draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-mln-eval-05.txt   draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-mln-eval-06.txt 
Network Working Group J.L. Le Roux (Ed.) Network Working Group J.L. Le Roux (Ed.)
Internet Draft France Telecom Internet Draft France Telecom
Category: Informational Category: Informational
Created: December 17, 2007 D. Papadimitriou (Ed.) Expires: January 2009 D. Papadimitriou (Ed.)
Expires: June 17, 2008 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent
Evaluation of Existing GMPLS Protocols Against Multi Layer
Evaluation of existing GMPLS Protocols against Multi Layer
and Multi Region Networks (MLN/MRN) and Multi Region Networks (MLN/MRN)
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-mln-eval-05.txt draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-mln-eval-06.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
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Conventions used in this document Conventions used in this document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................................3 1. Introduction................................................3
2. MLN/MRN Requirements Overview...............................4 2. MLN/MRN Requirements Overview...............................4
3. Analysis....................................................4 3. Analysis....................................................5
3.1. Multi Layer Network Aspects.................................4 3.1. Multi Layer Network Aspects.................................5
3.1.1. Support for Virtual Network Topology Reconfiguration........4 3.1.1. Support for Virtual Network Topology Reconfiguration........5
3.1.1.1. Control of FA-LSPs Setup/Release..........................5 3.1.1.1. Control of FA-LSPs Setup/Release..........................5
3.1.1.2. Virtual TE-Links..........................................6 3.1.1.2. Virtual TE-Links..........................................6
3.1.1.3. Traffic Disruption Minimization During FA Release.........7 3.1.1.3. Traffic Disruption Minimization During FA Release.........7
3.1.1.4. Stability.................................................8 3.1.1.4. Stability.................................................8
3.1.2. Support for FA-LSP Attributes Inheritance...................8 3.1.2. Support for FA-LSP Attributes Inheritance...................8
3.1.3. FA-LSP Connectivity Verification............................8 3.1.3. FA-LSP Connectivity Verification............................8
3.2. Specific Aspects for Multi-Region Networks..................9 3.1.4. Scalability.................................................9
3.2.1. Support for Multi-Region Signaling..........................9 3.1.5. Operations and Management of the MLN/MRN...................10
3.2.2. Advertisement of Adjustment Capacities......................9 3.1.5.1. MIB Modules..............................................10
4. Evaluation Conclusion......................................12 3.1.5.2. OAM......................................................10
5. Security Considerations....................................13 3.2. Specific Aspects for Multi-Region Networks.................11
6. IANA Considerations........................................13 3.2.1. Support for Multi-Region Signaling.........................11
7. Acknowledgments............................................13 3.2.2. Advertisement of Adjustment Capacities.....................12
8. References.................................................13 4. Evaluation Conclusion......................................15
8.1. Normative References.......................................13 4.1. Traceability of Requirements...............................15
8.2. Informative References.....................................14 5. Security Considerations....................................19
9. Editors' Addresses:........................................14 6. IANA Considerations........................................19
10. Contributors' Addresses:...................................15 7. Acknowledgments............................................19
11. Intellectual Property Statement............................15 8. References.................................................19
8.1. Normative References.......................................19
8.2. Informative References.....................................20
9. Editors' Addresses.........................................21
10. Contributors' Addresses....................................22
11. Intellectual Property Statement............................22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) extends MPLS to handle multiple switching Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) extends MPLS to handle multiple switching
technologies: packet switching, layer-2 switching, TDM switching, technologies: packet switching, layer-2 switching, TDM switching,
wavelength switching, and fiber switching (see [RFC3945]). The wavelength switching, and fiber switching (see [RFC3945]). The
Interface Switching Capability (ISC) concept is introduced for Interface Switching Capability (ISC) concept is introduced for
these switching technologies and is designated as follows: PSC these switching technologies and is designated as follows: PSC
(Packet Switch Capable), L2SC (Layer-2 Switch Capable), TDM (Time (Packet Switch Capable), L2SC (Layer-2 Switch Capable), TDM (Time
Division Multiplex capable), LSC (Lambda Switch Capable), and FSC Division Multiplex capable), LSC (Lambda Switch Capable), and FSC
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[RFC4206]. A switching type describes the ability of a node to [RFC4206]. A switching type describes the ability of a node to
forward data of a particular data plane technology, and uniquely forward data of a particular data plane technology, and uniquely
identifies a network region. identifies a network region.
A data plane switching layer describes a data plane switching A data plane switching layer describes a data plane switching
granularity level. For example, LSC, TDM VC-11 and TDM VC-4-64c are granularity level. For example, LSC, TDM VC-11 and TDM VC-4-64c are
three different layers. [MLN-REQ] defines a Multi Layer Network three different layers. [MLN-REQ] defines a Multi Layer Network
(MLN) to be a TE domain comprising multiple data plane switching (MLN) to be a TE domain comprising multiple data plane switching
layers either of the same ISC (e.g. TDM) or different ISC (e.g. TDM layers either of the same ISC (e.g. TDM) or different ISC (e.g. TDM
and PSC) and controlled by a single GMPLS control plane instance. and PSC) and controlled by a single GMPLS control plane instance.
[MLN-REQ] further define a particular case of MLNs. A Multi Region [MLN-REQ] further defines a particular case of MLNs. A Multi Region
Network (MRN) is defined as a TE domain supporting at least two Network (MRN) is defined as a TE domain supporting at least two
different switching types (e.g., PSC and TDM), either hosted on the different switching types (e.g., PSC and TDM), either hosted on the
same device or on different ones, and under the control of a single same device or on different ones, and under the control of a single
GMPLS control plane instance. GMPLS control plane instance.
The objectives of this document are to evaluate existing GMPLS The objectives of this document are to evaluate existing GMPLS
mechanisms and protocols ([RFC3945], [RFC4202], [RFC3471], mechanisms and protocols ([RFC3945], [RFC4202], [RFC3471],
[RFC3473]) against the requirements for MLN and MRN, defined in [RFC3473]) against the requirements for MLN and MRN, defined in
[MLN-REQ]. From this evaluation, we identify several areas where [MLN-REQ]. From this evaluation, we identify several areas where
additional protocol extensions and modifications are required to meet additional protocol extensions and modifications are required to meet
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summarized below, and a mapping with sub-sections of [MLN-REQ] is summarized below, and a mapping with sub-sections of [MLN-REQ] is
provided. provided.
Here is the list of requirements that apply to MLN (and thus to MRN): Here is the list of requirements that apply to MLN (and thus to MRN):
- Support for robust Virtual Network Topology (VNT) reconfiguration. - Support for robust Virtual Network Topology (VNT) reconfiguration.
This implies the following requirements: This implies the following requirements:
- Optimal control of Forwarding Adjacency LSP (FA-LSP) setup and - Optimal control of Forwarding Adjacency LSP (FA-LSP) setup and
release (Section 5.8.1 of [MLN-REQ]); release (Section 5.8.1 of [MLN-REQ]);
- Support for virtual TE-links (Section 5.8.2 of [MLN-REQ]); - Support for virtual TE-links (Section 5.8.2 of [MLN-REQ]);
- Traffic Disruption minimization during FA-LSP release (Section - Traffic Disruption minimization during FA-LSP release (Section
5.5 of [MLN-REQ]); 5.5 of [MLN-REQ]);
- Stability (Section 5.4 of [MLN-REQ]); - Stability (Section 5.4 of [MLN-REQ]);
- Support for FA-LSP attributes inheritance (Section 5.6 of - Support for FA-LSP attributes inheritance (Section 5.6 of
[MLN-REQ]); [MLN-REQ]);
- Support for FA-LSP data plane connectivity verification - Support for FA-LSP data plane connectivity verification
(Section 5.9 of [MLN-REQ]); (Section 5.9 of [MLN-REQ]);
- MLN Scalability (section 5.3 of [MLN-REQ]);
- MLN OAM (section 5.10 of [MLN-REQ]);
Here is the list of requirements that apply to MRN only: Here is the list of requirements that apply to MRN only:
- Support for Multi-Region signaling (section 5.7 of [MLN-REQ]); - Support for Multi-Region signaling (section 5.7 of [MLN-REQ]);
- Advertisement of the adjustment capacity (section 5.2 of - Advertisement of the adjustment capacity (section 5.2 of
[MLN-REQ]); [MLN-REQ]);
3. Analysis 3. Analysis
3.1. Multi Layer Network Aspects 3.1. Multi Layer Network Aspects
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- Policing and scheduling of VNT resources with regard to traffic - Policing and scheduling of VNT resources with regard to traffic
demands and usage (that is, decision to setup/release FA-LSPs). The demands and usage (that is, decision to setup/release FA-LSPs). The
functional component in charge of this function is called a VNT functional component in charge of this function is called a VNT
Manager (VNTM) [PCE-INTER]. Manager (VNTM) [PCE-INTER].
- VNT Paths Computation according to TE topology, and potentially - VNT Paths Computation according to TE topology, and potentially
taking into account the old (existing) VNT to minimize changes. The taking into account the old (existing) VNT to minimize changes. The
Functional component in charge of VNT computation may be Functional component in charge of VNT computation may be
distributed on network elements or may be performed on an external distributed on network elements or may be performed on an external
tool (such as a Path Computation Element (PCE), [RFC4655]). element (such as a Path Computation Element (PCE), [RFC4655]).
- FA-LSP setup/release. - FA-LSP setup/release.
GMPLS routing protocols provide TE topology discovery. GMPLS routing protocols provide TE topology discovery.
GMPLS signaling protocols allow setting up/releasing FA-LSPs. GMPLS signaling protocols allow setting up/releasing FA-LSPs.
VNTM functions (resources policing/scheduling, decision to VNTM functions (resources policing/scheduling, decision to
setup/release FA-LSPs, FA-LSP configuration) are out of the scope of setup/release FA-LSPs, FA-LSP configuration) are out of the scope of
GMPLS protocols. Such functionalities can be achieved directly on GMPLS protocols. Such functionalities can be achieved directly on
layer border LSRs, or through one or more external tools. When an layer border LSRs, or through one or more external tools. When an
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the network elements so as to setup/release FA-LSPs. This could use the network elements so as to setup/release FA-LSPs. This could use
standard management interfaces such as [RFC4802]. standard management interfaces such as [RFC4802].
The set of traffic demands of the upper layer is required for the The set of traffic demands of the upper layer is required for the
VNT Manager to take decisions to setup/release FA-LSPs. Such VNT Manager to take decisions to setup/release FA-LSPs. Such
traffic demands include satisfied demands, for which one or more traffic demands include satisfied demands, for which one or more
upper layer LSP have been successfully setup, as well as unsatisfied upper layer LSP have been successfully setup, as well as unsatisfied
demands and future demands, for which no upper layer LSP has been demands and future demands, for which no upper layer LSP has been
setup yet. The collection of such information is beyond the scope of setup yet. The collection of such information is beyond the scope of
GMPLS protocols. Note that it may be partially inferred from GMPLS protocols. Note that it may be partially inferred from
parameters carried in GMPLS signalling or advertised in GMPLS parameters carried in GMPLS signaling or advertised in GMPLS
routing. routing.
Finally, the computation of FA-LSPs that form the VNT can be Finally, the computation of FA-LSPs that form the VNT can be
performed directly on layer border LSRs or on an external tool (such performed directly on layer border LSRs or on an external element
as a Path Computation Element (PCE), [RFC4655]), and this is (such as a Path Computation Element (PCE), [RFC4655]), and this is
independent of the location of the VNTM. independent of the location of the VNTM.
Hence, to summarize, no GMPLS protocol extensions are required to Hence, to summarize, no GMPLS protocol extensions are required to
control FA-LSP setup/release. control FA-LSP setup/release.
3.1.1.2. Virtual TE-Links 3.1.1.2. Virtual TE-Links
A Virtual TE-link is a TE-link between two upper layer nodes that is A Virtual TE-link is a TE-link between two upper layer nodes that is
not actually associated with a fully provisioned FA-LSP in a lower not actually associated with a fully provisioned FA-LSP in a lower
layer. A Virtual TE-link represents the potentiality to setup an FA- layer. A Virtual TE-link represents the potentiality to setup an FA-
LSP in the lower layer to support the TE-link that has been LSP in the lower layer to support the TE-link that has been
advertised. A Virtual TE-link is advertised as any TE-link, following advertised. A Virtual TE-link is advertised as any TE-link, following
the rules in [RFC4206] defined for fully provisioned TE-links. In the rules in [RFC4206] defined for fully provisioned TE-links. In
particular, the flooding scope of a Virtual TE-link is within an IGP particular, the flooding scope of a Virtual TE-link is within an IGP
area, as is the case for any TE-link. area, as is the case for any TE-link.
If an upper-layer LSP attempts (through a signalling message) to make If an upper-layer LSP attempts (through a signaling message) to make
use of a Virtual TE-link, the underlying FA-LSP is immediately use of a Virtual TE-link, the underlying FA-LSP is immediately
signalled and provisioned (provided there are available resources in signaled and provisioned (provided there are available resources in
the lower layer) in the process known as triggered signaling. the lower layer) in the process known as triggered signaling.
The use of Virtual TE-links has two main advantages: The use of Virtual TE-links has two main advantages:
- Flexibility: allows the computation of an LSP path using TE-links - Flexibility: allows the computation of an LSP path using TE-links
without needing to take into account the actual provisioning status without needing to take into account the actual provisioning status
of the corresponding FA-LSP in the lower layer; of the corresponding FA-LSP in the lower layer;
- Stability: allows stability of TE-links in the upper layer, while - Stability: allows stability of TE-links in the upper layer, while
avoiding wastage of bandwidth in the lower layer, as data plane avoiding wastage of bandwidth in the lower layer, as data plane
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- A signaling mechanism for the dynamic setup and deletion of virtual - A signaling mechanism for the dynamic setup and deletion of virtual
TE-links. Setting up a virtual TE-link requires a signaling TE-links. Setting up a virtual TE-link requires a signaling
mechanism allowing an end-to-end association between Virtual mechanism allowing an end-to-end association between Virtual
TE-link end points so as to exchange link identifiers as well as TE-link end points so as to exchange link identifiers as well as
some TE parameters. some TE parameters.
The TE mechanism responsible for triggering/policing dynamic The TE mechanism responsible for triggering/policing dynamic
modification of Virtual TE-links is out of the scope of GMPLS modification of Virtual TE-links is out of the scope of GMPLS
protocols. protocols.
Current GMPLS signalling does not allow setting up and releasing Current GMPLS signaling does not allow setting up and releasing
Virtual TE-links. Hence GMPLS signalling must be extended to support Virtual TE-links. Hence GMPLS signaling must be extended to support
Virtual TE-links. Virtual TE-links.
We can distinguish two options for setting up Virtual TE-links: We can distinguish two options for setting up Virtual TE-links:
- The Soft FA approach that consists of setting up the FA-LSP in the - The Soft FA approach that consists of setting up the FA-LSP in the
control plane without actually activating cross connections in the control plane without actually activating cross connections in the
data plane. On the one hand, this requires state maintenance on all data plane. On the one hand, this requires state maintenance on all
transit LSRs (N square issue), but on the other hand this may allow transit LSRs (N square issue), but on the other hand this may allow
for some admission control. Indeed, when a soft-FA is activated, for some admission control. Indeed, when a soft-FA is activated,
the resources may be no longer available for use by other soft-FAs the resources may be no longer available for use by other soft-FAs
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3.1.1.4. Stability 3.1.1.4. Stability
The stability of upper-layer LSP may be impaired if the VNT undergoes The stability of upper-layer LSP may be impaired if the VNT undergoes
frequent changes. In this context robustness of the VNT is defined as frequent changes. In this context robustness of the VNT is defined as
the capability to smooth the impact of these changes and avoid their the capability to smooth the impact of these changes and avoid their
subsequent propagation. subsequent propagation.
Guaranteeing VNT stability is out of the scope of GMPLS protocols and Guaranteeing VNT stability is out of the scope of GMPLS protocols and
relies entirely on the capability of the TE and VNT management relies entirely on the capability of the TE and VNT management
algorithms to minimize routing perturbations. This requires that the algorithms to minimize routing perturbations. This requires that the
algorithms takes into account the old VNT when computing a new VNT, algorithms take into account the old VNT when computing a new VNT,
and try to minimize the perturbation. and try to minimize the perturbation.
Note that a full mesh of lower-layer LSPs may be created between Note that a full mesh of lower-layer LSPs may be created between
every pair of border nodes between the upper and lower layers. The every pair of border nodes between the upper and lower layers. The
merit of a full mesh of lower-layer LSPs is that it provides merit of a full mesh of lower-layer LSPs is that it provides
stability to the upper layer routing. That is, forwarding table used stability to the upper layer routing. That is, forwarding table used
in the upper layer is not impacted if the VNT undergoes changes. in the upper layer is not impacted if the VNT undergoes changes.
Further, there is always full reachability and immediate access to Further, there is always full reachability and immediate access to
bandwidth to support LSPs in the upper layer. But it also has bandwidth to support LSPs in the upper layer. But it also has
significant drawbacks, since it requires the maintenance of n^2 RSVP- significant drawbacks, since it requires the maintenance of n^2 RSVP-
TE sessions, which may be quite CPU and memory consuming (scalability TE sessions, where n is the number of border nodes, which may be
impact). Also this may lead to significant bandwidth wastage. Note quite CPU and memory consuming (scalability impact). Also this may
that the use of virtual TE-links solves the bandwidth wastage issue, lead to significant bandwidth wastage. Note that the use of virtual
and may reduce the control plane overload. TE-links solves the bandwidth wastage issue, and may reduce the
control plane overload.
3.1.2. Support for FA-LSP Attributes Inheritance 3.1.2. Support for FA-LSP Attributes Inheritance
When a FA TE Link is advertised, its parameters are inherited from When a FA TE Link is advertised, its parameters are inherited from
the parameters of the FA-LSP, and specific inheritance rules are the parameters of the FA-LSP, and specific inheritance rules are
applied. applied.
This relies on local procedures and policies and is out of the scope This relies on local procedures and policies and is out of the scope
of GMPLS protocols. Note that this requires that both head-end and of GMPLS protocols. Note that this requires that both head-end and
tail-end of the FA-LSP are driven by same policies. tail-end of the FA-LSP are driven by same policies.
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3.1.3. FA-LSP Connectivity Verification 3.1.3. FA-LSP Connectivity Verification
Once fully provisioned, FA-LSP liveliness may be achieved by Once fully provisioned, FA-LSP liveliness may be achieved by
verifying its data plane connectivity. verifying its data plane connectivity.
FA-LSP connectivity verification relies on technology specific FA-LSP connectivity verification relies on technology specific
mechanisms (e.g., for SDH using G.707 and G.783; for MPLS using BFD; mechanisms (e.g., for SDH using G.707 and G.783; for MPLS using BFD;
etc.) as for any other LSP. Hence this requirement is out of the etc.) as for any other LSP. Hence this requirement is out of the
scope of GMPLS protocols. scope of GMPLS protocols.
The GMPLS protocols should provide mechanisms for the coordination
of data link verification in the upper layer network where data
links are lower layer LSPs.
o GMPLS signaling allows an LSP to be put into 'test' mode
[RFC3473].
o The link Management Protocol [RFC4204] is a targeted protocol and
can be run end-to-end across lower-layer LSPs.
o Coordination of testing procedures in different layers is an
operational matter.
3.1.4. Scalability
As discussed in [MLN-REQ]), MRN/MLN routing mechanisms must be
designed to scale well with an increase of any of the following:
- Number of nodes
- Number of TE-links (including FA-LSPs)
- Number of LSPs
- Number of regions and layers
- Number of ISCDs per TE-link.
GMPLS routing provides the necessary advertisement functions and is
based on IETF-designed IGPs. These are known to scale relatively well
with the number of nodes and links. Where there are multiple regions
or layers there are two possibilities.
1. If a single routing instance distributes information about
multiple network layers, the effect is no more than to increase the
number of nodes and links in the network.
2. If the MLN is fully integrated (i.e., constructed from hybrid
nodes), there is an increase in the number of nodes and links
as just mentioned, and also a potential increase in the amount
of ISCD information advertised per link. This is a relatively
small amount of information (e.g., 36 bytes in OSPF [RFC4203])
per switching type, and each interface is unlikely to have more
than two or three switching types.
The number of LSPs in a lower layer, advertised as TE-links may
impact the scaling of the routing protocol. A full mesh of FA-LSPs in
the lower layer would lead to n^2 TE-links where n is the number of
layer border LSRs. This must be taken into consideration in the VNT
management process. This is an operational matter beyond the scope of
GMPLS protocols.
As regards the scalability of GMPLS signaling, a full mesh of LSPs in
the lower layer may impact the salability since it requires the
maintenance of n^2 RSVP-TE sessions, which may be quite CPU and
memory consuming. The use of virtual TE-links may reduce the control
plane overload (see section 3.1.1.2).
3.1.5. Operations and Management of the MLN/MRN
[MLN-REQ] identifies various requirements for effective management
and operation of the MLN. Some features already exist within the
GMPLS protocol set, some more are under development, and some
requirements are not currently addressed and will need new
development work in order to support them.
3.1.5.1. MIB Modules
MIB modules have been developed to model and control GMPLS switches
[RFC4803] and to control and report on the operation of the signaling
protocol [RFC4802]. These may be successfully used to manage the
operation of a single instance of the control plane protocols that
operate across multiple layers.
[RFC4220] provides a MIB module for managing TE links, and this may
be particularly useful in the context of the MLN as LSPs in the lower
layers are made available as TE links in the higher layer.
The traffic engineering database provides a repository for all
information about the existence and current status of TE links within
a network. This information is typically flooded by the routing
protocol operating within the network, and is used when LSP routes
are computed. [TED-MIB] provides a way to inspect the TED to view the
TE links at the different layers of the MLN.
As observed in [MLN-REQ], although it would be possible to manage the
MLN using only the existing MIB modules, a further MIB module could
be produced to coordinate the management of separate network layers
in order to construct a single MLN entity. Such a MIB module would
effectively link together entries in the MIB modules already
referenced.
3.1.5.2. OAM
At the time of writing, the development of OAM tools for GMPLS
networks is at an early stage. GMPLS OAM requirements are addressed
in [GMPLS-OAM].
In general, the lower layer network technologies contain their own
technology-specific OAM processes (for example, SDH/SONET, Ethernet,
and MPLS). In these cases, it is not necessary to develop additional
OAM processes, but GMPLS procedures may be desirable to coordinate
the operation and configuration of these OAM processes.
[ETH-OAM] describes some early ideas for this function, but more work
is required to generalize the technique to be applicable to all
technologies and to MLN. In particular OAM function operating within
a server layer must be controllable from the client layer, and client
layer control plane mechanisms must map and enable OAM in the server
layer.
Where a GMPLS-controlled technology does not contain its own OAM
procedures, this is usually because the technology cannot support
in-band OAM (for example, WDM networks). In these cases, there is
very little that a control plane can add to the OAM function since
the presence of a control plane cannot make any difference to the
physical characteristics of the data plane. However, the existing
GMPLS protocol suite does provide a set of tools that can help to
verify the data plane through control plane. These tools are equally
applicable to network technologies that do contain their own OAM.
- Route recording is available through the GMPLS signaling protocol
[RFC3473] making it possible to check the route reported by the
control plane against the expected route. This mechanism also
includes the ability to record and report the interfaces and labels
used for the LSP at each hop of its path.
- The status of TE links is flooded by the GMPLS routing protocols
[RFC4203] and [RFC4205] making it possible to detect changes in the
available resources in the network as an LSP is set up.
- The GMPLS signaling protocol [RFC3473] provides a technique to
place an LSP into a "test" mode so that end-to-end characteristics
(such as power levels) may be sampled and modified.
- The Link Management Protocol [RFC4204] provides a mechanism for
fault isolation on an LSP.
- GMPLS signaling [RFC3473] provides a Notify message that can be
used to report faults and issues across the network. The message
includes scaling features to allow one message to report the
failure of multiple LSPs.
- Extensions to GMPLS signaling [RFC4783] enable alarm information to
be collected and distributed along the path of an LSP for more easy
coordination and correlation.
3.2. Specific Aspects for Multi-Region Networks 3.2. Specific Aspects for Multi-Region Networks
3.2.1. Support for Multi-Region Signaling 3.2.1. Support for Multi-Region Signaling
There are actually several cases where a transit node could choose There are actually several cases where a transit node could choose
between multiple SCs to be used for a lower region FA-LSP: between multiple SCs to be used for a lower region FA-LSP:
- ERO expansion with loose hops: The transit node has to expand the - Explicit Route Object (ERO) expansion with loose hops: The transit
path, and may have to select among a set of lower region SCs. node has to expand the path, and may have to select among a set of
lower region SCs.
- Multi-SC TE link: When the ERO of a FA LSP, included in the ERO of - Multi-SC TE link: When the ERO of a FA LSP, included in the ERO of
an upper region LSP, comprises a multi-SC TE-link, the region an upper region LSP, comprises a multi-SC TE-link, the region
border node has to select among these SCs. border node has to select among these SCs.
Existing GMPLS signalling procedures do not allow solving this Existing GMPLS signaling procedures do not allow solving this
ambiguous choice of SC that may be used along a given path. ambiguous choice of SC that may be used along a given path.
Hence an extension to GMPLS signalling has to be defined to indicate Hence an extension to GMPLS signaling has to be defined to indicate
the SC(s) that can be used and the SC(s) that cannot be used along the SC(s) that can be used and the SC(s) that cannot be used along
the path. the path.
3.2.2. Advertisement of Adjustment Capacities 3.2.2. Advertisement of Adjustment Capacities
In the MRN context, nodes supporting more than one switching In the MRN context, nodes supporting more than one switching
capability on at least one interface are called Hybrid nodes ([MLN- capability on at least one interface are called Hybrid nodes ([MLN-
REQ]). Conceptually, hybrid nodes can be viewed as containing at REQ]). Conceptually, hybrid nodes can be viewed as containing at
least two distinct switching elements interconnected by internal least two distinct switching elements interconnected by internal
links which provide adjustment between the supported switching links which provide adjustment between the supported switching
capabilities. These internal links have finite capacities and must be capabilities. These internal links have finite capacities and must be
taken into account when computing the path of a multi-region TE-LSP. taken into account when computing the path of a multi-region TE-LSP.
The advertisement of the adjustment capacities is required as it The advertisement of the adjustment capacities is required as it
provides critical information when performing multi-region path provides critical information when performing multi-region path
computation. computation.
The term adjustment capacity refers to the property of a hybrid node The term adjustment capacity refers to the property of a hybrid node
to interconnect different switching capabilities it provides though to interconnect different switching capabilities it provides through
its external interfaces [MLN-REQ]. This information allows path its external interfaces [MLN-REQ]. This information allows path
computation to select an end-to-end multi-region path that includes computation to select an end-to-end multi-region path that includes
links of different switching capabilities that are joined by LSRs links of different switching capabilities that are joined by LSRs
that can adapt the signal between the links. that can adapt the signal between the links.
Figure 1a below shows an example of hybrid node. The hybrid node has Figure 1a below shows an example of hybrid node. The hybrid node has
two switching elements (matrices), which support here TDM and PSC two switching elements (matrices), which support here TDM and PSC
switching respectively. The node has two PSC and TDM ports (port1 and switching respectively. The node has two PSC and TDM ports (port1 and
port2 respectively). It also has internal link connecting the two port2 respectively). It also has an internal link connecting the two
switching elements. switching elements.
The two switching elements are internally interconnected in such a The two switching elements are internally interconnected in such a
way that it is possible to terminate some of the resources of the TDM way that it is possible to terminate some of the resources of the TDM
port 2 and provide through them adjustment for PSC traffic, port 2 and provide through them adjustment for PSC traffic,
received/sent over the internal PSC interface (#b). Two ways are received/sent over the internal PSC interface (#b). Two ways are
possible to set up PSC LSPs (port 1 or port 2). Available resources possible to set up PSC LSPs (port 1 or port 2). Available resources
advertisement e.g. Unreserved and Min/Max LSP Bandwidth should cover advertisement e.g. Unreserved and Min/Max LSP Bandwidth should cover
both ways. both ways.
skipping to change at page 12, line 34 skipping to change at page 15, line 23
Most of the required MLN/MRN functions will rely on mechanisms and Most of the required MLN/MRN functions will rely on mechanisms and
procedures that are out of the scope of the GMPLS protocols, and thus procedures that are out of the scope of the GMPLS protocols, and thus
do not require any GMPLS protocol extensions. They will rely on local do not require any GMPLS protocol extensions. They will rely on local
procedures and policies, and on specific TE mechanisms and procedures and policies, and on specific TE mechanisms and
algorithms. algorithms.
As regards Virtual Network Topology (VNT) computation and As regards Virtual Network Topology (VNT) computation and
reconfiguration, specific TE mechanisms need to be defined, but these reconfiguration, specific TE mechanisms need to be defined, but these
mechanisms are out of the scope of GMPLS protocols. mechanisms are out of the scope of GMPLS protocols.
Four areas for extensions of GMPLS protocols and procedures have been Six areas for extensions of GMPLS protocols and procedures have been
identified: identified:
- GMPLS signaling extension for the setup/deletion of the virtual - GMPLS signaling extension for the setup/deletion of the virtual
TE-links; TE-links;
- GMPLS routing and signaling extension for graceful TE-link - GMPLS signaling extension for graceful TE-link deletion;
deletion;
- GMPLS signaling extension for constrained multi-region signalling - GMPLS signaling extension for constrained multi-region signaling
(SC inclusion/exclusion); (SC inclusion/exclusion);
- GMPLS routing extension for the advertisement of the adjustment - GMPLS routing extension for the advertisement of the adjustment
capacities of hybrid nodes. capacities of hybrid nodes.
- A MIB module for coordination of other MIB modules being operated
in separate layers.
- GMPLS signaling extensions for the control and configuration of
technology-specific OAM processes.
4.1. Traceability of Requirements
This section provides a brief cross-reference to the requirements set
out in [MLN-REQ] so that it is possible to verify that all of the
requirements listed in that document have been examined in this
document.
- Path computation mechanism should be able to compute paths and
handle topologies consisting of any combination of (simplex) nodes
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.1).
o Path computation mechanisms are beyond the scope of protocol
specifications, and out of scope for this document.
- A hybrid node should maintain resources on its internal links
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.2).
o This is an implementation requirement and is beyond the scope of
protocol specifications, and out of scope for this document.
- Path computation mechanisms should be prepared to use the
availability of termination/adjustment resources as a constraint in
path computation ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.2).
o Path computation mechanisms are beyond the scope of protocol
specifications, and out of scope for this document.
- The advertisement of a node's ability to terminate lower-region
LSPs and to forward traffic in the upper-region (adjustment
capability) is required ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.2).
o See Section 3.2.2 of this document.
- The path computation mechanism should support the coexistence of
upper-layer links directly connected to upper-layer switching
elements, and upper-layer links connected through internal links
between upper-layer and lower-layer switching elements ([MLN-REQ],
Section 5.2).
o Path computation mechanisms are beyond the scope of protocol
specifications, and out of scope for this document.
- MRN/MLN routing mechanisms must be designed to scale well with an
increase of any of the following:
- Number of nodes
- Number of TE-links (including FA-LSPs)
- Number of LSPs
- Number of regions and layers
- Number of ISCDs per TE-link.
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.3).
o See Section 3.1.4 of this document.
- Design of the routing protocols must not prevent TE information
filtering based on ISCDs, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.3).
o All advertised information carries the ISCD and so a receiving
node may filter as required.
- The path computation mechanism and the signaling protocol should be
able to operate on partial TE information, ([MLN-REQ], Section
5.3).
o Path computation mechanisms are beyond the scope of protocol
specifications, and out of scope for this document.
- Protocol mechanisms must be provided to enable creation, deletion,
and modification of LSPs triggered through operational actions,
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.4).
o Such mechanisms are standard in GMPLS signaling [RFC3473].
- Protocol mechanisms should be provided to enable similar functions
triggered by adjacent layers, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.4).
o Such mechanisms are standard in GMPLS signaling [RFC3473].
- Protocol mechanisms may be provided to enable adaptation to changes
such as traffic demand, topology, and network failures. Routing
robustness should be traded with adaptability of those changes,
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.4).
o See section 3.1.1 of this document.
- Reconfiguration of the VNT must be as non-disruptive as possible
and must be under the control of policy configured by the operator,
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.5).
o See Section 3.1.1.3 of this document
- Parameters of a TE link in an upper should be inherited from the
parameters of the lower-layer LSP that provides the TE-link, based
on polices configured by the operator, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.6).
o See Section 3.1.2 of this document.
- The upper-layer signaling request may contain an ERO that includes
only hops in the upper layer, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.7).
o Standard for GMPLS signaling [RFC3473]. See also Section 3.2.1.
- The upper-layer signaling request may contain an ERO specifying the
lower layer FA-LSP route, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.7).
o Standard for GMPLS signaling [RFC3473]. See also Section 3.2.1.
- As part of the re-optimization of the MLN, it must be possible to
reroute a lower-layer FA-LSP while keeping interface identifiers of
the corresponding TE links unchanged and causing only minimal
disruption to higher-layer traffic, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.8.1).
o See Section 3.1.1.3.
- The solution must include measures to protect against network
destabilization caused by the rapid setup and teardown of lower-
layer LSPs as traffic demand varies near a threshold, ([MLN-REQ],
Sections 5.8.1 and 5.8.2).
o See Section 3.1.1.4.
- Signaling of lower-layer LSPs should include a mechanism to rapidly
advertise the LSP as a TE link in the upper layer, and to
coordinate into which routing instances the TE link should be
advertised, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.8.1).
o This is provided by [RFC4206] and enhanced by [HIER-BIS]. See
also Section 3.1.1.2.
- If an upper-layer LSP is set up making use of a virtual TE-Link,
the underlying LSP must immediately be signaled in the lower layer,
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.8.2).
o See Section 3.1.1.2.
- The solution should provide operations to facilitate the build-up
of virtual TE-links, taking into account the forecast upper-layer
traffic demand and available resource in the lower-layer,
([MLN-REQ], Section 5.8.2).
o See Section 3.1.1.2 of this document.
- The GMPLS protocols should provide mechanisms for the coordination
of data link verification in the upper layer network where data
links are lower layer LSPs, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.9).
o See Section 3.1.3 of this document.
- Multi-layer protocol solutions should be manageable through MIB
modules, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.10).
o See section 3.1.5.1.
- Choices about how to coordinate errors and alarms, and how to
operate OAM across administrative and layer boundaries must be left
open for the operator, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.10).
o This is an implementation matter, subject to operational
policies.
- It must be possible to enable end-to-end OAM on an upper-layer LSP.
This function appears to the ingress LSP as normal LSP-based OAM
[GMPLS-OAM], but at layer boundaries, depending on the technique
used to span the lower layers, client-layer OAM operations may need
to be mapped to server-layer OAM operations ([MLN-REQ], Section
5.10).
o See Section 3.1.5.2.
- Client layer control plane mechanisms must map and enable OAM in
the server layer, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.10).
o See Section 3.1.5.2.
- OAM operation enabled for an LSP in a client layer must operate for
that LSP along its entire length, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.10).
o See Section 3.1.5.2.
- OAM function operating within a server layer must be controllable
from the client layer. Such control should be subject to policy at
the layer boundary, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.10).
o This is an implementation matter.
- The status of a server layer LSP must be available to the client
layer. This information should be configurable to be automatically
notified to the client layer at the layer boundary, and should be
subject to policy, ([MLN-REQ], Section 5.10).
o This is an implementation matter.
- Implementations may use standardized techniques (such as MIB
modules) to convey status information between layers.
o This is an implementation matter.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
[MLN-REQ] sets out the security requirements for operating a MLN or [MLN-REQ] sets out the security requirements for operating a MLN or
MRN. These requirements are, in general, no different from the MRN. These requirements are, in general, no different from the
security requirements for operating any GMPLS network. As such, the security requirements for operating any GMPLS network. As such, the
GMPLS protocols already provide adequate security features. An GMPLS protocols already provide adequate security features. An
evaluation of the security features for GMPLS networks may be found evaluation of the security features for GMPLS networks may be found
in [MPLS-SEC], and where issues or further work is identified by that in [MPLS-SEC], and where issues or further work is identified by that
document, new security features or procedures for the GMPLS protocols document, new security features or procedures for the GMPLS protocols
will need to be developed. will need to be developed.
skipping to change at page 13, line 33 skipping to change at page 19, line 33
Lastly, as noted in [MLN-REQ], it is expected that solution documents Lastly, as noted in [MLN-REQ], it is expected that solution documents
will include a full analysis of the security issues that any protocol will include a full analysis of the security issues that any protocol
extensions introduce. extensions introduce.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
This informational document makes no requests for IANA action. This informational document makes no requests for IANA action.
7. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
We would like to thank Julien Meuric, Igor Bryskin and Adrian Farrel We would like to thank Julien Meuric, Igor Bryskin, and Adrian Farrel
for their useful comments. for their useful comments.
Thanks also to Question 14 of Study Group 15 of the ITU-T for their Thanks also to Question 14 of Study Group 15 of the ITU-T for their
thoughtful review. thoughtful review.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC3471] Berger, L., et. al. "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label [RFC3471] Berger, L., et. al. "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC
3471, January 2003. 3471, January 2003.
[RFC3945] Mannie, E., et. al. "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label [RFC3945] Mannie, E., et. al. "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching Architecture", RFC 3945, October 2004 Switching Architecture", RFC 3945, October 2004
[RFC4202] Kompella, K., Ed. and Y. Rekhter, Ed., "Routing [RFC4202] Kompella, K., Ed. and Y. Rekhter, Ed., "Routing
Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol
Label Switching", RFC4202, October 2005. Label Switching", RFC4202, October 2005.
[MLN-REQ] Shiomoto, K., Papadimitriou, D., Le Roux, J.L.,
Vigoureux, M., Brungard, D., "Requirements for GMPLS-
based multi-region and multi-layer networks", draft-
ietf-ccamp-gmpls-mln-reqs, work in progess.
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[RFC3473] Berger, L., et al. "GMPLS Singlaling RSVP-TE [RFC3473] Berger, L., et al. "GMPLS Signaling RSVP-TE
extensions", RFC3473, January 2003. extensions", RFC3473, January 2003.
[RFC4203] K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, "OSPF Extensions in
Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching", RFC4203, Oct. 2005.
[RFC4204] Lang, J., Ed., "The Link Management Protocol (LMP)", RFC
4204, September 2005.
[RFC4205] K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, "Intermediate System to
Intermediate System (IS-IS) Extensions in Support of
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC 4205,
October 2005.
[RFC4206] K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, "LSP hierarchy with [RFC4206] K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, "LSP hierarchy with
generalized MPLS TE", RFC4206, October 2005. generalized MPLS TE", RFC4206, October 2005.
[RFC4220] Dubuc, M., Nadeau, T., and Lang, J., "Traffic
Engineering Link Management Information Base", RFC 4220,
November 2005.
[RFC4655] Farrel, A., Vasseur, J.-P., Ash,J., "A PCE based [RFC4655] Farrel, A., Vasseur, J.-P., Ash,J., "A PCE based
Architecture", RFC4655, August 2006. Architecture", RFC4655, August 2006.
[RFC4802] Nadeau, T., Farrel, A., "GMPLS TE MIB", RFC4802, [RFC4802] Nadeau, T., Ed. and A. Farrel, Ed., "Generalized
Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Traffic
Engineering Management Information Base", RFC 4802,
February 2007. February 2007.
[RFC4803] Nadeau, T., Ed. and A. Farrel, Ed., "Generalized
Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Label Switching
Router (LSR) Management Information Base", RFC 4803,
February 2007.
[RFC4783] L. Berger, Ed., "GMPLS - Communication of Alarm
Information", RFC 4783, December 2006.
[RFC4872] Lang, Rekhter, Papadimitriou, "RSVP-TE Extensions in [RFC4872] Lang, Rekhter, Papadimitriou, "RSVP-TE Extensions in
support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (GMPLS)-based Recovery", RFC4872, May 2007. Switching (GMPLS)-based Recovery", RFC4872, May 2007.
[RFC4974] Papadimitriou, D., Farrel, A., et. al., "Generalized [RFC4974] Papadimitriou, D., Farrel, A., et. al., "Generalized
MPLS (GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions in support of MPLS (GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions in support of
Calls", RFC 4974, August 2007. Calls", RFC 4974, August 2007.
[ETH-OAM] Takacs, A., Gero, B., "GMPLS RSVP-TE Extensions to
Control Ethernet OAM", draft-takacs-ccamp-rsvp-te-eth-
oam-ext, work in progress.
[GMPLS-OAM] Nadeau, T., Otani, T. Brungard, D., and Farrel, A.,
"OAM Requirements for Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
(GMPLS) Networks", draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-oam-requirements, work in
progress.
[GR-SHUT] Ali, Z., Zamfir, A., "Graceful Shutdown in MPLS Traffic [GR-SHUT] Ali, Z., Zamfir, A., "Graceful Shutdown in MPLS Traffic
Engineering Network", draft-ietf-ccamp-mpls-graceful- Engineering Network", draft-ietf-ccamp-mpls-graceful-
shutdown, work in progress. shutdown, work in progress.
[MLN-REQ] Shiomoto, K., Papadimitriou, D., Le Roux, J.L., [HIER-BIS] Shiomoto, K., Rabbat, R., Ayyangar, A., Farrel, A., and
Vigoureux, M., Brungard, D., "Requirements for GMPLS- Ali, Z., "Procedures for Dynamically Signaled
based multi-region and multi-layer networks", draft- Hierarchical Label Switched Paths", draft-ietf-ccamp-
ietf-ccamp-gmpls-mln-reqs, work in progess. lsp-hierarchy-bis, work in progress.
[MPLS-SEC] Fang, et al. "Security Framework for MPLS and GMPLS [MPLS-SEC] Fang, et al. "Security Framework for MPLS and GMPLS
Networks draft-fang-mpls-gmpls-security-framework, work Networks draft-fang-mpls-gmpls-security-framework, work
in progress. in progress.
[PCE-INTER] Oki, E., Le Roux , J-L., and Farrel, A., "Framework for [PCE-INTER] Oki, E., Le Roux , J-L., and Farrel, A., "Framework for
PCE-Based Inter-Layer MPLS and GMPLS Traffic PCE-Based Inter-Layer MPLS and GMPLS Traffic
Engineering", draft-ietf-pce-inter-layer-frwk, work in Engineering", draft-ietf-pce-inter-layer-frwk, work in
progress. progress.
9. Editors' Addresses: [TED-MIB] Miyazawa, M., Otani, T., Kunaki, K. and Nadeau, T.,
"Traffic Engineering Database Management Information
Base in support of GMPLS", draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-ted-
mib, work in progress.
9. Editors' Addresses
Jean-Louis Le Roux Jean-Louis Le Roux
France Telecom France Telecom
2, avenue Pierre-Marzin 2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
22307 Lannion Cedex, France 22307 Lannion Cedex, France
Email: jeanlouis.leroux@orange-ftgroup.com Email: jeanlouis.leroux@orange-ftgroup.com
Dimitri Papadimitriou Dimitri Papadimitriou
Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent
Francis Wellensplein 1, Francis Wellensplein 1,
B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium
Email: dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel-lucent.be Email: dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel-lucent.be
10. Contributors' Addresses: 10. Contributors' Addresses
Deborah Brungard Deborah Brungard
AT&T AT&T
Rm. D1-3C22 - 200 S. Laurel Ave. Rm. D1-3C22 - 200 S. Laurel Ave.
Middletown, NJ, 07748 USA Middletown, NJ, 07748 USA
E-mail: dbrungard@att.com E-mail: dbrungard@att.com
Eiji Oki Eiji Oki
NTT NTT
3-9-11 Midori-Cho 3-9-11 Midori-Cho
skipping to change at page 16, line 24 skipping to change at page 23, line 18
on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE
IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY
WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE
ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Copyright Statement Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). This document is subject to the Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). This document is subject to the
rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as
set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
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