaces and switching:
o Layer-2 Switch Capable (L2SC) o Lambda Switch Capable (LSC)
o Time-Division Multiplex (TDM) o Fiber Switch Capable (FSC)
o Lambda Switch Capable (LSC) A functional description of the extensions to MPLS signaling needed
to support new classes of interfaces and switching is provided in
[RFC3471].
o Fiber-Switch Capable (FSC). This document presents details that are specific to the use of GMPLS
with LSC equipment. Technologies such as Reconfigurable Optical
Add/Drop Multiplex (ROADM) and Wavelength Cross-Connect (WXC) operate
at the wavelength switching level. [RFC3471] states that wavelength
labels "only have significance between two neighbors" (Section
3.2.1.1); global wavelength semantics are not considered. In order
to facilitate interoperability in a network composed of LSC
equipment, this document defines a standard lambda label format,
which is compliant with both the Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplexing (DWDM) grid [G.694.1] and the Coarse Wavelength Division
Multiplexing (CWDM) grid [G.694.2].
A functional description of the extensions to MPLS signaling 1.1. Conventions Used in This Document
needed to support new classes of interfaces and switching is
provided in [RFC3471].
This document presents details that are specific to the use of The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
GMPLS with Lambda Switch Capable (LSC) equipment. Technologies "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
such as Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplex (ROADM) and document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Wavelength Cross-Connect (WXC) operate at the wavelength
switching level. [RFC3471] has defined that a wavelength label
(section 3.2.1.1) "only has significance between two neighbors"
and global wavelength semantics is not considered. In order to
facilitate interoperability in a network composed of lambda
switch-capable equipment, this document defines a standard lambda
label format, which is compliant with both [G.694.1](Dense
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)-grid) or [G.694.2](Coarse
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM)-grid).
2. Assumed Network Model and Related Problem Statement 2. Assumed Network Model and Related Problem Statement
Figure 1 depicts an all-optically switched network consisting of Figure 1 depicts an all-optical switched network consisting of
different vendors' optical network domains. Vendor A's network different vendors' optical network domains. Vendor A's network
consists of ROADM or WXC, and vendor B's network consists of a consists of ROADM or WXC, and Vendor B's network consists of a number
number of photonic cross-connect (PXC) and DWDM multiplexer & of Photonic Cross-Connects (PXCs) and DWDM multiplexers and
demultiplexer, otherwise both vendors' networks might be based on demultiplexers. Otherwise, both vendors' networks might be based on
the same technology. the same technology.
In this case, the use of standardized wavelength label In this case, the use of standardized wavelength label information is
information is quite significant to establish a wavelength-based quite significant to establish a wavelength-based Label Switched Path
LSP. It is also an important constraint when conducting CSPF (LSP). It is also an important constraint when calculating the
calculation for use by Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF) for use by Generalized Multi-
(GMPLS) RSVP-TE signaling, [RFC3473]. The way the Constrained Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Resource ReserVation Protocol -
Shortest Path First (CSPF) is performed is outside the scope of Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) signaling [RFC3473]. The way the CSPF
this document. is performed is outside the scope of this document.
It is needless to say, an LSP must be appropriately provisioned Needless to say, an LSP must be appropriately provisioned between a
between a selected pair of ports not only within Domain A but selected pair of ports not only within Domain A but also over
also over multiple domains satisfying wavelength constraints. multiple domains satisfying wavelength constraints.
Figure 2 illustrates in detail the interconnection between Domain Figure 2 illustrates the interconnection between Domain A and Domain
A and Domain B. B in detail.
| |
Domain A (or Vendor A) | Domain B (or Vendor B) Domain A (or Vendor A) | Domain B (or Vendor B)
| |
Node-1 Node-2 | Node-6 Node-7 Node-1 Node-2 | Node-6 Node-7
+--------+ +--------+ | +-------+ +-+ +-+ +-------+ +--------+ +--------+ | +-------+ +-+ +-+ +-------+
| ROADM | | ROADM +---|------+ PXC +-+D| |D+-+ PXC | | ROADM | | ROADM +---|------+ PXC +-+D| |D+-+ PXC |
| or WXC +========+ or WXC +---|------+ +-+W+=====+W+-+ | | or WXC +========+ or WXC +---|------+ +-+W+=====+W+-+ |
| (LSC) | | (LSC) +---|------+ (LSC) +-+D| |D+-+ (LSC) | | (LSC) | | (LSC) +---|------+ (LSC) +-+D| |D+-+ (LSC) |
+--------+ +--------+ | | +-|M| |M+-+ | +--------+ +--------+ | | +-|M| |M+-+ |
skipping to change at page 4, line 41 skipping to change at page 4, line 32
+--------+ +--------+ | +++++++++ +++++++++ +--------+ +--------+ | +++++++++ +++++++++
| ROADM | | ROADM | | ||||||| ||||||| | ROADM | | ROADM | | ||||||| |||||||
| or WXC +========+ or WXC +=+ | +-+ +++++++++ +-+ +-+ +++++++++ | or WXC +========+ or WXC +=+ | +-+ +++++++++ +-+ +-+ +++++++++
| (LSC) | | (LSC) | | | |D|-| PXC +-+D| |D+-+ PXC | | (LSC) | | (LSC) | | | |D|-| PXC +-+D| |D+-+ PXC |
+--------+ +--------+ +=|==+W|-| +-+W+=====+W+-+ | +--------+ +--------+ +=|==+W|-| +-+W+=====+W+-+ |
Node-4 Node-5 | |D|-| (LSC) +-+D| |D+-+ (LSC) | Node-4 Node-5 | |D|-| (LSC) +-+D| |D+-+ (LSC) |
| |M|-| +-+M| |M+-+ | | |M|-| +-+M| |M+-+ |
| +-+ +-------+ +-+ +-+ +-------+ | +-+ +-------+ +-+ +-+ +-------+
| Node-8 Node-9 | Node-8 Node-9
Figure 1 Wavelength-based network model Figure 1. Wavelength-Based Network Model
+-------------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------+
| Domain A | Domain B | | Domain A | Domain B |
| | | | | |
| +---+ lambda 1 | +---+ | | +---+ lambda 1 | +---+ |
| | |---------------|---------| | | | | |---------------|---------| | |
| WDM | N | lambda 2 | | N | WDM | | WDM | N | lambda 2 | | N | WDM |
| =====| O |---------------|---------| O |===== | | =====| O |---------------|---------| O |===== |
| O | D | . | | D | O | | O | D | . | | D | O |
| T WDM | E | . | | E | WDM T | | T WDM | E | . | | E | WDM T |
skipping to change at page 5, line 29 skipping to change at page 5, line 29
| O | | | | | O | | O | | | | | O |
| D WDM | N | | | N | WDM D | | D WDM | N | | | N | WDM D |
| E =====| O | WDM | | O |===== E | | E =====| O | WDM | | O |===== E |
| S | D |=========================| D | S | | S | D |=========================| D | S |
| WDM | E | | | E | WDM | | WDM | E | | | E | WDM |
| =====| 5 | | | 8 |===== | | =====| 5 | | | 8 |===== |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| +---+ | +---+ | | +---+ | +---+ |
+-------------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 2 Interconnecting details between two domains Figure 2. Interconnecting Details between Two Domains
In the scenario of Figure 1, consider the setting up of a In the scenario of Figure 1, consider the setting up of a
bidirectional LSP from ingress switch 1 to egress switch 9 using bidirectional LSP from ingress switch (Node-1) to egress switch
GMPLS RSVP-TE. In order to satisfy wavelength continuity (Node-9) using GMPLS RSVP-TE. In order to satisfy wavelength
constraint, a fixed wavelength (lambda 1) needs to be used in continuity constraints, a fixed wavelength (lambda 1) needs to be
domain A and domain B. A Path message will be used for signaling. used in Domain A and Domain B. A Path message will be used for
The Path message will contain the Upstream_Label object and a signaling. The Path message will contain an Upstream_Label object
Label_Set object; both containing the same value. The Label_set and a Label_Set object, both containing the same value. The
object shall contain a single sub-channel that must be the same Label_Set object shall contain a single sub-channel that must be the
as the Upstream_Label object. The Path setup will continue same as the Upstream_Label object. The Path setup will continue
downstream to switch 9 by configuring each lambda switch based on downstream to egress switch (Node-9) by configuring each lambda
the wavelength label. If a node has a tunable wavelength switch based on the wavelength label. If a node has a tunable
transponder, the tuning wavelength is considered as a part of wavelength transponder, the tuning wavelength is considered a part of
wavelength switching operation. the wavelength switching operation.
Not using a standardized label would add undue burden on the Not using a standardized label would add undue burden on the operator
operator to enforce policy as each manufacturer may decide on a to enforce policy as each manufacturer may decide on a different
different representation and therefore each domain may have its representation; therefore, each domain may have its own label
own label formats. Moreover, manual provisioning may lead to formats. Moreover, manual provisioning may lead to misconfiguration
misconfiguration if domain-specific labels are used. if domain-specific labels are used.
Therefore, a wavelength label should be standardized in order to Therefore, a wavelength label should be standardized in order to
allow interoperability between multiple domains; otherwise allow interoperability between multiple domains; otherwise,
appropriate existing labels are identified in support of appropriate existing labels are identified in support of wavelength
wavelength availability. As identical wavelength information, the availability. Containing identical wavelength information, the ITU-T
ITU-T frequency grid specified in [G.694.1] for DWDM and DWDM frequency grid specified in [G.694.1] and the CWDM wavelength
wavelength information in [G.694.2] for CWDM are used by Label information in [G.694.2] are used by Label Switching Routers (LSRs)
Switching Routers (LSRs) and should be followed as a wavelength and should be followed for wavelength labels.
label.
3. Label Related Formats 3. Label-Related Formats
To deal with the widening scope of MPLS into the optical and time To deal with the widening scope of MPLS into the optical switching
domains, several new forms of "label" have been defined in and time division multiplexing domains, several new forms of "label"
[RFC3471]. This section contains a definition of a Wavelength have been defined in [RFC3471]. This section contains a definition
label based on [G.694.1] or [G.694.2] for use by LSC LSRs. of a wavelength label based on [G.694.1] or [G.694.2] for use by LSC
LSRs.
3.1. Wavelength Labels 3.1. Wavelength Labels
In section 3.2.1.1 of [RFC3471], a Wavelength label is defined to Section 3.2.1.1 of [RFC3471] defines wavelength labels: "values used
have significance between two neighbors, and the receiver may in this field only have significance between two neighbors, and the
need to convert the received value into a value that has local receiver may need to convert the received value into a value that has
significance. local significance".
We do not need to define a new type as the information stored is We do not need to define a new type as the information stored is
either a port label or a wavelength label. Only the wavelength either a port label or a wavelength label. Only the wavelength label
label as below needs to be defined. needs to be defined.
LSC equipment uses multiple wavelengths controlled by a single LSC equipment uses multiple wavelengths controlled by a single
control channel. In a case, the label indicates the wavelength to control channel. In such a case, the label indicates the wavelength
be used for the LSP. This document defines a standardized to be used for the LSP. This document defines a standardized
wavelength label format. As an example of wavelength values, the wavelength label format. For examples of wavelength values, refer to
reader is referred to [G.694.1] which lists the frequencies from [G.694.1], which lists the frequencies from the ITU-T DWDM frequency
the ITU-T DWDM frequency grid. The same can be done for CWDM grid. For CWDM technology, refer to the wavelength values defined in
technology by using the wavelength defined in [G.694.2]. [G.694.2].
Since the ITU-T DWDM grid is based on nominal central frequencies, Since the ITU-T DWDM grid is based on nominal central frequencies, we
we need to indicate the appropriate table, the channel spacing in need to indicate the appropriate table, the channel spacing in the
the grid and a value n that allows the calculation of the grid, and a value n that allows the calculation of the frequency.
frequency. That value can be positive or negative. That value can be positive or negative.
The frequency is calculated as such in [G.694.1]: The frequency is calculated as such in [G.694.1]:
Frequency (THz) = 193.1 THz + n * channel spacing (THz) Frequency (THz) = 193.1 THz + n * channel spacing (THz)
Where "n" is a two's-complement integer (positive, negative or 0) Where "n" is a two's-complement integer (positive, negative, or 0)
and "channel spacing" is defined to be 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 and "channel spacing" is defined to be 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, or 0.1
THz. When wider channel spacing such as 0.2 THz is utilized, the THz. When wider channel spacing such as 0.2 THz is utilized, the
combination of narrower channel spacing and the value "n" can combination of narrower channel spacing and the value "n" can provide
provide proper frequency with that channel spacing. Channel proper frequency with that channel spacing. Channel spacing is not
spacing is not utilized to indicate the LSR capability but only utilized to indicate the LSR capability but only to specify a
to specify a frequency in signaling. frequency in signaling.
For the other example of the case of the ITU-T CWDM grid, the For other cases that use the ITU-T CWDM grid, the spacing between
spacing between different channels was defined to be 20nm, so we different channels is defined as 20 nm, so we need to express the
need to pass the wavelength value in nanometers(nm) in this case. wavelength value in nanometers (nm). Examples of CWDM wavelengths in
Examples of CWDM wavelengths are 1471, 1491, etc. nm. nm are 1471, 1491, etc.
The wavelength is calculated as follows The wavelength is calculated as follows:
Wavelength (nm) = 1471 nm + n * 20 nm Wavelength (nm) = 1471 nm + n * 20 nm
Where "n" is a two's-complement integer (positive, negative or 0). Where "n" is a two's-complement integer (positive, negative, or 0).
The grids listed in [G.694.1] and [G.694.2] are not numbered and The grids listed in [G.694.1] and [G.694.2] are not numbered and
change with the changing frequency spacing as technology advances, change with the changing frequency spacing as technology advances, so
so an index is not appropriate in this case. an index is not appropriate in this case.
3.2. DWDM Wavelength Label 3.2. DWDM Wavelength Label
For the case of lambda switching (LSC) of DWDM, the information For the case of lambda switching of DWDM, the information carried in
carried in a Wavelength label is: a wavelength label is:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Grid | C.S | Identifier | n | |Grid | C.S. | Identifier | n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
(1) Grid: 3 bits (1) Grid: 3 bits
The value for grid is set to 1 for ITU-T DWDM Grid as defined in The value for Grid is set to 1 for the ITU-T DWDM grid as defined in
[G.694.1]. [G.694.1].
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| Grid | Value | | Grid | Value |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| Reserved | 0 | | Reserved | 0 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|ITU-T DWDM| 1 | |ITU-T DWDM| 1 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|ITU-T CWDM| 2 | |ITU-T CWDM| 2 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|Future use| 3 - 7 | |Future use| 3 - 7 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
(2) C.S.(channel spacing): 4 bits (2) C.S. (channel spacing): 4 bits
DWDM channel spacing is defined as follows. DWDM channel spacing is defined as follows.
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| C.S(GHz) | Value | |C.S. (GHz)| Value |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| Reserved | 0 | | Reserved | 0 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| 100 | 1 | | 100 | 1 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| 50 | 2 | | 50 | 2 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| 25 | 3 | | 25 | 3 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| 12.5 | 4 | | 12.5 | 4 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|Future use| 5 - 15 | |Future use| 5 - 15 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
(3) Identifier: 9 bits (3) Identifier: 9 bits
The identifier field in lambda label format is used to The Identifier field in lambda label format is used to distinguish
distinguish different lasers (in one node) when they can transmit different lasers (in one node) when they can transmit the same
the same frequency lambda. The identifier field is a per-node frequency lambda. The Identifier field is a per-node assigned and
assigned and scoped value. This field MAY change on a per-hop scoped value. This field MAY change on a per-hop basis. In all
basis. In all cases but one, a node MAY select any value, cases but one, a node MAY select any value, including zero (0), for
including zero (0), for this field. Once selected, the value MUST this field. Once selected, the value MUST NOT change until the LSP
NOT change until the LSP is torn down and the value MUST be used is torn down, and the value MUST be used in all LSP-related messages,
in all LSP related messages, e.g., in Resv messages and label RRO e.g., in Resv messages and label Record Route Object (RRO)
subobjects. The sole special case occurs when this label format subobjects. The sole special case occurs when this label format is
is used in a label ERO subobject. In this case, the special value used in a label Explicit Route Object (ERO) subobject. In this case,
of zero (0) means that the referenced node MAY assign any the special value of zero (0) means that the referenced node MAY
Identifier field value, including zero (0), when establishing the assign any Identifier field value, including zero (0), when
corresponding LSP. When non-zero value is assigned to the establishing the corresponding LSP. When a non-zero value is
identifier field in a label ERO subobject, the referenced node assigned to the Identifier field in a label ERO subobject, the
MUST use the assigned value for the identifier field in the referenced node MUST use the assigned value for the Identifier field
corresponding LSP related messages. in the corresponding LSP-related messages.
(4) n: 16 bits (4) n: 16 bits
n is a two's-complement integer to take either a negative, zero n is a two's-complement integer to take either a positive, negative,
or a positive value. The value used to compute the frequency as or zero value. This value is used to compute the frequency as shown
shown above. above.
3.3. CWDM Wavelength Label 3.3. CWDM Wavelength Label
For the case of lambda switching (LSC) of CWDM, the information For the case of lambda switching of CWDM, the information carried in
carried in a Wavelength label is: a wavelength label is:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Grid | C.S | Identifier | n | |Grid | C.S. | Identifier | n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The structure of the label in the case of CWDM is the same as The structure of the label in the case of CWDM is the same as that of
that of DWDM case. the DWDM case.
(1) Grid: 3 bits (1) Grid: 3 bits
The value for grid is set to 2 for ITU-T CWDM Grid as defined in The value for Grid is set to 2 for the ITU-T CWDM grid as defined in
[G.694.2]. [G.694.2].
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| Grid | Value | | Grid | Value |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| Reserved | 0 | | Reserved | 0 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|ITU-T DWDM| 1 | |ITU-T DWDM| 1 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|ITU-T CWDM| 2 | |ITU-T CWDM| 2 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|Future use| 3 - 7 | |Future use| 3 - 7 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
(2) C.S.(channel spacing): 4 bits (2) C.S. (channel spacing): 4 bits
CWDM channel spacing is defined as follows. CWDM channel spacing is defined as follows.
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| C.S(nm) | Value | |C.S. (nm) | Value |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| Reserved | 0 | | Reserved | 0 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
| 20 | 1 | | 20 | 1 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
|Future use| 2 - 15 | |Future use| 2 - 15 |
+----------+---------+ +----------+---------+
(3) Identifier: 9 bits (3) Identifier: 9 bits
The identifier field in lambda label format is used to The Identifier field in lambda label format is used to distinguish
distinguish different lasers (in one node) when they can transmit different lasers (in one node) when they can transmit the same
the same frequency lambda. The identifier field is a per-node frequency lambda. The Identifier field is a per-node assigned and
assigned and scoped value. This field MAY change on a per-hop scoped value. This field MAY change on a per-hop basis. In all
basis. In all cases but one, a node MAY select any value, cases but one, a node MAY select any value, including zero (0), for
including zero (0), for this field. Once selected, the value MUST this field. Once selected, the value MUST NOT change until the LSP
NOT change until the LSP is torn down and the value MUST be used is torn down, and the value MUST be used in all LSP-related messages,
in all LSP related messages, e.g., in Resv messages and label RRO e.g., in Resv messages and label RRO subobjects. The sole special
subobjects. The sole special case occurs when this label format case occurs when this label format is used in a label ERO subobject.
is used in a label ERO subobject. In this case, the special value In this case, the special value of zero (0) means that the referenced
of zero (0) means that the referenced node MAY assign any node MAY assign any Identifier field value, including zero (0), when
Identifier field value, including zero (0), when establishing the establishing the corresponding LSP. When a non-zero value is
corresponding LSP. When non-zero value is assigned to the assigned to the Identifier field in a label ERO subobject, the
identifier field in a label ERO subobject, the referenced node referenced node MUST use the assigned value for the Identifier field
MUST use the assigned value for the identifier field in the in the corresponding LSP-related messages.
corresponding LSP related messages.
(4) n: 16 bits (4) n: 16 bits
n is a two's-complement integer. The value used to compute the n is a two's-complement integer. This value is used to compute the
wavelength as shown above. wavelength as shown above.
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
This document introduces no new security considerations to This document introduces no new security considerations to [RFC3471]
[RFC3471] and [RFC3473]. For a general discussion on MPLS and and [RFC3473]. For a general discussion on MPLS and GMPLS-related
GMPLS related security issues, see the MPLS/GMPLS security security issues, see the MPLS/GMPLS security framework [RFC5920].
framework [RFC5920].
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
IANA maintains the "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching IANA maintains the "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
(GMPLS) Signaling Parameters" registry. IANA is requested to add (GMPLS) Signaling Parameters" registry. IANA has added three new
three new subregistries to track the codepoints (Grid and C.S.) subregistries to track the codepoints (Grid and C.S.) used in the
used in the DWDM and CWDM Wavelength Labels, which are described DWDM and CWDM wavelength labels, which are described in the following
in the following sections. sections.
5.1. Grid Subregistry 5.1. Grid Subregistry
Initial entries in this subregistry are as follows: Initial entries in this subregistry are as follows:
Value Grid Reference Value Grid Reference
----- ------------------------- ---------- ----- ------------------------- ----------
0 Reserved [This.I-D] 0 Reserved [RFC6205]
1 ITU-T DWDM [This.I-D] 1 ITU-T DWDM [RFC6205]
2 ITU-T CWDM [This.I-D] 2 ITU-T CWDM [RFC6205]
3-7 Not assigned at this time [This.I-D] 3-7 Unassigned [RFC6205]
New values are assigned according to Standards Action. New values are assigned according to Standards Action.
5.2. DWDM Channel Spacing Subregistry 5.2. DWDM Channel Spacing Subregistry
Initial entries in this subregistry are as follows: Initial entries in this subregistry are as follows:
Value Channel Spacing (GHz) Reference Value Channel Spacing (GHz) Reference
----- ------------------------- ---------- ----- ------------------------- ----------
0 Reserved [This.I-D] 0 Reserved [RFC6205]
1 100 [This.I-D] 1 100 [RFC6205]
2 50 [This.I-D] 2 50 [RFC6205]
3 25 [This.I-D] 3 25 [RFC6205]
4 12.5 [This.I-D] 4 12.5 [RFC6205]
5-15 Not assigned at this time [This.I-D] 5-15 Unassigned [RFC6205]
New values are assigned according to Standards Action. New values are assigned according to Standards Action.
5.3. CWDM Channel Spacing Subregistry 5.3. CWDM Channel Spacing Subregistry
Initial entries in this subregistry are as follows: Initial entries in this subregistry are as follows:
Value Channel Spacing (nm) Reference Value Channel Spacing (nm) Reference
----- ------------------------- ---------- ----- ------------------------- ----------
0 Reserved [This.I-D] 0 Reserved [RFC6205]
1 20 [This.I-D] 1 20 [RFC6205]
2-15 Not assigned at this time [This.I-D] 2-15 Unassigned [RFC6205]
New values are assigned according to Standards Action. New values are assigned according to Standards Action.
6. Acknowledgments 6. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Adrian Farrel, Lou Berger,
Lawrence Mao, Zafar Ali and Daniele Ceccarelli for the discussion
and their comments.
7. References
7.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3471] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
(MPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC 3471,
January 2003.
[RFC3473] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
(MPLS) Signaling - Resource ReserVation Protocol Traffic
Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC 3473, January
2003.
[RFC3945] Mannie, E., Ed., "Generalized Multiprotocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) Architecture", RFC 3945, October 2004.
7.2. Informative References
[G.694.1] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.1, "Spectral grids for WDM
applications: DWDM frequency grid", June 2002.
[G.694.2] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.2, "Spectral grids for WDM The authors would like to thank Adrian Farrel, Lou Berger, Lawrence
applications: CWDM wavelength grid", December 2003. Mao, Zafar Ali, and Daniele Ceccarelli for the discussion and their
comments.
[RFC5920] Fang, L., "Security Framework for MPLS and GMPLS 7. References
Networks", RFC 5920, July 2010.
8. Authors' Address 7.1. Normative References
Tomohiro Otani [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
KDDI Corporation Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
2-3-2 Nishishinjuku Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 163-8003, Japan
Phone: +81-3-3347-6006
Email: tm-otani@kddi.com
Richard Rabbat [RFC3471] Berger, L., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Google, Inc. Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC
1600 Amphitheatre Pkwy 3471, January 2003.
Mountain View, CA 94043
Email: rabbat@alum.mit.edu
Sidney Shiba [RFC3473] Berger, L., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Email: sidney.shiba@att.net Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-
Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC 3473,
January 2003.
Hongxiang Guo [RFC3945] Mannie, E., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Email: hongxiang.guo@gmail.com Switching (GMPLS) Architecture", RFC 3945, October 2004.
Keiji Miyazaki 7.2. Informative References
Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd
4-1-1 Kotanaka Nakahara-ku,
Kawasaki Kanagawa, 211-8588, Japan
Phone: +81-44-754-2765
Email: miyazaki.keiji@jp.fujitsu.com
Diego Caviglia [G.694.1] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.1, "Spectral grids for WDM
Ericsson applications: DWDM frequency grid", June 2002.
16153 Genova Cornigliano, ITALY
Phone: +390106003736
Email: diego.caviglia@ericsson.com
Dan Li [G.694.2] ITU-T Recommendation G.694.2, "Spectral grids for WDM
Huawei Technologies applications: CWDM wavelength grid", December 2003.
F3-5-B R&D Center, Huawei Base,
Shenzhen 518129 China
Phone: +86 755-289-70230
Email: danli@huawei.com
Takehiro Tsuritani [RFC5920] Fang, L., Ed., "Security Framework for MPLS and GMPLS
KDDI R&D Laboratories Inc. Networks", RFC 5920, July 2010.
2-1-15 Ohara Fujimino-shi
Saitama, 356-8502, Japan
Phone: +81-49-278-7806
Email: tsuri@kddilabs.jp
9. Appendix A. DWDM Example Appendix A. DWDM Example
Considering the network displayed in figure 1 it is possible to Considering the network displayed in Figure 1, it is possible to show
show an example of LSP set up using the lambda labels. an example of LSP setup using the lambda labels.
Node 1 receives the request for establishing an LSP from itself Node 1 receives the request for establishing an LSP from itself to
to Node 9. The ITU-T grid to be used is the DWDM one, the channel Node 9. The ITU-T grid to be used is the DWDM one, the channel
spacing is 50Ghz and the wavelength to be used is 193,35 THz. spacing is 50 Ghz, and the wavelength to be used is 193,35 THz.
Node 1 signals the LSP via a Path message including a Wavelength Node 1 signals the LSP via a Path message including a wavelength
Label structured as defined in section 3.2: label structured as defined in Section 3.2:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Grid | C.S | Identifier | n | |Grid | C.S. | Identifier | n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Where: Where:
Grid = 1 : ITU-T DWDM grid Grid = 1 : ITU-T DWDM grid
C.S. = 2 : 50 GHz channel spacing C.S. = 2 : 50 GHz channel spacing
n = 5 : n = 5 :
Frequency (THz) = 193.1 THz + n * channel spacing (THz) Frequency (THz) = 193.1 THz + n * channel spacing (THz)
193.35 (THz) = 193.1 (THz) + n* 0.05 (THz) 193.35 (THz) = 193.1 (THz) + n* 0.05 (THz)
n = (193.35-193.1)/0.05 = 5 n = (193.35-193.1)/0.05 = 5
10. Appendix B. CWDM Example Appendix B. CWDM Example
The network displayed in figure 1 can be used also to display an The network displayed in Figure 1 can also be used to display an
example of signaling using the Wavelength Label in a CWDM example of signaling using the wavelength label in a CWDM
environment. environment.
This time the signaling of an LSP from Node 4 to Node 7 is This time, the signaling of an LSP from Node 4 to Node 7 is
considered. Such LSP exploits the CWDM ITU-T grid with a 20nm considered. Such LSP exploits the CWDM ITU-T grid with a 20 nm
channel spacing and is to established using wavelength equal to channel spacing and is established using a wavelength equal to 1331
1331 nm. nm.
Node 4 signals the LSP via a Path message including a Wavelength Node 4 signals the LSP via a Path message including a wavelength
Label structured as defined in section 3.3: label structured as defined in Section 3.3:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Grid | C.S | Identifier | n | |Grid | C.S. | Identifier | n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Where: Where:
Grid = 2 : ITU-T CWDM grid Grid = 2 : ITU-T CWDM grid
C.S. = 1 : 20 nm channel spacing C.S. = 1 : 20 nm channel spacing
n = -7 : n = -7 :
Wavelength (nm) = 1471 nm + n * 20 nm Wavelength (nm) = 1471 nm + n * 20 nm
1331 (nm) = 1471 (nm) + n * 20 nm 1331 (nm) = 1471 (nm) + n * 20 nm
n = (1331-1471)/20 = -7 n = (1331-1471)/20 = -7
Authors' Addresses
Richard Rabbat
Google, Inc.
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043
USA
EMail: rabbat@alum.mit.edu
Sidney Shiba
EMail: sidney.shiba@att.net
Hongxiang Guo
EMail: hongxiang.guo@gmail.com
Keiji Miyazaki
Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd
4-1-1 Kotanaka Nakahara-ku,
Kawasaki Kanagawa, 211-8588
Japan
Phone: +81-44-754-2765
EMail: miyazaki.keiji@jp.fujitsu.com
Diego Caviglia
Ericsson
16153 Genova Cornigliano
Italy
Phone: +390106003736
EMail: diego.caviglia@ericsson.com
Takehiro Tsuritani
KDDI R&D Laboratories Inc.
2-1-15 Ohara Fujimino-shi
Saitama, 356-8502
Japan
Phone: +81-49-278-7806
EMail: tsuri@kddilabs.jp
Editors' Addresses
Tomohiro Otani (editor)
KDDI Corporation
2-3-2 Nishishinjuku Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 163-8003
Japan
Phone: +81-3-3347-6006
EMail: tm-otani@kddi.com
Dan Li (editor)
Huawei Technologies
F3-5-B R&D Center, Huawei Base,
Shenzhen 518129
China
Phone: +86 755-289-70230
EMail: danli@huawei.com
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