draft-ietf-ccamp-sdhsonet-control-00.txt   draft-ietf-ccamp-sdhsonet-control-01.txt 
CCAMP G. Bernstein (Ciena)
CCAMP G. Bernstein Internet Draft E. Mannie (KPNQwest)
Internet Draft Ciena Document: <draft-ietf-ccamp-sdhsonet- V. Sharma (Metanoia, Inc.)
E. Mannie control-01.txt>
Ebone Category: Informational
Category: Informational V. Sharma Expires November 2002 May 2002
Metanoia
Expires August 2002 February 2002
Framework for GMPLS-based Control of SDH/SONET Networks Framework for GMPLS-based Control of SDH/SONET Networks
<draft-ietf-ccamp-sdhsonet-control-00.txt> <draft-ietf-ccamp-sdhsonet-control-01.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1]. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1].
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of
skipping to change at line 45 skipping to change at line 43
applicability to the control of non-packet based switching, that is, applicability to the control of non-packet based switching, that is,
optical switching. One area of prime consideration is to use these optical switching. One area of prime consideration is to use these
generalized MPLS (GMPLS) protocols in upgrading the control plane of generalized MPLS (GMPLS) protocols in upgrading the control plane of
optical transport networks. This document illustrates this process optical transport networks. This document illustrates this process
by describing those extensions to MPLS protocols that are directed by describing those extensions to MPLS protocols that are directed
towards controlling SONET/SDH networks. SONET/SDH networks make towards controlling SONET/SDH networks. SONET/SDH networks make
very good examples of this process since they possess a rich very good examples of this process since they possess a rich
multiplex structure, a variety of protection/restoration options, multiplex structure, a variety of protection/restoration options,
are well defined, and are widely deployed. The document discusses are well defined, and are widely deployed. The document discusses
extensions to MPLS routing protocols to disseminate information extensions to MPLS routing protocols to disseminate information
needed in transport path computation and network operations together needed in transport path computation and network operations,
with the extensions to MPLS label distribution protocols needed for together with the extensions to MPLS label distribution protocols
the provisioning of transport circuits. New capabilities that an needed for the provisioning of transport circuits. New capabilities
MPLS control plane would bring to SONET/SDH networks, such as new that an MPLS control plane would bring to SONET/SDH networks, such
restoration methods and multi-layer circuit establishment, are also as new restoration methods and multi-layer circuit establishment,
discussed. are also discussed.
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2. Conventions used in this document 2. Conventions used in this document
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational - November 2002 1
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [2]. this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [2].
3. Introduction 3. Introduction
A few years ago, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) began
work on the specification of a new connection-oriented transport
technology called Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). The MPLS
forwarding plane was inspired mainly by concepts from virtual
circuit switching in ATM, while its control plane was inspired
mainly by the routing protocols found in IP. As work on defining the
components of MPLS progressed, it soon became apparent that the
principles upon which MPLS technology was based were generic, and
were applicable to multiple layers of the transport network. As
such, MPLS-based control of other network layers, such as the time
division multiplexing (TDM) and optical layers was also possible.
The motivation behind introducing such control was to provide new
services, such as dynamic establishment of TDM and optical circuits,
which were hitherto not possible in transport networks. With MPLS-
based control, transport operators or service providers would be
able to offer on-demand services to their customers, due to the
reduction in provisioning time of their circuits, thus adding
considerable flexibility in their service portfolios.
The CCAMP Working Group of the IETF is currently working on The CCAMP Working Group of the IETF is currently working on
extending MPLS protocols to support multiple network layers and extending MPLS [3] protocols to support multiple network layers and
these new services. This extended MPLS, which was initially known as new services. This extended MPLS, which was initially known as
Multi-Protocol Lambda Switching, is now better referred to as Multi-Protocol Lambda Switching, is now better referred to as
Generalized MPLS (or GMPLS). The authors of this work are among the Generalized MPLS (or GMPLS). The authors of this work are among the
co-authors of the GMPLS specifications, and - focus mainly on those co-authors of the GMPLS specifications, and focus mainly on those
aspects of GMPLS that relate to the control of SDH/SONET networks. aspects of GMPLS that relate to the control of SDH/SONET networks.
The GMPLS effort is, in effect, extending IP technology to control The GMPLS effort is, in effect, extending IP technology to control
and manage lower layers. Using the same framework and similar and manage lower layers. Using the same framework and similar
signaling and routing protocols to control multiple layers can not signaling and routing protocols to control multiple layers can not
only reduce the overall complexity of designing, deploying and only reduce the overall complexity of designing, deploying and
maintaining networks, but can also make it possible to operate two maintaining networks, but can also make it possible to operate two
contiguous layers by using either an overlay model, a peer model, or contiguous layers by using either an overlay model, a peer model, or
an integrated model. The benefits of using a peer or an overlay an integrated model. The benefits of using a peer or an overlay
model between the IP layer and its underlying layer(s) will have to model between the IP layer and its underlying layer(s) will have to
be clarified and evaluated in the future. In the mean time, GMPLS be clarified and evaluated in the future. In the mean time, GMPLS
could be used for controlling each layer independently. could be used for controlling each layer independently.
The goal of this work is to highlight how GMPLS could be used to The goal of this work is to highlight how GMPLS could be used to
dynamically establish, maintain and tear down SDH/SONET circuits. dynamically establish, maintain, and tear down SDH/SONET circuits.
The objective of using these extended MPLS protocols is to provide The objective of using these extended MPLS protocols is to provide
at least the same kinds of SDH/SONET services as are provided today, at least the same kinds of SDH/SONET services as are provided today,
but using signaling instead of provisioning via centralized but using signaling instead of provisioning via centralized
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management to establish those services. This will allow operators to management to establish those services. This will allow operators to
propose new services, and will allow clients to create SONET/SDH propose new services, and will allow clients to create SONET/SDH
paths on-demand, in real-time, through the provider network. We paths on-demand, in real-time, through the provider network. We
first review the essential properties of SDH/SONET networks and first review the essential properties of SDH/SONET networks and
their operations, and we show how the label concept in MPLS can be their operations, and we show how the label concept in MPLS can be
extended to the SONET/SDH case. We then look at important extended to the SONET/SDH case. We then look at important
information to be disseminated by a link state routing protocol and information to be disseminated by a link state routing protocol and
look at the important signal attributes that need to be conveyed by look at the important signal attributes that need to be conveyed by
a label distribution protocol. Finally, we look at some outstanding a label distribution protocol. Finally, we look at some outstanding
issues and future possibilities. [3], [4], [5], [6], [7],[8], [9], issues and future possibilities.
[10], [11], [12].
3.1. MPLS Overview 3.1. MPLS Overview
A majoradvantage of the MPLS architecture for use as a general A major advantage of the MPLS architecture [3] for use as a general
network control plane is its clear separation between the forwarding network control plane is its clear separation between the forwarding
plane (or data plane) the signaling (or connection control) plane, (or data) plane, the signaling (or connection control) plane, and
and the routing (or topology discovery/resource status) plane. This the routing (or topology discovery/resource status) plane. This
allows the work on MPLS extensions to focus on the forwarding and allows the work on MPLS extensions to focus on the forwarding and
signaling planes, while allowing well-known IP routing protocols to signaling planes, while allowing well-known IP routing protocols to
be reused in the routing plane. This clear separation also allows be reused in the routing plane. This clear separation also allows
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for MPLS to be used to control networks that do not have a packet- for MPLS to be used to control networks that do not have a packet-
based forwarding plane. based forwarding plane.
An MPLS network consists of MPLS nodes called Label Switch Routers An MPLS network consists of MPLS nodes called Label Switch Routers
(LSRs) connected via circuits called Label Switched Paths (LSPs). An (LSRs) connected via circuits called Label Switched Paths (LSPs). An
LSP is unidirectional and could be of several different types such LSP is unidirectional and could be of several different types such
as point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and multipoint-to-point. as point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and multipoint-to-point.
Border LSRs in an MPLS network, act either as ingress or egress LSRs Border LSRs in an MPLS network act either as ingress or egress LSRs
depending on the direction of the traffic being forwarded. depending on the direction of the traffic being forwarded.
Each LSP is associated with a Fowarding Equivalence Class (FEC), Each LSP is associated with a Fowarding Equivalence Class (FEC),
which may be thought of as a set of packets that receive identical which may be thought of as a set of packets that receive identical
forwarding treatment at an LSR. The simplest example of an FEC might forwarding treatment at an LSR. The simplest example of an FEC might
be the set of destination addresses lying in a given address range. be the set of destination addresses lying in a given address range.
All packets that have a destination address lying within this All packets that have a destination address lying within this
address range are forwarded identically at each LSR configured with address range are forwarded identically at each LSR configured with
that FEC. that FEC.
To establish an LSP, a signaling protocol (or label distribution To establish an LSP, a signaling protocol (or label distribution
protocol) such as LDP/CR-LDP or RSVP-TE is required. Between two protocol) such as LDP/CR-LDP or RSVP-TE is required. Between two
adjacent LSRs, an LSP is locally identified by a short, fixed length adjacent LSRs, an LSP is locally identified by a short, fixed length
identifier called a label, which is only significant between these identifier called a label, which is only significant between those
two LSRs. The signaling protocol is responsible for the inter-node two LSRs. The signaling protocol is responsible for the inter-node
communication that assigns and maintains these labels. communication that assigns and maintains these labels.
When a packet enters an MPLS-based packet network, it is classified When a packet enters an MPLS-based packet network, it is classified
according to its FEC and, possibly, additional rules, which together according to its FEC and, possibly, additional rules, which together
determine the LSP along which the packet must be sent. For this determine the LSP along which the packet must be sent. For this
purpose, the ingress LSR attaches an appropriate label to the purpose, the ingress LSR attaches an appropriate label to the
packet, and forwards the packet to the next hop. The label may be packet, and forwards the packet to the next hop. The label may be
attached to a packet in different ways. For example, it may be in attached to a packet in different ways. For example, it may be in
the form of a header encapsulating the packet (the "shim" header) or the form of a header encapsulating the packet (the "shim" header) or
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it may be written in the VPI/VCI field (or DLCI field) of the layer it may be written in the VPI/VCI field (or DLCI field) of the layer
2 encapsulation of the packet. In case of SDH/SONET networks, we 2 encapsulation of the packet. In case of SDH/SONET networks, we
will see that a label is simply associated with a segment of a will see that a label is simply associated with a segment of a
circuit, and is mainly used in the signaling plane to identify this circuit, and is mainly used in the signaling plane to identify this
segment (e.g. a time-slot) between two adjacent nodes. segment (e.g. a time-slot) between two adjacent nodes.
When a packet reaches a core packet LSR, this LSR uses the label as When a packet reaches a core packet LSR, this LSR uses the label as
an index into a forwarding table to determine the next hop and the an index into a forwarding table to determine the next hop and the
corresponding outgoing label (and, possibly, the QoS treatment to be corresponding outgoing label (and, possibly, the QoS treatment to be
given to the packet), writes the new label into the packet, and given to the packet), writes the new label into the packet, and
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egress LSR, the label is removed and the packet is forwarded using egress LSR, the label is removed and the packet is forwarded using
appropriate forwarding, such as normal IP forwarding. We will see appropriate forwarding, such as normal IP forwarding. We will see
that for a SONET/SDH network these operations do not occur in quite that for a SONET/SDH network these operations do not occur in quite
the same way. the same way.
3.2. SDH/SONET Overview 3.2. SDH/SONET Overview
There are currently two different multiplexing technologies in use There are currently two different multiplexing technologies in use
in optical networks: wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and time in optical networks: wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and time
division multiplexing (TDM). This work focuses on TDM technology. division multiplexing (TDM). This work focuses on TDM technology.
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SDH and SONET are two TDM standards widely used by operators to SDH and SONET are two TDM standards widely used by operators to
transport and multiplex different tributary signals over optical transport and multiplex different tributary signals over optical
links, thus creating a multiplexing structure, which we call the links, thus creating a multiplexing structure, which we call the
SDH/SONET multiplex. SDH, which was developed by the ETSI and later SDH/SONET multiplex. SDH, which was developed by the ETSI and later
standardized by the ITU-T, is now used worldwide, while SONET, which standardized by the ITU-T [4], is now used worldwide, while SONET,
was standardized by the ANSI, is mainly used in the US. However, which was standardized by the ANSI [5], is mainly used in the US.
these two standards have several similarities, and to some extent However, these two standards have several similarities, and to some
SONET can be viewed as a subset of SDH. Internetworking between the extent SONET can be viewed as a subset of SDH. Internetworking
two is possible using gateways. between the two is possible using gateways.
The fundamental signal in SDH is the STM-1 that operates at a rate The fundamental signal in SDH is the STM-1 that operates at a rate
of about 155 Mbps, while the fundamental signal in SONET is the STS- of about 155 Mbps, while the fundamental signal in SONET is the STS-
1 that operates at a rate of about 51 Mbps. These two signals are 1 that operates at a rate of about 51 Mbps. These two signals are
made of contiguous frames that consist of transport overhead made of contiguous frames that consist of transport overhead
(header) and payload. To solve synchronization issues, the actual (header) and payload. To solve synchronization issues, the actual
data is not transported directly in the payload but rather in data is not transported directly in the payload but rather in
another internal frame that is allowed to float over two successive another internal frame that is allowed to float over two successive
SDH/SONET payloads. This internal frame is named a Virtual Container SDH/SONET payloads. This internal frame is named a Virtual Container
(VC) in SDH and a Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) in SONET. (VC) in SDH and a Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) in SONET.
skipping to change at line 220 skipping to change at line 198
equipment. These are, starting with the lowest, the regenerator equipment. These are, starting with the lowest, the regenerator
section/section layer, the multiplex section/line layer, and (at the section/section layer, the multiplex section/line layer, and (at the
top) the path layer. Each of these layers in turn has its own top) the path layer. Each of these layers in turn has its own
overhead (header). The transport overhead of a SDH/SONET frame is overhead (header). The transport overhead of a SDH/SONET frame is
mainly sub-divided in two parts that contain the regenerator mainly sub-divided in two parts that contain the regenerator
section/section overhead and the multiplex section/line overhead. In section/section overhead and the multiplex section/line overhead. In
addition, a pointer (in the form of the H1, H2 and H3 bytes) addition, a pointer (in the form of the H1, H2 and H3 bytes)
indicates the beginning of the VC/SPE in the payload of the overall indicates the beginning of the VC/SPE in the payload of the overall
STM/SDH frame. STM/SDH frame.
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The VC/SPE itself is made up of a header (the path overhead) and a The VC/SPE itself is made up of a header (the path overhead) and a
payload. This payload can be further subdivided into sub-elements payload. This payload can be further subdivided into sub-elements
(signals) in a fairly complex way. In the case of SDH, the STM-1 (signals) in a fairly complex way. In the case of SDH, the STM-1
frame may contain either one VC-4 or three multiplexed VC-3s. The frame may contain either one VC-4 or three multiplexed VC-3s. The
SONET multiplex is a pure tree, while the SDH multiplex is not a SONET multiplex is a pure tree, while the SDH multiplex is not a
pure tree, since it contains a node that can be attached to two pure tree, since it contains a node that can be attached to two
parent nodes. The structure of the SONET/SDH multiplex is shown in parent nodes. The structure of the SONET/SDH multiplex is shown in
Figure 1. In addition, we show reference points in this figure that Figure 1. In addition, we show reference points in this figure that
are explained in later sections. are explained in later sections.
xN x1 xN x1
STM-N<----AUG<----AU-4<--VC4<------------------------------C-4 E4 STM-N<----AUG<----AU-4<--VC4<------------------------------C-4 E4
^ ^ ^ ^
Ix3 Ix3 Ix3 Ix3
I I x1 I I x1
I -----TUG-3<----TU-3<---VC-3<---I I -----TUG-3<----TU-3<---VC-3<---I
I ^ C-3 DS3/E3 I ^ C-3 DS3/E3
-------AU-3<---VC-3<-- I ---------------------I -------AU-3<---VC-3<-- I ---------------------I
^ I ^ I
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Ix7 Ix7 Ix7 Ix7
I I x1 I I x1
-----TUG-2<---TU-2<---VC-2<---C-2 DS2/T2 -----TUG-2<---TU-2<---VC-2<---C-2 DS2/T2
^ ^ ^ ^
I I x3 I I x3
I I----TU-12<---VC-12<--C-12 E1 I I----TU-12<---VC-12<--C-12 E1
I I
I x4 I x4
I-------TU-11<---VC-11<--C-11 DS1/T1 I-------TU-11<---VC-11<--C-11 DS1/T1
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I I I I
I I x3 I I x3
I I--------VT-2<----SPE E1 I I--------VT-2<----SPE E1
I I
I x4 I x4
I-----------VT-1.5<--SPE DS1/T1 I-----------VT-1.5<--SPE DS1/T1
Figure 1. SDH and SONET multiplexing structure and typical PDH Figure 1. SDH and SONET multiplexing structure and typical PDH
payload signals. payload signals.
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The leaves of these multiplex structures are time slots (positions) The leaves of these multiplex structures are time slots (positions)
of different sizes that can contain tributary signals. These of different sizes that can contain tributary signals. These
tributary signals (e.g. E1, E3, etc) are mapped into the leaves tributary signals (e.g. E1, E3, etc) are mapped into the leaves
using standardized mapping rules. In general, a tributary signal using standardized mapping rules. In general, a tributary signal
does not fill a time slot completely, and the mapping rules define does not fill a time slot completely, and the mapping rules define
precisely how to fill it. precisely how to fill it.
What is important for the MPLS-based control of SDH/SONET circuits What is important for the MPLS-based control of SDH/SONET circuits
is to identify the elements that can be switched from an input is to identify the elements that can be switched from an input
multiplex on one interface to an output multiplex on another multiplex on one interface to an output multiplex on another
interface. The only elements that can be switched are those that can interface. The only elements that can be switched are those that can
be re-aligned via a pointer, i.e. a VC-x in the case of SDH and a be re-aligned via a pointer, i.e. a VC-x in the case of SDH and a
SPE in the case of SONET. SPE in the case of SONET.
An STM-N/STS-N signal is formed from N x STM-1/STS-1 signals via An STM-N/STS-N signal is formed from N x STM-1/STS-1 signals via
byte interleaving. The VCs/SPEs in the N interleaved frames are byte interleaving. The VCs/SPEs in the N interleaved frames are
independent and float according to their own clocking. To transport independent and float according to their own clocking. To transport
tributary signals in excess of the basic STM-1/STS-1 signal rates, tributary signals in excess of the basic STM-1/STS-1 signal rates,
the VCs/SPEs can be concatenated, i.e., glued together. In this case the VCs/SPEs can be concatenated, i.e., glued together. In this case
their relationship with respect to each other is fixed in time and their relationship with respect to each other is fixed in time and
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hence this relieves, when possible, an end system of any inverse hence this relieves, when possible, an end system of any inverse
multiplexing bonding processes. Different types of concatenations multiplexing bonding processes. Different types of concatenations
are defined in SDH/SONET. are defined in SDH/SONET.
For example, standard SONET concatenation allows the concatenation For example, standard SONET concatenation allows the concatenation
of M x STS-1 signals within an STS-N signal with M <= N, and M = 3, of M x STS-1 signals within an STS-N signal with M <= N, and M = 3,
12, 48, 192,...). The SPEs of these M x STS-1s can be concatenated 12, 48, 192,...). The SPEs of these M x STS-1s can be concatenated
to form an STS-Mc. The STS-Mc notation is short hand for describing to form an STS-Mc. The STS-Mc notation is short hand for describing
an STS-M signal whose SPEs have been concatenated. an STS-M signal whose SPEs have been concatenated.
3.3. The Current State of Circuit Establishment in SDH/SONET Networks 3.3. The Current State of Circuit Establishment in SDH/SONET Networks
Today, June 2001, SDH and SONET networks are statically configured. In present day SDH and SONET networks, the networks are primarily
When a client of an operator requests a point-to-point circuit, the statically configured. When a client of an operator requests a
request sets in motion a process that can last for several weeks or point-to-point circuit, the request sets in motion a process that
more. This process is composed of a chain of shorter administrative can last for several weeks or more. This process is composed of a
and technical tasks, some of which can be fully automated, resulting chain of shorter administrative and technical tasks, some of which
in significant improvements in provisioning time and in operational can be fully automated, resulting in significant improvements in
savings. In the best case, the entire process can be fully automated provisioning time and in operational savings. In the best case, the
allowing, for example, customer premise equipment (CPE) to contact a entire process can be fully automated allowing, for example,
SDH/SONET switch to request a circuit. Currently, the provisioning customer premise equipment (CPE) to contact a SDH/SONET switch to
process involves the following tasks. request a circuit. Currently, the provisioning process involves the
following tasks.
3.3.1. Administrative Tasks 3.3.1. Administrative Tasks
The administrative tasks represent a significant part of the The administrative tasks represent a significant part of the
provisioning time. Most of them can be automated using IT provisioning time. Most of them can be automated using IT
applications, e.g., a client still has to fill a form to request a applications, e.g., a client still has to fill a form to request a
circuit. This form can be filled via a Web-based application and can circuit. This form can be filled via a Web-based application and can
be automatically processed by the operator. A further enhancement is be automatically processed by the operator. A further enhancement is
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to allow the client's equipment to coordinate with the operator's to allow the client's equipment to coordinate with the operator's
network directly and request the desired circuit. This could be network directly and request the desired circuit. This could be
achieved through a signaling protocol at the interface between the achieved through a signaling protocol at the interface between the
client equipment and an operator switch, i.e., at the UNI interface, client equipment and an operator switch, i.e., at the UNI, where
where GMPLS signaling can be used. GMPLS signaling [6], [7], [8] can be used.
3.3.2. Manual Operations 3.3.2. Manual Operations
Another significant part of the time may be consumed by manual Another significant part of the time may be consumed by manual
operations that involve installing the right interface in the CPE operations that involve installing the right interface in the CPE
and installing the right cable or fiber between the CPE and the and installing the right cable or fiber between the CPE and the
operator switch. This time can be especially significant when a operator switch. This time can be especially significant when a
client is in a different time zone than the operator's main office. client is in a different time zone than the operator's main office.
This first-time connection time is frequently accounted for in the This first-time connection time is frequently accounted for in the
overall establishment time. overall establishment time.
3.3.3. Planning Tool Operation 3.3.3. Planning Tool Operation
Another portion of the time is consumed by planning tools that run Another portion of the time is consumed by planning tools that run
simulations using heuristic algorithms to find an optimized simulations using heuristic algorithms to find an optimized
placement for the required circuits. These planning tools can placement for the required circuits. These planning tools can
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require a significant running time, sometimes on the order of days. require a significant running time, sometimes on the order of days.
These simulations are, in general, executed for a set of demands for These simulations are, in general, executed for a set of demands for
circuits, i.e., a batch mode, to improve the optimality of network circuits, i.e., a batch mode, to improve the optimality of network
resource usage and other parameters. Today, we do not really have a resource usage and other parameters. Today, we do not really have a
means to reduce this simulation time. On the contrary, to support means to reduce this simulation time. On the contrary, to support
fast, on-line, circuit establishment, this phase may be invoked more fast, on-line, circuit establishment, this phase may be invoked more
frequently, i.e., we will not "batch up" as many connection frequently, i.e., we will not "batch up" as many connection
requests before we plan out the corresponding circuits. This means requests before we plan out the corresponding circuits. This means
that the network may need to be re-optimized periodically, implying that the network may need to be re-optimized periodically, implying
that the signaling should support re-optimization with minimum that the signaling should support re-optimization with minimum
impact to existing services. impact to existing services.
3.3.4. Circuit Provisioning 3.3.4. Circuit Provisioning
Once the first three steps have been completed, the circuits must be Once the first three steps discussed above have been completed, the
provisioned by the operator using the outputs of the planning operator must provision the circuits using the outputs of the
process. The time required for provisioning varies greatly. It can planning process. The time required for provisioning varies greatly.
be fairly short, on the order of a few minutes, if the operators It can be fairly short, on the order of a few minutes, if the
already have tools that help them to do the provisioning over operators already have tools that help them to do the provisioning
heterogeneous equipment. Otherwise, the process can take days. over heterogeneous equipment. Otherwise, the process can take days.
Developing these tools for each new piece of equipment and each Developing these tools for each new piece of equipment and each
vendor is a significant burden on the service provider. A vendor is a significant burden on the service provider. A
standardized interface for provisioning, such as GMPLS signaling, standardized interface for provisioning, such as GMPLS signaling,
could significantly reduce or eliminate this development burden. In could significantly reduce or eliminate this development burden. In
general, provisioning is a batched activity, i.e., a few times per general, provisioning is a batched activity, i.e., a few times per
week an operator provisions a set of circuits. GMPLS will reduce week an operator provisions a set of circuits. GMPLS will reduce
this provisioning time from a few minutes to a few seconds and could this provisioning time from a few minutes to a few seconds and could
help to transform this periodic process into a real-time process. help to transform this periodic process into a real-time process.
When a circuit is provisioned, it is not delivered directly to a When a circuit is provisioned, it is not delivered directly to a
client. Rather, the operator first tests its performance and client. Rather, the operator first tests its performance and
behavior and if successful, delivers the circuit to the client. This behavior and if successful, delivers the circuit to the client. This
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 7
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
testing phase lasts, in general, for up to 24 hours. The operator testing phase lasts, in general, for up to 24 hours. The operator
installs test equipment at each end and uses pre-defined test installs test equipment at each end and uses pre-defined test
streams to verify performance. If successful, the circuit is streams to verify performance. If successful, the circuit is
officially accepted by the client. To speed up the verification officially accepted by the client. To speed up the verification
(sometimes known as "proving") process, it would be necessary to (sometimes known as "proving") process, it would be necessary to
support some form of automated performance testing. support some form of automated performance testing.
3.4. Centralized Approach versus Distributed Approach 3.4. Centralized Approach versus Distributed Approach
Whether a centralized approach or a distributed approach will be Whether a centralized approach or a distributed approach will be
used to control SDH/SONET networks is an open question, since Eech used to control SDH/SONET networks is an open question, since each
approach has advantages and disadvantages. The application of GMPLS approach has its merits. The application of GMPLS to SONET/SDH
to SONET/SDH networks does not preclude either model although MPLS networks does not preclude either model, although MPLS is itself a
is itself a distributed technology. distributed technology.
The basic tradeoff between the centralized and distributed The basic tradeoff between the centralized and distributed
approaches is that of complexity of the network elements versus that approaches is that of complexity of the network elements versus that
of the network management system (NMS). Since adding functionality of the network management system (NMS). Since adding functionality
to existing to existing SDH/SONET network elements may not be possible, a
SDH network elements may not be possible, a centralized approach may centralized approach may be needed in some cases. The main issue
be needed in some cases. The main issue facing centralized control facing centralized control via an NMS is one of scalability. For
via an NMS is one of scalability. For instance, this approach may be
limited in the number of network elements that can be managed (e.g. Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 7
one thousand). It is, therefore, quite common for operators to GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
deploy several NMSÆs in parallel at the Network Management Layer,
each managing a different zone. In that case, however, a Service instance, this approach may be limited in the number of network
Management layer must be built on the top of several individual elements that can be managed (e.g., one thousand). It is, therefore,
NMSÆs to take care of end-to-end on-demand services. On the other quite common for operators to deploy several NMSÆs in parallel at
hand, in a complex and/or dense network, restoration could be faster the Network Management Layer, each managing a different zone. In
with a distributed approach than with a centralized approach. that case, however, a Service Management Layer must be built on the
top of several individual NMSÆs to take care of end-to-end on-demand
services. On the other hand, in a complex and/or dense network,
restoration could be faster with a distributed approach than with a
centralized approach.
Let's now look at how the major control plane functional components Let's now look at how the major control plane functional components
are handled via the centralized and distributed approaches: are handled via the centralized and distributed approaches:
3.4.1. Topology Discovery and Resource Dissemination 3.4.1. Topology Discovery and Resource Dissemination
Currently NMS's maintain a consistent view of all the networking Currently NMS's maintain a consistent view of all the networking
layers under their purview. This can include the physical topology, layers under their purview. This can include the physical topology,
such as information about fibers and ducts. Since most of this such as information about fibers and ducts. Since most of this
information is entered manually, it remains error prone. information is entered manually, it remains error prone.
A link state GMPLS routing protocol, on the other hand, could A link state GMPLS routing protocol, on the other hand, could
perform automatic topology discovery and dissemination the topology perform automatic topology discovery and dissemination the topology
as well as resource status. This information would be available to as well as resource status. This information would be available to
all nodes in the network, and hence also the NMS. Hence one can all nodes in the network, and hence also the NMS. Hence one can
look at a continuum of functionality between manually provisioned look at a continuum of functionality between manually provisioned
topology information (of which there will always be some) and fully topology information (of which there will always be some) and fully
automated discovery and dissemination as in a link state protocol. automated discovery and dissemination as in a link state protocol.
Note that, unlike the IP datagram case, a link state routing Note that, unlike the IP datagram case, a link state routing
protocol applied to the SDH/SONET network does not have any service protocol applied to the SDH/SONET network does not have any service
impacting implications. impacting implications. This is because in the SDH/SONET case, the
circuit is source-routed (so there can be no loops), and no traffic
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 8 is transmitted until a circuit has been established, and an
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002 acknowledgement received at the source.
3.4.2. Path Computation (Route Determination) 3.4.2. Path Computation (Route Determination)
In the SDH/SONET case, unlike the IP datagram case, there is no need In the SDH/SONET case, unlike the IP datagram case, there is no need
for network elements to all perform the same path calculation. In for network elements to all perform the same path calculation [9].
addition, path determination is an area for vendors to provide a In addition, path determination is an area for vendors to provide a
potentially significant value addition in terms of network potentially significant value addition in terms of network
efficiency, reliability, and service differentiation. In this sense, efficiency, reliability, and service differentiation. In this sense,
a centralized approach to path computation is easier to operate and a centralized approach to path computation may be easier to operate
upgrade. For example, new features such as new types of path and upgrade. For example, new features such as new types of path
diversity or new optimization algorithms can be introduced with a diversity or new optimization algorithms can be introduced with a
simple NMS software upgrade. On the other hand, updating switches simple NMS software upgrade. On the other hand, updating switches
with new path computation software is a more complicated task. In with new path computation software is a more complicated task. In
addition, many of the algorithms are quite computationally intensive addition, many of the algorithms can be fairly computationally
and may be completely unsuitable for the embedded processing intensive and may be completely unsuitable for the embedded
environment available on most switches. In restoration scenarios processing environment available on most switches. In restoration
the ability to perform a reasonably sophisticated level of path scenarios, the ability to perform a reasonably sophisticated level
computation on the network element can be particularly useful for of path computation on the network element can be particularly
restoring traffic during major network faults. useful for restoring traffic during major network faults.
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GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
3.4.3. Connection Establishment (provisioning) 3.4.3. Connection Establishment (provisioning)
The actual setting up of circuits, i.e., a coupled collection of The actual setting up of circuits, i.e., a coupled collection of
cross connects across a network, can be done either via the NMS cross connects across a network, can be done either via the NMS
setting up individual cross connects or via a "soft permanent LSP" setting up individual cross connects or via a "soft permanent LSP"
(SPLSP) type approach. In the SPLSP approach, the NMS may just kick (SPLSP) type approach. In the SPLSP approach, the NMS may just kick
off the connection at the "ingress" switch with GMPLS signaling off the connection at the "ingress" switch with GMPLS signaling
setting up the connection from that point onward. Connection setting up the connection from that point onward. Connection
establishment is the trickiest part to distribute, however, since establishment is the trickiest part to distribute, however, since
errors in the connection setup/tear down process are service errors in the connection setup/tear down process are service
impacting. impacting.
The table below compares the two approaches to connection
establishment.
Distributed approach Centralized approach Distributed approach Centralized approach
Control plane like MPLS or Management plane like TMN or Control plane like MPLS or Management plane like TMN or
PNNI SNMP PNNI SNMP
Do we really need it? Being Always needed! Already there, Do we really need it? Being Always needed! Already there,
added/specified by several proven and understood. added/specified by several proven and understood.
standardization bodies standardization bodies
High survivability (e.g. in Potential single point(s) of High survivability (e.g. in Potential single point(s) of
case of partition) failure case of partition) failure
Distributed load Bottleneck: #requests and Distributed load Bottleneck: #requests and
actions to/from NMS actions to/from NMS
Individual local routing Centralized routing decision, Individual local routing Centralized routing decision,
decision can be done per block of decision can be done per block of
requests requests
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GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
Routing scalable as for the Assumes a few big Routing scalable as for the Assumes a few big
Internet administrative domains Internet administrative domains
Complex to change routing Very easy local upgrade (non- Complex to change routing Very easy local upgrade (non-
protocol/algorithm intrusive) protocol/algorithm intrusive)
Requires enhanced routing Better consistency Requires enhanced routing Better consistency
protocol (traffic protocol (traffic
engineering) engineering)
skipping to change at line 513 skipping to change at line 496
Suitable for very dynamic For less dynamic demands Suitable for very dynamic For less dynamic demands
demands (longer lived) demands (longer lived)
Probably faster to restore, Probably slower to restore,but Probably faster to restore, Probably slower to restore,but
but more difficult to have could effect reliable but more difficult to have could effect reliable
reliable restoration. restoration. reliable restoration. restoration.
High scalability Limited scalability: #nodes, High scalability Limited scalability: #nodes,
(hierarchical) links, circuits, messages (hierarchical) links, circuits, messages
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GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
Planning (optimization) Planning is a background Planning (optimization) Planning is a background
harder to achieve centralized activity harder to achieve centralized activity
Easier future integration Easier future integration
with other control plane with other control plane
layers layers
Table 1. Qualitative comparison between centralized and distributed Table 1. Qualitative comparison between centralized and distributed
approaches. approaches.
3.5. Why SDH/SONET will not Disappear Tomorrow 3.5. Why SDH/SONET will not Disappear Tomorrow
As IP traffic becomes the dominant traffic transported over the As IP traffic becomes the dominant traffic transported over the
transport infrastructure, it is useful to compare the statistical transport infrastructure, it is useful to compare the statistical
multiplexing of IP with the time division multiplexing of SDH and multiplexing of IP with the time division multiplexing of SDH and
SONET. SONET.
Consider a scenario where IP over WDM is used everywhere and lambdas Consider, for instance, a scenario where IP over WDM is used
are optically switched. In such a case, a carrier's carrier would everywhere and lambdas are optically switched. In such a case, a
sell dynamically controlled lambdas with each customer building carrier's carrier would sell dynamically controlled lambdas with
his/her own IP backbone over these lambdas. each customers building their own IP backbones over these lambdas.
This simple model implies that a carrier would sell lambdas instead This simple model implies that a carrier would sell lambdas instead
of bandwidth. The carrierÆs goal will be to maximize the number of of bandwidth. The carrierÆs goal will be to maximize the number of
wavelengths/lambdas per fiber, with each customer having to fully wavelengths/lambdas per fiber, with each customer having to fully
support the cost for each end-to-end lambda whether or not the support the cost for each end-to-end lambda whether or not the
wavelength is fully utilized. Although, inn the near future, we may wavelength is fully utilized. Although, in the near future, we may
have technology to support up to several hundred lambdas per fiber, have technology to support up to several hundred lambdas per fiber,
a world where lambdas are so cheap and abundant that every a world where lambdas are so cheap and abundant that every
individual customer buys them, from one point to any other point, individual customer buys them, from one point to any other point,
appears an unlikely scenario today. appears an unlikely scenario today.
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 10 More realistically, there is still room for a multiplexing
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002 technology that provides circuits with a lower granularity than a
wavelength. (Not everyone needs a minimum of 10 Gbps or 40 Gbps per
More realistically, there is stillroom for a multiplexing technology circuit, and IP does not yet support all telecom applications in
that provides circuits with a lower granularity than a wavelength. bulk efficiently.)
(Not everyone needs a minimum of 10 Gbps or 40 Gbps per circuit, and
IP does not yet support all telecom applications in bulk
efficiently.)
SDH and SONET possess a rich multiplexing hierarchy that permits SDH and SONET possess a rich multiplexing hierarchy that permits
fairly fine granularity and that provides a very cheap and simple fairly fine granularity and that provides a very cheap and simple
physical separation of the transported traffic between circuits, physical separation of the transported traffic between circuits,
i.e., QoS. i.e., QoS. Moreover, even IP datagrams cannot be transported
Moreover, even IP datagrams are not transported directly over a directly over a wavelength. A framing or encapsulation is always
wavelength. A framing or encapsulation is always required to delimit required to delimit IP datagrams. The Total Length field of an IP
IP datagrams. The Total Length field of an IP header cannot be header cannot be trusted to find the start of a new datagram, since
trusted to find the start of a new datagram, since it could be it could be corrupted and would result in a loss of synchronization.
corrupted and would result in a loss of synchronization. The typical The typical framing used today for IP over DWDM is defined in
framing used today for IP over DWDM is defined in RFC1619/RFC2615 RFC1619/RFC2615 and known as POS (Packet Over SONET/SDH), i.e., IP
and known as POS (Packet Over SONET/SDH), i.e., IP over PPP (in over PPP (in HDLC-like format) over SDH/SONET. SDH and SONET are
HDLC-like format) over SDH/SONET. SDH and SONET are actually actually efficient encapsulations for IP. For instance, with an
efficient encapsulations for IP. For instance, with an average IP average IP datagram length of 350 octets, an IP over GBE
datagram length of 350 octets, an IP over GBE encapsulation using an encapsulation using an 8B/10B encoding results in 28% overhead, an
8B/10B encoding results in 28% overhead, an IP/ATM/SDH encapsulation
results in 22% overhead and an IP/PPP/SDH encapsulation results in Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 10
only 6% overhead. (New simplified encapsulations could reduce this GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
overhead to as low as 3%, but the gain is not huge compared to SDH
and SONET -, which have other benefits as well.) IP/ATM/SDH encapsulation results in 22% overhead and an IP/PPP/SDH
encapsulation results in only 6% overhead. (New simplified
encapsulations could reduce this overhead to as low as 3%, but the
gain is not huge compared to SDH and SONET, which have other
benefits as well.)
Any encapsulation of IP over WDM should at least provide error Any encapsulation of IP over WDM should at least provide error
monitoring capabilities (to detect signal degradation), error monitoring capabilities (to detect signal degradation), error
correction capabilities, such as FEC (Forward Error Correction) that correction capabilities, such as FEC (Forward Error Correction) that
are particularly needed for ultra long haul transmission, sufficient are particularly needed for ultra long haul transmission, sufficient
timing information, to allow robust synchronization (that is, to timing information, to allow robust synchronization (that is, to
detect the beginning of a packet), and capacity to transport detect the beginning of a packet), and capacity to transport
signaling, routing and management messages, in order to control the signaling, routing and management messages, in order to control the
optical switches. SDH and SONET cover all these aspects natively, optical switches. SDH and SONET cover all these aspects natively,
except FEC, which tends to be supported in a proprietary way. except FEC, which tends to be supported in a proprietary way.
skipping to change at line 589 skipping to change at line 576
signaling, routing and management messages, in order to control the signaling, routing and management messages, in order to control the
optical switches. SDH and SONET cover all these aspects natively, optical switches. SDH and SONET cover all these aspects natively,
except FEC, which tends to be supported in a proprietary way. except FEC, which tends to be supported in a proprietary way.
Since IP encapsulated in SDH/SONET is efficient and widely used, the Since IP encapsulated in SDH/SONET is efficient and widely used, the
only real difference between an IP over WDM network and an IP over only real difference between an IP over WDM network and an IP over
SDH over WDM network is the layers at which the switching or SDH over WDM network is the layers at which the switching or
forwarding can take place. In the first case, it can take place at forwarding can take place. In the first case, it can take place at
the IP and optical layers. In the second case, it can take place at the IP and optical layers. In the second case, it can take place at
the IP, SDH/SONET, and optical layers. the IP, SDH/SONET, and optical layers.
Almost all transmission networks today are based on SDH or SONET. A Almost all transmission networks today are based on SDH or SONET. A
client is connected either directly through an SDH or SONET client is connected either directly through an SDH or SONET
interface or through a PDH interface, the PDH signal being interface or through a PDH interface, the PDH signal being
transported between the ingress and the egress interfaces over SDH transported between the ingress and the egress interfaces over SDH
or SONET. What we are arguing here is that it makes sense to do or SONET. What we are arguing here is that it makes sense to do
switching or forwarding at all these layers. switching or forwarding at all these layers.
4. GMPLS Applied to SDH/SONET 4. GMPLS Applied to SDH/SONET
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 11
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
4.1. Controlling the SDH/SONET Multiplex 4.1. Controlling the SDH/SONET Multiplex
Controlling the SDH/SONET multiplex implies deciding which of the Controlling the SDH/SONET multiplex implies deciding which of the
different components of the SDH/SONET multiplex that can be switched different switchable components of the SDH/SONET multiplex do we
do we wish to control using GMPLSEssentially, every SDH/SONET wish to control using GMPLS. Essentially, every SDH/SONET element
element that is referenced by a pointer can be switched. These that is referenced by a pointer can be switched. These component
component signals are the VC-4, VC-3, VC-2, VC-12 and VC-11 in the signals are the VC-4, VC-3, VC-2, VC-12 and VC-11 in the SDH case;
SDH case; and the VT and STS SPEs in the SONET case. The SONET case and the VT and STS SPEs in the SONET case. The SONET case is a bit
is a bit difficult to explain since, unlike in SDH, SPEs in SONET do difficult to explain since, unlike in SDH, SPEs in SONET do not have
not have individual names. We will refer to them by identifying the individual names. We will refer to them by identifying the structure
structure that contains them, namely the STS-1, VT-6, VT-3, VT-2 and that contains them, namely the STS-1, VT-6, VT-3, VT-2 and VT-1.5.
VT-1.5.
The STS-1 SPE corresponds to a VC-3, a VT-6 SPE corresponds to a VC- The STS-1 SPE corresponds to a VC-3, a VT-6 SPE corresponds to a VC-
2, a VT-2 SPE corresponds to a VC-12, and a VT-1.5 SPE corresponds 2, a VT-2 SPE corresponds to a VC-12, and a VT-1.5 SPE corresponds
to a VC-11. The SONET VT-3 SPE has no correspondence in SDH, however to a VC-11. The SONET VT-3 SPE has no correspondence in SDH, however
SDH's VC-4 corresponds to SONET's STS-3c SPE. SDH's VC-4 corresponds to SONET's STS-3c SPE.
In addition, it is possible to concatenate some of the structures In addition, it is possible to concatenate some of the structures
that contain these elements to build larger elements. For instance, that contain these elements to build larger elements. For instance,
SDH allows the concatenation of X contiguous AU-4s to build a VC-4- SDH allows the concatenation of X contiguous AU-4s to build a VC-4-
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GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
Xc and of m contiguous TU-2s to build a VC-2-mc. In that case, a VC- Xc and of m contiguous TU-2s to build a VC-2-mc. In that case, a VC-
4-Xc or a VC-2-mc can be switched and controlled by MPLS. Note that 4-Xc or a VC-2-mc can be switched and controlled by MPLS. Note that
SDH also defines virtual (non-contiguous) concatenation of TU- 2s, SDH also defines virtual (non-contiguous) concatenation of TU- 2s,
but in that case each constituent VC-2 is switched individually. but in that case each constituent VC-2 is switched individually.
4.2. SDH/SONET LSR and LSP Terminology 4.2. SDH/SONET LSR and LSP Terminology
Let a SDH or SONET Terminal Multiplexer (TM), Add-Drop Multiplexer Let a SDH or SONET Terminal Multiplexer (TM), Add-Drop Multiplexer
(ADM) or cross-connect (i.e. a switch) be called an SDH/SONET LSR. A (ADM) or cross-connect (i.e. a switch) be called an SDH/SONET LSR. A
SDH/SONET path or circuit between two SDH/SONET LSRs now becomes a SDH/SONET path or circuit between two SDH/SONET LSRs now becomes a
skipping to change at line 653 skipping to change at line 641
To facilitate the signaling and setup of SDH/SONET circuits, an To facilitate the signaling and setup of SDH/SONET circuits, an
SDH/SONET LSRmust, therefore, identify each possible signal SDH/SONET LSRmust, therefore, identify each possible signal
individually per interface, since each signal corresponds to a individually per interface, since each signal corresponds to a
potential LSP that can be established through the SDH/SONET LSR. It potential LSP that can be established through the SDH/SONET LSR. It
turns out, however, that not all SDH signals correspond to an LSP turns out, however, that not all SDH signals correspond to an LSP
and therefore not all of them need be identified. In fact, only and therefore not all of them need be identified. In fact, only
those signals that can be switched need identification. those signals that can be switched need identification.
5. Decomposition of the MPLS Circuit-Switching Problem Space 5. Decomposition of the MPLS Circuit-Switching Problem Space
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 12
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
Although those familiar with MPLS may be familiar with its Although those familiar with MPLS may be familiar with its
application in a variety of application areas, e.g., ATM, Frame application in a variety of application areas, e.g., ATM, Frame
Relay, and so on, here we quickly review its decomposition when Relay, and so on, here we quickly review its decomposition when
applied to the optical switching problem space. applied to the optical switching problem space.
(i) Information needed to compute paths must be made globally (i) Information needed to compute paths must be made globally
available throughout the network. Since this is done via the link available throughout the network. Since this is done via the link
state routing protocol, any information of this nature must either state routing protocol, any information of this nature must either
be in the existing link state advertisements (LSAs) or the LSAs must be in the existing link state advertisements (LSAs) or the LSAs must
be supplemented to convey this information. For example, if it is be supplemented to convey this information. For example, if it is
desirable to offer different levels of service in a network based on desirable to offer different levels of service in a network based on
whether a circuit is routed over SDH/SONET lines that are ring whether a circuit is routed over SDH/SONET lines that are ring
protected versus being routed over those that are not ring protected protected versus being routed over those that are not ring protected
(differentiation based on reliability), the type of protection on (differentiation based on reliability), the type of protection on a
a SDH/SONET line would be an important topological parameter that SDH/SONET line would be an important topological parameter that
would have to be distributed via the link state routing protocol. would have to be distributed via the link state routing protocol.
(ii) Information that is only needed between two "adjacent" switches (ii) Information that is only needed between two "adjacent" switches
for the purposes of connection establishment is appropriate for for the purposes of connection establishment is appropriate for
distribution via one of the label distribution protocols. In fact, distribution via one of the label distribution protocols. In fact,
this information can be thought of as the "virtual" label. For this information can be thought of as the "virtual" label. For
example, in SONET networks, when distributing information to example, in SONET networks, when distributing information to
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 12
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
switches concerning an end-to-end STS-1 path traversing a network, switches concerning an end-to-end STS-1 path traversing a network,
it is critical that adjacent switches agree on the multiplex entry it is critical that adjacent switches agree on the multiplex entry
used by this STS-1 (but this information is only of local used by this STS-1 (but this information is only of local
significance between those two switches). Hence, the multiplex significance between those two switches). Hence, the multiplex entry
entry number in this case can be used as a virtual label. Note number in this case can be used as a virtual label. Note that the
that the label is virtual in that it is not appended to the payload label is virtual, in that it is not appended to the payload in any
in any way, but it is still a label in the sense that it uniquely way, but it is still a label in the sense that it uniquely
identifies the signal locally on the link between the two switches. identifies the signal locally on the link between the two switches.
(iii) Information that all switches in the path need to know about a (iii) Information that all switches in the path need to know about a
circuit will also be distributed via the label distribution circuit will also be distributed via the label distribution
protocol. Examples of such information include bandwidth, priority, protocol. Examples of such information include bandwidth, priority,
and preemption for instance. and preemption for instance.
(iv) Information intended only for end systems of the connection. (iv) Information intended only for end systems of the connection.
Some of the payload type information in may fall into this category. Some of the payload type information in may fall into this category.
[8],[10].
6. MPLS Routing for SDH/SONET 6. MPLS Routing for SDH/SONET
Modern transport networks based on SONET/SDH excel at Modern transport networks based on SONET/SDH excel at
interoperability in the performance monitoring (PM) and fault interoperability in the performance monitoring (PM) and fault
management (FM) areas., They do not, however, inter-operate in the management (FM) areas [10], [11]. They do not, however, inter-
areas of topology discovery or resource status. Although link state operate in the areas of topology discovery or resource status.
routing protocols, such as IS-IS and OSPF, have been used for some Although link state routing protocols, such as IS-IS and OSPF, have
time in the IP world to compute destination-based next hops for been used for some time in the IP world to compute destination-based
routes (without routing loops), their value in providing timely next hops for routes (without routing loops), they are particularly
topology and network status information in a distributed manner, valuable for providing timely topology and network status
i.e., at any network node, is immense. If resource utilization information in a distributed manner, i.e., at any network node. If
information is disseminated along with the link status (as was done resource utilization information is disseminated along with the link
in ATM's PNNI routing protocol) then a very complete picture of status (as was done in ATM's PNNI routing protocol) then a very
complete picture of network status is available to a network
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 13 operator for use in planning, provisioning and operations.
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
network status is available to a network operator for use in
planning, provisioning and operations.
The information needed to compute the path a connection will take The information needed to compute the path a connection will take
through a network is important to distribute via the routing through a network is important to distribute via the routing
protocol. In the optical TDM case, this information includes, but protocol. In the optical TDM case, this information includes, but
is not limited to: the available capacity of the network links, the is not limited to: the available capacity of the network links, the
switching and termination capabilities of the nodes and interfaces, switching and termination capabilities of the nodes and interfaces,
and the protection properties of the link. and the protection properties of the link. This is what is being
proposed in the GMPLS extensions to IP routing protocols [12], [13],
[14].
When applying routing to circuit switched networks it is useful to When applying routing to circuit switched networks it is useful to
compare and contrast this situation with the datagram routing case. compare and contrast this situation with the datagram routing case
In the case of routing datagrams all routes on all nodes must be [15]. In the case of routing datagrams, all routes on all nodes
calculated exactly the same to avoid loops and "black holes". In must be calculated exactly the same to avoid loops and "black
circuit switching, this is not the case since routes are established holes". In circuit switching, this is not the case since routes are
per circuit and are fixed for that circuit. Hence, unlike the established per circuit and are fixed for that circuit. Hence,
datagram case, routing is not service impacting in the circuit unlike the datagram case, routing is not service impacting in the
switched case. This is helpful, because to accommodate the optical circuit switched case. This is helpful, because, to accommodate the
layer routing protocols need to be supplemented with new optical layer, routing protocols need to be supplemented with new
information, much more than the datagram case. This information is information, much more than the datagram case. This information is
also likely to be used in different ways for implementing different also likely to be used in different ways for implementing different
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user services. Due to the increase in information transferred in user services. Due to the increase in information transferred in
the routing protocol, it is important to separate the relatively the routing protocol, it may be useful to separate the relatively
static parameters concerning a link from those that may be subject static parameters concerning a link from those that may be subject
to frequent changes. This is particularly important in the case of to frequent changes. The current GMPLS routing extensions
available capacity advertisements. [12],[13],[14] do not make such a separation, however.
6.1. Switching Capabilities 6.1. Switching Capabilities
The main switching capabilities that characterize a SONET/SDH end The main switching capabilities that characterize a SONET/SDH end
system and thus need to be advertised via the link state routing system and thus need to be advertised via the link state routing
protocol are: the switching granularity, supported forms of protocol are: the switching granularity, supported forms of
concatenation, and the level of transparency. concatenation, and the level of transparency.
6.1.1. Switching Granularity 6.1.1. Switching Granularity
From references [3], [4]and the overview section on SONET/SDH we see From references [4], [5] and the overview section on SONET/SDH we
that there are a number of different signals that compose the see that there are a number of different signals that compose the
SONET/SDH hierarchies. Those signals that are referenced via a SONET/SDH hierarchies. Those signals that are referenced via a
pointer, i.e., the VCs in SDH and the SPEs in SONET are those that pointer, i.e., the VCs in SDH and the SPEs in SONET are those that
will actually be switched within a SONET/SDH network. These signals will actually be switched within a SONET/SDH network. These signals
are subdivided into lower order signals and higher order signals as are subdivided into lower order signals and higher order signals as
shown in Table 2. shown in Table 2.
Table 2. SDH/SONET switched signal groupings. Table 2. SDH/SONET switched signal groupings.
Signal Type SDH SONET Signal Type SDH SONET
Lower Order VC-11, VC-12, VC-2 VT-1.5 SPE, VT-2 SPE, Lower Order VC-11, VC-12, VC-2 VT-1.5 SPE, VT-2 SPE,
VT-3 SPE, VT-6 SPE VT-3 SPE, VT-6 SPE
Higher VC-3, VC-4 STS-1 SPE Higher VC-3, VC-4 STS-1 SPE
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Order Order
Manufacturers today differ in the types of switching capabilities Manufacturers today differ in the types of switching capabilities
their systems support. Many manufacturers today switch signals their systems support. Many manufacturers today switch signals
starting at VC-4 for SDH or STS-1 for SONET (i.e. the basic starting at VC-4 for SDH or STS-1 for SONET (i.e. the basic frame)
frame) and above (see concatenation section), but they do not and above (see Section 6.1.2 on concatenation), but they do not
switch lower order signals. Some of them only allow the switching switch lower order signals. Some of them only allow the switching of
of entire aggregates (concatenated or not) of signals such as 16 VC- entire aggregates (concatenated or not) of signals such as 16 VC-4s,
4s, i.e. a complete STM-16, and nothing finer. Some go down to the i.e. a complete STM-16, and nothing finer. Some go down to the VC-3
VC-3 level for SDH. Finally, some offer highly integrated switches level for SDH. Finally, some offer highly integrated switches that
that switch at the VC-3/STS-1 level down to lower order signals such switch at the VC-3/STS-1 level down to lower order signals such as
as VC-12s. In order to cover the needs of all manufacturers and VC-12s. In order to cover the needs of all manufacturers and
operators, GMPLS must consider both higher order and lower order operators, GMPLS signaling [6],[7],[8] covers both higher order and
signals. lower order signals.
6.1.2. Signal Concatenation Capabilities 6.1.2. Signal Concatenation Capabilities
As stated in the SONET/SDH overview, to transport tributary signals As stated in the SONET/SDH overview, to transport tributary signals
with rates in excess of the basic STM-1/STS-1 signal, the VCs/SPEs with rates in excess of the basic STM-1/STS-1 signal, the VCs/SPEs
can be concatenated, i.e., glued together. Different types of can be concatenated, i.e., glued together. Different types of
concatenations are defined: contiguous standard concatenation, concatenations are defined: contiguous standard concatenation,
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arbitrary concatenation, and virtual concatenation with different arbitrary concatenation, and virtual concatenation with different
rules concerning their size, placement, and binding. rules concerning their size, placement, and binding.
Standard SONET concatenation allows the concatenation of M x STS-1 Standard SONET concatenation allows the concatenation of M x STS-1
signals within an STS-N signal with M <= N, and M = 3, 12, 48, signals within an STS-N signal with M <= N, and M = 3, 12, 48, 192,
192,...). The SPEs of these M x STS-1s can be concatenated to form ...). The SPEs of these M x STS-1s can be concatenated to form an
an STS-Mc. The STS-Mc notation is short hand for describing an STS-M STS-Mc. The STS-Mc notation is short hand for describing an STS-M
signal whose SPEs have been concatenated. The multiplexing signal whose SPEs have been concatenated. The multiplexing
procedures for SONET and SDH are given in references [3]and [4]. procedures for SDH and SONET are given in references [4] and [5],
Constraints are imposed on the size of STS-Mc signals, i.e., they respectively. Constraints are imposed on the size of STS-Mc signals,
must be a multiple of 3, and on their starting location and i.e., they must be a multiple of 3, and on their starting location
interleaving. and interleaving.
This has the following advantages: (a) restriction to multiples of 3 This has the following advantages: (a) restriction to multiples of 3
helps with SDH compatibility (there is no STS-1 equivalent signal in helps with SDH compatibility (there is no STS-1 equivalent signal in
SDH); (b) the restriction to multiples of 3 reduces the number of SDH); (b) the restriction to multiples of 3 reduces the number of
connection types; (c) the restriction on the placement and connection types; (c) the restriction on the placement and
interleaving could allow more compact representation of the "label"; interleaving could allow more compact representation of the "label";
The major disadvantages of these restrictions are: The major disadvantages of these restrictions are:
(a) Limited flexibility in bandwidth assignment (somewhat inhibits (a) Limited flexibility in bandwidth assignment (somewhat inhibits
finer grained traffic engineering). (b) The lack of flexibility in finer grained traffic engineering). (b) The lack of flexibility in
starting time slots for STS-Mc signals and in their interleaving starting time slots for STS-Mc signals and in their interleaving
(where the rest of the signal gets put in terms of STS-1 slot (where the rest of the signal gets put in terms of STS-1 slot
numbers) leads to the requirement for re-grooming (due to bandwidth numbers) leads to the requirement for re-grooming (due to bandwidth
fragmentation). fragmentation).
Due to these disadvantages some SONET framer manufacturers now Due to these disadvantages some SONET framer manufacturers now
support "flexible" or arbitrary concatenation, i.e., no restrictions support "flexible" or arbitrary concatenation, i.e., no restrictions
skipping to change at line 822 skipping to change at line 813
(where the rest of the signal gets put in terms of STS-1 slot (where the rest of the signal gets put in terms of STS-1 slot
numbers) leads to the requirement for re-grooming (due to bandwidth numbers) leads to the requirement for re-grooming (due to bandwidth
fragmentation). fragmentation).
Due to these disadvantages some SONET framer manufacturers now Due to these disadvantages some SONET framer manufacturers now
support "flexible" or arbitrary concatenation, i.e., no restrictions support "flexible" or arbitrary concatenation, i.e., no restrictions
on the size of an STS-Mc (as long as M <= N) and no constraints on on the size of an STS-Mc (as long as M <= N) and no constraints on
the STS-1 timeslots used to convey it, i.e., the signals can use any the STS-1 timeslots used to convey it, i.e., the signals can use any
combination of available time slots. combination of available time slots.
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Standard and flexible concatenations are network services, while Standard and flexible concatenations are network services, while
virtual concatenation is a SONET/SDH end-system service recently virtual concatenation is a SONET/SDH end-system service recently
approved by the committee T1 of ANSI and ITU-T. The essence of this approved by the committee T1 of ANSI and ITU-T. The essence of this
service is to have SONET/SDH end systems "glue" together the VCs or service is to have SONET/SDH end systems "glue" together the VCs or
SPEs of separate signals rather than requiring that he signals be SPEs of separate signals rather than requiring that he signals be
carried through the network as a single unit. In one example of carried through the network as a single unit. In one example of
virtual concatenation, two end systems supporting this feature could virtual concatenation, two end systems supporting this feature could
essentially "inverse multiplex" two STS-1s into a virtual STS-2c for essentially "inverse multiplex" two STS-1s into a virtual STS-2c for
the efficient transport of 100Mbps Ethernet traffic. Note that this the efficient transport of 100Mbps Ethernet traffic. Note that this
inverse multiplexing process can be significantly easier to inverse multiplexing process can be significantly easier to
implement with SONET/SDH signals rather than packets. Since virtual implement with SONET/SDH signals rather than packets. Since virtual
concatenationis provided by end systems, it is compatible with concatenationis provided by end systems, it is compatible with
existing SONET/SDH networks. Virtual concatenation is defined for existing SONET/SDH networks. Virtual concatenation is defined for
both higher order signals and low order signals. Table 3 shows the both higher order signals and low order signals. Table 3 shows the
nomenclature and capacity for several lower-order virtually nomenclature and capacity for several lower-order virtually
concatenated signals contained within different higher-order concatenated signals contained within different higher-order
signals. signals.
Table 3 Capacity of Virtually Concatenated VTn-Xv ( 9/G.707) Table 3 Capacity of Virtually Concatenated VTn-Xv ( 9/G.707)
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Carried In X Capacity In steps Carried In X Capacity In steps
of of
VT1.5/ STS-1/VC-3 1 to 28 1600kbit/s to 1600kbit/s VT1.5/ STS-1/VC-3 1 to 28 1600kbit/s to 1600kbit/s
VC-11-Xv 44800kbit/s VC-11-Xv 44800kbit/s
VT2/ STS-1/VC-3 1 to 21 2176kbit/s to 2176kbit/s VT2/ STS-1/VC-3 1 to 21 2176kbit/s to 2176kbit/s
VC-12-Xv 45696kbit/s VC-12-Xv 45696kbit/s
VT1.5/ STS-3c/VC-4 1 to 64 1600kbit/s to 1600kbit/s VT1.5/ STS-3c/VC-4 1 to 64 1600kbit/s to 1600kbit/s
skipping to change at line 866 skipping to change at line 857
VT2/ STS-3c/VC-4 1 to 63 2176kbit/s to 2176kbit/s VT2/ STS-3c/VC-4 1 to 63 2176kbit/s to 2176kbit/s
VC-12-Xv 137088kbit/s VC-12-Xv 137088kbit/s
6.1.3. SDH/SONET Transparency 6.1.3. SDH/SONET Transparency
The purposed of SONET/SDH is to carry its payload signals in a The purposed of SONET/SDH is to carry its payload signals in a
transparent manner. This can include some of the layers of SONET transparent manner. This can include some of the layers of SONET
itself. For example, situations where the path overhead can never be itself. For example, situations where the path overhead can never be
touched, since it actually belongs to the client. This was another touched, since it actually belongs to the client. This was another
reason for not coding an explicit label in SDH/SONET path overhead. reason for not coding an explicit label in the SDH/SONET path
It may be useful to transport, multiplex and/or switch lower layers overhead. It may be useful to transport, multiplex and/or switch
of the SONET signal transparently. lower layers of the SONET signal transparently.
As mentioned in the introduction, SONET overhead is broken into As mentioned in the introduction, SONET overhead is broken into
three layers: Section, Line and Path. Each of these layers is three layers: Section, Line and Path. Each of these layers is
concerned with fault and performance monitoring. The Section concerned with fault and performance monitoring. The Section
overhead is primarily concerned with framing, while the Line overhead is primarily concerned with framing, while the Line
overhead is primarily concerned with multiplexing and protection. overhead is primarily concerned with multiplexing and protection. To
To perform multiplexing, a SONET network element should be line perform multiplexing, a SONET network element should be line
terminating. However, not all SONET multiplexers/switches perform terminating. However, not all SONET multiplexers/switches perform
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SONET pointer adjustments on all the STS-1s contained within a SONET pointer adjustments on all the STS-1s contained within a
higher order SONET signal passing through them. Alternatively, if higher order SONET signal passing through them. Alternatively, if
they perform pointer adjustments, they do not terminate the line they perform pointer adjustments, they do not terminate the line
overhead. For example, a multiplexer may take four SONET STS-48 overhead. For example, a multiplexer may take four SONET STS-48
signals and multiplex them onto an STS-192 without performing signals and multiplex them onto an STS-192 without performing
standard line pointer adjustments on the individual STS-1s. This standard line pointer adjustments on the individual STS-1s. This
can be looked at as a service since it may be desirable to pass can be looked at as a service since it may be desirable to pass
SONET signals, like an STS-12 or STS-48, with some level of SONET signals, like an STS-12 or STS-48, with some level of
transparency through a network and still take advantage of TDM transparency through a network and still take advantage of TDM
technology. Transparent multiplexing and switching can also be technology. Transparent multiplexing and switching can also be
viewed as a constraint, since some multiplexers and switches may not viewed as a constraint, since some multiplexers and switches may not
switch with as fine a granularity as others. Table 4 summarizes the switch with as fine a granularity as others. Table 4 summarizes the
levels of SONET/SDH transparency. levels of SONET/SDH transparency.
Table 4. SONET/SDH transparency types and their properties. Table 4. SONET/SDH transparency types and their properties.
Transparency Type Comments Transparency Type Comments
Path Layer (or Line Standard higher order SONET path Path Layer (or Line Standard higher order SONET path
Terminating) switching. Line overhead is terminated Terminating) switching. Line overhead is terminated
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or modified. or modified.
Line Level (or Section Preserves line overhead and switches Line Level (or Section Preserves line overhead and switches
Terminating) the entire line multiplex as a whole. Terminating) the entire line multiplex as a whole.
Section overhead is terminated or Section overhead is terminated or
modified. modified.
Section layer Preserves all section overhead, Section layer Preserves all section overhead,
Basically does not touch any of the Basically does not touch any of the
SONET/SDH bits. SONET/SDH bits.
6.2. Protection 6.2. Protection
SONET and SDH networks offer a variety of protection options at both SONET and SDH networks offer a variety of protection options at both
the SONET line (SDH multiplex section) and SONET/SDH path the SONET line (SDH multiplex section) and SONET/SDH path level
level[5][6]. Standardized SONET line level protection techniques [10],[11]. Standardized SONET line level protection techniques
include Linear 1+1 and Linear 1:N automatic protection switching include: Linear 1+1 and linear 1:N automatic protection switching
(APS) and both two-fiber and four-fiber bi-directional line switched (APS) and both two-fiber and four-fiber bi-directional line switched
rings (BLSRs). At the path layer, SONET offers uni-directional path rings (BLSRs). At the path layer, SONET offers uni-directional path
switched ring protection. Both ring and 1:N line protection also switched ring protection. Both ring and 1:N line protection also
allow for "extra traffic" to be carried over the protection line allow for "extra traffic" to be carried over the protection line
when that line is not being used, i.e., when it is not carrying when that line is not being used, i.e., when it is not carrying
traffic for a failed working line. These protection methods are traffic for a failed working line. These protection methods are
summarized in Table 5. It should be noted that these protection summarized in Table 5. It should be noted that these protection
methods are completely separate from any MPLS layer protection or methods are completely separate from any MPLS layer protection or
restoration mechanisms. restoration mechanisms.
Table 5. Common SONET/SDH protection mechanisms. Table 5. Common SONET/SDH protection mechanisms.
Protection Type Extra Comments Protection Type Extra Comments
Traffic Traffic
Optionally Optionally
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Supported Supported
1+1 No Requires no coordination 1+1 No Requires no coordination
Unidirectional between the two ends of the Unidirectional between the two ends of the
circuit. Dedicated circuit. Dedicated
protection line. protection line.
1+1 Bi- No Coordination via K byte 1+1 Bi- No Coordination via K byte
directional protocol. Lines must be directional protocol. Lines must be
consistently configured. consistently configured.
Dedicated protection line. Dedicated protection line.
1:1 Yes Dedicated protection. 1:1 Yes Dedicated protection.
1:N Yes One Protection line shared 1:N Yes One Protection line shared
by N working lines. by N working lines
4F-BLSR (4 Yes Dedicated protection, with 4F-BLSR (4 Yes Dedicated protection, with
fiber bi- alternative ring path. fiber bi- alternative ring path.
directional directional
line switched line switched
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ring) ring)
2F-BLSR (2 Yes Dedicated protection, with 2F-BLSR (2 Yes Dedicated protection, with
fiber bi- alternative ring path fiber bi- alternative ring path
directional directional
line switched line switched
ring) ring)
UPSR (uni- No Dedicated protection via UPSR (uni- No Dedicated protection via
directional alternative ring path. directional alternative ring path.
path switched Typically used in access path switched Typically used in access
ring) networks. ring) networks.
It may be desirable to route some connections over lines that It may be desirable to route some connections over lines that
support protection of a given type, while others may be routed over support protection of a given type, while others may be routed over
unprotected lines, or as "extra traffic" over protection lines. unprotected lines, or as "extra traffic" over protection lines.
Also, to assist in the configuration of these various protection Also, to assist in the configuration of these various protection
methods it can be extremely valuable to advertise the link methods it can be extremely valuable to advertise the link
protection attributes in the routing protocol. For example suppose protection attributes in the routing protocol, as is done in the
that a 1:N protection group is being configured via two nodes. One current GMPLS routing protocols. For example, suppose that a 1:N
must make sure that the lines are "numbered the same" with respect protection group is being configured via two nodes. One must make
to both ends of the connection or else the APS (K1/K2 byte) protocol sure that the lines are "numbered the same" with respect to both
will not correctly operate. ends of the connection or else the APS (K1/K2 byte) protocol will
not correctly operate.
Table 6. Parameters defining protection mechanisms. Table 6. Parameters defining protection mechanisms.
Protection Comments Protection Comments
Related Link Related Link
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Information Information
Protection Type Indicates which of the protection types Protection Type Indicates which of the protection types
delineated in Table 5. delineated in Table 5.
Protection Indicates which of several protection Protection Indicates which of several protection
Group Id groups (linear or ring) that a node belongs Group Id groups (linear or ring) that a node belongs
to. Must be unique for all groups that a to. Must be unique for all groups that a
node participates in node participates in
skipping to change at line 1011 skipping to change at line 999
number between working and protection lines number between working and protection lines
Protection line Used to indicate if the line is a Protection line Used to indicate if the line is a
number protection line. number protection line.
Extra Traffic Yes or No Extra Traffic Yes or No
Supported Supported
Layer If this protection parameter is specific to Layer If this protection parameter is specific to
SONET then this parameter is unneeded, SONET then this parameter is unneeded,
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otherwise it would indicate the signal otherwise it would indicate the signal
layer that the protection is applied. layer that the protection is applied.
An open issue concerning protection is the extent of information An open issue concerning protection is the extent of information
regarding protection that must be disseminated. The contents of regarding protection that must be disseminated. The contents of
Table 6 represent one extreme whilea simple enumerated list of: Table 6 represent one extreme whilea simple enumerated list of:
Extra-Traffic/Protection line, Unprotected, Shared (1:N)/Working Extra-Traffic/Protection line, Unprotected, Shared (1:N)/Working
line, Dedicated (1:1, 1+1)/Working Line, Enhanced (Ring) /Working line, Dedicated (1:1, 1+1)/Working Line, Enhanced (Ring) /Working
Line, represents the other. Line, represents the other.
There is also a potential implication for link bundling, that is, There is also a potential implication for link bundling [16], that
for each link, the routing protocol could advertise whether that is, for each link, the routing protocol could advertise whether that
link is a working or protection link and possibly some parameters link is a working or protection link and possibly some parameters
from Table 6. A possible drawback of this scheme is that the routing from Table 6. A possible drawback of this scheme is that the routing
protocol would be burdened with advertising properties even for protocol would be burdened with advertising properties even for
those protection links in the network that could not, in fact, be those protection links in the network that could not, in fact, be
used for routing working traffic, e.g., dedicated protection links. used for routing working traffic, e.g., dedicated protection links.
An alternative method, would be to bundle the working and protection An alternative method would be to bundle the working and protection
links together, and advertise the bundle instead. Now, for each links together, and advertise the bundle instead. Now, for each
bundled link, the protocol would have to advertise the amount of bundled link, the protocol would have to advertise the amount of
bandwidth available on its working links, as well as the amount of bandwidth available on its working links, as well as the amount of
bandwidth available on those protection links within the bundle that bandwidth available on those protection links within the bundle that
were capable of carrying "extra traffic." This would reduce the were capable of carrying "extra traffic." This would reduce the
amount of information to be advertised. An issue here would be to amount of information to be advertised. An issue here would be to
decide which types of working and protection links to bundle decide which types of working and protection links to bundle
together. For instance, it might be preferable to bundle working together. For instance, it might be preferable to bundle working
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links (and their corresponding protection links) that are "shared" links (and their corresponding protection links) that are "shared"
protected separately from working links that are "dedicated" protected separately from working links that are "dedicated"
protected. protected.
6.3. Available Capacity Advertisement 6.3. Available Capacity Advertisement
Each SDH/SONET LSR must maintain an internal table per interface Each SDH/SONET LSR must maintain an internal table per interface
that indicates each signal in the multiplex structure that is that indicates each signal in the multiplex structure that is
allocated at that interface. This internal table is the most allocated at that interface. This internal table is the most
complete and accurate view of the link usage and available capacity. complete and accurate view of the link usage and available capacity.
skipping to change at line 1067 skipping to change at line 1055
information is updated, the percentage of connection establishments information is updated, the percentage of connection establishments
that are unsuccessful on their first attempt due to the granularity that are unsuccessful on their first attempt due to the granularity
of the advertised information, and the extent to which network of the advertised information, and the extent to which network
resources can be optimized. There are different levels of resources can be optimized. There are different levels of
summarization that are being considered today for the available summarization that are being considered today for the available
capacity information. At one extreme, all signals that are allocated capacity information. At one extreme, all signals that are allocated
on an interface could be advertised, while at the other extreme, a on an interface could be advertised, while at the other extreme, a
single aggregated value of the available bandwidth per link could be single aggregated value of the available bandwidth per link could be
advertised. advertised.
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Consider first the relatively simple structure of SONET and its most Consider first the relatively simple structure of SONET and its most
common current and planned usage. DS1s and DS3s are the signals most common current and planned usage. DS1s and DS3s are the signals most
often carried within a SONET STS-1. Either a single DS3 occupies often carried within a SONET STS-1. Either a single DS3 occupies
the STS-1 or up to 28 DS1s (4 each within the 7 VT groups) are the STS-1 or up to 28 DS1s (4 each within the 7 VT groups) are
carried within the STS-1. With a reasonable VT1.5 placement carried within the STS-1. With a reasonable VT1.5 placement
algorithm within each node it may be possible to just report on algorithm within each node it may be possible to just report on
aggregate bandwidth usage in terms of number of whole STS-1s aggregate bandwidth usage in terms of number of whole STS-1s
(dedicated to DS3s) used and the number of STS-1s dedicated to (dedicated to DS3s) used and the number of STS-1s dedicated to
carrying DS1s allocated for this purpose. This way a network carrying DS1s allocated for this purpose. This way a network
optimization program could try to determine the optimal placement of optimization program could try to determine the optimal placement of
DS3s and DS1s to minimize wasted bandwidth due to half-empty STS-1s DS3s and DS1s to minimize wasted bandwidth due to half-empty STS-1s
at various places within the transport network. Similarly consider at various places within the transport network. Similarly consider
the set of super rate SONET signals (STS-Nc). If the links between the set of super rate SONET signals (STS-Nc). If the links between
the two switches support flexible concatenation then the reporting the two switches support flexible concatenation then the reporting
is particularly straightforward since any of the STS-1s within an is particularly straightforward since any of the STS-1s within an
STS-M can be used to comprise the transported STS- Nc. However, if STS-M can be used to comprise the transported STS- Nc. However, if
only standard concatenation is supported then reporting gets only standard concatenation is supported then reporting gets
trickier since there are constraints on where the STS-1s can be trickier since there are constraints on where the STS-1s can be
placed. SDH has still more options and constraints, hence it is not placed. SDH has still more options and constraints, hence it is not
yet clear which is the best way to advertise bandwidth resource yet clear which is the best way to advertise bandwidth resource
availability/usage in SONET/SDH. However, due to the multiplexed availability/usage in SONET/SDH. At present, the GMPLS routing
nature of the signals reporting of bandwidth particular to signal protocol extensions define minimum and maximum values for available
types rather than as a single aggregate bit rate is highly bandwidth, which allows a remote node to make some deductions about
desirable. the amount of capacity available at a remote link and the types of
signals it can accommodate. However, due to the multiplexed nature
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 20 of the signals, the authors are of the opinion that reporting of
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002 bandwidth particular to signal types rather than as a single
aggregate bit rate is probably very desirable.
6.4. Path Computation 6.4. Path Computation
Although a link state routing protocol can be used to obtain network Although a link state routing protocol can be used to obtain network
topology and resource information, this does not imply the use of an topology and resource information, this does not imply the use of an
"open shortest path first" route. The path must be open in the sense "open shortest path first" route [9]. The path must be open in the
that the links must be capable of supporting the desired signal type sense that the links must be capable of supporting the desired
and that capacity must be available to carry the signal. Other signal type and that capacity must be available to carry the
constraints may include hop count, total delay (mostly propagation), signal. Other constraints may include hop count, total delay
and underlying protection.In addition, it may be desirable to route (mostly propagation), and underlying protection. In addition, it may
traffic in order to optimize overall network capacity, or be desirable to route traffic in order to optimize overall network
reliability, or some combination of the two. Dikstra's algorithm capacity, or reliability, or some combination of the two. Dikstra's
computes the shortest path with respect to link weights for a single algorithm computes the shortest path with respect to link weights
connection at a time. This can be much different than the paths that for a single connection at a time. This can be much different than
would be selected in response to a request to set up a batch of the paths that would be selected in response to a request to set up
connections between a set of endpoints in order to optimize network a batch of connections between a set of endpoints in order to
link utilization. One can think of this along the lines of global or optimize network link utilization. One can think of this along the
local optimization of the network in time. lines of global or local optimization of the network in time.
Due to the complexity of some of the connectionrouting algorithms Due to the complexity of some of the connectionrouting algorithms
(high dimensionality, non-linear integer programming problems) and (high dimensionality, non-linear integer programming problems) and
various criteria by which one may optimize a network, it may not be various criteria by which one may optimize a network, it may not be
possible or desirable to run these algorithms on network nodes. possible or desirable to run these algorithms on network nodes.
However, it may still be desirable to have some basic path However, it may still be desirable to have some basic path
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 20
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
computation ability running on the network nodes, particularly for computation ability running on the network nodes, particularly for
use during restoration situations. Such an approach is in line use during restoration situations. Such an approach is in line with
with the use of MPLS for traffic engineering, but is much the use of MPLS for traffic engineering, but is much different than
different than typical OSPF or IS-IS usage where all nodes must typical OSPF or IS-IS usage where all nodes must run the same
run the same routing algorithm. routing algorithm.
7. LSP Provisioning/Signaling for SDH/SONET 7. LSP Provisioning/Signaling for SDH/SONET
Traditionally, end-to-end circuit connections in SDH/SONET networks Traditionally, end-to-end circuit connections in SDH/SONET networks
have been set up via network management systems (NMSs), which issue have been set up via network management systems (NMSs), which issue
commands (usually under the control of a human operator) to the commands (usually under the control of a human operator) to the
various network elements involved in the circuit, via an equipment various network elements involved in the circuit, via an equipment
vendor's element management system (EMS). Very little multi-vendor vendor's element management system (EMS). Very little multi-vendor
interoperability has been achieved via management systems. Hence, interoperability has been achieved via management systems. Hence,
end-to-end circuits in a multi-vendor environment typically require end-to-end circuits in a multi-vendor environment typically require
skipping to change at line 1146 skipping to change at line 1142
LDP appropriately extended for circuit switching applications, could LDP appropriately extended for circuit switching applications, could
therefore help to solve these interoperability problems. In this therefore help to solve these interoperability problems. In this
section, we examine the various components involved in the automated section, we examine the various components involved in the automated
provisioning of SONET/SDH LSPs. provisioning of SONET/SDH LSPs.
7.1.1. What do we Label in SDH/SONET? Frames or Circuits? 7.1.1. What do we Label in SDH/SONET? Frames or Circuits?
MPLS was initially introduced to control asynchronous technologies MPLS was initially introduced to control asynchronous technologies
like IP, where a label was attached to each individual block of like IP, where a label was attached to each individual block of
data, such as an IP packet or a Frame Relay frame. SONET and SDH, data, such as an IP packet or a Frame Relay frame. SONET and SDH,
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 21
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
however, are synchronous technologies that define a multiplexing however, are synchronous technologies that define a multiplexing
structure (see Section 3.2), which we referred to as the SDH (or structure (see Section 3), which we referred to as the SDH (or
SONET) multiplex. This multiplex involves a hierarchy of signals, SONET) multiplex. This multiplex involves a hierarchy of signals,
lower order signals embedded within successive higher order ones lower order signals embedded within successive higher order ones
(see Fig. 1). Thus, depending on its level in the hierarchy, each (see Fig. 1). Thus, depending on its level in the hierarchy, each
signal consists of frames that repeat periodically, with a certain signal consists of frames that repeat periodically, with a certain
number of byte time slots per frame. number of byte time slots per frame.
The question then arises: is it these frames that we label in GMPLS? The question then arises: is it these frames that we label in GMPLS?
It will be seen in what follows that each SONET or SDH "frame" It will be seen in what follows that each SONET or SDH "frame"
need not have its own label, nor is it necessary to switch frames need not have its own label, nor is it necessary to switch frames
individually. Rather, the unit that is switched is a "flow" individually. Rather, the unit that is switched is a "flow"
skipping to change at line 1174 skipping to change at line 1166
SDH signal, and a label associated with each given signal. SDH signal, and a label associated with each given signal.
For instance, the payload of an SDH STM-1 frame does not fully For instance, the payload of an SDH STM-1 frame does not fully
contain a complete unit of user data. In fact, the user data is contain a complete unit of user data. In fact, the user data is
contained in a virtual container (VC) that is allowed to float over contained in a virtual container (VC) that is allowed to float over
two contiguous frames for synchronization purposes. A pointer in the two contiguous frames for synchronization purposes. A pointer in the
Section Overhead (SOH) indicates the beginning of the VC in the Section Overhead (SOH) indicates the beginning of the VC in the
payload. Thus, frames are now inter-related, since each consecutive payload. Thus, frames are now inter-related, since each consecutive
pair may share a common virtual container. From the point of view of pair may share a common virtual container. From the point of view of
GMPLS, therefore, it is not the successive frames that are treated GMPLS, therefore, it is not the successive frames that are treated
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 21
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
independently or labeled, but rather the entire user signal. An independently or labeled, but rather the entire user signal. An
identical argument applies to SONET. identical argument applies to SONET.
Observe also that the GMPLS signaling used to control the SDH/SONET Observe also that the GMPLS signaling used to control the SDH/SONET
multiplex must honor its hierarchy. In other words, the SDH/SONET multiplex must honor its hierarchy. In other words, the SDH/SONET
layer should not be viewed as homogeneous and flat, because this layer should not be viewed as homogeneous and flat, because this
would limit the scope of the services that SDH/SONET can provide. would limit the scope of the services that SDH/SONET can provide.
Instead, GMPLS tunnels should be used to dynamically and Instead, GMPLS tunnels should be used to dynamically and
hierarchically control the SDH/SONET multiplex. For example, one hierarchically control the SDH/SONET multiplex. For example, one
unstructured VC-4 LSP may be established between two nodes, and unstructured VC-4 LSP may be established between two nodes, and
later lower order LSPs (e.g. VC-12) may be created within that later lower order LSPs (e.g. VC-12) may be created within that
higher order LSP. This VC-4 LSP can, in fact, be established higher order LSP. This VC-4 LSP can, in fact, be established
between two non-adjacent internal nodes in an SDH network, and between two non-adjacent internal nodes in an SDH network, and later
later advertised by a routing protocol as a new (virtual) link advertised by a routing protocol as a new (virtual) link called a
called a Forwarding Adjacency (FA). Forwarding Adjacency (FA).
A SONET/SDH-LSR will have to identify each possible signal A SONET/SDH-LSR will have to identify each possible signal
individually per interface to fulfill the GMPLS operations. In order individually per interface to fulfill the GMPLS operations. In order
to stay transparent the LSR obviously should not touch the SONET/SDH to stay transparent the LSR obviously should not touch the SONET/SDH
overheads; this is why an explicit label is not encoded in the overheads; this is why an explicit label is not encoded in the
SDH/SONET overheads. Rather, a label is associated with each SDH/SONET overheads. Rather, a label is associated with each
individual signal. This approach is similar to the one considered individual signal. This approach is similar to the one considered
for lambda switching, except that it is more complex, since SONET for lambda switching, except that it is more complex, since SONET
and SDH define a richer multiplexing structure. Therefore a label and SDH define a richer multiplexing structure. Therefore a label
is associated with each signal, and is locally unique for each is associated with each signal, and is locally unique for each
signal at each interface. This signal could, and will most probably, signal at each interface. This signal could, and will most probably,
occupy different time-slots at different interfaces. occupy different time-slots at different interfaces.
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GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
7.2. Label Structure in SDH/SONET 7.2. Label Structure in SDH/SONET
The signaling protocol used to establish an SDH/SONET LSP must have The signaling protocol used to establish an SDH/SONET LSP must have
specific information elements in it to map a label to the particular specific information elements in it to map a label to the particular
signal type that it represents, and to the position of that signal signal type that it represents, and to the position of that signal
in the SONET/SDH multiplex. As we will see shortly, with a in the SONET/SDH multiplex. As we will see shortly, with a
carefully chosen label structure, the label itself can be made to carefully chosen label structure, the label itself can be made to
function as this information element. function as this information element.
In general, there are two ways to assign labels for signals between In general, there are two ways to assign labels for signals between
neighboring SDH/SONET LSRs. One way is for the labels to be neighboring SDH/SONET LSRs. One way is for the labels to be
allocated completely independently of any SDH/SONET semantics; e.g. allocated completely independently of any SDH/SONET semantics; e.g.
labels could just be unstructured 16 or 32 bit numbers. In that labels could just be unstructured 16 or 32 bit numbers. In that
case, in the absence of appropriate binding information, a label case, in the absence of appropriate binding information, a label
gives no visible information about the flow that it represents. From gives no visible information about the flow that it represents. From
a management and debugging point of view, therefore, it becomes a management and debugging point of view, therefore, it becomes
difficult to match a label with the corresponding signal, since , as difficult to match a label with the corresponding signal, since , as
we saw in Section 7.1.1, the label is not coded in the SDH/SONET we saw in Section 7.1.1, the label is not coded in the SDH/SONET
overhead of the signal. overhead of the signal.
Another way is to use the welldefined and finite structure of the Another way is to use the well-defined and finite structure of the
SDH/SONET multiplexing tree to devise a signal numbering scheme that SDH/SONET multiplexing tree to devise a signal numbering scheme that
makes use of the multiplex as a naming tree, and assigns each makes use of the multiplex as a naming tree, and assigns each
multiplex entry a unique associated value. This allows the unique multiplex entry a unique associated value. This allows the unique
identification of each multiplex entry (signal) in terms of its type identification of each multiplex entry (signal) in terms of its type
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 22
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
and position in the multiplex tree. By using this multiplex entry and position in the multiplex tree. By using this multiplex entry
value itself as the label, we automatically add SDH/SONET semantics value itself as the label, we automatically add SDH/SONET semantics
to the label! Thus, simply by examining the label, one can now to the label! Thus, simply by examining the label, one can now
directly deduce the signal that it represents, as well as its directly deduce the signal that it represents, as well as its
position in the SDH/SONET multiplex. We refer to this as position in the SDH/SONET multiplex. We refer to this as
multiplex-based labeling. This is the idea that was incorporated in multiplex-based labeling. This is the idea that was incorporated in
the GMPLS signaling specifications [7]. the GMPLS signaling specifications for SDH/SONET [17].
7.3. Signaling Elements 7.3. Signaling Elements
In the preceding sections, we defined the meaning of a SDH/SONET In the preceding sections, we defined the meaning of a SDH/SONET
label and specified its structure. A question that arises naturally label and specified its structure. A question that arises naturally
at this point is the following. In an LSP or connection setup at this point is the following. In an LSP or connection setup
request, how do we specify the signal for which we want to establish request, how do we specify the signal for which we want to establish
a path (and for which we desire a label)? a path (and for which we desire a label)?
Clearly, information that is required to completely specify the Clearly, information that is required to completely specify the
desired signal and its characteristics must be transferred via the desired signal and its characteristics must be transferred via the
label distribution protocol, so that the switches along the path can label distribution protocol, so that the switches along the path can
be configured to correctly handle and switch the signal. This be configured to correctly handle and switch the signal. This
information is specified in three parts, each of which refers to a information is specified in three parts [17], each of which refers
different network layer. to a different network layer.
The first specifies the nature/type of the LSP or the desired The first specifies the nature/type of the LSP or the desired
SDH/SONET channel, in terms of the particular signal (or collection SDH/SONET channel, in terms of the particular signal (or collection
of signals) within the SDH/SONET multiplex that the LSP represents, of signals) within the SDH/SONET multiplex that the LSP represents,
and is used by all the nodes along the path of the LSP. and is used by all the nodes along the path of the LSP.
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GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
The second specifies the payload carried by the LSP or SDH/SONET The second specifies the payload carried by the LSP or SDH/SONET
channel, in terms of the termination and adaptation functions channel, in terms of the termination and adaptation functions
required at the end points, and is used by the source and required at the end points, and is used by the source and
destination nodes of the LSP. destination nodes of the LSP.
The third specifies certain link selection constraints, which The third specifies certain link selection constraints, which
control, at each hop, the selection of the underlying link that is control, at each hop, the selection of the underlying link that is
used to transport this LSP. used to transport this LSP.
8. Summary and Conclusions 8. Summary and Conclusions
We provided a detailed account of the issues involved in applying We provided a detailed account of the issues involved in applying
MPLS-based control to TDM networks. MPLS-based control to TDM networks.
We began with a brief overview of MPLS and SDH/SONET networks, We began with a brief overview of MPLS and SDH/SONET networks,
discussing current circuit establishment in TDM networks, and discussing current circuit establishment in TDM networks, and
arguing why SDH/SONET technologies will not be "outdated" in the arguing why SDH/SONET technologies will not be "outdated" in the
foreseeable future. We then looked at MPLS applied to SDH/SONET foreseeable future. Next, we looked at MPLS applied to SDH/SONET
networks, where we considered why such an application makes sense, networks, where we considered why such an application makes sense,
and reviewed some MPLS terminology as applied to TDM networks. We and reviewed some MPLS terminology as applied to TDM networks. We
then considered the two main areas of application of MPLS methods to considered the two main areas of application of MPLS methods to TDM
TDM networks, namely routing and signaling. We considered in detail networks, namely routing and signaling. We reviewed in detail the
the switching capabilities of TDM equipment, and the requirement to switching capabilities of TDM equipment, and the requirement to
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 23
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
learn about the protection capabilities of underlying links, and how learn about the protection capabilities of underlying links, and how
these influence the available capacity advertisement in TDM these influence the available capacity advertisement in TDM
networks. We focused briefly on path computation methods, pointing networks. We focused briefly on path computation methods, pointing
out that these were not subject to standardization. We then examined out that these were not subject to standardization. We then examined
optical path provisioning or signaling, considering the issue of optical path provisioning or signaling, considering the issue of
what constitutes an appropriate label for TDM circuits, how this what constitutes an appropriate label for TDM circuits and how this
label should be structured, and we focused on the importance of label should be structured, and we focused on the importance of
hierarchical label allocation in a TDM network. We then reviewed the hierarchical label allocation in a TDM network. Finally, we reviewed
signaling elements involved when setting up an optical TDM circuit, the signaling elements involved when setting up an optical TDM
focusing on the nature of the LSP, the type of payload it carries, circuit, focusing on the nature of the LSP, the type of payload it
and the characteristics of the links that the LSP wishes to use at carries, and the characteristics of the links that the LSP wishes to
each hop along its path, for achieving a certain reliability. use at each hop along its path for achieving a certain reliability.
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
This draft raises no new security issues in the MPLS specifications. This draft raises no new security issues in the MPLS specifications.
10.References 10.Acknowledgments
[1] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3",
BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 24
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
[3] Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Basic Description including
Multiplex Structure, Rates, and Formats, ANSI T1.105-1995.
[4] G.707, Network Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy (SDH), International Telecommunication Union, 03/96.
[5] ANSI T1.105.01-1995, Synchronous Opical Network (SONET)
Automatic Protection Switching, American National Standards
institute.
[6] G.841, Types and Characteristics of SDH Network Protection
Architectures, ITU-T, 07/95.
[7] Peter Ashwood-Smith and Lou Berger, Editors, "Generalized MPLS:
Signaling Functional Description," Internet Draft,draft-ietf-mpls-
generalized-signaling-04.txt, Work in Progress, May 2001.
[8] E. Mannie, Editor, "GMPLS Extensions for SONET and SDH
Control", Internet Draft, draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-sonet-sdh-01.txt,
Work in Progress, June 2001.
[9] E. Mannie, Greg Bernstein "Extensions to OSPF and IS-IS in
support of MPLS for SDH/SONET Control", Internet Draft, Work in
Progress, draft-mannie-mpls-sdh-ospf-isis-00.txt, July 2000.
11.Acknowledgments
We acknowledge all the participants of the MPLS and CCAMP WGs, whose We acknowledge all the participants of the MPLS and CCAMP WGs, whose
constant enquiry about GMPLS issues in TDM networks motivated the constant enquiry about GMPLS issues in TDM networks motivated the
writing of this document, and whose questions helped shape its writing of this document, and whose questions helped shape its
contents. contents. Also, thanks to Kireeti Kompella for his careful reading
of the last version of this draft, and for his helpful comments and
feedback.
12.Author's Addresses 11.Author's Addresses
Greg Bernstein Greg Bernstein
Ciena Corporation Ciena Corporation
10480 Ridgeview Court 10480 Ridgeview Court
Cupertino, CA 94014 Cupertino, CA 94014
Phone: +1 510 573-2237 Phone: +1 510 573-2237
E-mail: greg@ciena.com E-mail: greg@ciena.com
Eric Mannie Eric Mannie
EBONE KPNQwest
Terhulpsesteenweg 6A Terhulpsesteenweg 6A
1560 Hoeilaart - Belgium 1560 Hoeilaart - Belgium
Phone: +32 2 658 56 52 Phone: +32 2 658 56 52
Mobile: +32 496 58 56 52 Mobile: +32 496 58 56 52
Fax: +32 2 658 51 18 Fax: +32 2 658 51 18
E-mail: eric.mannie@ebone.com E-mail: eric.mannie@kpnqwest.com
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 25
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET February 2002
Vishal Sharma Vishal Sharma
Metanoia, Inc. Metanoia, Inc.
305 Elan Village Lane, Unit 121 305 Elan Village Lane, Unit 121
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
Phone: +1 408 955 0910 Phone: +1 408 955 0910
Email: v.sharma@ieee.org Email: v.sharma@ieee.org
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 24
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
"Copyright (C) The Internet Society (date). All Rights Reserved. "Copyright (C) The Internet Society (date). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implmentation may be prepared, copied, published or assist in its implmentation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into followed, or as required to translate it into
12.References
[1] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP
9, RFC 2026, October 1996.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[3] Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and Callon, R., "Multiprotocol Label
Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, January 2001.
[4] G.707, Network Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy (SDH), International Telecommunication Union, 03/96.
[5] Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Basic Description including
Multiplex Structure, Rates, and Formats, ANSI T1.105-1995.
[6] Berger, L. (Editor), "Generalized MPLS - - Signaling Functional
Description," Internet Draft, Work in Progress, draft-ietf-mpls-
generalized-signaling-08.txt, April 2002.
[7] Berger, L. (Editor), "Generalized MPLS Signaling - - RSVP-TE
Extensions," Internet Draft, Work in Progress, draft-ietf-mpls-
generalized-rsvp-te-07.txt, April 2002.
[8] Berger, L. (Editor), "Generalized MPLS Signaling - - CR-LDP
Extensions," Internet Draft, Work in Progress, draft-ietf-mpls-
generalized-cr-ldp-06.txt, April 2002.
[9] Bernstein, G., Yates, J., Saha, D., "IP-Centric Control and
Management of Optical Transport Networks," IEEE Communications
Mag., Vol. 40, Issue 10, October 2000.
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 25
GMPLS based Control of SDH/SONET May 2002
[10] ANSI T1.105.01-1995, Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
Automatic Protection Switching, American National Standards
Institute.
[11] G.841, Types and Characteristics of SDH Network Protection
Architectures, ITU-T, 07/95.
[12] Kompella, K., et al, "Routing Extensions in Support of
Generalize MPLS, " Internet Draft, Work-in-Progress, draft-ietf-
ccamp-gmpls-routing-04.txt, April 2002.
[13] Kompella, K., et al, "OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalize
MPLS," Internet Draft, Work-in-Progress, draft-ietf-ccamp-ospf-
extensions-07.txt, May 2002.
[14] Kompella, K., et al, "IS-IS Extensions in Support of Generalize
MPLS," Internet Draft, Work-in-Progress, draft-ietf-isis-gmpls-
extensions-12.txt, May 2002.
[15] Bernstein, G., Sharma, V., Ong, L., ææInter-domain Optical
Routing,ÆÆ OSA J. of Optical Networking, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 80-92.
[16] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., and Berger, L., "Link Bundling in
MPLS Traffic Engineering", Internet Draft, Work-in-Progress,
draft-kompella-mpls-bundle-05.txt, Feb. 2001.
[17] Mannie, E. (Editor), "GMPLS Extensions for SONET and SDH
Control", Internet Draft, Work-in-Progress, draft-ietf-ccamp-
gmpls-sonet-sdh-04.txt, April 2002.
Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 26 Bernstein, Mannie, Sharma Informational- Expires August 2002 26
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