draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-overlay-05.txt   draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-overlay-06.txt 
Network Working Group G. Swallow
Internet Draft Cisco Systems, Inc
Category: Standards Track
Expiration Date: April 2005 J. Drake
Calient Networks, Inc
H. Ishimatsu
Japan Telecom
Y. Rekhter
Juniper Networks, Inc
October 2004
Generalize Multiprotocol Label Switching(GMPLS)
User-Network Interface (UNI):
Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support
for the Overlay Model
Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved.
Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) defines both
routing and signaling protocols for the creation of Label Switched
Paths (LSPs) in various switching technologies. These protocols can
be used to support a number of deployment scenarios. This memo
addresses the application of GMPLS to the overlay model.
1 Introduction ........................................... 3
1.1 GMPLS User-Network Interface (GMPLS UNI) ............... 4
2 Addressing ............................................. 5
3 ERO Processing ......................................... 6
3.1 Path Message without ERO ............................... 6
3.2 Path Message with ERO .................................. 6
3.3 Explicit Label Control ................................. 7
4 RRO Processing ......................................... 7
5 Notification ........................................... 7
6 Connection Deletion .................................... 8
6.1 Alarm-Free Connection Deletion ......................... 8
6.2 Connection Deletion with PathErr ....................... 8
7 VPN Connections ........................................ 9
8 Security Considerations ................................ 9
9 Acknowledgments ........................................ 9
10 References ............................................. 10
10.1 Normative References ................................... 10
10.2 Informational References ............................... 10
11 Authors' Addresses ..................................... 11
12 Intellectual Property Notice ........................... 11
13 Full Copyright Statement ............................... 12
1. Introduction
Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) defines both
routing and signaling protocols for the creation of Label Switched
Paths (LSPs) in various transport technologies. These protocols can
be used to support a number of deployment scenarios. In a peer
model, edge-nodes support both a routing and a signaling protocol.
The protocol interactions between an edge-node and a core node are
the same as between two core-nodes. In the overlay model, the
core-nodes act more as a closed system. The edge nodes do not
participate in the routing protocol instance that runs among the core
nodes; in particular, the edge nodes are unaware of the topology of
the core nodes. There may, however, be a routing protocol
interaction between a core node and an edge node for the exchange of
reachability information to other edge nodes.
Overlay Overlay
Network +----------------------------------+ Network
+---------+ | | +---------+
| +----+ | | +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ | | +----+ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| -+ EN +-+-----+--+ CN +----+ CN +----+ CN +---+-----+-+ EN +- |
| | | | +--+--| | | | | | | | | | |
| +----+ | | | +--+--+ +--+--+ +--+--+ | | +----+ |
| | | | | | | | | |
+---------+ | | | | | | +---------+
| | | | | |
+---------+ | | | | | | +---------+
| | | | +--+--+ | +--+--+ | | |
| +----+ | | | | | +-------+ | | | +----+ |
| | +-+--+ | | CN +---------------+ CN | | | | | |
| -+ EN +-+-----+--+ | | +---+-----+-+ EN +- |
| | | | | +-----+ +-----+ | | | | |
| +----+ | | | | +----+ |
| | +----------------------------------+ | |
+---------+ Core Network +---------+
Overlay Overlay
Network Network
Legend: EN - Edge Node
CN - Core Node
Figure 1: Overlay Reference Model
Figure 1 shows a reference network. The core network is represented
by the large box in the center. It contains five core-nodes marked
'CN'. The four boxes around the edge marked "Overlay Network"
represent four islands of a single overlay network. Only
the nodes of this network with TE links into the core network are
shown. These nodes are called edge-nodes; the terminology is in
respect to the core network, not the overlay network. Note that each
box marked "Overlay Network" could contain many other nodes. Such
nodes are not shown; they do not participate directly in the
signaling described in this document. Only the edge-nodes can signal
to set up links across the core to other edge-nodes.
How a link between edge-nodes is requested and triggered is out of
the scope of this document, as is precisely how that link is used by
the Overlay Network. One posibliity is that the edge-nodes will
inform the other nodes of the overlay network of the existence of the
link possibly using a forwarding adjacency as described in
[MPLS-HIER]. Note that this contrasts with a forwarding adjacency
that is provided by the core network as a link between core nodes.
In the overlay model there may be restrictions on what may be
signaled between an edge-node and a core-node. This memo addresses
the application of GMPLS to the overlay model. Specifically it
addresses RSVP-TE procedures between an edge-node and a core-node in
the overlay model. All signaling procedures are identical to the
GMPLS extensions specified in [RFC3473] except as noted in this
This document primarily addresses interactions between an edge-node
and it's adjacent (at the data plane) core-node - out-of-band and
non-adjacent signaling capablities may mean that signaling messages
are delivered on a longer path. Except where noted, the term
core-node refers to the node which is immediately adjacent to an
edge-node across a particular data plane interface. The term
core-nodes, however, refers to all nodes in the core.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Readers are assumed to be familiar with the terminology introduced in
[RFC3031], [GMPLS-ARCH] and [RFC3471].
1.1. GMPLS User-Network Interface (GMPLS UNI)
One can apply the GMPLS Overlay model at the User-Network Interface
(UNI) reference point defined in the Automatically Switched Optical
Network (ASON) [G.8080]. Consider the case where the 'Core Network'
in Figure 1 is a Service Provider network, and the Edge Nodes are
'user' devices. The interface between an EN and a CN is the UNI
reference point, and to support the ASON model, one must define
signaling across the UNI.
The extensions described in this memo provide mechanisms for UNI
signaling that are compatible with GMPLS signaling [RFC3471,
RFC3473]. Moreover, these mechanisms for UNI signaling are in line
with the RSVP model, namely, there is a single end-to-end RSVP
session for the user connection. The first and last hops constitute
the UNI, and the RSVP session carries the user parameters end-to-end.
This obviates the need to map (or carry) user parameters to (in) the
format expected by the network-to-network interface (NNI) used within
the Service Provider network. This in turn means that the UNI and
NNI can be independent of one another, which is a requirement of the
ASON architecture. However, in the case that the UNI and NNI are
both GMPLS RSVP-based, the methodology specified in this memo allows
for a single RSVP session to instantiate both UNI and NNI signaling,
if so desired, and if allowed by Service Provider policy.
2. Addressing
Addresses for edge-nodes in the overlay model are drawn from the same
address space as the edge-nodes use to address their adjacent
core-nodes. This may be the same address space as used by the
core-nodes to communicate among themselves or it may be a VPN space
supported by the core-nodes as an overlay.
To be more specific, an edge-node and its attached core-node must
share the same address space that is used by GMPLS to signal between
the edge-nodes across the core network. A set of <edge-node,
core-node> tuples share the same address space if the edge-nodes in
the set could establish LSPs (through the core-nodes) among
themselves without address mapping or translation (note that
edge-nodes in the set may be a subset of all the edge-nodes). The
address space used by the core-nodes to communicate among themselves
may, but need not be shared with the address space used by any of the
<edge-node, core-node> tuples.
When multiple overlay networks are supported by a single core network
one or more address spaces may be used according to privacy
requirements. This may be achieved without varying the core-node
addresses since it is the <edge-node, core-node> tuple that
constitues address space membership.
An edge-node is identified by either a single IP address representing
its Node-ID, or by one or more numbered TE links that connect the
edge-node to the core-nodes. Core-nodes are assumed to be ignorant
of any other addresses associated with an edge-node (i.e. addresses
which are not used in signaling connections through the GMPLS core).
An edge-node need only know its own address, an address of the
adjacent core-node, and know (or be able to resolve) the address of
any other edge-node to which it wishes to connect, as well as (of
course) the addresses used in the overlay network island of which
it is a part.
A core-node need only know (and track) the addresses on interfaces
between that core-node and its attached edge-nodes, as well as the
Node IDs of those edge-nodes. In addition, a core-node needs to know
the interface addresses and Node IDs of other edge-nodes to which an
attached edge-node is permitted to connect.
When forming a SENDER_TEMPLATE the ingress edge-node includes either
its Node-ID or the address of one of its numbered TE links. In the
latter case the connection will only be made over this interface.
When forming a SESSION_OBJECT, the ingress edge-node includes either
the Node-ID of the egress edge-device or the address of one of the
egress' numbered TE links. In the latter case the connection will
only be made over this interface. The Extended_Tunnel_ID of the
SESSION Object is set to either zero or to an address of the ingress
Links may be either numbered or unnumbered. Further, links may be
bundled or unbundled. See [GMPLS-ARCH], [RFC3471], [BUNDLE], and
3. ERO Processing
An edge-node MAY include an ERO. A core-node MAY reject a Path
message that contains an ERO. Such behavior is controlled by
(hopefully consistent) configuration. If a core-node rejects a Path
message due to the presence of an ERO it SHOULD return an PathErr
message with an error code of "Unknown object class" toward the
sender as described in [RFC3209]. This causes the path setup to fail.
Further a core-node MAY accept EROs which only include the ingress
edge-node, the ingress core-node, the egress core-node and the egress
edge-node. This is to support explicit label control on the
edge-node interface, see below. If a core-node rejects a Path
message due to the presence of an ERO not of the permitted format it
SHOULD return an PathErr message with an error code of Bad Explicit
Route Object as defined in [RFC3209].
3.1. Path Message without ERO
When a core-node receives a Path message from an edge-node that
contains no ERO, it MUST calculate a route to the destination and
include that route in a ERO, before forwarding the PATH message. One
exception would be if the egress edge-node were also adjacent to this
core-node. If no route can be found, the core-node SHOULD return a
PathErr message with an error code and value of 24,5 - "No route
available toward destination".
3.2. Path Message with ERO
When a core-node receives a Path message from an edge-node that This Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-overlay-05.txt, was published as a Proposed Standard, RFC 4208
contains an ERO, it SHOULD verify the route against its topology (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4208.txt), on 2005-10-28.
database before forwarding the PATH message. If the route is not
viable (according to topology, currently available resources, or
local policy), then a PathErr message with an error code and value of
24,5 - "No route available toward destination" should be returned.
3.3. Explicit Label Control
In order to support explicit label control and full identification of
the egress link an ingress edge-node may include this information in
the ERO that it passes to its neighboring core-node. In the case that
no other ERO is supplied, this explicit control information is
provided as the only hop of the ERO and is encoded by setting the
first subobject of the ERO to the node-ID of the egress core-node
with the L-bit set; following this subobject are all other subobjects
necessary to identify the link and labels as they would normally
The same rules apply to the presence of the explicit control
subobjects as the last hop in the ERO if a fuller ERO is supplied by
the ingress edge-node to its neighbor core-node, but in this case the
L-bit MAY be clear.
This process is described in [RFC3473] and [EXPLICIT].
4. RRO Processing
An edge-node MAY include an RRO. A core-node MAY remove the RRO from
the Path message before forwarding it. Further the core-node may
remove the RRO from a Resv message before forwarding it to the
edge-node. Such behavior is controlled by (hopefully consistent)
Further a core-node MAY edit the RRO in a Resv message such that it
includes only the subobjects from the egress core-node through the
egress edge-node. This is to allow the ingress node to be aware of
the selected link and labels on at the far end of the connection.
5. Notification
An edge-node MAY include a NOTIFY_REQUEST object in both the Path and
Resv messages it generates. Core-nodes may send Notify
messages to edge-nodes which have included the NOTIFY_REQUEST object.
A core-node MAY remove a NOTIFY_REQUEST object from a Path or Resv
message received from an edge-node before forwarding it.
If no NOTIFY_REQUEST object is present in the Path or Resv received
from an edge-node, the core-node adjacent to the edge-node may
include a NOTIFY_REQUEST object and set its value to its own address.
In either of the above cases, the core-node SHOULD NOT send Notify
messages to the edge-node.
When a core-node receives a NOTIFY_REQUEST object from an edge-node,
it MAY update the Notify Node Address with its own address before
forwarding it. In this case, when Notify messages are received, they
MAY be selectively (based on local policy) forwarded to the
6. Connection Deletion
6.1. Alarm-Free Connection Deletion
RSVP-TE currently deletes connections using either a single pass
PathTear message, or a ResvTear and PathTear message combination.
Upon receipt of the PathTear message, a node deletes the connection
state and forwards the message. In optical networks, however, it is
possible that the deletion of a connection (e.g., removal of the
cross-connect) in a node may cause the connection to be perceived as
failed in downstream nodes (e.g., loss of frame, loss of light,
etc.). This may in turn lead to management alarms and perhaps the
triggering of restoration/protection for the connection.
To address this issue, the graceful connection deletion procedure
SHOULD be followed. Under this procedure, an ADMIN_STATUS object MUST
be sent in Path or Resv message along the connection's path to inform
all nodes enroute of the intended deletion, prior to the actual
deletion of the connection. The procedure is described in [RFC3473].
An ingress core-node receiving a PathTear without having first seen
an ADMIN_STATUS object informing it that the connection is about to
be deleted MAY pause the PathTear and first send a Path message with
an ADMIN_STATUS object to inform all downstream LSRs that the
connection is about to be deleted. When the Resv is received echoing
the ADMIN_STATUS or using a timer as described in [RFC3473], the
ingress core-node MUST forward the PathTear.
6.2. Connection Deletion with PathErr
[RFC3473] introduces the Path_State_Removed flag to a PathErr message
to indicate that the sender has removed all state associated with the
LSP and does not need to see a PathTear. A core-node next to an
edge-node MAY map between teardown using ResvTear/PathTear and
PathErr with Path_state_Removed.
A core-node next to an edge-node receiving a ResvTear from its
downstream neighbor MAY respond with a PathTear and send a PathErr
with Path_State_Removed further upstream.
Note, however, that a core-node next to an edge-node receiving a
PathErr with Path_State_Removed from its downstream neighbor MUST NOT
retain Path state and send a ResvTear further upstream since that
would imply that Path state further downstream had also been
7. VPN Connections
As stated in the addressing section above, the extensions in this
document are designed to be compatible with the support of VPNs.
Since the core network may be some technology other than GMPLS, no
mandatory means of mapping core connections to access connections is
specified. However, when GMPLS is used for the core network, it is
RECOMMENDED that the following procedure based on [LSP-HIER] is
The VPN connection is modeled as being three hops. One for each
access link and one hop across the core network.
The VPN connection is established using a two step procedure. When a
Path message is received at a core node on an interface which is part
of a VPN, the Path message is held until a core connection is
The connection across the core is setup as a separate signaling
exchange between the core nodes, using the address space of the core
nodes. While this exchange is in progress, the original Path message
is held at the ingress core node. Once the exchange for the core
connection is complete, this connection is used in the VPN connection
as if it were a single link. This is signaled by including an IF_ID
RSVP_HOP object (defined in [RFC3473]) using the procedures defined
in [LSP-HIER].
The original Path message is then forwarded within the VPN addressing
realm to the core node attached to the destination edge node. Many
ways of accomplishing this are available, including IP and GRE
tunnels and BGP/MPLS VPNs. Specifying a particular means is beyond
the scope of this document.
8. Security Considerations
This draft imposes no new security risks over [RFC3473]. In fact it
represents a lower trust model between the core and edge-nodes as the
core is permitted to hide its topology from the edge-nodes. The core
is also permitted to restrict the actions of edge-nodes by filtering
out specific RSVP objects.
9. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Kireeti Kompella, Jonathan Lang,
Dimitri Papadimitriou, Dimitrios Pendarakis, Bala Rajagopalan, and
Adrian Farrel for their comments and input. Thanks for thorough final
reviews from Loa Andersson and Dimitri Papadimitriou.
Adrian Farrel edited the last two revisions of this document to
incorporate comments from Working Group last call and from AD review.
10. References
10.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels," RFC 2119.
[RFC3471] Berger, L., "Generalized MPLS Signaling Functional
Description", RFC 3471, January 2003.
[RFC3473] Berger, L., "Generalized MPLS Signaling RSVP-TE
Extensions", RFC 3473, January 2003.
[RFC3209] Awduche, et al, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for
LSP Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001.
[RFC3667] Bradner, S., "IETF Rights in Contributions", BCP 78,
RFC 3667, February 2004.
[RFC3668] Bradner, S., Ed., "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF
Technology", BCP 79, RFC 3668, February 2004.
10.2. Informational References
[RFC3031] Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A. and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, January 2001.
[RFC3477] Kompella, K., and Rekhter, Y., "Signaling Unnumbered
Links in RSVP-TE", RFC 3477, January 2003.
[BUNDLE] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., and Berger, L., "Link
Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering",
draft-ietf-mpls-bundle-04.txt, July 2002, work in
[EXPLICIT] Berger, L., "GMPLS Signaling Procedure For Egress
Control", draft-ccamp-gmpls-egress-control-02.txt,
May 2004, work in progress.
[GMPLS-ARCH] Mannie, E, et al., "Generalized Multi-Protocol
Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture",
draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architecture-07.txt, May 2003,
work in progress.
[MPLS-HIER] Kompella, K., and Rekhter, Y., "LSP Hierarchy with
MPLS TE", draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-hierarchy-08.txt,
September 2001, work in progress.
[G.8080] ITU-T Rec. G.8080/Y.1304, "Architecture for the
Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON),"
November 2001 (and Revision, January 2003).
For information on the availability of this document,
please see http://www.itu.int.
11. Authors' Addresses
John Drake
Calient Networks
5853 Rue Ferrari
San Jose, CA 95138
Phone: +1 408 972 3720
Email: jdrake@calient.net
Hirokazu Ishimatsu
Japan Telecom Co., Ltd.
2-9-1 Hatchobori, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0032, Japan
Tel: +81 3 5540 8493
Email: hirokazu.ishimatsu@japan-telecom.co.jp
Yakov Rekhter
Juniper Networks, Inc.
Email: yakov@juniper.net
George Swallow
Cisco Systems, Inc.
1414 Massachusetts Ave,
Boxborough, MA 01719
Phone: +1 978 936 1398
Email: swallow@cisco.com
12. Intellectual Property Notice
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Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed
to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology
described in this document or the extent to which any license
under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it
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The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention
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to implement this standard. Please address the information to the
IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org.
13. Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). This document is
subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP
78, and except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their
This document and the information contained herein are provided
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