draft-ietf-ccamp-rsvp-te-mpls-tp-oam-ext-00.txt   draft-ietf-ccamp-rsvp-te-mpls-tp-oam-ext-01.txt 
CCAMP Working Group E. Bellagamba, Ed. CCAMP Working Group E. Bellagamba, Ed.
Internet-Draft L. Andersson, Ed. Internet-Draft L. Andersson, Ed.
Intended status: Standards Track Ericsson Intended status: Standards Track Ericsson
Expires: September 2, 2010 P. Skoldstrom, Ed. Expires: September 6, 2010 P. Skoldstrom, Ed.
Acreo AB Acreo AB
March 1, 2010 D. Ward
Juniper
March 5, 2010
RSVP-TE Extensions for MPLS-TP OAM Configuration Configuration of pro-active MPLS-TP Operations, Administration, and
draft-ietf-ccamp-rsvp-te-mpls-tp-oam-ext-00 Maintenance (OAM) Functions Using RSVP-TE or LSP Ping
draft-ietf-ccamp-rsvp-te-mpls-tp-oam-ext-01
Abstract Abstract
This specification is complementary to the GMPLS OAM Configuration This specification describes the configuration of pro-active MPLS-TP
Framework [OAM-CONF-FWK] and describes technology specific aspects Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) Functions for a
for the configuration of pro-active MPLS Operations, Administration given LSP using a common set of TLVs that is carried on either
and Maintenance (OAM) functions. RSVP-TE or LSP Ping.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Drafts. Drafts.
skipping to change at page 1, line 41 skipping to change at page 1, line 44
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 2, 2010. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2010.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Contributing Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Contributing Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Overview of BFD OAM operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3. Overview of BFD OAM operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Overview of MPLS OAM for Transport Applications . . . . . . . 4 2. Overview of MPLS OAM for Transport Applications . . . . . . . 4
3. RSVP-TE Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Theory of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. MPLS OAM Configuration Operation Overview . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. MPLS OAM Configuration Operation Overview . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. OAM Configuration TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. OAM Configuration TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. BFD Configuration TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. BFD Configuration TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.1. Local Discriminator sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3.1. Local Discriminator sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.2. Negotiation Timer Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3.2. Negotiation Timer Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4. MPLS OAM PM Loss TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4. MPLS OAM PM Loss TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5. MPLS OAM PM Delay TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.5. MPLS OAM PM Delay TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.6. MPLS OAM FMS TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.6. MPLS OAM FMS TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.7. MPLS OAM SOURCE MEP-ID TLV for LSP Ping . . . . . . . . . 14
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. BFD OAM configuration errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. BFD OAM configuration errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix A. Additional Stuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Appendix A. Additional Stuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines the technology specific extensions of RSVP-TE This document describes the configuration of pro-active MPLS-TP
for the configuration of pro-active MPLS Operations, Administration Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) Functions for a
and Maintenance (OAM) functions. In particular it specifies given LSP using a common set of TLVs carried on either RSVP-TE
extensions to establish MPLS OAM entities monitoring a signaled LSP, [RFC3209] or LSP Ping [BFD-Ping]. In particular it specifies the
and defines information elements and procedures to configure pro- mechanisms necessary to establish MPLS-TP OAM entities monitoring an
LSP and defines information elements and procedures to configure pro-
active MPLS OAM functions. Initialization and control of on-demand active MPLS OAM functions. Initialization and control of on-demand
MPLS OAM functions are expected to be carried out by directly MPLS OAM functions are expected to be carried out by directly
accessing network nodes via a management interface; hence accessing network nodes via a management interface; hence
configuration and control of on-demand OAM functions are out-of-scope configuration and control of on-demand OAM functions are out-of-scope
of this document. for this document.
Because the Transport Profile of MPLS, by definition [RFC5654], must
be capable of operating without a control plane, there are two
options for in-band OAM: by using an NMS or by using LSP-Ping if a
control plane is not instantiated.
Pro-active MPLS OAM is based on the Bidirectional Forwarding Pro-active MPLS OAM is based on the Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection (BFD) protocol [BFD]. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection Detection (BFD) protocol [BFD]. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
(BFD), as described in [BFD], defines a protocol that provides low- (BFD), as described in [BFD], defines a protocol that provides low-
overhead, short-duration detection of failures in the path between overhead, short-duration detection of failures in the path between
two forwarding engines, including the interfaces, data link(s), and two forwarding engines, including the interfaces, data link(s), and
to the extent possible the forwarding engines themselves. BFD can be to the extent possible the forwarding engines themselves. BFD can be
used to track the liveliness of MPLS-TP point-to-point and p2mp used to track the liveliness and detect data plane failures of
connections and detect data plane failures. MPLS-TP point-to-point and might also be extended to p2mp
connections.
MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) describes a profile of MPLS that MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) describes a profile of MPLS that
enables operational models typical in transport networks, while enables operational models typical in transport networks, while
providing additional OAM, survivability and other maintenance providing additional OAM, survivability and other maintenance
functions not currently supported by MPLS. [MPLS-TP-OAM-REQ] defines functions not currently supported by MPLS. [MPLS-TP-OAM-REQ] defines
the requirements by which the OAM functionality of MPLS-TP should the requirements for the OAM functionality of MPLS-TP.
abide.
BFD has been chosen to be the basis of pro-active MPLS-TP OAM BFD has been chosen to be the basis of pro-active MPLS-TP OAM
functions. MPLS OAM extensions for transport applications, which are functions. MPLS-TP OAM extensions for transport applications, for
relevant for this document, are specified in [BFD-CCCV], [MPLS-PM] which this document specifies the configuration, are specified in
and [MPLS-FMS]. [BFD-CCCV], [MPLS-PM], and [MPLS-FMS].
1.1. Contributing Authors 1.1. Contributing Authors
The editors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Attila Takacs The editors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of John Drake,
and Benoit Tremblay. Attila Takacs and Benoit Tremblay.
1.2. Requirements Language 1.2. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
1.3. Overview of BFD OAM operation 1.3. Overview of BFD OAM operation
BFD is a simple hello protocol that in many respects is similar to BFD is a simple hello protocol that in many respects is similar to
skipping to change at page 5, line 14 skipping to change at page 5, line 20
[MPLS-PM] specifies mechanisms for performance monitoring of LSPs, in [MPLS-PM] specifies mechanisms for performance monitoring of LSPs, in
particular it specifies loss and delay measurement OAM functions. particular it specifies loss and delay measurement OAM functions.
[MPLS-FMS] specifies fault management signals with which a server LSP [MPLS-FMS] specifies fault management signals with which a server LSP
can notify client LSPs about various fault conditions to suppress can notify client LSPs about various fault conditions to suppress
alarms or to be used as triggers for actions in the client LSPs. The alarms or to be used as triggers for actions in the client LSPs. The
following signals are defined: Alarm Indication Signal (AIS), Link following signals are defined: Alarm Indication Signal (AIS), Link
Down Indication (LDI) and Locked Report (LKR). To indicate client Down Indication (LDI) and Locked Report (LKR). To indicate client
faults associated with the attachment circuits Client Signal Failure faults associated with the attachment circuits Client Signal Failure
Indication (CSF) can be used. CSF is described in [MPLS-TP-OAM-FWK]. Indication (CSF) can be used. CSF is described in [MPLS-TP-OAM-FWK]
and in the context of this document is for further study.
[MPLS-TP-OAM-FWK] describes the mapping of fault conditions to [MPLS-TP-OAM-FWK] describes the mapping of fault conditions to
consequent actions. Some of these mappings may be configured by the consequent actions. Some of these mappings may be configured by the
operator, depending on the application of the LSP. The following operator, depending on the application of the LSP. The following
defects are identified: Loss Of Continuity (LOC), Misconnectivity, defects are identified: Loss Of Continuity (LOC), Misconnectivity,
MEP Misconfiguration and Period Misconfiguration. Out of these MEP Misconfiguration and Period Misconfiguration. Out of these
defect conditions, the following consequent actions may be defect conditions, the following consequent actions may be
configurable: 1) whether or not the LOC defect should result in configurable: 1) whether or not the LOC defect should result in
blocking the outgoing data traffic; 2) whether or not the "Period blocking the outgoing data traffic; 2) whether or not the "Period
Misconfiguration defect" should result a signal fail condition. Misconfiguration defect" should result a signal fail condition.
3. RSVP-TE Extensions 3. Theory of Operations
3.1. MPLS OAM Configuration Operation Overview 3.1. MPLS OAM Configuration Operation Overview
RSVP-TE can be used to simply establish (i.e., bootstrap) a BFD RSVP-TE or LSP Ping can be used to simply establish (i.e., bootstrap)
session or it can configure, at different level of details, all pro- a BFD session or it can selectively enable and configure all pro-
active MPLS OAM functions. When RSVP-TE is used to configure BFD, active MPLS OAM functions. For this specification, BFD MUST be run
BFD MUST be run in asynchronous mode and both sides should be in in asynchronous mode and both sides should be in active mode.
active mode.
In the simplest scenario RSVP-TE signaling is used only to bootstrap In the simplest scenario RSVP-TE or LSP Ping is used only to
the BFD session. In this case in the Path message the OAM Type in bootstrap the BFD session. In this case the initiating node includes
the "OAM Configuration TLV" is set to "MPLS OAM". Only the "CC" OAM an 'OAM Configuration TLV' in the message it sends to the receiving
Function flag is set in the "OAM Configuration TLV" and a "BFD node at the other end of the LSP. The OAM Type in the 'OAM
Configuration sub-TLV" is inserted in the "OAM Configuration TLV", Configuration TLV' is set to 'MPLS OAM', the CC OAM Function flag is
carrying a "Local Discriminator sub-TLV" with the discriminator value set, and a 'BFD Configuration sub-TLV' is included. The sub-TLV
selected locally for the BFD session of the signaled LSP. The N bit carries a 'Local Discriminator sub-TLV' with the discriminator value
MUST be set to enable timer negotiation/re-negotiation via BFD selected by the initiating node for the BFD session associated with
Control Messages. The receiving node MUST use the Local the LSP. The N flag in the 'BFD Configuration sub-TLV' MUST be set
Discriminator value received in the Path message to identify the to enable timer negotiation/re-negotiation via BFD Control Messages.
remote end of the BFD session, select a local discriminator value and
MUST start sending BFD Control Messages after it sent the Resv
message. The Resv message MUST include the LSP_ATTRIBUTES Object
reflecting back the contents of the "OAM Configuration TLV", except
that the "Local Discriminator sub-TLV" MUST carry the discriminator
value used by the sender of the Resv message. Timer negotiation is
left to subsequent BFD control messages. This operation is similar
to LSP Ping based bootstrapping described in [BFD-MPLS].
For detailed MPLS OAM configuration RSVP-TE can be used to configure The receiving node MUST use the Local Discriminator value it receives
all parameters of pro-active MPLS OAM mechanisms. If "CC mode" OAM to identify the remote end of the BFD session. The receiving node
is to be established, the OAM Type in the "OAM Configuration TLV" is must send a message to the initiating node that includes an 'OAM
set to MPLS OAM, only the "CC" OAM Function flag is set in the "OAM Configuration TLV' containing the same values as it received, except
Configuration TLV" and the "BFD Configuration TLV" is inserted in the for the 'Local Discriminator sub-TLV', which contains the local
"OAM Configuration TLV". The "Local Discriminator sub-TLV" is used discriminator value selected by the receiving node for the BFD
as described above. Timer negotiation in this case is done via the session.
RSVP-TE control plane, hence the N bit MUST be cleared to disable
timer negotiation/re-negotiation via BFD Control Messages. The
"Timer Negotiation Parameters sub-TLV" MUST be present in the "BFD
configuration TLV" to specify the acceptable interval for the BFD CC
messages.
When timer negotiation is done via the RSVP-TE control plane, two Timer negotiation is performed in subsequent BFD control messages.
configuration options are available: symmetric and asymmetric This operation is similar to LSP Ping based bootstrapping described
configuration. If symmetric configuration is required, S flag in in [BFD-MPLS].
"BFD configuration TLV" MUST be set. If the flag is cleared, the
configuration is completed asymmetrically in the two directions. If timer negotiation is to be done using the TLVs defined in this
Section 3.3.2 includes a detailed explanation of such configuration. document rather than with BFD Control Messages, the N flag MUST be
cleared and a 'Timer Negotiation Parameters sub-TLV' MUST be present
in the 'BFD Configuration sub-TLV'. In this case, there are two
configuration options, symmetric and asymmetric. If symmetric
configuration is used, the S flag in 'BFD Configuration sub-TLV' MUST
be set. If the flag is cleared, the configuration is completed
asymmetrically in the two directions. Section 3.3.2 includes a
detailed explanation of such configuration.
In the case of the "CV/CC mode" OAM [BFD-CCCV], the "CV" flag MUST be In the case of the "CV/CC mode" OAM [BFD-CCCV], the "CV" flag MUST be
set in addition to the CC flag in the "OAM Configuration TLV". The set in addition to the CC flag in the "OAM Configuration TLV". The
information required to support this functionality is defined in information required to support this functionality is defined in
[MPLS-TP-IDENTIF] and can be found respectively in the SESSION and [MPLS-TP-IDENTIF]. If RSVP-TE is used, this information is found
SENDER_TEMPLATE object with no need of further sub-TLV as described respectively in the SESSION and SENDER_TEMPLATE object with no need
in section 3.2. of further sub-TLV as described in section 3.2. In case of LSP Ping
configuration this information is supplied by an additional sub-TLV
as described in section 3.2.
Additional OAM functions can be requested by setting the PM/Loss and Additional OAM functions can be requested by setting the PM/Loss and
PM/Delay OAM Function flags in the "OAM Configuration TLV". If these PM/Delay OAM Function flags in the "OAM Configuration TLV". If these
flags are set, corresponding sub-TLVs may be included in the "OAM flags are set, corresponding sub-TLVs may be included in the "OAM
Configuration TLV". Configuration TLV".
If Fault Management Signals [MPLS-FMS] are required, the Fault If Fault Management Signals [MPLS-FMS] are required, the Fault
Management Signals (FMS) OAM Function flag needs to be set in the Management Signals (FMS) OAM Function is set in the 'OAM
"OAM Configuration TLV". If this flag is set, an additional "FMS Configuration TLV'. If this flag is set, the corresponding sub-TLV
sub-TLV" may be included in the OAM Configuration TLV. may be included in the 'OAM Configuration TLV'.
3.2. OAM Configuration TLV 3.2. OAM Configuration TLV
Below is specified the "OAM Configuration TLV", defined in [OAM-CONF- The "OAM Configuration TLV" is depicted in the following figure. It
FWK]. It specifies which OAM technology/method should be used for specifies the OAM functions that are to be used for the subject LSP
the LSP. The "OAM Configuration TLV" is carried in the and it is defined in [OAM-CONF-FWK]. For RSVP-TE, the "OAM
LSP_ATTRIBUTES object in Path messages. Configuration TLV" is carried in the LSP_ATTRIBUTES object in Path
and Resv messages.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type (2) (IANA) | Length | | Type (2) (IANA) | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| OAM Type | Reserved | | OAM Type | Reserved |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
~ sub-TLVs ~ ~ sub-TLVs ~
skipping to change at page 7, line 25 skipping to change at page 7, line 25
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: indicates the "OAM Configuration TLV" (2) (IANA to assign). Type: indicates the "OAM Configuration TLV" (2) (IANA to assign).
OAM Type: one octet that specifies the technology specific OAM Type. OAM Type: one octet that specifies the technology specific OAM Type.
If the requested OAM Type is not supported, an error must be If the requested OAM Type is not supported, an error must be
generated: "OAM Problem/Unsupported OAM Type". generated: "OAM Problem/Unsupported OAM Type".
This document defines a new OAM Type: "MPLS OAM" (suggested value 2, This document defines a new OAM Type: "MPLS OAM" (suggested value 2,
IANA to assign) from the "RSVP-TE OAM Configuration Registry". The IANA to assign) from the "RSVP-TE OAM Configuration Registry". The
"MPLS OAM" type is to be set in the "OAM Configuration TLV" [OAM- "MPLS OAM" type is set to request the establishment of OAM functions
CONF-FWK] to request the establishment of OAM entities for MPLS LSPs. for MPLS-TP LSPs. The specific OAM functions are specified in the
"Function Flags" sub-TLV as depicted in [OAM-CONF-FWK].
The receiving LER when the MPLS-TP OAM Type is requested should check The receiving edge LSR when the MPLS-TP OAM Type is requested should
which OAM Function Flags are set in the "Function Flags TLV" and look check which OAM Function Flags are set in the "Function Flags TLV"
for the corresponding technology specific configuration TLV. and look for the corresponding technology specific configuration TLV.
This document specifies the following sub-TLVs to be carried in the Additional corresponding sub-TLVs are as follows:
"OAM Configuration TLV" for MPLS OAM configuration.
- "BFD Configuration sub-TLV", which MUST be included if the CC - "BFD Configuration sub-TLV", which MUST be included if the CC
OAM Function flag is set. This sub-TLV MUST carry a "BFD Local OAM Function flag is set. This sub-TLV MUST carry a "BFD Local
Discriminator sub-TLV" and a "Timer Negotiation Parameters sub- Discriminator sub-TLV" and a "Timer Negotiation Parameters sub-
TLV" if the N flag is cleared. TLV" if the N flag is cleared.
- "MPLS OAM PM Loss sub-TLV", which MAY be included if the PM/Loss - "MPLS OAM PM Loss sub-TLV", which MAY be included if the PM/Loss
OAM Function flag is set. If the "MPLS OAM PM Loss sub-TLV" is OAM Function flag is set. If the "MPLS OAM PM Loss sub-TLV" is
not included, default configuration values are used. not included, default configuration values are used.
- "MPLS OAM PM Delay sub-TLV", which MAY be included if the PM/ - "MPLS OAM PM Delay sub-TLV", which MAY be included if the PM/
Delay OAM Function flag is set. If the "MPLS OAM PM Delay sub- Delay OAM Function flag is set. If the "MPLS OAM PM Delay sub-
TLV" is not included, default configuration values are used. TLV" is not included, default configuration values are used.
- "MPLS OAM FMS sub-TLV", which MAY be included if the FMS OAM - "MPLS OAM FMS sub-TLV", which MAY be included if the FMS OAM
Function flag is set. If the "MPLS OAM FMS sub-TLV" is not Function flag is set. If the "MPLS OAM FMS sub-TLV" is not
included, default configuration values are used. included, default configuration values are used.
- "Unique MEP-ID of Source", which MUST be included in case the
configuration is done with LSP Ping and CV flag is set.
Moreover, if the CV flag is set, the CC flag MUST be set at the same Moreover, if the CV flag is set, the CC flag MUST be set at the same
time. The format of an MPLS-TP CV/CC message is shown in [BFD-CCCV] time. The format of an MPLS-TP CV/CC message is shown in [BFD-CCCV]
and it requires, together with the BFD control packet information, and it requires, together with the BFD control packet information,
the "Unique MEP-ID of source of BFD packet". [MPLS-TP-IDENTIF] the "Unique MEP-ID of source of BFD packet". [MPLS-TP-IDENTIF]
defines the composition of such identifier as: defines the composition of such identifier as:
<"Unique MEP-ID of source of BFD packet"> ::= <"Unique MEP-ID of source of BFD packet"> ::=
<src_node_id><src_tunnel_num><lsp_num> <src_node_id><src_tunnel_num><lsp_num>
GMPLS signaling [RFC 3473] uses a 5-tuple to uniquely identify an LSP GMPLS signaling [RFC 3473] uses a 5-tuple to uniquely identify an LSP
skipping to change at page 8, line 35 skipping to change at page 8, line 38
- LSP ID = LSP_Num - LSP ID = LSP_Num
"Tunnel ID" and "Tunnel Sender Address" are included in the "SESSION" "Tunnel ID" and "Tunnel Sender Address" are included in the "SESSION"
object [RFC 3209], which is mandatory in both Path and Resv messages. object [RFC 3209], which is mandatory in both Path and Resv messages.
"LSP ID" will be the same on both directions and it is included in "LSP ID" will be the same on both directions and it is included in
the "SENDER_TEMPLATE" object [RFC 3209] which is mandatory in Path the "SENDER_TEMPLATE" object [RFC 3209] which is mandatory in Path
messages. messages.
In case the configuration is done via LSP Ping the "Unique MEP-ID of
Source" is needed to supply this information.
[Author's note: the same "Unique MEP-ID of source" will be likely [Author's note: the same "Unique MEP-ID of source" will be likely
required for Performance monitoring purposes. However for the moment required for Performance monitoring purposes. However for the moment
in [MPLS-PM] it is stated: "The question of ACH TLV usage and the in [MPLS-PM] it is stated: "The question of ACH TLV usage and the
manner of supporting metadata such as authentication keys and node manner of supporting metadata such as authentication keys and node
identifiers is deliberately omitted. These issues will be addressed identifiers is deliberately omitted. These issues will be addressed
in a future version of the document."] in a future version of the document."]
3.3. BFD Configuration TLV 3.3. BFD Configuration TLV
The "BFD Configuration TLV" (depicted below) is defined for BFD OAM The "BFD Configuration TLV" (depicted below) is defined for BFD OAM
specific configuration parameters. The "BFD Configuration TLV" is specific configuration parameters. The "BFD Configuration TLV" is
carried as a sub-TLV of the "OAM Configuration TLV" in the carried as a sub-TLV of the "OAM Configuration TLV".
LSP_ATTRIBUTES object both in Path and Resv messages.
This new TLV accommodates generic BFD OAM information and carries This new TLV accommodates generic BFD OAM information and carries
sub-TLVs. sub-TLVs.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type (3) (IANA) | Length | | Type (3) (IANA) | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Vers.| PHB |N|S| Reserved (set to all 0s) | |Vers.| PHB |N|S| Reserved (set to all 0s) |
skipping to change at page 9, line 47 skipping to change at page 10, line 4
- "Negotiation Timer Parameters sub-TLV" if N flag is cleared. - "Negotiation Timer Parameters sub-TLV" if N flag is cleared.
The "BFD Configuration TLV" MUST include the following sub-TLVs in The "BFD Configuration TLV" MUST include the following sub-TLVs in
the Resv message: the Resv message:
- "Local Discriminator sub-TLV;" - "Local Discriminator sub-TLV;"
- "Negotiation Timer Parameters sub-TLV" if: - "Negotiation Timer Parameters sub-TLV" if:
- N flag and S are cleared - N flag and S are cleared
- N flag is cleared and S flag is set and a timing value higher - N flag is cleared and S flag is set and a timing value higher
than the one received needs to be used than the one received needs to be used
3.3.1. Local Discriminator sub-TLV 3.3.1. Local Discriminator sub-TLV
The "Local Discriminator sub-TLV" is carried as a sub-TLV of the BFD The "Local Discriminator sub-TLV" is carried as a sub-TLV of the BFD
Configuration sub-TLV in both Path and Resv messages. It is depicted Configuration sub-TLV. It is depicted below.
below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type (1) (IANA) | Length = 8 | | Type (1) (IANA) | Length = 8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Local Discriminator | | Local Discriminator |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: indicates a new type, the Local Discriminator sub TLV (1) (IANA Type: indicates a new type, the Local Discriminator sub TLV (1) (IANA
skipping to change at page 11, line 9 skipping to change at page 11, line 11
Type: indicates a new type, the "Negotiation Timer Parameters sub- Type: indicates a new type, the "Negotiation Timer Parameters sub-
TLV" (IANA to define). TLV" (IANA to define).
Length: indicates the TLV total length in octets. Length: indicates the TLV total length in octets.
Acceptable Min. Asynchronous TX interval: in case of S (symmetric) Acceptable Min. Asynchronous TX interval: in case of S (symmetric)
flag set in the "BFD Configuration" TLV, it expresses the desired flag set in the "BFD Configuration" TLV, it expresses the desired
time interval (in microseconds) at which the LER initiating the time interval (in microseconds) at which the LER initiating the
signaling intends to both transmit and receive BFD periodic control signaling intends to both transmit and receive BFD periodic control
packets. If the receiving LER can not support such value, it is packets. If the receiving edge LSR can not support such value, it is
allowed to reply back with an interval greater than the one proposed. allowed to reply back with an interval greater than the one proposed.
In case of S (symmetric) flag cleared in the "BFD Configuration TLV", In case of S (symmetric) flag cleared in the "BFD Configuration TLV",
this field expresses the desired time interval (in microseconds) at this field expresses the desired time interval (in microseconds) at
which a LER intends to transmit BFD periodic control packets in its which a edge LSR intends to transmit BFD periodic control packets in
transmitting direction. its transmitting direction.
Acceptable Min. Asynchronous RX interval: in case of S (symmetric) Acceptable Min. Asynchronous RX interval: in case of S (symmetric)
flag set in the "BFD Configuration TLV", this field MUST be equal to flag set in the "BFD Configuration TLV", this field MUST be equal to
"Acceptable Min. Asynchronous TX interval" and has no additional "Acceptable Min. Asynchronous TX interval" and has no additional
meaning respect to the one described for "Acceptable Min. meaning respect to the one described for "Acceptable Min.
Asynchronous TX interval". Asynchronous TX interval".
In case of S (symmetric) flag cleared in the "BFD Configuration TLV", In case of S (symmetric) flag cleared in the "BFD Configuration TLV",
it expresses the minimum time interval (in microseconds) at which it expresses the minimum time interval (in microseconds) at which
LERs can receive BFD periodic control packets. In case this value is edge LSRs can receive BFD periodic control packets. In case this
greater than the "Acceptable Min. Asynchronous TX interval" received value is greater than the "Acceptable Min. Asynchronous TX interval"
from the other LER, such LER MUST adopt the interval expressed in received from the other edge LSR, such edge LSR MUST adopt the
this "Acceptable Min. Asynchronous RX interval". interval expressed in this "Acceptable Min. Asynchronous RX
interval".
Required Echo TX Interval: the minimum interval, in microseconds, Required Echo TX Interval: the minimum interval, in microseconds,
between received BFD Echo packets that this system is capable of between received BFD Echo packets that this system is capable of
supporting, less any jitter applied by the sender as described in supporting, less any jitter applied by the sender as described in
[BFD] sect. 6.8.9. This value is also an indication for the [BFD] sect. 6.8.9. This value is also an indication for the
receiving system of the minimum interval between transmitted BFD Echo receiving system of the minimum interval between transmitted BFD Echo
packets. If this value is zero, the transmitting system does not packets. If this value is zero, the transmitting system does not
support the receipt of BFD Echo packets. If the receiving system can support the receipt of BFD Echo packets. If the receiving system can
not support this value an error MUST be generated "Unsupported BFD TX not support this value an error MUST be generated "Unsupported BFD TX
rate interval". rate interval".
Detection time multiplier: The negotiated transmit interval, Detection time multiplier: The negotiated transmit interval,
multiplied by this value, provides the Detection Time for the multiplied by this value, provides the Detection Time for the
receiving system in Asynchronous mode. receiving system in Asynchronous mode.
3.4. MPLS OAM PM Loss TLV 3.4. MPLS OAM PM Loss TLV
The "MPLS OAM PM Loss TLV" depicted below is carried as a sub-TLV of
the "OAM Configuration TLV".
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| PM Loss Type (3) (IANA) | Length = 16 | | PM Loss Type (3) (IANA) | Length = 16 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Vers.|E|C| | Reserved | PHB | |Vers.|E|C| | Reserved | PHB |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Measurement Interval | | Measurement Interval |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Loss Threshold | | Loss Threshold |
skipping to change at page 12, line 36 skipping to change at page 12, line 37
- C: require the use of a counter in the "Querier Context" field - C: require the use of a counter in the "Querier Context" field
described in [MPLS-PM] described in [MPLS-PM]
- Remaining bits: Reserved for future specification and set to 0. - Remaining bits: Reserved for future specification and set to 0.
PHB: identifies the per-hop behavior of packets with loss PHB: identifies the per-hop behavior of packets with loss
information. information.
Measurement Interval: the time interval (in microseconds) at which Measurement Interval: the time interval (in microseconds) at which
Loss Measurement query messages MUST be sent on both directions. If Loss Measurement query messages MUST be sent on both directions. If
the LER receiving the Path message can not support such value, it can the edge LSR receiving the Path message can not support such value,
reply back with a higher interval. it can reply back with a higher interval.
Loss Threshold: the threshold value of lost packets over which Loss Threshold: the threshold value of lost packets over which
protections MUST be triggered. protections MUST be triggered.
3.5. MPLS OAM PM Delay TLV 3.5. MPLS OAM PM Delay TLV
"PM Delay sub-TLV" is depicted below. The "MPLS OAM PM Delay TLV" depicted below is carried as a sub-TLV of
the "OAM Configuration TLV".
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| PM Delay Type (4) (IANA) | Length = 16 | | PM Delay Type (4) (IANA) | Length = 16 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Vers.| Flags | Reserved | PHB | |Vers.| Flags | Reserved | PHB |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Measurement Interval | | Measurement Interval |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 13, line 37 skipping to change at page 13, line 37
- C: require the use of a counter in the "Querier Context" field - C: require the use of a counter in the "Querier Context" field
described in [MPLS-PM] described in [MPLS-PM]
- Remaining bits: Reserved for future specification and set to 0. - Remaining bits: Reserved for future specification and set to 0.
PHB: - identifies the per-hop behavior of packets with delay PHB: - identifies the per-hop behavior of packets with delay
information. information.
Measurement Interval: the time interval (in microseconds) at which Measurement Interval: the time interval (in microseconds) at which
Delay Measurement query messages MUST be sent on both directions. If Delay Measurement query messages MUST be sent on both directions. If
the LER receiving the Path message can not support such value, it can the edge LSR receiving the Path message can not support such value,
reply back with a higher interval. it can reply back with a higher interval.
Delay Threshold: the threshold value of lost packets over which Delay Threshold: the threshold value of lost packets over which
protections MUST be triggered. protections MUST be triggered.
[Author's note: TBD if we want to include the timestamp format [Author's note: TBD if we want to include the timestamp format
negotiation as in [MPLS-PM] 4.2.5.] negotiation as in [MPLS-PM] 4.2.5.]
3.6. MPLS OAM FMS TLV 3.6. MPLS OAM FMS TLV
The "MPLS OAM FMS TLV" depicted below is carried as a sub-TLV of the
"OAM Configuration TLV".
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type (5) (IANA) | Length (12) | | Type (5) (IANA) | Length (12) |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|A|D|L|C| Reserved | |E| PHB | |A|D|L|C| Reserved | |E| PHB |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Refresh Timer | | Refresh Timer |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
skipping to change at page 14, line 36 skipping to change at page 14, line 37
- C: Client Signal Failure (CSF) as described in [MPLS-CSF] - C: Client Signal Failure (CSF) as described in [MPLS-CSF]
Configuration Flags: Configuration Flags:
- E: used to enable/disable explicitly clearing faults - E: used to enable/disable explicitly clearing faults
- PHB: identifies the per-hop behavior of packets with fault - PHB: identifies the per-hop behavior of packets with fault
management information management information
Refresh Timer: indicates the refresh timer (in microseconds) of fault Refresh Timer: indicates the refresh timer (in microseconds) of fault
indication messages. If the LER receiving the Path message can not indication messages. If the edge LSR receiving the Path message can
support such value, it can reply back with a higher interval. not support such value, it can reply back with a higher interval.
3.7. MPLS OAM SOURCE MEP-ID TLV for LSP Ping
The "MPLS OAM SOURCE MEP-ID TLV for LSP Ping" depicted below is
carried as a sub-TLV of the "OAM Configuration TLV" in case LSP Ping
is used.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type (6) (IANA) | Length = 12 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SRC NODE ID |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| TUNNEL ID | LSP ID |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: indicates a new type, the "MPLS OAM SOURCE MEP-ID" (IANA to
define).
Length: indicates the TLV total length in octets.
SRC NODE ID: 32-bit node identifier as defined in [MPLS-TP-IDENTIF].
TUNNEL ID: a 16-bit unsigned integer unique to the node as defined in
[MPLS-TP-IDENTIF].
LSP ID: a 16-bit unsigned integer unique within the Tunnel_ID as
defined in [MPLS-TP-IDENTIF].
4. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document specifies the following new TLV types: This document specifies the following new TLV types:
- "BFD Configuration" type: 2; - "BFD Configuration" type: 2;
- "MPLS OAM PM Loss" type: 3; - "MPLS OAM PM Loss" type: 3;
- "MPLS OAM PM Delay" type: 4; - "MPLS OAM PM Delay" type: 4;
skipping to change at page 16, line 37 skipping to change at page 17, line 25
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3471] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching [RFC3471] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
(GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC 3471, (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC 3471,
January 2003. January 2003.
[RFC5586] Bocci, M., Vigoureux, M., and S. Bryant, "MPLS Generic [RFC5586] Bocci, M., Vigoureux, M., and S. Bryant, "MPLS Generic
Associated Channel", RFC 5586, June 2009. Associated Channel", RFC 5586, June 2009.
[RFC5654] Niven-Jenkins, B., Brungard, D., Betts, M., Sprecher, N.,
and S. Ueno, "Requirements of an MPLS Transport Profile",
RFC 5654, September 2009.
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[BFD-CCCV] [BFD-CCCV]
Fulignoli, A., Boutros, S., and M. Vigoreux, "MPLS-TP BFD Fulignoli, A., Boutros, S., and M. Vigoreux, "MPLS-TP BFD
for Proactive CC-CV and RDI", 2009, for Proactive CC-CV and RDI", 2009,
<draft-asm-mpls-tp-bfd-cc-cv>. <draft-asm-mpls-tp-bfd-cc-cv>.
[BFD-Ping]
Bahadur, N., Aggarwal, R., Ward, D., Nadeau, T., Sprecher,
N., and Y. Weingarten, "LSP-Ping and BFD encapsulation
over ACH", 2009,
<draft-nitinb-mpls-tp-lsp-ping-bfd-procedures-02>.
[ETH-OAM] Takacs, A., Gero, B., Fedyk, D., Mohan, D., and D. Long, [ETH-OAM] Takacs, A., Gero, B., Fedyk, D., Mohan, D., and D. Long,
"GMPLS RSVP-TE Extensions for Ethernet OAM", 2009, "GMPLS RSVP-TE Extensions for Ethernet OAM", 2009,
<draft-ietf-ccamp-rsvp-te-eth-oam-ext>. <draft-ietf-ccamp-rsvp-te-eth-oam-ext>.
[LSP Ping] [LSP Ping]
Kompella, K. and G. Swallow, "Detecting Multi-Protocol Kompella, K. and G. Swallow, "Detecting Multi-Protocol
Label Switched (MPLS) Data Plane Failures", 2006, <RFC Label Switched (MPLS) Data Plane Failures", 2006, <RFC
3479>. 3479>.
[MPLS-TP OAM Analysis] [MPLS-TP OAM Analysis]
skipping to change at line 769 skipping to change at page 19, line 12
Phone: Phone:
Email: loa.andersson@ericsson.com Email: loa.andersson@ericsson.com
Pontus Skoldstrom (editor) Pontus Skoldstrom (editor)
Acreo AB Acreo AB
Electrum 236 Electrum 236
Kista, 164 40 Kista, 164 40
Sweden Sweden
Phone: +46 8 6327731 Phone: +46 8 6327731
Email: pontus.skoldstrom@acreo.se Email: pontus.skoldstrom@acreo.se
Dave Ward
Juniper
Phone:
Email: dward@juniper.net
 End of changes. 44 change blocks. 
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