draft-ietf-cdni-control-triggers-03.txt   draft-ietf-cdni-control-triggers-04.txt 
Network Working Group R. Murray Network Working Group R. Murray
Internet-Draft B. Niven-Jenkins Internet-Draft B. Niven-Jenkins
Intended status: Standards Track Velocix (Alcatel-Lucent) Intended status: Standards Track Velocix (Alcatel-Lucent)
Expires: January 3, 2015 July 2, 2014 Expires: March 7, 2015 September 3, 2014
CDNI Control Interface / Triggers CDNI Control Interface / Triggers
draft-ietf-cdni-control-triggers-03 draft-ietf-cdni-control-triggers-04
Abstract Abstract
This document describes the part of the CDN Interconnect Control This document describes the part of the CDN Interconnection Control
Interface that allows a CDN to trigger activity in an interconnected Interface that allows a CDN to trigger activity in an interconnected
CDN that is configured to deliver content on its behalf. The CDN that is configured to deliver content on its behalf. The
upstream CDN can use this mechanism to request that the downstream upstream CDN can use this mechanism to request that the downstream
CDN pre-positions metadata or content, or that it re-validate or CDN pre-positions metadata or content, or that it invalidates or
purge metadata or content. The upstream CDN can monitor the status purges metadata or content. The upstream CDN can monitor the status
of activity that it has triggered in the downstream CDN. of activity that it has triggered in the downstream CDN.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 42 skipping to change at page 1, line 42
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 7, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Model for CDNI Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Model for CDNI Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Timing of Triggered Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1. Timing of Triggered Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2. Trigger Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2. Trigger Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Collections of Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Collections of Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. CDNI Trigger interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. CDNI Trigger Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Creating Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1. Creating Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2. Checking Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2. Checking Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2.1. Polling Trigger Status Resource collections . . . . . 11 4.2.1. Polling Trigger Status Resource collections . . . . . 10
4.2.2. Polling Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2.2. Polling Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3. Deleting Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3. Cancelling Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.4. Expiry of Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4. Deleting Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.5. Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.5. Expiry of Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Properties of Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.6. Loop Detection and Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. Properties of Trigger Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.7. Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1.1. Content URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.8. Content URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. Properties of Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . 15 5. CI/T Object Properties and Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3. Properties of ErrorDesc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1. CI/T Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.4. Properties of Trigger Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.1.1. CI/T Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.5. Trigger Resource Simple Data Type Descriptions . . . . . 17 5.1.2. Trigger Status Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.5.1. TriggerType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.1.3. Trigger Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.5.2. TriggerStatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2. Properties of CI/T Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.5.3. URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2.1. Trigger Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.5.4. AbsoluteTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2.2. Trigger Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.5.5. ErrorCode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2.3. Trigger Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. JSON Encoding of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.2.4. PatternMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.1. JSON Encoding of Embedded Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2.5. Absolute Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1.1. TriggerType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2.6. Error Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1.2. TriggerStatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2.7. Error Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.1.3. PatternMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.1.4. ErrorDesc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6.1. Creating Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.1.5. ErrorCode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.1.1. Preposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.2. MIME Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.1.2. Invalidate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.2. Examining Trigger Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.1. Creating Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.2.1. Collection of All Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.1.1. Preposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.2.2. Filtered Collections of Triggers . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.1.2. Invalidate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6.2.3. Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.2. Examining Trigger Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.2.4. Polling for Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.2.1. Collection of All Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.2.5. Removing a Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.2.2. Filtered Collections of Triggers . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.2.6. Error Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.2.3. Trigger Status Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2.4. Polling for Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.1. Media type registrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2.5. Cancelling or Removing a Trigger . . . . . . . . . . 33 7.1.1. CI/T Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2.6. Error Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1.2. CI/T Trigger Status Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.1.3. CI/T Trigger Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1. CI/T MIME Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8.1. Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity Protection . . 39
9.1. Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity Protection . . 36 8.2. Denial of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9.2. Denial of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
[RFC6707] introduces the Problem scope for CDN Interconnection (CDNI) [RFC6707] introduces the problem scope for CDN Interconnection (CDNI)
and lists the four categories of interfaces that may be used to and lists the four categories of interfaces that may be used to
compose a CDNI solution (Control, Metadata, Request Routing, compose a CDNI solution (Control, Metadata, Request Routing,
Logging). Logging).
[I-D.ietf-cdni-framework] expands on the information provided in [RFC7336] expands on the information provided in [RFC6707] and
[RFC6707] and describes each of the interfaces and the relationships describes each of the interfaces and the relationships between them
between them in more detail. in more detail.
This document describes the "CI/T" interface, "CDNI Control interface This document describes the "CI/T" interface, "CDNI Control interface
/ Triggers". It does not consider those parts of the control / Triggers". It does not consider those parts of the control
interface that relate to configuration, bootstrapping or interface that relate to configuration, bootstrapping or
authentication of CDN Interconnect interfaces. Requirements for CI/T authentication of CDN Interconnect interfaces. Section 4 of
are the "High" and "Medium" priority requirements for the CI [RFC7337] identifies the requirements specific to the CI interface,
identified in section 4 of [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements], reproduced requirements applicable to the CI/T interface are CI-1 to CI-6.
here for convenience:
CI-1 [HIGH] The CDNI Control interface shall allow the Upstream
CDN to request that the Downstream CDN, including downstream
cascaded CDNs, delete an object or set of objects and/or its CDNI
metadata from the CDN surrogates and any storage. Only the
object(s) and CDNI metadata that pertain to the requesting
Upstream CDN are allowed to be purged.
CI-2 [MED] The CDNI Control interface should allow for multiple
content items identified by a Content Collection ID to be purged
using a single Content Purge action.
CI-3 [MED] The CDNI Control interface should allow the Upstream
CDN to request that the Downstream CDN, including downstream
cascaded CDNs, mark an object or set of objects and/or its CDNI
metadata as "stale" and revalidate them before they are delivered
again.
CI-4 [HIGH] The CDNI Control interface shall allow the Downstream
CDN to report on the completion of these actions (by itself, and
including downstream cascaded CDNs, in a manner appropriate for
the action (e.g. synchronously or asynchronously). The
confirmation receipt should include a success or failure
indication. The failure indication along with the reason are used
if the Downstream CDN cannot delete the content in its storage.
CI-5 [MED] The CDNI Control interface should support initiation
and control by the Upstream CDN of pre-positioned CDNI metadata
acquisition by the Downstream CDN.
CI-6 [MED] The CDNI Control interface should support initiation
and control by the Upstream CDN of pre-positioned content
acquisition by the Downstream CDN.
o Section 2 outlines the model for the CI/T Interface at a high o Section 2 outlines the model for the CI/T Interface at a high
level. level.
o Section 3 describes collections of Trigger Resources. o Section 3 describes collections of Trigger Status Resources.
o Section 4 defines the web service provided by the dCDN. o Section 4 defines the web service provided by the dCDN.
o Section 5 lists properties of Trigger Requests and Status o Section 5 lists properties of CI/T Commands and Status Resources.
Resources.
o Section 6 defines a JSON encoding for Trigger Requests and Status
Resources.
o Section 7 contains example messages. o Section 6 contains example messages.
1.1. Terminology 1.1. Terminology
This document reuses the terminology defined in [RFC6707]. This document reuses the terminology defined in [RFC6707].
2. Model for CDNI Triggers 2. Model for CDNI Triggers
A trigger, sent from the uCDN to the dCDN, is a request for dCDN to A trigger, sent from the uCDN to the dCDN, is a request for the dCDN
do some work relating to data originating from the uCDN. to do some work relating to data originating from the uCDN.
The trigger may request action on either metadata or content, the The trigger can request action on either metadata or content, the
following actions can be requested: following actions can be requested:
o preposition - used to instruct the dCDN to fetch metadata from the o preposition - used to instruct the dCDN to fetch metadata from the
uCDN, or content from any origin including the uCDN. uCDN, or content from any origin including the uCDN.
o invalidate - used to instruct the dCDN to revalidate specific o invalidate - used to instruct the dCDN to revalidate specific
metadata or content before re-using it. metadata or content before re-using it.
o purge - used to instruct the dCDN to delete specific metadata or o purge - used to instruct the dCDN to delete specific metadata or
content. content.
Multiple representations of an HTTP resource may share the same URL.
Requests to invalidate and purge metadata or content apply to all
resource representations with matching URLs.
The CI/T interface is a web service offered by the dCDN. It allows The CI/T interface is a web service offered by the dCDN. It allows
creation and deletion of triggers, and tracking of the triggered creation and deletion of triggers, and tracking of the triggered
activity. When the dCDN accepts a trigger it creates a resource activity. When the dCDN accepts a trigger it creates a resource
describing status of the triggered activity, a Trigger Status describing status of the triggered activity, a Trigger Status
Resource. The uCDN MAY poll Trigger Status Resources to monitor Resource. The uCDN can poll Trigger Status Resources to monitor
progress. progress.
Requests to invalidate and purge metadata or content apply to all
variants of that data with a given URI.
The dCDN maintains a collection of Trigger Status Resources for each The dCDN maintains a collection of Trigger Status Resources for each
uCDN, each uCDN only has access to its own collection and the uCDN, each uCDN only has access to its own collection and the
location of that collection is shared when CDN interconnection is location of that collection is shared when CDN interconnection is
established. established.
To trigger activity in the dCDN, the uCDN will POST to the collection To trigger activity in the dCDN, the uCDN POSTs a CI/T Command to the
of Trigger Status Resources. If the dCDN accepts the trigger, it collection of Trigger Status Resources. If the dCDN accepts the
creates a new Trigger Status Resource and returns its location to the trigger, it creates a new Trigger Status Resource and returns its
uCDN. To monitor progress, the uCDN MAY GET the Trigger Status location to the uCDN. To monitor progress, the uCDN can GET the
Resource. To cancel a trigger, or remove a trigger from the Trigger Status Resource. To request cancellation of a trigger the
collection once its activity has been completed, the uCDN MAY DELETE uCDN can POST to the collection of Trigger Status Resources, or
the Trigger Status Resource. simply DELETE the Trigger Status Resource.
In addition to the collection of all Trigger Status Resources for In addition to the collection of all Trigger Status Resources for the
uCDN, uCDN has access to filtered views of that collection. These uCDN, the dCDN can maintain filtered views of that collection. These
filtered views are defined in Section 3 and include collections of filtered views are defined in Section 3 and include collections of
active and completed triggers. These collections provide a mechanism active and completed triggers. These collections provide a mechanism
for polling the status of multiple jobs. for polling the status of multiple jobs.
Figure 1 is an example showing the basic message flow used by the Figure 1 is an example showing the basic message flow used by the
uCDN to trigger activity in dCDN, and for uCDN to discover the status uCDN to trigger activity in the dCDN, and for the uCDN to discover
of that activity. Only successful triggering is shown. Examples of the status of that activity. Only successful triggering is shown.
the messages are given in Section 7. Examples of the messages are given in Section 6.
uCDN dCDN uCDN dCDN
| (1) POST http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/uCDN | | (1) POST http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/uCDN |
[ ] --------------------------------------------------> [ ]--+ [ ] --------------------------------------------------> [ ]--+
| [ ] | (2) | [ ] | (2)
| (3) HTTP 201 Response [ ]<-+ | (3) HTTP 201 Response [ ]<-+
[ ] <-------------------------------------------------- [ ] [ ] <-------------------------------------------------- [ ]
| Loc: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/uCDN/123 | | Loc: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/uCDN/123 |
| | | |
. . . . . .
skipping to change at page 6, line 31 skipping to change at page 5, line 36
| [ ] | [ ]
| (5) HTTP 200 Trigger Status Resource [ ] | (5) HTTP 200 Trigger Status Resource [ ]
[ ] <-------------------------------------------------- [ ] [ ] <-------------------------------------------------- [ ]
| | | |
| | | |
Figure 1: Basic CDNI Message Flow for Triggers Figure 1: Basic CDNI Message Flow for Triggers
The steps in Figure 1 are: The steps in Figure 1 are:
1. uCDN triggers action in the dCDN by posting to a collection of 1. The uCDN triggers action in the dCDN by posting a CI/T Command to
Trigger Status Resources, "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/ a collection of Trigger Status Resources,
uCDN". The URL of this was given to the uCDN when the trigger "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/uCDN". The URL of this was
interface was established. given to the uCDN when the trigger interface was established.
2. dCDN authenticates the request, validates the trigger and if it 2. The dCDN authenticates the request, validates the trigger and if
accepts the request, creates a new Trigger Status Resource. it accepts the request, creates a new Trigger Status Resource.
3. dCDN responds to the uCDN with an HTTP 201 response status, and 3. The dCDN responds to the uCDN with an HTTP 201 response status,
the location of the Trigger Status Resource. and the location of the Trigger Status Resource.
4. uCDN may repeatedly poll the Trigger Status Resource in the dCDN. 4. The uCDN can repeatedly poll the Trigger Status Resource in the
dCDN.
5. dCDN responds with the Trigger Status Resource, describing 5. The dCDN responds with the Trigger Status Resource, describing
progress or results of the triggered activity. progress or results of the triggered activity.
The remainder of this document describes the messages, Trigger Status The remainder of this document describes the messages, Trigger Status
Resources, and collections of Trigger Status Resources in more Resources, and collections of Trigger Status Resources in more
detail. detail.
2.1. Timing of Triggered Activity 2.1. Timing of Triggered Activity
Timing of triggered activity is under the dCDN's control, including Timing of the execution of triggered activity is under the dCDN's
its start-time and pacing of the activity in the network. control, including its start-time and pacing of the activity in the
network.
Invalidate and purge triggers MUST be applied to all data acquired Invalidate and purge triggers MUST be applied to all data acquired
before the trigger was created in the dCDN. The dCDN may apply the before the trigger was created in the dCDN. The dCDN MAY apply the
triggers to data acquired after trigger creation. triggers to data acquired after trigger creation.
If the uCDN wishes to invalidate or purge content, then immediately If the uCDN wishes to invalidate or purge content, then immediately
pre-position replacement content at the same URLs, it SHOULD ensure pre-position replacement content at the same URLs, it SHOULD ensure
the dCDN has completed the invalidate/purge before initiating the the dCDN has completed the invalidate/purge before initiating the
prepositioning. Otherwise, the dCDN may pre-position the new content prepositioning. Otherwise, there is a risk that the dCDN pre-
then immediately invalidate or purge it (as a result of the two uCDN positions the new content, then immediately invalidates or purges it
requests running in parallel). (as a result of the two uCDN requests running in parallel).
2.2. Trigger Results 2.2. Trigger Results
Each Trigger Request may operate on multiple data items. The trigger Each trigger can operate on multiple metadata and content URLs. The
MUST NOT be reported as "complete" unless all actions can be trigger MUST NOT be reported as "complete" until all actions have
completed successfully, otherwise it MUST be reported as "failed" or been completed successfully. The reasons for failure, and URLs or
"processed". The reasons for failure and URLs or Patterns affected Patterns affected, SHOULD be enumerated in the Trigger Status
SHOULD be enumerated in the Trigger Status Resource. For more Resource. For more detail, see section Section 4.7.
detail, see section Section 4.5.
If a dCDN is also acting as a uCDN in a cascade, it MUST forward If a dCDN is also acting as a uCDN in a cascade, it MUST forward
triggers to any downstream CDNs that may have data affected by the triggers to any downstream CDNs that may have data affected by the
trigger. The trigger MUST NOT be reported as complete in a CDN until trigger. The trigger MUST NOT be reported as 'complete' in a CDN
it is complete in all of its downstream CDNs. A trigger MAY be until it is 'complete' in all of its downstream CDNs. If a trigger
reported as failed as soon as it fails in a CDN or in any of its is reported as 'processed' in any dCDN, intermediate CDNs MUST NOT
downstream CDNs. report 'complete', instead they must also report 'processed'. A
trigger MAY be reported as 'failed' as soon as it fails in a CDN or
in any of its downstream CDNs. A cancelled trigger MUST be reported
as 'cancelling' until it has been reported as 'cancelled',
'complete', or 'failed' by all dCDNs in a cascade.
3. Collections of Trigger Status Resources 3. Collections of Trigger Status Resources
As described in Section 2, Trigger Status Resources exist in dCDN to As described in Section 2, Trigger Status Resources exist in the dCDN
report the status of activity triggered by each uCDN. to report the status of activity triggered by each uCDN.
A collection of Trigger Status Resources is a resource that contains A collection of Trigger Status Resources is a resource that contains
a reference to each Trigger Status Resource in that collection. a reference to each Trigger Status Resource in that collection.
To trigger activity in the dCDN, the uCDN creates a new Trigger The dCDN MUST make a collection of a uCDN's Trigger Status Resources
Status Resource by posting to the dCDN's collection of uCDN's Trigger available to that uCDN. This collection includes all of the uCDN
Status Resources. The URL of each Trigger Status Resource is triggers that have been accepted by the dCDN, and have not yet been
generated by the dCDN when it accepts the trigger, and returned to deleted by the uCDN, or expired and removed by the dCDN (as described
the uCDN. This immediately enables the uCDN to check the status of in section Section 4.4). Trigger Status Resources belonging to a
that trigger. uCDN MUST NOT be visible to any other CDN. The dCDN could, for
example, achieve this by offering different collection URLs to each
The dCDN MUST present a different set of Trigger Status Resources to uCDN, or by filtering the response based on the client uCDN.
each interconnected uCDN. Trigger Status Resources belonging to a
uCDN MUST NOT be visible to any other client. The dCDN may, for
example, achieve this by offering different collection URLs to uCDNs,
or by filtering the response based on the client uCDN.
The dCDN resource representing the collection of all the uCDN's To trigger activity in a dCDN, or to cancel triggered activity, the
Trigger Status Resources is accessible to the uCDN. This collection uCDN POSTs a CI/T Command to the dCDN's collection of the uCDN's
lists all of the uCDN triggers that have been accepted by the dCDN, Trigger Status Resources.
and have not yet been deleted by the uCDN, or expired and removed by
the dCDN (as described in section Section 4.3).
In order to allow the uCDN to check status of multiple jobs in a In order to allow the uCDN to check the status of multiple jobs in a
single request, the dCDN SHOULD also maintain collections single request, the dCDN SHOULD also maintain collections
representing filtered views of the collection of all Trigger Status representing filtered views of the collection of all Trigger Status
Resources. The filtered collections are: Resources. If it implements these filtered collections, the dCDN
MUST include links to them in the collection of all triggers. The
filtered collections are:
o Pending - Trigger Status Resources for triggers that have been o Pending - Trigger Status Resources for triggers that have been
accepted, but not yet acted upon. accepted, but not yet acted upon.
o Active - Trigger Status Resources for triggered activity that is o Active - Trigger Status Resources for triggered activity that is
currently being processed in the dCDN. currently being processed in the dCDN.
o Complete - Trigger Status Resources representing activity that o Complete - Trigger Status Resources representing activity that
completed successfully, or for which no further status updates completed successfully and 'processed' triggers for which no
will be made by the dCDN. further status updates will be made by the dCDN.
o Failed - Trigger Status Resources representing activity that o Failed - Trigger Status Resources representing activity that
failed. failed or was cancelled by the uCDN.
4. CDNI Trigger interface 4. CDNI Trigger Interface
This section describes an interface to enable an upstream CDN to This section describes an interface to enable an upstream CDN to
trigger defined activities in a downstream CDN. The interface is trigger activity in a downstream CDN.
intended to be independent of the set of activities defined now, or
that may be defined in future.
CI/T is built on the principles of RESTful web services. Requests Requests are made over HTTP, and the HTTP Method defines the
are made over HTTP, and the HTTP Method defines the operation the operation the request would like to perform. The corresponding HTTP
request would like to perform. The corresponding HTTP Response Response returns the status of the operation in the HTTP Status Code
returns the status of the operation in the HTTP Status Code and and returns the current representation of the resource (if
returns the current representation of the resource (if appropriate) appropriate) in the Response Body. HTTP Responses from dCDNs
in the Response Body. HTTP Responses from servers implementing CI/T implementing CI/T that contain a response body SHOULD include an ETag
that contain a response body SHOULD include an ETag to enable to enable validation of cached versions of returned resources.
validation of cached versions of returned resources.
Servers implementing CI/T MUST support the HTTP GET, HEAD, POST and All dCDNs implementing CI/T MUST support the HTTP GET, HEAD, POST and
DELETE methods as defined in [RFC7231]. The only representation DELETE methods as defined in [RFC7231]. The only representation
specified in this document is JSON, [RFC7159]. specified in this document is JSON, [RFC7159].
The URL of the dCDN's collections of Trigger Status Resources need to The URL of the dCDN's collection of all Trigger Status Resources
be either discovered by, or configured in, the uCDN. The mechanism needs to be either discovered by, or configured in, the uCDN. The
for discovery of those URLs is outside the scope of this document. mechanism for discovery of that URL is outside the scope of this
document.
Trigger Requests are POSTed to the dCDN's collection of all Trigger CI/T Commands are POSTed to the dCDN's collection of all Trigger
Status Resources. If the trigger is accepted by the dCDN, it creates Status Resources. If a command to create a new trigger is accepted
a new Trigger Status Resource and returns its URI to the dCDN in an by the dCDN, it creates a new Trigger Status Resource and returns its
HTTP 201 response. The triggered activity can then be monitored by URI to the dCDN in an HTTP 201 response. The triggered activity can
the uCDN using that resource and the collections described in then be monitored by the uCDN using that resource and the collections
Section 3. described in Section 3.
The URI of each Trigger Status Resource is returned to the uCDN when The URI of each Trigger Status Resource is returned to the uCDN when
it is created. This means all Trigger Status Resources can be it is created. This means all Trigger Status Resources can be
discovered, so CI/T servers are free to assign whatever structure discovered, so dCDNs are free to assign whatever structure they
they desire to the URIs for CI/T resources. CI/T clients MUST NOT desire to the URIs for CI/T resources. Therefore uCDNs MUST NOT make
make any assumptions regarding the structure of CI/T URIs or the any assumptions regarding the structure of CI/T URIs or the mapping
mapping between CI/T objects and their associated URIs. Therefore between CI/T objects and their associated URIs. URIs present in the
any URIs present in the examples below are purely illustrative and examples in this document are purely illustrative and are not
are not intended to impose a definitive structure on CI/T interface intended to impose a definitive structure on CI/T interface
implementations. implementations.
The CI/T interface builds on top of HTTP, so CI/T servers may make The CI/T interface builds on top of HTTP, so dCDNs may make use of
use of any HTTP feature when implementing the CI/T interface. For any HTTP feature when implementing the CI/T interface. For example,
example, a CI/T server may make use of HTTP's caching mechanisms to a dCDN SHOULD make use of HTTP's caching mechanisms to indicate that
indicate that a requested response/representation has not been a requested response/representation has not been modified, reducing
modified, reducing the processing needed to determine whether the the uCDN's processing needed to determine whether the status of
status of triggered activity has changed. triggered activity has changed.
This specification is neutral with regard to the transport below the
HTTP layer.
The dCDN MUST ensure that activity triggered by the uCDN only affects The dCDN MUST ensure that activity triggered by the uCDN only affects
metadata or content originating from that uCDN. Since only one CDN metadata or content originating from that uCDN.
can be authoritative for a given item of metadata or content, this
requirement means there cannot be any "loops" in trigger requests
between CDNs.
4.1. Creating Triggers 4.1. Creating Triggers
To create a new trigger, the uCDN makes an HTTP POST to the To create a new trigger, the uCDN makes an HTTP POST to the dCDN's
unfiltered collection of its triggers. The request body of that POST collection of all of the uCDN's Trigger Status Resources. The
is a Trigger Request. request body of that POST is a CI/T Command with a "trigger", as
described in Section 5.1.1.
The dCDN validates and authenticates that request, if it is malformed The dCDN validates and authenticates that request, if it is malformed
or the uCDN does not have sufficient access rights it MAY reject the or the uCDN does not have sufficient access rights it MUST either
request immediately. In this case, it MUST respond with an respond with an appropriate 4xx HTTP error code and a resource MUST
appropriate 4xx HTTP error code and a resource MUST NOT be created on NOT be created on the dCDN, or create a 'failed' Trigger Status
dCDN. Resource containing an appropriate error description.
If the request is accepted, the uCDN MUST create a new Trigger Status If the request is accepted, the uCDN MUST create a new Trigger Status
Resource. The HTTP response to the dCDN MUST have status code 201 Resource. The HTTP response to the dCDN MUST have status code 201
and the URI of the Trigger Status Resource in the Location header and the URI of the Trigger Status Resource in the Location header
field. The HTTP response SHOULD include the content of the newly field. The HTTP response SHOULD include the content of the newly
created Trigger Status Resource, this is recommended particularly in created Trigger Status Resource, this is recommended particularly in
cases where the trigger has completed immediately. cases where the trigger has completed immediately.
Once a Trigger Status Resource has been created the dCDN MUST NOT re- Once a Trigger Status Resource has been created the dCDN MUST NOT re-
use its location, even after that resource has been removed. use its location, even after that resource has been removed.
The "request" property of the Trigger Status Resource contains the The "trigger" property of the Trigger Status Resource contains the
information posted in the body of the Trigger Request. Note that Trigger Specification posted in the body of the CI/T Command. Note
this need not be a byte-for-byte copy. For example, in the JSON that this need not be a byte-for-byte copy. For example, in the JSON
representation the dCDN may re-serialise the information differently. representation the dCDN may re-serialise the information differently.
If the dCDN is not able to track triggered activity, it MUST indicate If the dCDN is not able to track the execution of triggered activity,
that indicate that it has accepted the request but will not be it MUST indicate that it has accepted the request but will not be
providing further status updates. To do this, it sets the "status" providing further status updates. To do this, it sets the "status"
of the Trigger Status Resource to "processed". In this case, CI/T of the Trigger Status Resource to "processed". In this case, CI/T
processing should continue as for a "complete" request, so the processing should continue as for a "complete" request, so the
Trigger Status Resource MUST be added to the dCDN's collection of Trigger Status Resource MUST be added to the dCDN's collection of
Complete Triggers. The dCDN SHOULD also provide an estimated Complete Triggers. The dCDN SHOULD also provide an estimated
completion time for the request, by using the "etime" property of the completion time for the request, by using the "etime" property of the
Trigger Status Resource. This will allow the uCDN to schedule Trigger Status Resource. This will allow the uCDN to schedule
prepositioning after an earlier delete of the same URLs is expected prepositioning after an earlier delete of the same URLs is expected
to have finished. to have finished.
If the dCDN is able to track triggered activity, the trigger is If the dCDN is able to track the execution of triggered activity, the
queued by the dCDN for later action, the "status" property of the trigger is queued by the dCDN for later action, the "status" property
Trigger Status Resource MUST be "pending". Once trigger processing of the Trigger Status Resource MUST be "pending". Once trigger
has started the "status" MUST be "active". Finally, once the processing has started the "status" MUST be "active". Finally, once
triggered activity is complete, the trigger status MUST be set to the triggered activity is complete, the trigger status MUST be set to
"complete" or "failed". "complete" or "failed".
A trigger may result in no activity in the dCDN if, for example, it A trigger may result in no activity in the dCDN if, for example, it
is an invalidate or purge request for data the dCDN has not yet is an invalidate or purge request for data the dCDN has not yet
acquired, or a prepopulate request for data it has already acquired acquired, or a prepopulate request for data it has already acquired
and which is still valid. In this case, the "status" of the Trigger and which is still valid. In this case, the "status" of the Trigger
Status Resource MUST be "processed" or "complete", and the Trigger Status Resource MUST be "processed" or "complete", and the Trigger
Status Resource MUST be added to the dCDN's collection of Complete Status Resource MUST be added to the dCDN's collection of Complete
Triggers. Triggers.
Once created, Trigger Status Resources may be deleted by the uCDN but Once created, Trigger Status Resources can be cancelled or deleted by
not modified. The dCDN MUST reject PUT and POST requests from the the uCDN, but not modified. The dCDN MUST reject PUT and POST
uCDN to Trigger Status Resources using HTTP status code 403. requests from the uCDN to Trigger Status Resources by responding with
an appropriate HTTP status code.
4.2. Checking Status 4.2. Checking Status
The uCDN has two ways to check progress of activity it has triggered The uCDN has two ways to check progress of activity it has triggered
in the dCDN, described in the following sections. in the dCDN, described in sections Section 4.2.1 and Section 4.2.2.
To check for change in status of a resource or collection of To check for change in status of a resource or collection of
resources without re-fetching the whole resource or collection, resources without re-fetching the whole resource or collection,
Entity Tags SHOULD be used by the uCDN as cache validators, as Entity Tags SHOULD be included by the dCDN for the uCDN to use as
defined in [RFC7232]. cache validators, as defined in [RFC7232].
The dCDN SHOULD use the cache control headers for responses to GETs The dCDN SHOULD use the cache control headers for responses to GETs
for Trigger Status Resources and Collections to indicate the for Trigger Status Resources and Collections to indicate the
frequency at which it recommends uCDN should poll for change. frequency at which it recommends the uCDN should poll for change.
4.2.1. Polling Trigger Status Resource collections 4.2.1. Polling Trigger Status Resource collections
The uCDN can fetch the collection of its Trigger Status Resources, or The uCDN can fetch the collection of its Trigger Status Resources, or
filtered views of that collection. filtered views of that collection.
This makes it possible to poll status of all triggered activity in a This makes it possible to poll status of all triggered activity in a
single request. If the dCDN moves a Trigger Status Resource from the single request. If the dCDN moves a Trigger Status Resource from the
Active to the Completed collection, the uCDN may chose to fetch the Active to the Completed collection, the uCDN can fetch the result of
result of that activity. that activity.
When polling in this way, the uCDN SHOULD use HTTP Entity Tags to When polling in this way, the uCDN SHOULD use HTTP Entity Tags to
monitor for change, rather than repeatedly fetching the whole monitor for change, rather than repeatedly fetching the whole
collection. collection.
4.2.2. Polling Trigger Status Resources 4.2.2. Polling Trigger Status Resources
The uCDN has a reference (URI provided by the dCDN) for each Trigger The uCDN has a URI provided by the dCDN for each Trigger Status
Status Resource it has created, it may fetch that resource at any Resource it has created, it may fetch that resource at any time.
time.
This MAY be used to retrieve progress information, and to fetch the This can be used to retrieve progress information, and to fetch the
result of triggered activity. result of triggered activity.
4.3. Deleting Triggers When polling in this way, the uCDN SHOULD use HTTP Entity Tags to
monitor for change, rather than repeatedly fetching the Trigger
Status Resource.
The uCDN MAY delete Trigger Status Resources at any time, using the 4.3. Cancelling Triggers
HTTP DELETE method.
The uCDN can request cancellation of a trigger by POSTing a Trigger
"cancel" Command to the collection of all triggers.
The uCDN should respond to that command appropriately, for example
with HTTP status code 200 "OK" if the cancellation has been processed
and the trigger is inactive, 202 "Accepted" if the command has been
accepted but the trigger remains active, or 403 "Forbidden" if
cancellation is not supported by the dCDN.
If cancellation of a "pending" Trigger Status Resource is accepted by
the dCDN, the dCDN SHOULD NOT start processing of that activity.
Cancelling a "pending" trigger does not however guarantee that not
activity is started, because the uCDN cannot control the timing of
that activity. Processing could, for example, start after the POST
is sent by the uCDN but before that request is processed by the dCDN.
If cancellation of an "active" or "processed" Trigger Status Resource
is accepted by the dCDN, the dCDN SHOULD stop processing the
triggered activity. However, as with cancellation of a "pending"
trigger, the dCDN does not guarantee this.
If the triggered activity cannot be stopped immediately, the
trigger's status MUST be set to "cancelling" and the Trigger Status
Resource remains in the collection of active triggers. If processing
is stopped before normal completion, the trigger's status MUST be set
to "cancelled" and included in the collection of failed triggers.
Cancellation of a "complete" or "failed" Trigger Status Resource
requires no processing in the dCDN, its status MUST NOT be changed to
"cancelled".
4.4. Deleting Triggers
The uCDN can delete Trigger Status Resources at any time, using the
HTTP DELETE method. The effect is similar to cancellation, but no
Trigger Status Resource remains afterwards.
Once deleted, the references to a Trigger Status Resource MUST be Once deleted, the references to a Trigger Status Resource MUST be
removed from all Trigger Status Resource collections. Subsequent removed from all Trigger Status Resource collections. Subsequent
requests for the resource MUST be handled as required by HTTP, and so requests to GET the deleted resource SHOULD fail.
will receive responses with status 404 or 410.
If a "pending" Trigger Status Resource is deleted, the dCDN SHOULD If a "pending" Trigger Status Resource is deleted, the dCDN SHOULD
NOT start processing of that activity. Deleting a "pending" trigger NOT start processing of that activity. Deleting a "pending" trigger
does not however guarantee that it is not started because the uCDN does not however guarantee that it has not started because the uCDN
cannot control the timing of that activity. Processing may, for cannot control the timing of that activity. Processing may, for
example, start after the DELETE is sent by the uCDN but before the example, start after the DELETE is sent by the uCDN but before that
DELETE is processed by the dCDN. request is processed by the dCDN.
If an "active" Trigger Status Resource is deleted, the dCDN MAY stop If an "active" or "processed" Trigger Status Resource is deleted, the
processing the triggered activity. However, as with deletion of a dCDN MAY stop processing the triggered activity. However, as with
"pending" trigger, the dCDN does not guarantee this. deletion of a "pending" trigger, the dCDN does not guarantee this.
Deletion of a "complete", "processed" or "failed" Trigger Status Deletion of a "complete" or "failed" Trigger Status Resource requires
Resource requires no processing in the dCDN other than deletion of no processing in the dCDN other than deletion of the resource.
the resource.
4.4. Expiry of Trigger Status Resources 4.5. Expiry of Trigger Status Resources
The dCDN MAY choose to automatically delete Trigger Status Resources The dCDN can choose to automatically delete Trigger Status Resources
some time after they become "complete", "processed" or "failed". In some time after they become "complete", "processed", "failed" or
this case, the dCDN will remove the resource and respond to "cancelled". In this case, the dCDN will remove the resource and
subsequent requests for it with HTTP status 404 or 410. respond to subsequent requests for it with an HTTP error.
If the dCDN performs this housekeeping, it MUST have reported the If the dCDN performs this housekeeping, it MUST have reported the
length of time after which completed Trigger Status Resources become length of time after which completed Trigger Status Resources will be
stale via a property of the collection of all Trigger Status deleted via a property of the collection of all Trigger Status
Resources. It is recommended that Trigger Status Resources are not Resources. It is recommended that Trigger Status Resources are not
automatically deleted for at least 24 hours after they become automatically deleted for at least 24 hours after they become
"complete", "processed" or "failed". "complete", "processed", "failed" or "cancelled".
To ensure it has access to the status of its completed and failed To ensure it is able to get the status of its completed and failed
triggers, it is recommended that the uCDN's polling interval is half triggers, it is recommended that the uCDN's polling interval is less
the time after which records for completed activity will be than the time after which records for completed activity will be
considered stale. deleted.
4.5. Error Handling 4.6. Loop Detection and Prevention
A CI/T server may reject a trigger request using HTTP status codes. Given three CDNs, A, B and C. If CDNs B and C delegate delivery of
For example, 400 if the request is malformed, or 401 if the client CDN A's content to each other, CDN A's triggers could be passed
does not have permission to create triggers or it is trying to act on between CDNs B and C in a loop. More complex networks of CDNs could
another CDN's data. contain similar loops involving more hops.
If any part of the trigger request fails, the trigger SHOULD be In order to prevent and detect such CI/T loops, each CDN uses a CDN
reported as "failed" once its activity is complete or if no further Provider ID to uniquely identify itself. Each CDN MUST insert its
errors will be reported. The "errors" property in the Trigger Status CDN Provider ID into the cdn-path key of every CI/T Command it
Resource will be used to enumerate which actions failed and the originates or cascades. When receiving CI/T commands a dCDN MUST
reasons for failure, and may be present while the trigger is still check the cdn-path and reject any CI/T Command which already contains
"pending" or "active", if the trigger is still running for some URLs its own CDN Provider ID in the cdn-path. Transit CDNs MUST check the
or Patterns in the trigger request. cdn-path and not cascade the CI/T Command to dCDNs that are already
listed in cdn-path.
Once a request has been accepted, processing errors are reported in The CDN Provider Id consists of the characters AS followed by the CDN
the Trigger Status Resource using a list of "ErrorDesc". Each Provider's AS number, then a colon (':') and an additional qualifier
ErrorDesc is used to report errors against one or more of the URLs or that is used to guarantee uniqueness in case a particular AS has
Patterns in the trigger request. multiple independent CDNs deployed. For example "AS64496:0".
If a surrogate affected by a trigger is offline in the dCDN, or the If the RI interface described in [I-D.ietf-cdni-redirection] is
dCDN is unable to pass a trigger request on to any of its cascaded implemented by the dCDN, the CI/T and RI interfaces SHOULD use the
dCDNs; the dCDN SHOULD report an error if the request is abandoned. same CDN Provider Id.
Otherwise, it SHOULD keep the trigger in state "pending" or "active"
until it's acted upon or the uCDN chooses to cancel it. Or, if the
request is queued and the dCDN will not report further status, the
dCDN MAY report the trigger as "processed", in which case it SHOULD
also provide an estimated completion time.
Note that an "invalidate" trigger may be reported as "complete" when 4.7. Error Handling
surrogates that may have the data are offline. In this case,
surrogates MUST NOT use the affected data without first revalidating
it when they are back online. This does not apply to "preposition"
or "purge" triggers.
5. Properties of Triggers A dCDN can reject a CI/T Command using HTTP status codes. For
example, 400 if the request is malformed, or 401 if the uCDN does not
have permission to create triggers or it is trying to act on another
CDN's data.
5.1. Properties of Trigger Requests If any part of the trigger fails, the trigger SHOULD be reported as
"failed" once its activity is complete or if no further errors will
be reported. The "errors" property in the Trigger Status Resource
will be used to enumerate which actions failed and the reasons for
failure, and can be present while the trigger is still "pending" or
"active", if the trigger is still running for some URLs or Patterns
in the Trigger Specification.
Properties of Trigger Requests are defined in the following Once a request has been accepted, processing errors are reported in
subsections. the Trigger Status Resource using a list of Error Descriptions. Each
Error Description is used to report errors against one or more of the
URLs or Patterns in the Trigger Specification.
Property: type If a surrogate affected by a trigger is offline in the dCDN, or the
dCDN is unable to pass a CI/T Command on to any of its cascaded
dCDNs:
Description: This property defines the type of the trigger. o If the request is abandoned by the dCDN, the dCDN SHOULD report an
error.
Type: TriggerType o An "invalidate" trigger may be reported as "complete" when
surrogates that may have the data are offline. In this case,
surrogates MUST NOT use the affected data without first
revalidating it when they are back online.
Mandatory: Yes o "preposition" and "purge" triggers can be reported as "processed"
if affected caches are offline and the activity will complete when
they return to service.
Property: metadata.urls o Otherwise, the dCDN SHOULD keep the trigger in state "pending" or
"active" until the trigger is acted upon, or the uCDN chooses to
cancel it.
Description: The uCDN URL for the metadata the trigger applies 4.8. Content URLs
to.
Type: URLs To refer to content in the dCDN, the uCDN MUST present URLs in the
same form as in the metadata it supplied to the dCDN. By definition,
it is always possible for the dCDN to locate content based on URLs in
this form.
Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*' Therefore, if content URLs are transformed by an intermediate CDN in
MUST be present and non-empty. a cascade, that intermediate CDN MUST transform URLs in CI/T commands
it passes to its dCDN.
Property: content.urls When processing Trigger Specifications, CDNs MUST ignore the URL
scheme (http or https) in comparing URLs. For example, for an
invalidate or purge trigger, content MUST be invalidated or purged
regardless of the protocol clients use to request it.
Description: URLs of content data the trigger applies to, see 5. CI/T Object Properties and Encoding
Section 5.1.1.
Type: URLs CI/T Commands, Trigger Status Resources and Trigger Collections and
their properties are encoded using JSON, as defined in sections
Section 5.1.1, Section 5.2.1, and Section 5.1.2.
Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*' Names in JSON are case sensitive and therefore the names and literal
MUST be present and non-empty. values specified here MUST always use lower-case.
Property: content.ccid Unrecognised name/value pairs in JSON objects SHOULD NOT be treated
as an error by either the uCDN or dCDN.
Description: The Content Collection IDentifier of data the 5.1. CI/T Objects
trigger applies to.
Type: List of strings The top-level objects defined by the CI/T interface are described in
this section. Each has an associated MIME Media Type. The encoding
of values used by these objects is described in Section 5.2.
Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*' 5.1.1. CI/T Commands
MUST be present and non-empty.
Property: metadata.patterns CI/T Commands SHOULD use a MIME Media Type of application/
cdni.ci.TriggerCommand+json.
Description: The metadata the trigger applies to. A CI/T Command is encoded as a JSON object containing the following
name/value pairs.
Type: List of PatternMatch Name: trigger
Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*' Description: A specification of the trigger type, and a set of
MUST be present and non-empty, and metadata.patterns MUST NOT data to act upon.
be present if the TriggerType is Preposition.
Property: content.patterns Value: A Trigger Specification, as defined in Section 5.2.1.
Description: The content data the trigger applies to. Mandatory: No, but exactly one of "trigger" or "cancel" MUST be
present in a CI/T Command.
Type: List of PatternMatch Name: cancel
Description: The URLs of Trigger Status Resources for triggers
that the uCDN wants to cancel.
Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*' Value: A JSON array of URLs represented as JSON strings.
MUST be present and non-empty, and content.patterns MUST NOT be
present if the TriggerType is Preposition.
5.1.1. Content URLs Mandatory: No, but exactly one of "trigger" or "cancel" MUST be
present in a CI/T Command.
To refer to content in the dCDN, the uCDN MUST present URLs in the Name: cdn-path
same form clients will use to access content in that dCDN, after
transformation to remove any surrogate-specific parts of a
302-redirect URL form. By definition, it is always possible to
locate content based on URLs in this form.
If content URLs are transformed by an intermediate CDN in a cascade, Description: The CDN Provider Identifiers of CDNs that have
that intermediate CDN MUST transform URLs in trigger requests it already accepted the CI/T Command.
passes to its dCDN.
When processing trigger requests, CDNs MUST ignore the URL scheme Value: A JSON array of JSON strings, where each string is a CDN
(http or https) in comparing URLs. For example, for an invalidate or Provider Identifier as defined in Section 4.6.
purge trigger, content MUST invalidated or purged regardless of the
protocol clients use to request it.
5.2. Properties of Trigger Status Resources Mandatory: Yes.
Property: trigger 5.1.2. Trigger Status Resource
Description: The properties of trigger request that created Trigger Status Resources SHOULD use a MIME Media Type of application/
this record. cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json.
Type: TriggerRequest A Trigger Status Resource is encoded as a JSON object containing the
following name/value pairs.
Name: trigger
Description: The Trigger Specification that was used to create
this Trigger Status Resource.
Value: A Trigger Specification, as defined in Section 5.2.1.
Mandatory: Yes Mandatory: Yes
Property: ctime Name: ctime
Description: Time at which the request was received by the Description: Time at which the CI/T Command was received by the
dCDN. Time is determined by the dCDN, there is no requirement dCDN. Time is determined by the dCDN, there is no requirement
to synchronise clocks between interconnected CDNs. to synchronise clocks between interconnected CDNs.
Type: AbsoluteTime Value: Absolute Time, as defined in Section 5.2.5.
Mandatory: Yes Mandatory: Yes
Property: mtime Name: mtime
Description: Time at which the Trigger Status Resource was last
Description: Time at which the resource was last modified. modified. Time is determined by the dCDN, there is no
Time is determined by the dCDN, there is no requirement to requirement to synchronise clocks between interconnected CDNs.
synchronise clocks between interconnected CDNs.
Type: AbsoluteTime Value: Absolute Time, as defined in Section 5.2.5.
Mandatory: Yes Mandatory: Yes
Property: etime Name: etime
Description: Estimate of the time at which the dCDN expects to Description: Estimate of the time at which the dCDN expects to
complete the activity. Time is determined by the dCDN, there complete the activity. Time is determined by the dCDN, there
is no requirement to synchronise clocks between interconnected is no requirement to synchronise clocks between interconnected
CDNs. CDNs.
Type: AbsoluteTime Value: Absolute Time, as defined in Section 5.2.5.
Mandatory: No Mandatory: No
Property: status Name: status
Description: Current status of the triggered activity. Description: Current status of the triggered activity.
Type: TriggerStatus Value: Trigger Status, as defined in Section 5.2.3.
Mandatory: Yes Mandatory: Yes
Property: errors Name: errors
Description: List of ErrorDesc.
Mandatory: No.
5.3. Properties of ErrorDesc
An ErrorDesc object is used to report failure for URLs and patterns
in a trigger request.
Property: error
Type: ErrorCode.
Mandatory: Yes.
Property: metadata.urls, content.urls, metadata.patterns,
content.patterns
Description: Metadata and content references copied from the
trigger request. Only those URLs and patterns to which the
error applies shall be included in each property, but those
URLs and patterns MUST be exactly as they appear in the
request, the dCDN must not generalise the URLs. (For example,
if the uCDN requests prepositioning of URLs
"http://ucdn.example.com/a" and "http://ucdn.example.com/b",
the dCDN must not generalise its error report to Pattern
"http://ucdn.example.com/*").
Mandatory: At least one of these properties is mandatory in
each ErrorDesc.
Property: description Description: Descriptions of errors that have occurred while
processing a Trigger Command.
Description: A String containing a human-readable description Value: A list of Error Descriptions, as defined in
of the error. Section 5.2.6.
Mandatory: No. Mandatory: No.
5.4. Properties of Trigger Collections 5.1.3. Trigger Collection
Property: triggers Trigger Collections SHOULD use a MIME Media Type of application/
cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json.
A Trigger Collection is encoded as a JSON object containing the
following name/value pairs.
Name: triggers
Description: Links to Trigger Status Resources in the Description: Links to Trigger Status Resources in the
collection. collection.
Type: URLs. Value: A JSON array of URLs represented as JSON strings.
Mandatory: Yes Mandatory: Yes
Property: staleresourcetime Name: staleresourcetime
Description: The length of time for which the dCDN guarantees Description: The length of time for which the dCDN guarantees
to keep a completed Trigger Status Resource. After this time, to keep a completed Trigger Status Resource. After this time,
the dCDN MAY delete the resource and all references to it from the dCDN SHOULD delete the resource and all references to it
collections. from collections.
Type: Integer, time in seconds. Value: A JSON number, integer time in seconds.
Mandatory: Yes, in the collection of all Trigger Status Mandatory: Yes, in the collection of all Trigger Status
Resources if the dCDN deletes stale entries. If the property Resources if the dCDN deletes stale entries. If the property
is present in the filtered collections, it MUST have the same is present in the filtered collections, it MUST have the same
value as in the collection of all Trigger Status Resources. value as in the collection of all Trigger Status Resources.
5.5. Trigger Resource Simple Data Type Descriptions Names: coll-all, coll-pending, coll-active, coll-complete, coll-
failed
This section describes the simpler data types that are used for
properties of Trigger Status resources.
5.5.1. TriggerType
This type defines the type of action being triggered, permitted
actions are:
o Preposition - a request for the dCDN to acquire metadata or
content.
o Invalidate - a request for the dCDN to invalidate metadata or
content. After servicing this request the dCDN will not use the
specified data without first re-validating it using, for example,
an "If-None-Match" HTTP request. The dCDN need not erase the
associated data.
o Purge - a request for the dCDN to erase metadata or content.
After servicing the request, the specified data MUST NOT be held
on dCDN.
5.5.2. TriggerStatus Description: Link to a Trigger Collection.
This type describes the current status of a Trigger, possible values Value: A URL represented as a JSON string.
are:
o Pending - the trigger has not yet been acted upon. Mandatory: Links to filtered collections are mandatory in the
collection of all Trigger Status Resources, if the dCDN
implements the filtered collections. Otherwise, optional.
o Active - the trigger is currently being acted upon. Name: cdn-id
o Complete - the triggered activity completed successfully. Description: The CDN Provider Identifier of the dCDN.
o Processed - the trigger has been accepted and no further status Value: A JSON string, the dCDN's CDN Provider Identifier, as
update will be made (may be used in cases where completion cannot defined in Section 4.6.
be confirmed).
o Failed - the triggered activity could not be completed. Mandatory: Only in the collection of all Trigger Status
Resources, if the dCDN implements the filtered collections.
Optional in the filtered collections.
5.5.3. URLs 5.2. Properties of CI/T Objects
This type describes a set of references to metadata or content, it is This section defines the values that can appear in the top level
simply a list of absolute URLs. objects described in Section 5.1, and their encodings.
5.5.4. AbsoluteTime 5.2.1. Trigger Specification
Times are expressed in seconds since the UNIX epoch. A Trigger Collection is encoded as a JSON object containing the
following name/value pairs.
5.5.5. ErrorCode An unrecognised name/value pair in the Trigger Specification object
contained in a CI/T Command SHOULD be preserved in the Trigger
Specification of any Trigger Status Resource it creates.
This type is used by dCDN to report failures in trigger processing. Name: type
o EMETA - the dCDN was unable to acquire metadata required to fulfil Description: This property defines the type of the trigger.
the request.
o ECONTENT - the dCDN was unable to acquire content (preposition Value: Trigger Type, as defined in Section 5.2.2.
triggers only).
o EPERM - the uCDN does not have permission to trigger the requested Mandatory: Yes
activity (for example, the data is owned by another CDN).
o EREJECT - the dCDN is not willing to fulfil the request (for Name: metadata.urls
example, a preposition request for content at a time when dCDN
would not accept Request Routing requests from uCDN).
o ECDN - An internal error in the dCDN or one of its downstream Description: The uCDN URLs of the metadata the trigger applies
CDNs. to.
6. JSON Encoding of Objects Value: A JSON array of URLs represented as JSON strings.
The encoding for a CI/T object is a JSON object containing a Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*'
dictionary of (key,value) pairs where the keys are the property MUST be present and non-empty.
names, and the values are the associated property values.
The keys of the dictionary are the names of the properties associated Name: content.urls
with the object and are therefore dependent on the specific object
being encoded (i.e. dependent on the MIME Media Type of the returned
resource). Likewise, the values associated with each key are
dependent on the specific object being encoded (i.e. dependent on the
MIME Media Type of the returned resource).
The "trigger" property of the top level JSON object lists the Description: URLs of content the trigger applies to, see
requested action. Section 4.8.
Key: trigger Value: A JSON array of URLs represented as JSON strings.
Description: An object specifying the trigger type and a set of Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*'
data to act upon. MUST be present and non-empty.
Type: A JSON object. Name: content.ccid
Mandatory: Yes. Description: The Content Collection Identifier of content the
trigger applies to. The 'ccid' is a grouping of content, as
defined by [I-D.ietf-cdni-metadata].
Object keys in JSON are case sensitive and therefore any dictionary Value: A JSON array of strings, where each string is a Content
key defined by this document (for example the names of CI/T object Collection Identifier.
properties) MUST always be represented in lowercase.
In addition to the properties of an object, the following additional Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*'
keys MAY be present. MUST be present and non-empty.
Key: base Name: metadata.patterns
Description: Provides a prefix for any relative URLs in the Description: The metadata the trigger applies to.
object. This is similar to the XML base tag [XML-BASE]. If
absent, all URLs in the remainder of the document MUST be
absolute URLs.
Type: URI Value: A JSON array of Pattern Match, as defined in
Section 5.2.4.
Mandatory: No Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*'
MUST be present and non-empty, and metadata.patterns MUST NOT
be present if the TriggerType is Preposition.
Key: _links Name: content.patterns
Description: The relationships of this object to other
addressable objects.
Type: Array of Relationships. Description: The content data the trigger applies to.
Mandatory: Yes Value: A JSON array of Pattern Match, as defined in
Section 5.2.4.
6.1. JSON Encoding of Embedded Types Mandatory: No, but at least one of 'metadata.*' or 'content.*'
MUST be present and non-empty, and content.patterns MUST NOT be
present if the TriggerType is Preposition.
6.1.1. TriggerType 5.2.2. Trigger Type
Key: type Trigger Type is used in a Trigger Specification to describe trigger
action. It MUST be one of the JSON strings in the following table:
Description: One of "preposition", "invalidate" or "purge". +-------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| JSON String | Description |
+-------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| preposition | A request for the dCDN to acquire metadata or |
| | content. |
| invalidate | A request for the dCDN to invalidate metadata or |
| | content. After servicing this request the dCDN will |
| | not use the specified data without first re- |
| | validating it using, for example, an "If-None- |
| | Match" HTTP request. The dCDN need not erase the |
| | associated data. |
| purge | A request for the dCDN to erase metadata or |
| | content. After servicing the request, the specified |
| | data MUST NOT be held on the dCDN. |
+-------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
Type: string 5.2.3. Trigger Status
6.1.2. TriggerStatus This describes the current status of a Trigger. It MUST be one of
the JSON strings in the following table:
Key: status +------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| JSON | Description |
| String | |
+------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| pending | The trigger has not yet been acted upon. |
| active | The trigger is currently being acted upon. |
| complete | The triggered activity completed successfully. |
| processed | The trigger has been accepted and no further status |
| | update will be made (can be used in cases where |
| | completion cannot be confirmed). |
| failed | The triggered activity could not be completed. |
| cancelling | The triggered activity is still in progress, but the |
| | trigger has been cancelled by the uCDN. |
| cancelled | The triggered activity was cancelled by the uCDN. |
+------------+------------------------------------------------------+
Description: One of "pending", "active", "failed", "complete" 5.2.4. PatternMatch
Type: string A Pattern Match consists of a string pattern to match, and flags
describing the type of match.
6.1.3. PatternMatch It is encoded as a JSON object with the following name/value pairs:
A PatternMatch is encoded as a JSON Object containing a string to Name: pattern
match and flags describing the type of match.
Key: pattern Description: A pattern for string matching.
Description: A pattern for string matching. The pattern may Value: A JSON string representing the pattern. The pattern may
contain the wildcards * and ?, where * matches any sequence of contain the wildcards * and ?, where * matches any sequence of
characters (including the empty string) and ? matches exactly characters (including the empty string) and ? matches exactly
one character. The three literals \ , * and ? MUST be escaped one character. The three literals "\" , "*" and "?" MUST be
as \\, \* and \? escaped as "\\", "\*" and "\?".
Type: String
Mandatory: Yes Mandatory: Yes.
Key: case-sensitive Name: case-sensitive
Description: Flag indicating whether or not case-sensitive Description: Flag indicating whether or not case-sensitive
matching should be used. matching should be used.
Type: Boolean Value: One of the JSON values 'true' or 'false'.
Mandatory: No, default is case-insensitive match. Mandatory: No, default is case-insensitive match.
Key: match-query-string Name: match-query-string
Description: Flag indicating whether or not the query string Description: Flag indicating whether or not the query string
should be included in the pattern match. should be included in the pattern match.
Type: Boolean Value: One of the JSON values 'true' or 'false'.
Mandatory: No, default is not to include query. Mandatory: No, default is not to include the query string in
the pattern match.
Example of case-sensitive prefix match against Example of case-sensitive prefix match against
"http://www.example.com/trailers/": "http://www.example.com/trailers/":
{ {
"pattern": "http://www.example.com/trailers/*", "pattern": "http://www.example.com/trailers/*",
"case-sensitive": true "case-sensitive": true
} }
6.1.4. ErrorDesc 5.2.5. Absolute Time
ErrorDesc is encoded as a JSON object with the following keys:
Key: error
Type: ErrorCode A JSON number, seconds since the UNIX epoch.
Mandatory: Yes 5.2.6. Error Description
Keys: metadata.urls, content.urls An Error Description is used to report failure of a Trigger Command,
or in the activity it triggered.
Type: Array of strings Name: error
Mandatory: At least one of metadata.* or content.* MUST be Value: Error Code, as defined in Section 5.2.7.
present.
Keys: metadata.patterns, content.patterns Mandatory: Yes.
Type: Array of PatternMatch Names: metadata.urls, content.urls, metadata.patterns,
content.patterns
Mandatory: At least one of metadata.* or content.* MUST be Description: Metadata and content references copied from the
present. Trigger Specification. Only those URLs and patterns to which
the error applies are included in each property, but those URLs
and patterns MUST be exactly as they appear in the request, the
dCDN MUST NOT generalise the URLs. (For example, if the uCDN
requests prepositioning of URLs "http://content.example.com/a"
and "http://content.example.com/b", the dCDN must not
generalise its error report to Pattern
"http://content.example.com/*".)
Key: description Value: A JSON array of JSON strings, where each string is
copied from a 'content.*' or 'metadata.*' value in the
corresponding Trigger Specification.
Type: String Mandatory: At least one of these name/value pairs is mandatory
in each Error Description object.
Mandatory: No. Name: description
6.1.5. ErrorCode Description: A human-readable description of the error.
One of the strings "EMETA", "ECONTENT", "EPERM", "EREJECT" or "ECDN". Value: A JSON string, the human-readable description.
6.2. MIME Media Types Mandatory: No.
Table 1 lists the MIME Media Type for the trigger request, and each 5.2.7. Error Code
trigger object (resource) that is retrievable through the CI/T
interface.
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------+ This type is used by the dCDN to report failures in trigger
| Data Object | MIME Media Type | processing.
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------+
| TriggerRequest | application/cdni.ci.TriggerRequest+json |
| TriggerStatus | application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json |
| TriggerCollection | application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------------+
Table 1: MIME Media Types for CDNI Trigger resources +------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| Error Code | Description |
+------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| emeta | The dCDN was unable to acquire metadata required to |
| | fulfil the request. |
| econtent | The dCDN was unable to acquire content (preposition |
| | triggers only). |
| eperm | The uCDN does not have permission to trigger the |
| | requested activity (for example, the data is owned |
| | by another CDN). |
| ereject | The dCDN is not willing to fulfil the request (for |
| | example, a preposition request for content at a time |
| | when the dCDN would not accept Request Routing |
| | requests from the uCDN). |
| ecdn | An internal error in the dCDN or one of its |
| | downstream CDNs. |
| ecancelled | The uCDN cancelled the request. |
+------------+------------------------------------------------------+
7. Examples 6. Examples
The following sections provide examples of different CI/T objects The following sections provide examples of different CI/T objects
encoded as JSON. encoded as JSON.
No authentication is shown in the following illustrative examples, it
is anticipated that authentication mechanisms will be aligned with
other CDNI Interfaces as and when those mechanisms are defined.
Discovery of the triggers interface is out of scope of this document. Discovery of the triggers interface is out of scope of this document.
In an implementation, all URLs are under the control of the dCDN. In an implementation, all CI/T URLs are under the control of the
The uCDN MUST NOT attempt to ascribe any meaning to individual dCDN. The uCDN MUST NOT attempt to ascribe any meaning to individual
elements of the path. In examples in this section, the following elements of the path.
URLs are used as the location of the collections of triggers:
o Collection of all Triggers belonging to one uCDN:
http://dcdn.example.com/triggers
o Filtered collections:
Pending: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/pending
Active: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/active
Complete: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/complete
Failed: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/failed In examples in this section, the URL 'http://dcdn.example.com/
triggers' is used as the location of the collection of all triggers,
and the CDN Provider Id of uCDN is "AS64496:1".
7.1. Creating Triggers 6.1. Creating Triggers
Examples of uCDN triggering activity in dCDN: Examples of the uCDN triggering activity in the dCDN:
7.1.1. Preposition 6.1.1. Preposition
An example of a preposition request, a POST to the "AllTriggers" An example of a preposition request, a POST to the "AllTriggers"
collection. collection.
Note that "metadata.patterns" and "content.patterns" are not allowed Note that "metadata.patterns" and "content.patterns" are not allowed
in a preposition trigger request. in a preposition Trigger Specification.
REQUEST: REQUEST:
POST /triggers HTTP/1.1 POST /triggers HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerRequest+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCommand+json
Content-Length: 315 Content-Length: 347
{ {
"trigger" : { "trigger" : {
"type": "preposition", "type": "preposition",
"metadata.urls" : [ "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/c" ], "metadata.urls" : [ "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/c" ],
"content.urls" : [ "content.urls" : [
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/1", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/1",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/2", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/2",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/3", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/3",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/4" "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/4"
] ]
} },
"cdn-path" : [ "AS64496:1" ]
} }
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 201 Created HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:19 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:18 GMT
Content-Length: 472 Content-Length: 472
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json
Location: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0 Location: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
{ {
"ctime": 1404327439, "ctime": 1409478798,
"etime": 1404327447, "etime": 1409478806,
"mtime": 1404327439, "mtime": 1409478798,
"status": "pending", "status": "pending",
"trigger": { "trigger": {
"content.urls": [ "content.urls": [
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/1", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/1",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/2", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/2",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/3", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/3",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/4" "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/4"
], ],
"metadata.urls": [ "metadata.urls": [
"http://metadata.example.com/a/b/c" "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/c"
], ],
"type": "preposition" "type": "preposition"
} }
} }
7.1.2. Invalidate 6.1.2. Invalidate
An example of an invalidate request, another POST to the An example of an invalidate request, another POST to the
"AllTriggers" collection. This instructs the dCDN to re-validate the "AllTriggers" collection. This instructs the dCDN to re-validate the
content at "http://www.example.com/a/index.html", as well as any content at "http://www.example.com/a/index.html", as well as any
metadata and content whose URLs are prefixed by metadata and content whose URLs are prefixed by
"http://metadata.example.com/a/b/" and "http://www.example.com/a/b/" "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/" and "http://www.example.com/a/b/"
respectively, using case-insensitive matching. respectively, using case-insensitive matching.
REQUEST: REQUEST:
POST /triggers HTTP/1.1 POST /triggers HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerRequest+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCommand+json
Content-Length: 352 Content-Length: 384
{ {
"trigger" : { "trigger" : {
"type": "invalidate", "type": "invalidate",
"metadata.patterns" : [ "metadata.patterns" : [
{ "pattern" : "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/*" } { "pattern" : "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/*" }
], ],
"content.urls" : [ "http://www.example.com/a/index.html" ], "content.urls" : [ "http://www.example.com/a/index.html" ],
"content.patterns" : [ "content.patterns" : [
{ "pattern" : "http://www.example.com/a/b/*", { "pattern" : "http://www.example.com/a/b/*",
"case-sensitive" : true "case-sensitive" : true
} }
] ]
}
},
"cdn-path" : [ "AS64496:1" ]
} }
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 201 Created HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Length: 551 Content-Length: 551
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json
Location: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1 Location: http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
{ {
"ctime": 1404327440, "ctime": 1409478799,
"etime": 1404327448, "etime": 1409478807,
"mtime": 1404327440, "mtime": 1409478799,
"status": "pending", "status": "pending",
"trigger": { "trigger": {
"content.patterns": [ "content.patterns": [
{ {
"case-sensitive": true, "case-sensitive": true,
"pattern": "http://www.example.com/a/b/*" "pattern": "http://www.example.com/a/b/*"
} }
], ],
"content.urls": [ "content.urls": [
"http://www.example.com/a/index.html" "http://www.example.com/a/index.html"
], ],
"metadata.patterns": [ "metadata.patterns": [
{ {
"pattern": "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/*" "pattern": "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/*"
} }
], ],
"type": "invalidate" "type": "invalidate"
} }
} }
7.2. Examining Trigger Status 6.2. Examining Trigger Status
Once triggers have been created, the uCDN can check their status as Once triggers have been created, the uCDN can check their status as
shown in these examples. shown in these examples.
7.2.1. Collection of All Triggers 6.2.1. Collection of All Triggers
The uCDN can fetch the set of all the triggers it has created and The uCDN can fetch the set of all the triggers it has created and
which have not yet been deleted or removed as expired. After which have not yet been deleted or removed as expired. After
creation of the "preposition" and "invalidate" triggers shown above, creation of the "preposition" and "invalidate" triggers shown above,
this collection might look as follows: this collection might look as follows:
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 153 Content-Length: 347
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:20 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:19 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "9179988753593038498" Etag: "-6516741166528256414"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
{ {
"cdn-id": "AS64496:0",
"coll-active": "/triggers/active",
"coll-complete": "/triggers/complete",
"coll-failed": "/triggers/failed",
"coll-pending": "/triggers/pending",
"staleresourcetime": 86400, "staleresourcetime": 86400,
"triggers": [ "triggers": [
"http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0", "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0",
"http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1" "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1"
] ]
} }
7.2.2. Filtered Collections of Triggers 6.2.2. Filtered Collections of Triggers
The filtered collections are also available to uCDN. Before the dCDN The filtered collections are also available to the uCDN. Before the
starts processing the two triggers shown above, both will appear in dCDN starts processing the two triggers shown above, both will appear
the collection of Pending Triggers, for example: in the collection of Pending Triggers, for example:
RREQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/pending HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/pending HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 153 Content-Length: 153
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:20 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:19 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "5012053611544832286" Etag: "5012053611544832286"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
{ {
"staleresourcetime": 86400, "staleresourcetime": 86400,
"triggers": [ "triggers": [
"http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0", "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0",
"http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1" "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1"
] ]
} }
skipping to change at page 28, line 16 skipping to change at page 28, line 16
GET /triggers/complete HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/complete HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 56 Content-Length: 56
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:20 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:19 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "2986340333785000363" Etag: "2986340333785000363"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
{ {
"staleresourcetime": 86400, "staleresourcetime": 86400,
"triggers": [] "triggers": []
} }
7.2.3. Trigger Status Resources 6.2.3. Trigger Status Resources
The Trigger Status Resources can also be examined for detail about The Trigger Status Resources can also be examined for detail about
individual triggers. For example, for the "preposition" and individual triggers. For example, for the "preposition" and
"invalidate" triggers from previous examples: "invalidate" triggers from previous examples:
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/0 HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/0 HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 472 Content-Length: 472
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:20 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:19 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "-3651695664007658154" Etag: "-4765587034697674779"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json
{ {
"ctime": 1404327439, "ctime": 1409478798,
"etime": 1404327447, "etime": 1409478806,
"mtime": 1404327439, "mtime": 1409478798,
"status": "pending", "status": "pending",
"trigger": { "trigger": {
"content.urls": [ "content.urls": [
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/1", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/1",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/2", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/2",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/3", "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/3",
"http://www.example.com/a/b/c/4" "http://www.example.com/a/b/c/4"
], ],
"metadata.urls": [ "metadata.urls": [
"http://metadata.example.com/a/b/c" "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/c"
skipping to change at page 30, line 16 skipping to change at page 30, line 16
GET /triggers/1 HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/1 HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 551 Content-Length: 551
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:20 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:19 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "-7664987687828084413" Etag: "-7657333837290433420"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json
{ {
"ctime": 1404327440, "ctime": 1409478799,
"etime": 1404327448, "etime": 1409478807,
"mtime": 1404327440, "mtime": 1409478799,
"status": "pending", "status": "pending",
"trigger": { "trigger": {
"content.patterns": [ "content.patterns": [
{ {
"case-sensitive": true, "case-sensitive": true,
"pattern": "http://www.example.com/a/b/*" "pattern": "http://www.example.com/a/b/*"
} }
], ],
"content.urls": [ "content.urls": [
"http://www.example.com/a/index.html" "http://www.example.com/a/index.html"
], ],
"metadata.patterns": [ "metadata.patterns": [
{ {
"pattern": "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/*" "pattern": "http://metadata.example.com/a/b/*"
} }
], ],
"type": "invalidate" "type": "invalidate"
} }
} }
7.2.4. Polling for Change 6.2.4. Polling for Change
The uCDN may use the Entity Tags of collections or resources when The uCDN SHOULD use the Entity Tags of collections or resources when
polling for change in status, as shown in the following examples: polling for change in status, as shown in the following examples:
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/pending HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/pending HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
If-None-Match: "5012053611544832286" If-None-Match: "5012053611544832286"
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
Content-Length: 0 Content-Length: 0
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:20 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:19 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "5012053611544832286" Etag: "5012053611544832286"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/0 HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/0 HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
If-None-Match: "-3651695664007658154" If-None-Match: "-4765587034697674779"
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
Content-Length: 0 Content-Length: 0
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:20 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:19 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "-3651695664007658154" Etag: "-4765587034697674779"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:20 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:19 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json
When the triggered activity is complete, the contents of the filtered When the triggered activity is complete, the contents of the filtered
collections will be updated, along with their Entity Tags. For collections will be updated, along with their Entity Tags. For
example, when the two example triggers are complete, the collections example, when the two example triggers are complete, the collections
of pending and complete triggers may look like: of pending and complete triggers might look like:
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/pending HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/pending HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 56 Content-Length: 56
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:24 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:29 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "-4471185573414616962" Etag: "-4471185573414616962"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:24 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:29 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
{ {
"staleresourcetime": 86400, "staleresourcetime": 86400,
"triggers": [] "triggers": []
} }
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/complete HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/complete HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 153 Content-Length: 153
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:31 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:30 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "-1508172875796647067" Etag: "-1508172875796647067"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:31 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:30 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
{ {
"staleresourcetime": 86400, "staleresourcetime": 86400,
"triggers": [ "triggers": [
"http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0", "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/0",
"http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1" "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1"
] ]
} }
7.2.5. Cancelling or Removing a Trigger 6.2.5. Removing a Trigger
To request the dCDN to cancel a Trigger, the uCDN may delete the To request the dCDN to cancel a Trigger, the uCDN can delete the
Trigger Resource. It may also delete completed and failed triggers Trigger Resource. It can also delete completed and failed triggers
to reduce the size of the collections. For example, to remove the to reduce the size of the collections. For example, to remove the
"preposition" request from earlier examples: "preposition" request from earlier examples:
REQUEST: REQUEST:
DELETE /triggers/0 HTTP/1.1 DELETE /triggers/0 HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:31 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:30 GMT
Content-Length: 0 Content-Length: 0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
This would, for example, cause the collection of completed triggers This would, for example, cause the collection of completed triggers
shown in the example above to be updated to: shown in the example above to be updated to:
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/complete HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/complete HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 106 Content-Length: 106
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:58:31 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:30 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "-1842390246836476263" Etag: "-1842390246836476263"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 18:57:31 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:30 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
{ {
"staleresourcetime": 86400, "staleresourcetime": 86400,
"triggers": [ "triggers": [
"http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1" "http://dcdn.example.com/triggers/1"
] ]
} }
7.2.6. Error Reporting 6.2.6. Error Reporting
In this example the uCDN has requested prepositioning of In this example the uCDN has requested prepositioning of
"http://newsite.example.com/index.html", but the dCDN was unable to "http://newsite.example.com/index.html", but the dCDN was unable to
locate metadata for that site: locate metadata for that site:
REQUEST: REQUEST:
GET /triggers/2 HTTP/1.1 GET /triggers/2 HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1 User-Agent: example-user-agent/0.1
Host: dcdn.example.com Host: dcdn.example.com
Accept: */* Accept: */*
RESPONSE: RESPONSE:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 505 Content-Length: 505
Expires: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 19:16:48 GMT Expires: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:54:38 GMT
Server: example-server/0.1 Server: example-server/0.1
Etag: "-6310233270471598826" Etag: "-3893590191073700822"
Cache-Control: max-age=60 Cache-Control: max-age=60
Date: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 19:15:48 GMT Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:53:38 GMT
Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json Content-Type: application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json
{ {
"ctime": 1404328544, "ctime": 1409478810,
"errors": [ "errors": [
{ {
"content.urls": [ "content.urls": [
"http://newsite.example.com/index.html" "http://newsite.example.com/index.html"
], ],
"description": "description":
"No HostIndex entry found for newsite.example.com", "No HostIndex entry found for newsite.example.com",
"error": "EMETA" "error": "emeta"
} }
], ],
"etime": 1404328552, "etime": 1409478818,
"mtime": 1404328548, "mtime": 1409478814,
"status": "active", "status": "active",
"trigger": { "trigger": {
"content.urls": [ "content.urls": [
"http://newsite.example.com/index.html" "http://newsite.example.com/index.html"
], ],
"type": "preposition" "type": "preposition"
} }
} }
8. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
8.1. CI/T MIME Media Types 7.1. Media type registrations
The IANA is requested to allocate the following MIME Media Types in 7.1.1. CI/T Commands
the MIME Media Types registry:
o application/cdni.ci.TriggerRequest The MIME media type for CI/T Commands is application/
cdni.ci.TriggerCommand+json.
o application/cdni.ci.TriggerStatus Type Name: application
o application/cdni.ci.TriggerCollection Subtype name: cdni.ci.TriggerCommand+json
Use of these types is specified in Section 6.2 of the present Required parameters: N/A
document.
9. Security Considerations Optional parameters: N/A
9.1. Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity Protection Encoding considerations: binary
Security Considerations: See [RFCthis], Section 8
Interoperability Considerations: Described in [RFCthis]
Published Specification: [RFCthis]
Applications that use this media type: No known applications
currently use this media type.
Additional Information:
Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
Magic number(s): N/A
File Extensions: N/A
Macintosh file type code(s): TEXT
Person & email address to contact for further information: IESG
<iesg@ietf.org>
Intended Usage: COMMON
Restrictions on usage: None
Author: Rob Murray <rob.murray@alcatel-lucent.com>
Change controller: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>
Note: No "charset" parameter is defined for this registration because
a charset parameter is not defined for application/json [RFC7159].
7.1.2. CI/T Trigger Status Resource
The MIME media type for CI/T Trigger Status Resources is application/
cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json.
Type Name: application
Subtype name: cdni.ci.TriggerStatus+json
Required parameters: N/A
Optional parameters: N/A
Encoding considerations: binary
Security Considerations: See [RFCthis], Section 8
Interoperability Considerations: Described in [RFCthis]
Published Specification: [RFCthis]
Applications that use this media type: No known applications
currently use this media type.
Additional Information:
Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
Magic number(s): N/A
File Extensions: N/A
Macintosh file type code(s): TEXT
Person & email address to contact for further information: IESG
<iesg@ietf.org>
Intended Usage: COMMON
Restrictions on usage: None
Author: Rob Murray <rob.murray@alcatel-lucent.com>
Change controller: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>
Note: No "charset" parameter is defined for this registration because
a charset parameter is not defined for application/json [RFC7159].
7.1.3. CI/T Trigger Collection
The MIME media type for CI/T Trigger Collections is application/
cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json.
Type Name: application
Subtype name: cdni.ci.TriggerCollection+json
Required parameters: N/A
Optional parameters: N/A
Encoding considerations: binary
Security Considerations: See [RFCthis], Section 8
Interoperability Considerations: Described in [RFCthis]
Published Specification: [RFCthis]
Applications that use this media type: No known applications
currently use this media type.
Additional Information:
Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
Magic number(s): N/A
File Extensions: N/A
Macintosh file type code(s): TEXT
Person & email address to contact for further information: IESG
<iesg@ietf.org>
Intended Usage: COMMON
Restrictions on usage: None
Author: Rob Murray <rob.murray@alcatel-lucent.com>
Change controller: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>
Note: No "charset" parameter is defined for this registration because
a charset parameter is not defined for application/json [RFC7159].
8. Security Considerations
8.1. Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity Protection
A CI/T dCDN server implementation MUST support TLS transport for HTTP A CI/T dCDN server implementation MUST support TLS transport for HTTP
(https) as per [RFC2818]. The use of TLS for transport of the CI/T (https) as per [RFC2818]. The use of TLS for transport of the CI/T
interface allows the dCDN and the uCDN to authenticate each other (to interface allows the dCDN and the uCDN to authenticate each other (to
ensure they are receiving trigger requests from, or reporting status ensure they are receiving CI/T Commands from, or reporting status to,
to, an authenticated CDN). an authenticated CDN).
HTTP requests that attempt to access or operate on CI/T data
belonging to another CDN MUST be rejected using either HTTP "403
Forbidden" or "404 Not Found". (Note that in a "diamond"
configuration, where one uCDN's content can be acquired via more than
one directly-connected uCDN, it may not be possible for the dCDN to
determine from which uCDN it acquired content. In this case, it MUST
allow each upstream that may have been responsible for acquisition of
that content to act upon it using trigger requests.)
Trigger creation requests that attempt to operate on metadata or
content not acquired from the uCDN making the request MUST be
rejected. The rejection can either be signalled to dCDN using HTTP
"403 Forbidden" or "404 Not Found", or a Trigger Status Resource can
be created with an ErrorDesc value of EPERM for any affected URLs.
In an environment where any such protection is required, TLS SHOULD In an environment where any such protection is required, TLS SHOULD
be used for transport of the CI/T requests and responses, unless be used for transport of the CI/T requests and responses, unless
alternate methods are used for ensuring that only authorised clients alternate methods are used for ensuring that only authorised clients
are able to access their own data (such as setting up an IPsec tunnel are able to access their own data (such as setting up an IPsec tunnel
between the two CDNs, or using a physically secured internal network between the two CDNs, or using a physically secured internal network
between two CDNs that are owned by the same corporate entity). Both between two CDNs that are owned by the same corporate entity). Both
parties of the transaction (the uCDN and the dCDN) SHOULD use mutual parties of the transaction (the uCDN and the dCDN) SHOULD use mutual
authentication. authentication.
A CI/T implementation MUST support the A TLS implementation of CI/T MUST support the
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 cipher suite ([RFC5288]). An TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 cipher suite ([RFC5288]). An
implementation of the CI/T Interface SHOULD prefer cipher suites implementation of the CI/T Interface SHOULD prefer cipher suites
which support perfect forward secrecy over cipher suites that don't. which support perfect forward secrecy over cipher suites that don't.
9.2. Denial of Service HTTP requests that attempt to access or operate on CI/T data
belonging to another CDN MUST be rejected using, for example, HTTP
"403 Forbidden" or "404 Not Found".
Note that in a "diamond" configuration, where one uCDN's content can
be acquired via more than one directly-connected uCDN, it may not be
possible for the dCDN to determine from which uCDN it acquired
content. In this case, the dCDN MUST allow each uCDN from which the
content could have been acquired to act upon that content using CI/T
Commands.
8.2. Denial of Service
This document does not define a specific mechanism to protect against This document does not define a specific mechanism to protect against
Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on the CI/T. However, CI/T endpoints Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on the CI/T. However, CI/T endpoints
can be protected against DoS attacks through the use of TLS transport can be protected against DoS attacks through the use of TLS transport
and/or via mechanisms outside the scope of the CI/T interface, such and/or via mechanisms outside the scope of the CI/T interface, such
as firewalling or use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). as firewalling or use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).
10. Acknowledgements Depending on the implementation, triggered activity may consume
significant processing and bandwidth in the dCDN. A malicious or
faulty uCDN could use this to generate unnecessary load in the dCDN.
The dCDN should consider mechanisms to avoid overload, for example by
rate-limiting acceptance or processing of CI/T Commands, or batching
up its processing.
The authors thank Kevin Ma for his ongoing input. 9. Acknowledgements
11. References The authors thank Kevin Ma for his input.
11.1. Normative References 10. References
10.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
3986, January 2005. 3986, January 2005.
[RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014. Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.
[RFC7231] Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol [RFC7231] Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, June 2014. (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, June 2014.
[RFC7232] Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol [RFC7232] Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests", RFC 7232, June 2014. (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests", RFC 7232, June 2014.
11.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-cdni-framework]
Peterson, L., Davie, B., and R. Brandenburg, "Framework
for CDN Interconnection", draft-ietf-cdni-framework-14
(work in progress), June 2014.
[I-D.ietf-cdni-metadata] [I-D.ietf-cdni-metadata]
Niven-Jenkins, B., Murray, R., Watson, G., Caulfield, M., Niven-Jenkins, B., Murray, R., Caulfield, M., Leung, K.,
Leung, K., and K. Ma, "CDN Interconnect Metadata", draft- and K. Ma, "CDN Interconnection Metadata", draft-ietf-
ietf-cdni-metadata-06 (work in progress), February 2014. cdni-metadata-07 (work in progress), July 2014.
[I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements] [I-D.ietf-cdni-redirection]
Leung, K. and Y. Lee, "Content Distribution Network Niven-Jenkins, B. and R. Brandenburg, "Request Routing
Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements", draft-ietf-cdni- Redirection Interface for CDN Interconnection", draft-
requirements-17 (work in progress), January 2014. ietf-cdni-redirection-03 (work in progress), August 2014.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000. [RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.
[RFC4287] Nottingham, M., Ed. and R. Sayre, Ed., "The Atom
Syndication Format", RFC 4287, December 2005.
[RFC5288] Salowey, J., Choudhury, A., and D. McGrew, "AES Galois [RFC5288] Salowey, J., Choudhury, A., and D. McGrew, "AES Galois
Counter Mode (GCM) Cipher Suites for TLS", RFC 5288, Counter Mode (GCM) Cipher Suites for TLS", RFC 5288,
August 2008. August 2008.
[RFC6707] Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content [RFC6707] Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem
Statement", RFC 6707, September 2012. Statement", RFC 6707, September 2012.
[XML-BASE] [RFC7336] Peterson, L., Davie, B., and R. van Brandenburg,
Marsh, J., Ed. and R. Tobin, Ed., "XML Base (Second "Framework for Content Distribution Network
Edition) - http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlbase/", January 2009. Interconnection (CDNI)", RFC 7336, August 2014.
[RFC7337] Leung, K. and Y. Lee, "Content Distribution Network
Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements", RFC 7337, August
2014.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Rob Murray Rob Murray
Velocix (Alcatel-Lucent) Velocix (Alcatel-Lucent)
3 Ely Road 3 Ely Road
Milton, Cambridge CB24 6DD Milton, Cambridge CB24 6DD
UK UK
Email: rmurray@velocix.com Email: rmurray@velocix.com
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