Internet Engineering Task Force                         G. Bertrand, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                           I. Oprescu, Ed.
Intended status: Informational                                E. Stephan
Expires: August 26, 2013                   France Telecom - Orange
                                                          R. Peterkofsky
                                                           Skytide, Inc.
Expires: November 28, 2013                           F. Le Faucheur, Ed.
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                            P. Grochocki
                                                           Orange Polska
                                                       February 22,
                                                          R. Peterkofsky
                                                           Skytide, Inc.
                                                            May 27, 2013

                         CDNI Logging Interface
                       draft-ietf-cdni-logging-01
                       draft-ietf-cdni-logging-02

Abstract

   This memo specifies the Logging interface between a downstream CDN
   (dCDN) and an upstream CDN (uCDN) that are interconnected as per the
   CDN Interconnection (CDNI) framework.  First, it describes a
   reference model for CDNI logging.  Then, it specifies the CDNI
   Logging File format and the actual protocol for CDNI logging information exchange covering the
   information elements as well as the transport of those elements. CDNI
   Logging Files.

Status of this This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 26, November 28, 2013.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.2.  Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8   4
   2.  CDNI Logging Reference Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8   5
     2.1.  CDNI Logging interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8   5
     2.2.  Overall Logging Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12   8
       2.2.1.  Logging Generation and During-Generation Aggregation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13    9
       2.2.2.  Logging Collection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14  10
       2.2.3.  Logging Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14  10
       2.2.4.  Logging Rectification and Post-Generation Aggregation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15  11
       2.2.5.  Log-Consuming Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15  12
         2.2.5.1.  Maintenance/Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15  12
         2.2.5.2.  Accounting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  12
         2.2.5.3.  Analytics and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  13
         2.2.5.4.  Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  13
         2.2.5.5.  Legal Logging Duties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  13
         2.2.5.6.  Notions common to multiple Log Consuming
                   Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  13
   3.  CDNI Logging Transport Requirements  . File Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     3.1.  Timeliness . . . . . .  15
     3.1.  CDNI Logging File Directives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.2.  Logging Records . . . . 19
     3.2.  Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       3.2.1.  HTTP Request Logging Record . . . . . . 19
     3.3.  Security . . . . . . .  20
       3.2.2.  CDNI Logging File Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     3.3.  Fields and Directives Formats . . . . 19
     3.4.  Scalability . . . . . . . . . .  27
   4.  CDNI Logging File Exchange Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     3.5.  Consistency between  27
     4.1.  CDNI Logging and CDN Logging Feed . . . . . 20
     3.6.  Dispatching/Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     4.2.  CDNI Logging File Pull  . . . 20
   4.  CDNI Logging Information Structure and Transport . . . . . . . 20
   5.  CDNI Logging Fields . . . . . . .  28
   5.  Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.1.  Semantics of CDNI Logging Fields . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   6.  IANA Considerations . . 22
     5.2.  Syntax of CDNI Logging Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   6.  CDNI Logging Records . . . . .  31
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     6.1.  Content Delivery . . .  31
     7.1.  Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity Protection . .  31
     7.2.  Non Repudiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     6.2.  Content Invalidation and Purging . . . . .  32
     7.3.  Privacy . . . . . . . . 29
     6.3.  Request Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . 29
     6.4.  Logging Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   7.  CDNI Logging File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     7.1.  Logging Files  . . . . . . . .  32
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     7.2.  File Format . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       7.2.1.  Headers . . . . . .  33
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       7.2.2.  Body (Logging Records) Format  33
   Appendix A.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       7.2.3.  Footer Format . . . . . . . .  34
     A.1.  Compliance with cdni-requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   8.  CDNI Logging File Transport Protocol  34
     A.2.  Additional Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   9.  Open Issues . . . .  34
       A.2.1.  Timeliness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   10. IANA Considerations  34
       A.2.2.  Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   11.  35
       A.2.3.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     11.1. Privacy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     11.2. Non Repudiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   12. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   13. References . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       A.2.4.  Scalability . . 33
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     13.2. Informative References  35
       A.2.5.  Consistency between CDNI Logging and CDN Logging  . .  35
       A.2.6.  Dispatching/Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33  35
   Appendix A.  Examples Log Format . . . . . B.  Analysis of candidate protocols for Logging
                Transport  . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     A.1.  W3C Common Log File (CLF) Format . . . . . . . . .  36
     B.1.  Syslog  . . . . 35
     A.2.  W3C Extended Log File (ELF) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     A.3.  National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)
           Common Log Format . . . . . . . . .  36
     B.2.  XMPP  . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     A.4.  NCSA Combined Log Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     B.3.  SNMP  . . 37
     A.5.  NCSA Separate Log Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     A.6.  Squid 2.0 Native Log Format for Access Logs . . . . . . . 37
   Appendix B.  Requirements  36
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     B.1.  Additional Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     B.2.  Compliancy with Requirements draft . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
   Appendix C.  Analysis of candidate protocols for Logging
                Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     C.1.  Syslog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     C.2.  XMPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     C.3.  SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40  36

1.  Introduction

   This memo specifies the Logging interface between a downstream CDN
   (dCDN) and an upstream CDN (uCDN).  First, it describes a reference
   model for CDNI logging.  Then, it specifies the CDNI Logging File
   format and the actual protocol for
   CDNI logging information exchange covering the information elements
   as well as the transport of those elements. CDNI Logging Files.

   The reader should be familiar with the work of the CDNI WG: following documents:

   o  CDNI problem statement [RFC6707] and framework
      [I-D.ietf-cdni-framework] identify a Logging interface,

   o  Section 7 8 of [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements] specifies a set of
      requirements for Logging,

   o  [RFC6770] outlines real world use-cases for interconnecting CDNs.
      These use cases require the exchange of Logging information
      between the dCDN and the uCDN.

   As stated in [RFC6707], "the CDNI Logging interface enables details
   of logs or events to be exchanged between interconnected CDNs".

   The present document describes:

   o  The CDNI Logging reference model (Section 2),

   o  The CDNI Logging information structure and Transport (Section 4),

   o  The CDNI Logging Fields (Section 5),

   o  The CDNI Logging Records (Section 6),

   o  The CDNI Logging File format (Section 7), 3),

   o  The CDNI Logging File Transport Protocol Exchange protocol (Section 8),

   In the Appendices, the document provides:

   o  A list of identified requirements (Appendix B.1), which should be
      considered for inclusion in [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements], 4).

1.1.  Terminology

   In this document, the first letter of each CDNI-specific term is
   capitalized.  We adopt the terminology described in [RFC6707] and
   [I-D.ietf-cdni-framework], and extend it with the additional terms
   defined below.

   For clarity, we use the word "Log" only for referring to internal CDN
   logs and we use the word "Logging" for any inter-CDN information
   exchange and processing operations related to CDNI Logging interface.
   Log and Logging formats may be different.

   CDN Logging information: logging information generated and collected
   within a CDN

   CDNI Logging information: logging information exchanged across CDNs
   using the CDNI Logging Interface

   Logging information: logging information generated and collected
   within a CDN or obtained from another CDN using the CDNI Logging
   Interface

   CDNI Logging Field: an atomic element of information that can be
   included in a CDNI Logging Record.  The time an event/task started,
   the IP address of an End user to whom content was delivered, and the
   URI of the content delivered are examples of CDNI Logging Fields.

   CDNI Logging Record: an information record providing information
   about a specific event.  This comprises a collection of CDNI Logging
   Fields.

   Separator Character: a specific character used to enable the parsing
   of Logging Records.  This character separates the Logging Fields that
   compose a Logging Record.

   CDNI Logging File: a file containing CDNI Logging Records, as well as
   additional information facilitating the processing of the CDNI
   Logging Records.

   CDN Reporting: the process of providing the relevant information that
   will be used to create a formatted content delivery report provided
   to the CSP in deferred time.  Such information typically includes
   aggregated data that can cover a large period of time (e.g., from
   hours to several months).  Uses of Reporting include the collection
   of charging data related to CDN services and the computation of Key
   Performance Indicators (KPIs).

   CDN Monitoring: the process of providing content delivery information
   in real-time.  Monitoring typically includes data in real time to
   provide visibility of the deliveries in progress, for service
   operation purposes.  It presents a view of the global health of the
   services as well as information on usage and performance, for network
   services supervision and operation management.  In particular,
   monitoring data can be used to generate alarms.

   End-User experience management: study of Logging data using
   statistical analysis to discover, understand, and predict user
   behavior patterns.

   Class-of-requests: A Class-of-requests identifies a set of content
   Requests, related to a specific CSP, received from clients in a given
   footprint and sharing common properties.  These properties include:

   o  Any header, URL parameter, query parameter of an HTTP (or RTMP)
      content request

   o  Any header, or sub-domain of the FQDN of a DNS lookup request

   Examples:

   o  Class-of-Requests = all the requests that include the HTTP header
      "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0" related to CSP
      "http://*.cdn.example.com" from AS3215

   o  Class-of-Requests = all the DNS requests from anywhere and related
      to CSP "cdn*.example.com"

   Delivery Service: A Delivery Service is defined by a set of Class-of-
   Requests and a list of parameters that apply to all these Class-of-
   Requests (logging format, delivery quality/capabilities
   requirements...)

   Service Agreement: A service agreement is defined by a uCDN
   identifier, a dCDN identifier, a set of Delivery Services and a list
   of parameters that apply to the Service Agreement.

   Once a Service Agreement is agreed between the administrative
   entities managing the CDNs to be interconnected, the upstream CDN and
   the downstream CDN of the CDNI interconnection must be configured
   according to this agreed Service Agreement.  For instance, a given
   uCDN (uCDN1) may request a given dCDN (dCDN1) to configure one
   Delivery Service for handling requests for HTTP Adaptive streaming
   videos delegated by uCDN1 and related to a specific CSP (CSP1) and
   another one for handling requests for static pictures delegated by
   uCDN1 and related to CSP1.  These Delivery services would belong to
   the Service Agreement between uCDN1 and dCDN1 for CSP1.  In this
   simple example, uCDN1 may request dCDN1 to include Delivery Service
   information in its CDNI Logging, to help uCDN1 to provide relevant
   reports to CSP1.

1.2.  Abbreviations

   o  API: Application Programming Interface

   o  CCID: Content Collection Identifier

   o  CDN: Content Delivery Network

   o  CDNP: Content Delivery Network Provider

   o  CoDR: Content Delivery Record

   o  CSP: Content Service Provider

   o  DASH: Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP

   o  dCDN: downstream CDN

   o  FTP: File Transfer Protocol

   o  HAS: HTTP Adaptive Streaming

   o  KPI: Key Performance Indicator

   o  PVR: Personal Video Recorder

   o  SID: Session Identifier

   o  SFTP: SSH File Transfer Protocol

   o  SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol

   o  uCDN: upstream CDN

2.  CDNI Logging Reference Model

2.1.  CDNI Logging interactions

   The CDNI logging reference model between a given uCDN and a given
   dCDN involves the following interactions:

   o  customization by the uCDN of the CDNI logging information to be
      provided by the dCDN to the uCDN (e.g.  control of which logging
      fields are to be communicated to the uCDN for a given task
      performed by the dCDN, control of which types of events are to be
      logged).  The dCDN takes into account this CDNI logging
      customization information to determine what logging information to
      provide to the uCDN, but it may, or may not, take into account
      this CDNI logging customization information to influence what CDN
      logging information is to be generated and collected within the
      dCDN (e.g.  even if the uCDN requests a restricted subset of the
      logging information, the dCDN may elect to generate a broader set
      of logging information).  The mechanism to support the
      customisation by the uCDN of CDNI Logging information is outside
      the scope of this document and left for further study.  We note
      that the CDNI Control interface ore or the CDNI Metadata interfaces interface
      appear as candidate interfaces on which to potentially build such
      a customisation mechanism. mechanism in the future.  Before such a mechanism
      is available, the uCDN and dCDN are expected to agree off-line on
      what CDNI logging information is to be provide by dCDN to UCDN and
      rely on management plane actions to configure the CDNI Logging
      functions to generate (respectively, expect) in dCDN
      (respectively, in uCDN).

   o  generation and collection by the dCDN of logging information
      related to the completion of any task performed by the dCDN on
      behalf of the uCDN (e.g., delivery of the content to an end user)
      or related to events happening in the dCDN that are relevant to
      the uCDN (e.g., failures or unavailability in dCDN).  This takes
      place within the dCDN and does not directly involve CDNI
      interfaces.

   o  communication by the dCDN to the uCDN of the logging information
      collected by the dCDN relevant to the uCDN.  This is supported by
      the CDNI Logging interface and in the scope of the present
      document.  For example, the uCDN may use this logging information
      to charge the CSP, to perform analytics and monitoring for
      operational reasons, to provide analytics and monitoring views on
      its content delivery to the CSP or to perform trouble-shooting.

   o  customization by the dCDN of the logging to be performed by the
      uCDN on behalf of the dCDN.  The mechanism to support the
      customisation by the dCDN of CDNI Logging information is outside
      the scope of this document and left for further study.

   o  generation and collection by the uCDN of logging information
      related to the completion of any task performed by the uCDN on
      behalf of the dCDN (e.g., serving of content by uCDN to dCDN for
      acquisition purposes by dCDN) or related to events happening in
      the uCDN that are relevant to the dCDN.  This takes place within
      the uCDN and does not directly involve CDNI interfaces.

   o  communication by the uCDN to the dCDN of the logging information
      collected by the uCDN relevant to the dCDN.  For example, the dCDN
      might potentially benefit form this information for security
      auditing or content acquisition troubleshooting.  This is outside
      the scope of this document and left for further study.

   Figure 1 provides an example of CDNI Logging interactions (focusing
   only on the interactions that are in the scope of this document) in a
   particular scenario where 4 CDNs are involved in the delivery of
   content from a given CSP: the uCDN has a CDNI interconnection with
   dCDN-1 and dCDN-2.  In turn, dCDN2 has a CDNI interconnection with
   dCDN3.  In this example, uCDN, dCDN-1, dCDN-2 and dCDN-3 all
   participate in the delivery of content for the CSP.  In this example,
   the CDNI Logging interface enables the uCDN to obtain logging
   information from all the dCDNs involved in the delivery.  In the
   example, uCDN uses the Logging data:

   o  to analyze the performance of the delivery operated by the dCDNs
      and to adjust its operations (e.g., request routing) as
      appropriate,

   o  to provide reporting (non real-time) and monitoring (real-time)
      information to CSP.

   For instance, uCDN merges Logging data, extracts relevant KPIs, and
   presents a formatted report to the CSP, in addition to a bill for the
   content delivered by uCDN itself or by its dCDNs on his behalf.  uCDN
   may also provide Logging data as raw log files to the CSP, so that
   the CSP can use its own logging analysis tools.

                   +-----+
                   | CSP |
                   +-----+
                      ^ Reporting and monitoring data
                      * Billing
                   ,--*--.
       Logging  ,-'       `-.
       Data  =>(     uCDN    )<=   Logging
          //   `-.       _,-'   \\  Data
          ||        `-'-'-'      ||
       ,-----.                 ,-----.
    ,-'       `-.           ,-'       `-.
   (   dCDN-1    )         (   dCDN-2    )<==  Logging
    `-.       ,-'          `-.      _,-'    \\ Data
      `--'--'                  `--'-'        ||
                                          ,-----.
                                        ,'       `-.
                                       (  dCDN-3    )
                                        `.       ,-'
                                          `--'--'

   ===> CDNI Logging Interface
   ***> outside the scope of CDNI

          Figure 1: Interactions in CDNI Logging Reference Model

   A dCDN (e.g., dCDN-2) integrates the relevant logging information
   obtained from its dCDNs (e.g., dCDN-3) in the logging information
   that it provides to the uCDN, so that the uCDN ultimately obtains all
   logging information relevant to a CSP for which it acts as the
   authoritative CDN.

   Note that the format of Logging information that a CDN provides over
   the CDNI interface might be different from the one that the CDN uses
   internally.  In this case, the CDN needs to reformat the Logging
   information before it provides this information to the other CDN over
   the CDNI Logging interface.  Similarly, a CDN might reformat the
   Logging data that it receives over the CDNI Logging interface before
   injecting it into its log-consuming applications or before providing
   some of this logging information to the CSP.  Such reformatting
   operations introduce latency in the logging distribution chain and
   introduce a processing burden.  Therefore, there are benefits in
   specifying CDNI Logging format that are suitable for use inside CDNs
   and also are close to the CDN Log formats commonly used in CDNs
   today.

2.2.  Overall Logging Chain

   This section discusses the overall logging chain within and across
   CDNs to clarify how CDN Logging information is expected to fit in
   this overall chain.  Figure 2 illustrates the overall logging chain
   within the dCDN, across CDNs using the CDNI Logging interface and
   within the uCDN.  Note that the logging chain illustrated in the
   Figure is obviously only indicative and varies depending on the
   specific environments.  For example, there may be more or less
   instantiations of each entity (i.e., there may be 4 Log consuming
   applications in a given CDN).  As another example, there may be one
   instance of Rectification process per Log Consuming Application
   instead of a shared one.

             Log Consuming    Log Consuming
                 App              App
                 /\              /\
                 |               |
           Rectification--------
           /\
           |
           Filtering
            /\
            |
        Collection                        uCDN
        /\       /\
        |        |
        |     Generation
        |
   CDNI Logging ---------------------------------------------
   exchange
        /\         Log Consuming    Log Consuming
        |                 App              App
        |                  /\              /\
        |                  |               |
   Rectification     Rectification---------
           /\       /\
           |        |
           Filtering
            /\
            |
         Collection                         dCDN
         /\       /\
         |        |
   Generation    Generation

            Figure 2: CDNI Logging in the overall Logging Chain

   The following subsections describe each of the processes potentially
   involved in the logging chain of Figure 2.

2.2.1.  Logging Generation and During-Generation Aggregation

   CDNs typically generate logging information for all significant task
   completions, events, and failures.  Logs are typically generated by
   many devices in the CDN including the surrogates, the request routing
   system, and the control system.

   The amount of Logging information generated can be huge.  Therefore,
   during contract negotiations, interconnected CDNs often agree on a
   Logging retention duration, and optionally, on a maximum size of the
   Logging data that the dCDN must keep.  If this size is exceeded, the
   dCDN must alert the uCDN but may not keep more Logs for the
   considered time period.  In addition, CDNs may aggregate logs and
   transmit only summaries for some categories of operations instead of
   the full Logging data.  Note that such aggregation leads to an
   information loss, which may be problematic for some usages of Logging
   (e.g., debugging).

   [I-D.brandenburg-cdni-has] discusses logging for HTTP Adaptive
   Streaming (HAS).  In accordance with the recommendations articulated
   there, it is expected that a surrogate will generate separate logging
   information for delivery of each chunk of HAS content.  This ensures
   that separate logging information can then be provided to
   interconnected CDNs over the CDNI Logging interface.  Still in line
   with the recommendations of [I-D.brandenburg-cdni-has], the logging
   information for per-chunck delivery may include some information (a
   Content Collection IDentifier and a Session IDentifier as discussed
   in Section 5) IDentifier) intended to
   facilitate subsequent post-generation aggregation of per-chunk logs
   into per-session logs.  Note that a CDN may also elect to generate
   aggregate per-session logs when performing HAS delivery, but this
   needs to be in addition to, and not instead of, the per-chunk
   delivery logs.  We note that this may be revisited in future versions
   of this document.

   Note that in the case of non real-time logging, the trigger of the
   transmission or generation of the logging file appears to be a
   synchronous process from a protocol standpoint.  The implementation
   algorithm can choose to enforce a maximum size for the logging file
   beyound
   beyond which the transmission is automatically triggered (and thus
   allow for an asynchrounous asynchronous transmission process).

2.2.2.  Logging Collection

   This is the process that continuously collects logs generated by the
   log-generating entities within a CDN.

   In a CDNI environment, in addition to collecting logging information
   from log-generating entities within the local CDN, the Collection
   process also collects logging information provided by another CDN, or
   other CDNs, through the CDNI Logging interface.  This is illustrated
   in Figure 2 where we see that the Collection process of the uCDN
   collects logging information from log-generating entities within the
   uCDN as well as logging information coming through CDNI Logging
   exchange with the dCDN through the CDNI Logging interface.

2.2.3.  Logging Filtering
   A CDN may require to only present different subset of the whole
   logging information collected to various log-consuming applications.
   This is achieved by the Filtering process.

   In particular, the Filtering process can also filter the right subset
   of information that needs to be provided to a given interconnected
   CDN.  For example, the filtering process in the dCDN can be used to
   ensure that only the logging information related to tasks performed
   on behalf of a given uCDN are made available to that uCDN (thereby
   filtering all the logging information related to deliveries by the
   dCDN of content for its own CSPs).  Similarly, the Filtering process
   may filter or partially mask some fields, for example, to protect End
   Users' privacy when communicating CDNI Logging information to another
   CDN.  Filtering of logging information prior to communication of this
   information to other CDNs via the CDNI Logging interface requires
   that the downstream CDN can recognize the set of log records that
   relate to each interconnected CDN.

   The CDN will also filter some internal scope information such as
   information related to its internal alarms (security, failures, load,
   etc).

   In some use cases described in [RFC6770], the interconnected CDNs do
   not want to disclose details on their internal topology.  The
   filtering process can then also filter confidential data on the
   dCDNs' topology (number of servers, location, etc.).  In particular,
   information about the requests served by every Surrogate may be
   confidential.  Therefore, the Logging information must be protected
   so that data such as Surrogates' hostnames is not disclosed to the
   uCDN.  In the "Inter-Affiliates Interconnection" use case, this
   information may be disclosed to the uCDN because both the dCDN and
   the uCDN are operated by entities of the same group.

2.2.4.  Logging Rectification and Post-Generation Aggregation

   If Logging is generated periodically, it is important that the
   sessions that start in one Logging period and end in another are
   correctly reported.  If they are reported in the starting period,
   then the Logging of this period will be available only after the end
   of the session, which delays the Logging generation.

   A Logging rectification/update mechanism could be useful to reach a
   good trade-off between the Logging generation delay and the Logging
   accuracy.  Depending on the selected Logging protocol(s), such
   mechanism may be invaluable for real time Logging, which must be
   provided rapidly and cannot wait for the end of operations in
   progress.

   In the presence of HAS, some log-consuming applications can benefit
   from aggregate per-session logs.  For example, for analytics, per-
   session logs allow display of session-related trends which are much
   more meaningful for some types of analysis than chunk-related trends.
   In the case where the log-generating entities have generated during-
   generation aggregate logs, those can be used by the applications.  In
   the case where aggregate logs have not been generated, the
   Rectification process can be extended with a Post-Generation
   Aggregation process that generates per-session logs from the per-
   chunk logs, possibly leveraging the information included in the per-
   chunk logs for that purpose (Content Collection IDentifier and a
   Session IDentifier).  However, in accordance with
   [I-D.brandenburg-cdni-has], this document does not define exchange of
   such aggregate logs on the CDNI Logging interface.  We note that this
   may be revisited in future versions of this document.

2.2.5.  Log-Consuming Applications

2.2.5.1.  Maintenance/Debugging

   Logging is useful to permit the detection (and limit the risk) of
   content delivery failures.  In particular, Logging facilitates the
   resolution of configuration issues.

   To detect faults, Logging must enable the reporting of any CDN
   operation success and failure, such as request redirection, content
   acquisition, etc.  The uCDN can summarize such information into KPIs.
   For instance, Logging format should allow the computation of the
   number of times during a given epoch that content delivery related to
   a specific service succeeds/fails.

   Logging enables the CDN providers to identify and troubleshoot
   performance degradations.  In particular, Logging enables the
   communication of traffic data (e.g., the amount of traffic that has
   been forwarded by a dCDN on behalf of an uCDN over a given period of
   time), which is particularly useful for CDN and network planning
   operations.

2.2.5.2.  Accounting

   Logging is essential for accounting, to permit inter-CDN billing and
   CSP billing by uCDNs.  For instance, Logging information provided by
   dCDNs enables the uCDN to
   check compute the total amount of traffic
   delivered by every dCDN and for
   every Delivery Service, a particular Content Provider, as well
   as, the associated bandwidth usage (e.g., peak, 95th percentile), and
   the maximum number of simultaneous sessions over a given period of
   time.

2.2.5.3.  Analytics and Reporting

   The goal of analytics is to gather any relevant information to track
   audience, analyze user behavior, and monitor the performance and
   quality of content delivery.  For instance, Logging enables the CDN
   providers to report on content consumption (e.g., delivered sessions
   per content) in a specific geographic area.

   The goal of reporting is to gather any relevant information to
   monitor the performance and quality of content delivery and allow
   detection of delivery issues.  For instance, reporting could track
   the average delivery throughput experienced by End-Users in a given
   region for a specific CSP or content set over a period of time.

2.2.5.4.  Security

   The goal of security is to prevent and monitor unauthorized access,
   misuse, modification, and denial of access of a service.  A set of
   information is logged for security purposes.  In particular, a record
   of access to content is usually collected to permit the CSP to detect
   infringements of content delivery policies and other abnormal End
   User behaviors.

2.2.5.5.  Legal Logging Duties

   Depending on the country considered, the CDNs may have to retain
   specific Logging information during a legal retention period, to
   comply with judicial requisitions.

2.2.5.6.  Notions common to multiple Log Consuming Applications

2.2.5.6.1.  Logging Information Views

   Within a given log-consuming application, different views may be
   provided to different users depending on privacy, business, and
   scalability constraints.

   For example, an analytics tool run by the uCDN can provide one view
   to an uCDN operator that exploits all the logging information
   available to the uCDN, while the tool may provide a different view to
   each CSP exploiting only the logging information related to the
   content of the given CSP.

   As another example, maintenance and debugging tools may provide
   different views to different CDN operators, based on their
   operational role.

2.2.5.6.2.  Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

   This section presents, for explanatory purposes, a non-exhaustive
   list of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that can be extracted/
   produced from logs.

   Multiple log-consuming applications, such as analytics, monitoring,
   and maintenance applications, often compute and track such KPIs.

   In a CDNI environment, depending on the situation, these KPIs may be
   computed by the uCDN or by the dCDN.  But it is usually the uCDN that
   computes KPIs, because uCDN and dCDN may have different definitions
   of the KPIs and the computation of some KPIs requires a vision of all
   the deliveries performed by the uCDN and all its dCDNs.

   Here is a list of important examples of KPIs:

   o  Number of delivery requests received from End-Users in a given
      region for each piece of content, during a given period of time
      (e.g., hour/day/week/month)

   o  Percentage of delivery successes/failures among the aforementioned
      requests

   o  Number of failures listed by failure type (e.g., HTTP error code)
      for requests received from End Users in a given region and for
      each piece of content, during a given period of time (e.g., hour/
      day/week/month)

   o  Number and cause of premature delivery termination for End Users
      in a given region and for each piece of content, during a given
      period of time (e.g., hour/day/week/month)

   o  Maximum and mean number of simultaneous sessions established by
      End Users in a given region, for a given Delivery Service, Content Provider, and
      during a given period of time (e.g., hour/day/week/month)

   o  Volume of traffic delivered for sessions established by End Users
      in a given region, for a given Delivery Service, Content Provider, and during a
      given period of time (e.g., hour/day/week/month)

   o  Maximum, mean, and minimum delivery throughput for sessions
      established by End Users in a given region, for a given Delivery
      Service, Content
      Provider, and during a given period of time (e.g., hour/day/week/
      month)

   o  Cache-hit and byte-hit ratios for requests received from End Users
      in a given region for each piece of content, during a given period
      of time (e.g., hour/day/week/month)

   o  Top 10 of the most popularly requested content (during a given
      day/week/month), day
      /week/month),

   o  Terminal type (mobile, PC, STB, if this information can be
      acquired from the browser type header, for example).

   Additional KPIs can be computed from other sources of information
   than the Logging, for instance, data collected by a content portal or
   by specific client-side APIs. application programming interfaces.  Such
   KPIs are out of scope for the present memo.

   The KPIs used depend strongly on the considered log-consuming
   application -- the CDN operator may be interested in different
   metrics than the CSP is.  In particular, CDN operators are often
   interested in delivery and acquisition performance KPIs, information
   related to Surrogates' performance, caching information to evaluate
   the cache-hit ratio, information about the delivered file size to
   compute the volume of content delivered during peak hour, etc.

   Some of the KPIs, for instance those providing an instantaneous
   vision of the active sessions for a given CSP's content, are useful
   essentially if they are provided in real-time.  By contrast, some
   other KPIs, such as the one averaged on a long period of time, can be
   provided in non-real time.

3.  CDNI Logging Transport Requirements
3.1.  Timeliness

   Some applications consuming File Format

   As defined in Section 1.1 a CDNI Logging information, such logging field is as
   accounting or trend analytics, only require an atomic
   logging information to be
   available with element and a timeliness of the order of CDNI Logging Record is a day or the hour.  This
   document focuses on addressing this requirement.

   Some applications consuming collection
   of CDNI Logging information, such as real-
   time analytics, require Fields containing all logging information
   corresponding to be available in real-
   time (i.e. of the order of a second after the corresponding event). single logging event.  This document leaves this requirement out of scope.

3.2.  Reliability

   CDNI logging information must be transmitted reliably.  The transport
   protocol should contain an anti-replay mechanism.

3.3.  Security

   CDNI logging information exchange must allow authentication,
   integrity protection, and confidentiality protection.  Also, defines a non-
   repudiation mechanism is mandatory,
   third level of structure, the transport protocol should
   support it.

3.4.  Scalability CDNI logging information exchange must support large scale
   information exchange, particularly so in the presence of HTTP
   Adaptive Streaming.

   For example, if we consider Logging File, that is a client pulling HTTP Progressive
   Download content with an average duration collection
   of 10 minutes, this
   represents 1/600 CDNI delivery Logging Records per second.  If we
   assume the dCDN Records.  This structure is simultaneously serving 100,000 such clients on
   behalf of the uCDN, the dCDN will be generating 167 illustrated in Figure 3.
   The CDNI Logging Records
   per second to be communicated to the uCDN over the CDNI Logging
   interface.  Or equivalently, if we assume an average delivery rate of
   2Mb/s, the dCDN generates 0.83 CDNI Logging Records per second for
   every Gb/s of streaming on behalf of the uCDN.

   For example, if we consider a client pulling HAS content and
   receiving a video chunk every 2 seconds, a separate audio chunck
   every 2 seconds and a refreshed manifest every 10 seconds, this
   represents 1.1 delivery Logging Record per second.  If we assume the
   dCDN is simultaneously serving 100,000 such clients on behalf of the
   uCDN, the dCDN will be generating 110,000 Logging Records per second
   to be communicated to the uCDN over the CDNI Logging interface.  Or
   equivalently, if we assume an average delivery rate of 2Mb/s, the
   dCDN generates 550 CDNI Logging Records per second for every Gb/s of
   streaming on behalf of the uCDN.

3.5.  Consistency between CDNI Logging and CDN Logging

   There are benefits in using a CDNI logging format as close as
   possible to intra-CDN logging format commonly used in CDNs tody in
   order to minimize systematic translation at CDN/CDNI boundary.

3.6.  Dispatching/Filtering

   When a CDN is acting as a dCDN for multiple uCDNs, the dCDN needs to
   dispatch each CDNI Logging Record to the uCDN that redirected the
   corresponding request.  The CDNI Logging format need to allow, and
   possibly facilitate, such a dispatching.

4.  CDNI Logging Information Structure and Transport

   As defined in Section 1.1 a CDNI logging field is as an atomic
   logging information element and a CDNI Logging Record is a collection
   of CDNI Logging Fields containing all logging information
   corresponding to a single logging event.

   This document defines non-real-time transport of CDNI Logging
   information over the CDNI interface.  For such non-real-time
   transport, this documents defines a third level of structure, the
   CDNI Logging File, that is a collection of CDNI Logging Records.
   This File structure and encoding is described in Figure 3.  This document then
   specifies how to transport such CDNI Logging Files across
   interconnected CDNs.  We observe that this approach can be tuned specified in a
   real deployment to achieve near-real time exchange of CDNI Logging
   information, e.g., by increasing the frequency of logging file
   creation and distribution throughout the Logging chain, but it is not
   expected that this approach can support real time transport (e.g.,
   sub-second) of CDNI logging information.
   present section.

   +------------------------------------------------------+
   |CDNI Logging File                                     |
   |                                                      |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   | |CDNI Logging Record                               | |
   | |  +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ | |
   | |  |CDNI Logging | |CDNI Logging | |CDNI Logging | | |
   | |  |   Field     | |   Field     | |   Field     | | |
   | |  +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ | |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   |                                                      |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   | |CDNI Logging Record                               | |
   | |  +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ | |
   | |  |CDNI Logging | |CDNI Logging | |CDNI Logging | | |
   | |  |   Field     | |   Field     | |   Field     | | |
   | |  +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ | |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   |                                                      |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   | |CDNI Logging Record                               | |
   | |  +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ | |
   | |  |CDNI Logging | |CDNI Logging | |CDNI Logging | | |
   | |  |   Field     | |   Field     | |   Field     | | |
   | |  +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ | |
   | +--------------------------------------------------+ |
   +------------------------------------------------------+

                   Figure 3: Structure of Logging Files

   It

   The CDNI Logging File format is expected that future version of this inspired from the W3C Extended Log
   File Format [ELF].  However, it is fully specified by the present
   document.  Where the present document will also specify
   real time transport differs from the W3C Extended
   Log File Format, an implementation of CDNI Logging information over MUST comply with
   the present document.

   A CDNI
   interface.  We note that this might involve direct transport Logging File MUST contain a sequence of lines containing US-
   ASCII characters [CHAR_SET] terminated by either the sequence LF or
   CRLF.  A CDNI Logging Records without prior grouping into implementation consuming CDNI Logging Files
   MUST accept lines terminated by either LF or CRLF.

   Each line of a file structure to avoid
   the latency associated with creating and transporting such CDNI Logging File MUST contain either a file
   structure throughout the logging chain.

   The semantics and encoding of directive or a
   CDNI Logging Record.

   Directives record information about the CDNI Logging fields process itself.
   Lines containing directives MUST begin with the "#" character.
   Directives are specified in Section 5.  The semantics and encoding 3.1.

   Logging Records provide actual details of CDNI the logged event.  Logging
   Records are specified in Section 6.  The 3.2.

3.1.  CDNI Logging File Directives
   An implementation of the CDNI Logging File format is interface MUST support the
   following directives (formats specified in the form <...> are
   specified in Section 7.  The protocol for transport 3.3):

   o  Version:

      *  format: <digit>.<digit>

      *  semantic: indicates the version of the CDNI Logging File is
         format.  The value MUST be "1.0" for the version specified in Section 8.

5.  CDNI Logging Fields

   Existing CDNs Logging functions collect and consolidate logs
   performed by their Surrogates.  Surrogates usually store
         the logs
   using a format derived from Web servers' present document.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and caching proxies' log
   standards such as W3C, NCSA [ELF] [CLF], or Squid format [squid].  In
   practice, these formats are adapted to cope with CDN specifics.
   Appendix A presents examples of commonly used log formats.

5.1.  Semantics only one instance of CDNI Logging Fields

   This section specifies this
         directive.  It MUST be the semantics first line of the CDNI Logging Fields.  The
   specific subset of file.

   o  UUID:

      *  format: <string>

      *  semantic: this is Universally Unique IDentifier for the CDNI
         Logging fields that can be found in each type
   of Logging Record is File as specified in Section 6.

   The semantics [RFC4122].

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and only one instance of this
         directive.

   o  Origin:

      *  format: <host>

      *  semantic: this identifies the entity transmitting the CDNI
         Logging Fields are specified File (e.g.  the host in Table 1.

   +--------------+----------------------------------------------------+
   | Name         | Description                                        |
   +--------------+----------------------------------------------------+
   | Start-time   | A start date and time associated with a logged     |
   |              | event; for instance, dCDN supporting the time at which a Surrogate |
   |              | received a content delivery request CDNI
         Logging interface) or the time at |
   |              | which an origin server received a content          |
   |              | acquisition request.                               |
   | End-time     | An end date and time associated with a logged      |
   |              | event.  For instance, the time at which a          |
   |              | Surrogate completed the handling of a content      |
   |              | delivery request (e.g., end of delivery entity responsible for transmitting
         the CDNI Logging File (e.g.  the dCDN).

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or error). |
   | Duration     | The duration one instance of an operation in milliseconds.  For |
   |              | instance, this field could
         directive.  This directive MAY be used to provide the  |
   |              | time it took included by the Surrogate to send
         implementation transmitting the requested   |
   |              | file to CDNI Logging file.  When
         included by the End-User transmitting side, it MUST be validated or
         over-written by the time receiving side.  When, it is not included
         by the transmitting side, it took MAY be added locally by the       |
   |              | Surrogate
         receiving side.  [Editor's Note if we include a non-repudiation
         mechanism: discuss the fact that this will provide incentive to acquire
         dCDN to not cheat , as it can be detected]

   o  Record-Type:

      *  format: <string>
      *  semantic: indicates the file on a cache-miss      |
   |              | event.  In type of the case where Start-time, End-time,    |
   |              | and Duration appear in a CDNI Logging Record, Records that
         follow this directive, until another Record-Type directive (or
         the       |
   |              | Duration is to end of the CDNI Logging File).  "cdni_http_request_v1" MUST
         be interpreted indicated in the Record-Type directive for CDNI Logging
         records corresponding to HTTP request (e.g.  a HTTP delivery
         request) as specified in Section 3.2.1.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be at least one instance of this
         directive.  The first instance of this directive MUST precede a total activity  |
   |              | time related to
         Fields directive and precede any CDNI Logging Record.

   o  Fields:

      *  format: <field-name>[ <field-name>], where the logged operation.              |
   | Client-IP    | The IP address allowed list of
         <field-name> are specified for each Record-Type in Section 3.2.

      *  semantic: this lists the User Agent names of all the fields for which a
         value is to appear in the CDNI Logging Records that issued are after
         this directive.  The names of the   |
   |              | logged request or fields, as well as their
         possible occurrences, are specified for each type of CDNI
         Logging Records in Section 3.2.  The field names listed in this
         directive MUST be separated by a proxy, for whitespace (" ").

      *  occurrence: there MUST be at least one instance         |
   |              | "203.0.113.1".                                     |
   | Client-port  | The source port of the logged request (e.g., 9542) |
   | Destination- | this
         directive per Record-Type directive.  The IP address first instance of
         this directive for a given Record-Type MUST precede any CDNI
         Logging Record for this Record-Type.

   o  Integrity-Hash:

      *  format: <string>

      *  semantic: This directive permits the host that received the       |
   | IP           | logged request (e.g., 192.0.2.2).                  |
   | Destination- | The hostname detection of a corrupted
         CDNI Logging File.  This can be useful, for instance, if a
         problem occurs on the host that received the logged  |
   | hostname     | request (e.g., Surrogate1.cdna.com).               |
   | Destination- | The destination port filesystem of the logged request (e.g.,  |
   | port         | 80).                                               |
   | Operation    | The kind dCDN Logging system and
         leads to a truncation of operation that is logged; for instance |
   |              | Delivery or Purging.                               |
   | URI_full     | a logging file.  The full requested URL (e.g.,                      |
   |              | "http://node1.peer-a.op-b.net/cdn.csp.com/movies/p |
   |              | otter.avi?param=11&user=toto").  When HTTP request |
   |              |  redirection Integrity-Hash
         value is used, computed, and included in this URI includes directive by the        |
   |              |  Surrogate FQDN.  If entity
         that transmits the association of requests t |
   |              | oSurrogates is confidential, CDNI Logging File, by applying the dCDN can present  |
   |              |  only URI_part to uCDN.                            |
   | URI_part     | The requested URL path (e.g.,                      |
   |              | /cdn.csp.com/movies/potter.avi?param=11&user=toto  |
   |              | if MD5
         ([RFC1321]) cryptographic hash function on the full request URL was                        |
   |              | "http://node1.peer-a.op-b.net/cdn.csp.com/movies/p |
   |              | otter.avi?param=11&user=toto").  The URI without   |
   |              |  host-name typically includes CDNI Logging
         File, including all the "CDN domain"     |
   |              |  (ex.cdn.csp.com) - cf. [I-D.ietf-cdni-framework]: |
   |              |  it enables directives and logging records, up to
         the identification of Intergrity-Hash directive itself, excluding the CSP service  |
   |              |  agreed between Integrity-
         Hash directive itself and, when present, also excluding the
         Non-Repudiation-Hash directive.  The Integrity-Hash value is
         represented as a US-ASCII encoded hexadecimal number, 32 digits
         long (representing a 128 bit hash value).  The entity receiving
         the CSP and CDNI Logging File also computes in a similar way the CDNP operating MD5
         hash on the |
   |              |  uCDN.                                             |
   | Protocol     | The protocol received CDNI Logging File and protocol version compares this hash
         to the value of the message   |
   |              | that triggered Integrity-Hash directive.  If the two
         values are equal, then the received CDNI Logging entry (e.g., HTTP/1.1). |
   | Request-meth | The protocol method of File MUST be
         considered non-corrupted.  If the request message that    |
   | od           | triggered two values are different, the
         received CDNI Logging entry.                       |
   | Status       | File MUST be considered corrupted.  The protocol status
         behavior of the reply message related   |
   |              | to the entity that received a corrupted CDNI Logging entry                               |
   | Bytes-Sent   | The number of bytes at application-layer           |
   |              | protocol-level (e.g., HTTP)
         File is outside the scope of this specification; we note that
         the reply message   |
   |              | related entity MAY attempt to pull again the same CDNI Logging entry.  It includes file
         from the     |
   |              | size transmitting entity.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and only one instance of this
         directive.  This field MUST be the response headers.                      |
   | Headers-Sent | The number of bytes corresponding to response      |
   |              | headers at application-layer protocol-level (e.g., |
   |              | HTTP) last line of the reply message related to the CDNI
         Logging  |
   |              | entry.                                             |
   | Bytes-receiv | The number of bytes (headers + body) of File when the        |
   | ed           | message that triggered Non-Repudiation-Hash is absent, and MUST
         be the Logging entry.          |
   | Referrer     | The value one before last line of the Referrer header in an HTTP        |
   |              | request.                                           |
   | User-Agent   | The value CDNI Logging File when the
         Non-Repudiation-Hash is present.

   o  Non-Repudiation-Hash:

      *  format: <string>

      *  semantic: This hash field permits the non-repudiation of the User Agent header in an HTTP      |
   |              | request.                                           |
   | Cookie       | The value
         CDNI Logging File by the entity that transmitted the CDNI
         Logging File.  [Editor's Note: I need help for specifying the
         appropriate hash - ie hash must be signed with private-key of
         entity transmitting the Cookie header in an HTTP request. |
   | Byte-Range   | [Ed. note: to CDNI Logging File]

      *  occurrence: there MAY be defined]                          |
   | Cache-contro | The value one and only one instance of this
         directive.  When present, this directive MUST be the cache-control header in an HTTP   |
   | l            | answer.  This header is particularly important for |
   |              | content acquisition logs.                          |
   | Record-diges | A digest last line
         of the CDNI Logging Record; it enables         |
   | t            | detecting corrupted File.

3.2.  Logging Records.               |
   | CCID         | Records

   A Content Collection IDentifier (CCID) eases the   |
   |              | correlation of several CDNI Logging Records related to  |
   |              | a Content Collection (e.g., Record consists of a movie split in       |
   |              | chunks).                                           |
   | SID          | A Session Identifier (SID) eases the correlation   |
   |              | (and aggregation) sequence of several CDNI Logging Records       |
   |              | related Fields
   relating to a session.  The SID is especially       |
   |              | relevant for summarizing HAS that single CDNI Logging information   |
   |              | [I-D.brandenburg-cdni-has].                        |
   | uCDN-ID      | An element authenticating Record.

   CDNI Logging Fields MUST be separated by the operator "horizontal tabulation
   (TAB)" character.

   Some CDNI Logging field names use a prefix scheme similar to the one
   used in W3C Extended Log File Format [ELF] to facilitate readability.
   The semantics of the uCDN |
   |              | as prefix in the present document is:

   o  c: refers to the authority having delegated User Agent that issues the request (corresponds
      to   |
   |              | the dCDN.                                          |
   | Delivering-C | An identifier (e.g., an aggregation of an IP       |
   | DN-ID        | address and a FQDN) "client" of W3C Extended Log Format)

   o  s: refers to the Delivering CDN.  The    |
   |              | Delivering-CDN-ID might be considered as           |
   |              | confidential by dCDN Surrogate that serves the dCDN.  In such case, request
      (corresponds to the "server" of W3C Extended Log Format)

   o  cs: refers to communication from the dCDN  |
   |              | could either not provide this field Surrogate towards the
      User-Agent

   o  sc: refers to communication from the uCDN or |
   |              | overwrite User-Agent towards the Delivering-CDN-ID dCDN
      Surrogate

   [Editor's Note: see discussion with its on        |
   |              | identifier.                                        |
   | Cache-bytes  | The number Rob about adding definition for
   "r"]

   An implementation of body bytes served from caches.  This |
   |              | quantity permits the computation CDNI Logging interface as per the present
   specification MUST support the CDNI HTTP Delivery Records as
   specified in Section 3.2.1.  [Editor's Note": other types of delivery
   records will be listed here if we specify other types for this
   version eg Request Routing].

   The formats listed in this section in the byte hit   |
   |              | ratio.                                             |
   | Action       | form <...> are specified in
   Section 3.3).

3.2.1.  HTTP Request Logging Record

   The Action describes how a given request was       |
   |              | treated locally: through HTTP Request Logging Record contains the following CDNI Logging
   Fields, listed by their field name:

   o  date:

      *  format: <date>

      *  semantic: the date at which transport protocol, |
   |              | with or without content revalidation, with a cache |
   |              | hit or cache miss, with fresh or stale content,    |
   |              | the processing of request started
         on the Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and (if relevant) with which error.  Example with  |
   |              | Squid format [squid]: "TCP_REFRESH_FAIL_HIT" means |
   |              | that an expired copy only one instance of an object requested        |
   |              | through TCP was in this
         field.

   o  time:

      *  format: <time>

      *  semantic: the cache.  Squid attempted to  |
   |              | make an If-Modified-Since request, but it failed.  |
   |              | The old (stale) object was delivered to time at which the        |
   |              | client.                                            |
   | MIME-Type    | The MIME-Type processing of request started
         on the requested content             |
   | dCDN         | An element authenticating Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and only one instance of this
         field.

   o  time-taken:

      *  format: <fixed>

      *  semantic: duration, in seconds, between the operator start of the dCDN |
   | identifier   | as
         processing of the authority requesting request and the content to completion of the     |
   |              | uCDN                                               |
   | Caching_date | Date at which delivery by
         the delivered content was stored in  |
   |              | cache                                              |
   | Validity_hea | A copy Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and only one instance of all headers related to content validity: |
   | ders         | Pragma this
         field.

   o  c-ip:

      *  format: <address>

      *  semantic: the source IPv4 or Cache-Control (no-cache), ETag, Vary,    |
   |              | last-modified...                                   |
   | Lookup_durat | Duration of IPv6 address (i.e.  the DNS resolution for resolving "client"
         address) in the   |
   | ion          | FQDN of (uCDN's or CSP's) origin server.           |
   | Delay_to_fir | Duration request received by the Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and only one instance of this
         field.

   o  c-port:

      *  format: <integer>

      *  semantic: the operations from source TCP port (i.e.  the sending of "client" port) in the |
   | st_bit       | content acquisition
         request to received by the reception Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or exactly one instance of    |
   |              | this
         field.

   o  s-ip:

      *  format: <address>

      *  semantic: the first bit IPv4 or IPv6 address of the requested content.            |
   | Delay_to_las | Duration of Surrogate that served
         the operations from request (i.e.  the sending "server" address).

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or exactly one instance of this
         field.

   o  s-hostname:

      *  format: <host>

      *  semantic: the hostname of the Surrogate that served the |
   | t_bit        | content acquisition request to
         (i.e.  the reception "server" hostname).

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or exactly one instance of    |
   |              | this
         field.

   o  s-port:

      *  format: <integer>
      *  semantic: the last bit of destination TCP port (i.e.  the requested content.             |
   +--------------+----------------------------------------------------+

                 Table 1: Semantics of CDNI Logging Fields

   NB: we define three fields related to "server" port) in
         the request received by the timing Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or exactly one instance of logged
   operations: Start-time, End-time, and Duration.  Start-time this
         field.

   o  cs-method:

      *  format: <string>

      *  semantic: this is
   typically useful for human readers (e.g., while debugging), however,
   some servers log the operation's End-time which corresponds to the
   time of log record generation.  In absence HTTP method of Logging summarization, the HTTP request received
         by the Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: There MUST be one and only two one instance of these three fields are required to obtain relevant timing
   information on this
         field.

   o  cs-uri: [Editor's note: rename "sr-uri" ?]

      *  format: <uri>

      *  semantic: this is the operation.  However, when some kind absolute-URI of Logging
   aggregation/summarization is used, it can be advantageous to keep the
   three fields: for instance, in request received by
         the case Surrogate.  [Editor's Note: do we agree this should be an
         absolute-URI even if teh request uses a relative-URI?]

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or exactly one instance of HAS, keeping the three
   fields permits computing this
         field.

   o  ucdn-centric-uri:

      *  format: <uri>

      *  semantic: this is an average delivery bitrate absolute URI derived from a single
   Logging Record aggregating information on the delivery absolute-URI
         of multiple
   consecutive video chunks.

   Multiple header fields, in addition to the ones explicitly listed in request received by the table could be reproduced in Surrogate but modified by the
         entity generating or transmitting the CDNI Logging records.

   Note Record, in a
         way that uCDN may want to filter Logging data by user (and not by IP
   address) to provide more relevant information to is agreed upon between the CSP.  In such
   case, a user may be identified as a combination of several pieces two ends of
   information such as the client IP and User Agent or through CDNI
         Logging interface.  For example, the SID.

   The URI_full provides information on two ends of the Surrogate CDNI
         Logging interface could agree that provided the
   content.  This information can be relevant, for instance, for ucdn-centric-uri strips
         the
   Inter-Affiliates use case described in [RFC6770].  However, in some
   cases it may be considered as confidential and part of the dCDN may provide
   URI_part instead.

   Other information that could be logged include operations delivery-uri that refer
   to exposes which individual
         Surrogate actually performed the general state delivery.  The details of
         modification performed to generate the request, before it gets processed
   locally.  Such information is related ucdn-centric-uri, as
         well as the mechanism to agree on these modifications between
         the authorization two sides of the
   requests, URL rewriting rules enforced, the X-FORWARDED-FOR non
   standard HTTP header...

   [Editor's Note: CDNI Logging information may be used for debugging.
   Therefore, various CDN operations might be logged, depending on interface are outside the
   agreement between
         scope of the dCDN and present document.  [Editor's Note: do we agree
         this should be an absolute-URI even if the uCDN, such as operations related
   to Request Routing and Metadata.  These may call for request uses a few additional
   Fields to
         relative-URI?]

      *  occurrence: there MUST be defined].

5.2.  Syntax one and only one instance of CDNI Logging Fields

   This section this
         field.

   o  protocol:

      *  format: <string>

      *  semantic: this is intended to contain the specification for the syntax
   and encoding value of the CDNI Logging fields.  For now, Table 2
   illustrates the definition HTTP-Version field as specified
         in [RFC2616] of some information elements.  It provides
   examples using Apache log format strings [apache] when they exist.

   [Ed. note: specify for all Logging Fields the type (e.g., varchar,
   int, float, ...) and Request-Line of the maximum size (e.g., varchar(200))]
   +----------+-------------------+------------------------------------+
   | Name     | String            | Example                            |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------------------------+
   | Time     | %t                | [10/Oct/2000:13:55:36-0700]        |
   | Duration | %D                | -                                  |
   | Client-I | %a                | 203.0.113.45                       |
   | P        |                   |                                    |
   | Operatio | -                 | -                                  |
   | n        |                   |                                    |
   | URI_full | %U                | -                                  |
   | Protocol | %H                | HTTP/1.0                           |
   | Request  | %m                | GET                                |
   | method   |                   |                                    |
   | Status   | %>s               | 200                                |
   | Bytes    | %O                | 2326                               |
   | Sent     |                   |                                    |
   | Bytes    | %I                | 432                                |
   | request received |                   |                                    |
   | Header   | \"%{Referrer}i\"  | "http://www.example.com/start.html |
   |          | \"%{User-agent}i\ | ""Mozilla/4.08 [en] (Win98; I      |
   |          | "                 |  ;Nav)"                            |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------------------------+

                   Table 2: Examples using Apache format

6.  CDNI Logging Records

   [Ed. note: we need to specify by the encoding
         Surrogate (e.g.  "HTTP/1.1").

      *  occurrence: there MUST be one and only one instance of this
         field.

   o  sc-status:

      *  format: <digit><digit><digit>

      *  semantic: this is the file, HTTP Status-Code in the
   separation character, etc...]

   This section defines HTTP response
         from the events for which a CDNI Logging record can Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: There MUST be exchanged over the CDNI Logging interafce one and for each type only one instance of
   Logging Record indicates this
         field.

   o  sc-total-bytes:

      *  format: <integer>

      *  semantic: this is the allowed set total number of bytes of CDNI Information
   Elements.

   We classify the logged events depending on HTTP
         response sent by the CDN operation Surrogate in response to which
   they relate: Content Delivery, Content Acquisition, Content
   Invalidation/Purging, etc.

6.1.  Content Delivery

   The content delivery event triggering the generation of a Logging
   Record include:

   o  Reception by a dCDN Surrogate of a content request

   The Logging Record for Content Delivery contains request.
         This includes the following set bytes of
   CDNI Logging Elements:

   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   | Name                 | Mandatory/Optional                         |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   | Start-time           | Mandatory                                  |
   | Duration             | Mandatory                                  |
   | Client-IP            | Mandatory                                  |
   | Client-port          | Optional                                   |
   | Destination-IP       | Mandatory if Destination-Hostname is       |
   |                      | absent                                     |
   | Destination-Hostname | Mandatory if Destination-IP is absent      |
   | Destination-port     | Optional                                   |
   | Operation            | Optional                                   |
   | URI_full             | Mandatory if URI_part is absent            |
   | URI_part             | Mandatory if URI_full is absent            |
   | Protocol             | Mandatory if protocol is different to      |
   |                      | HTTP/1.1                                   |
   | Request-method       | Mandatory                                  |
   | Status               | Mandatory                                  |
   | Bytes-Sent           | Mandatory                                  |
   | Headers-Sent         | Optional                                   |
   | Bytes-received       | Optional                                   |
   | Referrer             | Optional                                   |
   | User-Agent           | Optional                                   |
   | Cookie               | Optional                                   |
   | Byte-Range           | ?                                          |
   | Cache-control        | Optional                                   |
   | Record-digest        | ?                                          |
   | CCID                 | Optional.  Only applicable to HTTP         |
   |                      | Adaptive Streaming delivery.               |
   | SID                  | Optional.  Only applicable to the Status-Line (including HTTP         |
   |                      | Adaptive Streaming delivery.               |
   | Cache-bytes          | Optional                                   |
   | Action               | Mandatory (in particulat re cache          |
   |                      | Hit/Miss)                                  |
   | MIME-Type            | Mandatory                                  |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+

          Table 3: CDNI Logging Fields in Delivery Logging Record

   In Table 3, "Mandatory" means that
         headers) and of the message-body.

      *  occurrence: There MUST be one and only one instance of this field
         field.

   o  sc-entity-bytes:

      *  format: <integer>

      *  semantic: this is the number of bytes of the message-body in
         the HTTP response sent by the Surrogate in response to the
         request.  This does not include the bytes of the Status-Line
         (and therefore does not include the bytes of the HTTP headers).

      *  occurrence: there MUST be included zero or exactly one instance of this
         field.

   o  cs(<HTTP-header>):

      *  format: <string>
      *  semantic: the value of the HTTP header identified in
   each Delivery Record and "Optional" means that the field
         name as it can appears in the request processed by the Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be included
   based on zero, one or any number of instance
         of this field.

   o  sc(<HTTP-header>):

      *  format: <string>

      *  semantic: the agreement between value of the dCDN and HTTP header identified in the uCDN field
         name as established
   via mechanism outside it appears in the scope of this document (e.g., response issued by human
   agreement).

6.2.  Content Invalidation and Purging

   Given that the Purge interface is expected to contain a mechanism Surrogate to
   report on completion of
         serve the Invalidation/purge request, request.

      *  occurrence: there is no
   need to specify separate Log Records for these events.

6.3.  Request Routing MUST be zero, one or any number of instance
         of this field.

   o  s-ccid:

      *  format: [Editor's Note: Is there a requirement for the dCDN to provide logs
   for request routing events?]

6.4.  Logging Extensibility

   Future usages might introduce be based on cdni-metadata or
         relevant companion I-D]

      *  semantic: this contains the need for additional Logging fields.
   In addition, some use-cases such as an Inter-Affiliate
   Interconnection [RFC6770], might take advantage value of extended Logging
   exchanges.  Therefore, it is important the Content Collection
         IDentifier specified in [I-D.ietf-cdni-metadata] and associated
         to permit CDNs the content served by the Surrogate through the CDNI
         Metadata interface.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or exactly one instance of this
         field.

   o  s-sid:

      *  format: [Editor's Note: add reference to use
   additional Logging fields besides the standard ones, if they want.
   For instance, an "Account-name" identifying I-D defining the contract enforced by
         format of Session ID>?]

      *  semantic: this contains the dCDN for a given value of the Session IDentifier
         specified in ??? and associated to the served request could by the
         Surrogate.

      *  occurrence: there MUST be provided in extended fields. zero or exactly one instance of this
         field.

   o  s-cached: [Editor's Note: W3C uses "cached" . is "s-cached"
      better?]

      *  format: <string>
      *  semantic: this characterises whether the Surrogate could serve
         the request using content already stored on its local cache.
         The required Logging Records may depend allowed values are "0" (for miss) and "1" for hit).  "1"
         MUST be used when the Surrogate could serve the request using
         exclusively content already stored on its local cache.  "0"
         MUST be used otherwise (including cases where the considered services.
   For instance, static file delivery (e.g., pictures) typically does Surrogate
         served the request using some, but not include any delivery restrictions.  By contrast, video delivery
   typically implies strong all, content delivery restrictions, as explained already
         stored on its local cache).  Note that a "0" only means a cache
         miss in [RFC6770], the Surrogate and Logging could include does not provide any information about on
         whether the
   enforcement content was already stored, or not, in another
         device of these restrictions.  Therefore, to ease the support of
   varied services as well as dCDN i.e.  whether this was a "dCDN hit" or "dCDN
         miss".

      *  occurrence: there MUST be zero or exactly one instance of future services, this
         field.

   o  s-uri-signing:

      *  format: <string>

      *  semantic: this characterises the Logging interface
   should support optional Logging Records.

7.  CDNI Logging File Format

   Interconnected CDNs may support various Logging formats.  However,
   they must support at least uri signing validation
         performed by the default Logging File format described
   here.

7.1.  Logging Files

   [Ed.  Note: How many files (one per type of Delivery Service (e.g.,
   HTTP, WMP) and per type of Event (e.g., Errors, Delivery,
   Acquisition,...?)and what would be inside...  These aspects needs to Surrogate on the request.  The allowed values
         are:

      *

         +  "0" : no uri signature validation performed

         +  "1" : uri signature validation performed and validated

         +  "2" : uri signature validation performed and rejected

      *  occurrence: there MUST be detailed...]

7.2.  File Format zero or exactly one instance of this
         field.

   The Logging file format should be independent from the selected
   transport protocol, "Fields" directive corresponding to guarantee a flexible choice of transport
   protocols.  [Ed. note: for the real time HTTP Request Logging exchanges, Record
   MUST list all the fields whose occurrence is specified above as
   "There MUST be one and only one instance of this
   might field".  These
   fields MUST be hard]

   All Logging Records present in every HTTP Request Logging Record.

   The "Fields" directive corresponding to a HTTP Request Logging File must share Record
   MAY list all the same format
   (same fields whose occurrence is specified above as "there
   MUST be zero or exactly one instance of this field" or "there MUST be
   zero, one or any number of instance of this field".  The set of Logging Fields, such
   fields actually listed in the same order, with the same
   semantics, separated "Fields" directive is selected by the same Separator Character), to ease
   implementation generating the CDNI Logging File based on agreements
   between the interconnected CDNs established through mechanisms
   outside the
   parsing scope of this specification (e.g.  contractual
   agreements) . When such a field is not listed in the "Fields"
   directive, it MUST NOT be included in the Logging data by Record.  When such
   a field is listed in the CDN that receives "Fields" directive, it MUST be included in
   the Logging
   File.  The CDN Record; in that provides case, if the Logging data value for the field is responsible not
   available, this MUST be conveyed via a dash character ("-").

   The fields listed in the "Fields" directive can be listed in the
   order in which they are listed in Section 3.2.1 or in any other
   order.

   [Editor's Note: discuss private fields ]

3.2.2.  CDNI Logging File Example

   #Version: 1.0

   #UUID: urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6???

   #Origin: cdni-logging-entity.dcdn.example.com

   #Record-Type: cdni_http_request_v1

   #Fields: date time time-taken c-ip cs-method ucdn-centric-uri
   protocol sc-status sc-total-bytes cs(User-Agent) cs(Referer) s-cached

   2013-05-17 00:38:06.825 88.958 10.5.7.1 GET http://cdni-
   ucdn.dcdn.example.com/video/movie100.mp4 HTTP/1.1 200 672989 Mozilla/
   5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.0; en-US) AppleWebKit/533.4 (KHTML,
   like Gecko) Chrome/5.0.375.127 Safari /533.4 host1.example.com 1

   2013-05-17 00:39:09.145 169.790 10.5.10.5 GET http://cdni-
   ucdn.dcdn.example.com/video/movie118.mp4 HTTP/1.1200 1579920 Mozilla/
   5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.0; en-US) AppleWebKit/533.4 (KHTML,
   like Gecko) Chrome/5.0.375.127 Safari /533.4 host1.example.com 1

   2013-05-17 00:42:53.437 2.879 10.5.10.5 GET http://cdni-
   ucdn.dcdn.example.com/video/picture11.mp4 HTTP/1.0 200 17724 Mozilla/
   5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.0; en-US) AppleWebKit/533.4 (KHTML,
   like Gecko) Chrome/5.0.375.127 Safari /533.4 host5.example.com 0

   #Integrity-Hash: 9e107d9d372bb6826bd81d3542a419d6 [Editor's Note:
   include the correct MD5-hash value for
   guaranteeing the consistency actual example]

3.3.  Fields and Directives Formats

   [Editor's Note: still needs work to minimise the number of the Logging records' formats,
   typically via its log filtering types
   defined across this section and aggregation processes (see
   Section 2.2.3).

7.2.1.  Headers

   Logging files must include a header with specific types defined inside the information described in
   Figure 4.

   +----------------+-------------------+------------------------------+
   | Field          | Description       | Examples                     |
   +----------------+-------------------+------------------------------+
   | Format         | Identification of | standard_cdni_errors_http_v1 |
   |
   field definitions themselves]

   o  <digit> = "0" | CDNI Log format. "1" | "2" | "3" | Fields "4" | A description of "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" |
      "9"

   o  <integer> = 1*<digit>

   o  <address> = <integer> [ "."  *<integer> ] [ ":" <integer> ]

   o  <host> = as specified in [RFC3986].

   o  <date> = 4<digit> "-" 2<digit> "-" 2<digit>

      *  Dates are recorded in the record format |                              |
   |                | (list of fields). |                              |
   | Log-ID         | Identifier        | abcdef1234                   |
   |                | YYYY-MM-DD where YYYY, MM and
         DD stand for the CDNI Log  |                              |
   |                | file (facilitates |                              |
   |                | detection of      |                              |
   |                | duplicate Logs    |                              |
   |                | numeric year, month and tracking day respectively.  All
         dates are specified in   |                              |
   |                | case of           |                              |
   |                | aggregation).     |                              |
   | Log-Timestamp  | Time, Universal Time Coordinated (UTC).

   o  <time> = 2<digit> ":" 2<digit> ":" 2<digit> ["."  *<digit>]

      *  Times are recorded in          | [20/Feb/2012:00:29.510+0200] |
   |                | milliseconds, the |                              |
   |                | form HH:MM:SS or HH:MM:SS.S where HH
         is the hour in 24 hour format, MM is minutes and SS is seconds.
         All times are specified in Universal Time Coordinated (UTC).

   o  <uri> = <string> containing a URI as specified in [RFC3986].

   o  <fixed> = Fixed Format Float = 1*<digit> [.  *<digit>]

   o  <HTTP-header> = <string> containing a HTTP header field name (e.g.
      "User-Agent", "Referer") as specified in [RFC2616].

4.  CDNI Log was      |                              |
   |                | generated.        |                              |
   | Log-Origin     | Identifier Logging File Exchange Protocol

   This document specifies a protocol for the exchange of CDNI Logging
   Files as specified in Section 3.

   This protocol comprises:

   o  a CDNI Logging feed, allowing the | cdn1.cdni.example.com        |
   |                | authority (e.g.,  |                              |
   |                | dCDN or uCDN)     |                              |
   |                | providing to notify the uCDN about
      the CDNI Logging files that can be retrieved by that uCDN from the
      dCDN, as well as all the Log-|                              |
   |                | -ging             |                              |
   +----------------+-------------------+------------------------------+

                         Figure 4: information necessary for retrieving each
      of these CDNI Logging Headers

   All time-related File.  The CDNI Logging Fields and data feed is specified in the
      Section 4.1.

   o  a CDNI Logging File headers/
   footers must provide pull mechanism, allowing the uCDN to obtain
      from the dCDN a time zone and be at least given CDNI Logging File at millisecond (ms)
   accuracy.  The accuracy must be consistent to permit the computation uCDN convenience.
      The CDNI Logging File pull mechanisms is specified in Section 4.2.

   An implementation of KPIs involving operations realized the CDNI Logging interface as per the present
   document generating CDNI Logging file (i.e.  on several CDNs.

   [Ed. note: would it make sense to add a kind the dCDN side) MUST
   support the server side of "example the CDNI Logging
   Record" in feed and the server side
   of the CDNI Logging pull mechanism.

   An implementation of the CDNI Logging interface as per the present
   document consuming CDNI Logging file (i.e.  on the uCDN side) MUST
   support the client side of the CDNI Logging feed and associated semantic (e.g., in a
   structure data format) ?]

7.2.2.  Body (Logging Records) Format

   [Ed. the client side
   of the CDNI Logging pull mechanism.

   [Editor's note: verify that the W3C extended log format is a good base candidate to
   look at. ]

   Since records for real time information client side and non-real time information
   could use different formats, we do not yet solve server side are well
   defined in the problem respective sections]

   We note that implementations of real
   time logging exchanges in this version.

7.2.3.  Footer Format the CDNI Logging files must include a footer interface MAY also
   support other mechanisms to exchange CDNI Logging Files, for example
   in view of exchanging logging information with minimum time-lag (e.g.
   sub-minute or sub-second) between when the information described event occurred in
   Figure 5.

   +---------+----------------------------------------------+----------+
   | Field   | Description                                  | Examples |
   +---------+----------------------------------------------+----------+
   | Log     | Digest of the complete Log (facilitates      |          |
   | Digest  | detection of Log corruption)                 |          |
   +---------+----------------------------------------------+----------+

                         Figure 5: Logging footers

   This digest field permits dCDN
   and when the detection corresponding Logging Record is made available to the
   uCDN (e.g.  for log-consuming applications requiring extremely fresh
   logging information such as near-real-time content delivery
   monitoring).  Such mechanism might be defined in future version of corrupted
   the present document.

4.1.  CDNI Logging files.
   This can Feed

   [Editor's Note: text to be useful, added.  Feed is based on ATOM and contains
   a UUID + URI for instance, each CDNI Logging File in "window" - if a problem occurs on appropriate
   the
   filesystem of text should refer to the dCDN side generating the CDNI Logging system Feed
   "as server-side", and leads to a truncation of a
   logging file.  Additional mechanisms to avoid corrupted the side consuming the Feed as the client-
   side].

4.2.  CDNI Logging files
   are expected to be provided by File Pull

   A client-side implementation of the CDNI Logging transport protocol, cf.
   Section 8.

8. interface MAY pull
   at its convenience any CDNI Logging File Transport Protocol

   As presented in [RFC6707], several protocols already exist that could
   potentially be used is advertised by the
   server-side in the CDNI Logging Feed.  To do so, the client-side:

   o  MUST use HTTP v1.1

   o  SHOULD use TLS (i.e.  use what is loosely referred to exchange as "HTTPS")

   o  MUST use the URI associated to the CDNI Logging between interconnected
   CDNs.

   The offline exchange of non real-time File in the CDNI
      Logging could rely on several
   protocols.  In particular, Feed

   o  SHOULD indicate the dCDN could publish compression schemes it supports

   Note that a client-side implementation of the CDNI Logging on interface
   MAY pull a
   server where CDNI Logging File that it has already pulled, as long as
   the uCDN would retrieve them using a secure protocol.

   For managed file transfer, the recommended protocol is SSH File
   Transfer Protocol (SFTP) [I-D.ietf-secsh-filexfer].  SFTP is widely
   deployed and it guarantees still advertised by the respect of server-side in the criteria expressed CDNI Logging
   Feed.

   The server-side implementation MUST respond to any valid pull request
   by a client-side implementation for a CDNI Logging File advertised by
   the server-side in the CDNI Logging Transport Requirements: timeliness, reliability,
   security and scalability.

   [Ed note: include options for lossless compression]

9.  Open Issues Feed.  The main remaining tasks on this ID are server-side
   implementation:

   o  MUST handle the following: client-side request as per HTTP v1.1

   o  Finalise  MUST include the list of CDNI Logging Fields

   o  Finalise File identified by the encoding request URI
      inside the body of CDNI Logging Fields, Records the HTTP response

   o  MUST support the gzip and File. deflate compression schemes

   o  Identify what can be done (if anything)  MAY support other compression schemes

   o  when the client-side request indicates client-supported
      compression schemes, SHOULD use a compression scheme that it
      supports and is supported by the client-side

   [Editor's Note: discuss Non-Repudiation : it is a nice to maximise reuse of
      Logging Fields have and Logging Records encoding
   how it could be supported, via a different digest than the one for future support of
      real-time CDNI Logging exchange

   [Ed.  Note:
   integrity]

5.  Open Issues

   o  The proposed format for Date and Time is still to be agreed on. based on W3C and is only
      in UTC.  Is this all OK?  RFC 5322 (Section 3.3) format could be
      used or ISO 8601 formatted date and time in UTC (same format as
      proposed in [draft-caulfield-cdni-metadata-core-00]).  Also see
      RFC5424 Section
   6.2.3.]

   [Ed. note: 6.2.3.  We currently use same field names as W3C
      since we have same definition.

   o  (comment from Kevin) how are errors handled ? If the client gets
      handed a bunch of 403s and 404s, but still gets the content
      eventually, without triggering an event, are those still logged?
      For Bytes-Sent, if there were aborted requests, do those get
      counted as well?  Not all client behavior can be correlated with the
   simplified log]

10.  IANA Considerations

   TBD

11.  Security Considerations
11.1.  Privacy

   CDNs have correlated with
      the simplified log

   o  Do we need to specify Logs for Request Routing performed by dCDN?
      Observation: Probably can be generalized to the requirement for
      "event" logging (e.g.  dCDN request Router not able to redirect,
      dCDN cannot acquire metadata, dCDN cannot aquire content, "dCDN
      Busy Tone" ) Recommendation: Try first specify what events and
      what information needs to be exchanged.  Depending on progress
      include in initial logging spec or not i.e.  handle as a [MED]
      requirement.

   o  Privacy: do we need some explicit support of IP address masking by
      dCDN to uCDN, or is it OK to assume that uCDN is to keep this info
      confidential (like dCDN is assumed to do already)?

   o  definition of field prefixes: add "r" is uCDN.  This one is less
      clear to me.  I need to see how you propose to use "r" below,
      before I can agree.  (Just for my own notes, I thought "r" could
      be used if the dCDN Surrogate was going to Log something related
      to acquisition of content by the dCDN Surrogate from some content
      source.  Also, in a delivery log generated by a dCDN Surrogate ,
      how can it know about acquisition from uCDN that can be done by
      other devices than the opportunity dCDN Surrogate).  "ucdn-centric-uri": ROB>
      going back to collect detailed information about the
   downloads performed by End-Users.  The provision definitions of this information
   to another CDN introduces End-Users privacy protection concerns.

11.2.  Non Repudiation

   Logging provides the raw material s/c/r suggested above, for charging.  It permits the dCDN a CDNI
      logfile field would then just be "sr-uri".  So we don't need to bill the uCDN
      invent a new prefix for CDNI, we can use the content deliveries basic w3c naming?
      FRANCOIS: I am OK to use "sr-uri" as long as we feel confident
      that we will never need Surrogate to log information about how it
      acquires from within the dCDN makes on
   behalf (ie regular use of "r" prefix).  Are
      we confident?

   o  Do we need Record-Type as File Directive?: ROB> Is this needed -
      would a record type per file do the uCDN.  It also permits job?  ... if we don't allow
      mixed record types, we can include the uCDN to bill record type in the CSP for ATOM
      feed (to allow the
   content Delivery Service.  Therefore, non-repudiation reader to decide whether there might be records
      it's interested in without getting the logfile).  I can't think of Logging data
   is essential.

12.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like
      a reason to thank Sebastien Cubaud, Anne Marrec,
   Yannick Le Louedec, and Christian Jacquenet mix, (for example) http/rtmp records, or delivery/req-
      routing.  Different things are likely to be generating those
      records anyway.  A version change can always be done by starting a
      new file.  <Francois> Here are a couple potential use cases for detailed feedback on
   early versions
      mixing record types in a single file: * we later define
      "cdni_has_delivery_v1" record types for HTTP Adaptive BitRate
      sessions.  Then a dCDN Surrogate will be generating a continuous
      mixture of this document "cdni_http_request_v1" records for PDL requests and
      "cdni_has_request_v1" records for their input on existing Log
   formats.

   The authors would like also HAS sessions.  Why should we be
      forced to thank Fabio Costa, Sara Oueslati, Yvan
   Massot, Renaud Edel, and Joel Favier break those?  * we later define some record types for their input and comments.

   Finally, they thank
      events taking place on Surrogates , which can happen any time in
      the contributors middle of sessions.  Why shoudl we be forced to break those
      into separate files.  It seems wise to keep the EU FP7 OCEAN project for
   valuable inputs.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use flexibility in RFCs the
      File structure to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5424]  Gerhards, R., "The Syslog Protocol", RFC 5424, March 2009.

13.2.  Informative References

   [CLF]      A. Luotonen, "The Common Log-file Format, W3C (work allow the mix in
              progress)", 1995, <http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/Daemon/User/
              Config/Logging.html>.

   [ELF]      Phillip M. Hallam-Baker and Brian Behlendorf, "Extended
              Log File Format, W3C (work the future.  And the overhead
      is very small since it is encoded in progress), WD-logfile-
              960323", <http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-logfile.html>.

   [I-D.brandenburg-cdni-has]
              Brandenburg, R., Deventer, O., Faucheur, F., and K. Leung,
              "Models for adaptive-streaming-aware CDN Interconnection",
              draft-brandenburg-cdni-has-04 (work a Directive.

   o  Integrity-Hash:ROB> draft-snell-atompub-link-extensions adds a
      hash of the resource to the ATOM feed (not sure about the status
      of that doc, looks like it's stalled a bit).  But if we include
      that in progress),
              January 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-cdni-framework]
              Peterson, L. and B. Davie, "Framework for CDN
              Interconnection", draft-ietf-cdni-framework-03 (work the ATOM feed, the value in
              progress), February 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements]
              Leung, K. and Y. Lee, "Content Distribution Network
              Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements",
              draft-ietf-cdni-requirements-04 (work the feed would need to include
      this Integrity-Hash in progress),
              December 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-secsh-filexfer]
              Galbraith, J. and O. Saarenmaa, "SSH File Transfer
              Protocol", draft-ietf-secsh-filexfer-13 (work the log file itself, which might mean re-
      calculating the hash (especially if the feed is not generated in
              progress), July 2006.

   [RFC6707]  Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
              Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem
              Statement", RFC 6707, September 2012.

   [RFC6770]  Bertrand, G., Stephan, E., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Ma,
              K.,
      the same place as the logfile).  So we probably only want one of
      the two?  I think my preference would be to keep it in the feed,
      saves any complications about what to hash (just running "md5sum"
      on a downloaded logfile would work, rather than needing to remove
      the last line).  The draft-snell also allows other hashes, "sha1"
      and G. Watson, "Use Cases so on - for Content Delivery Network
              Interconnection", RFC 6770, November 2012.

   [apache]   "Apache 2.2 log files documentation", Feb. 2012,
              <http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/logs.html>.

   [squid]    "Squid Log-Format documentation", Feb. 2012,
              <http://wiki.squid-cache.org/SquidFaq/SquidLogs>.

Appendix A.  Examples Log Format

   This section provides example cdni interoperability, we could limit it to md5 or
      stick with draft-snell's base set.  <Francois> Very good point.  I
      agree we should probably want one of log formats implemented the two in existing
   CDNs, web servers, a typical
      deployment.  Leveraging draft-snell-atompub-link-extensions is
      attractive because it leverages generic ATOM features and caching proxies.

   Web servers (e.g., Apache) maintain at least one log
      expertise.  It has the potential drawback of introducing a
      dependency on a document that may be published later (or
      potentially never since it is not even a WG doc).  Defining our
      own hash in the file for logging
   accesses to content (the Access Log).  They is attractive because we can typically be
   configured done right
      away, and there could be simple short term implementation that
      start using the CDNI Logging File without relying on the ATOM
      Feed.  At the same time we don't want to log errors in end up with two redundant
      hashes eventually.  How about an approach where : * we define a separate log file (the Error Log).  The
   log formats
      simple MD5 has only, and make it optional * when there is no other
      mechanism to get the hash, it can be specified included in the file * when
      there are other mechanism (e.g.  draft-snell-atompub-link-
      extensions), it is not included in the server's configuration files.
   However, webmasters often use standard log formats file.

   o  Compression: <Ben>When we say the server MUST support gzip &
      deflate we probably need to think through whether we mean content-
      encoding, transfer-encoding or both.  The semantics get a little
      confusing so we probably just need to think them through to ensure
      we allow a server to store compressed logs as transmit them
      compressed.

6.  IANA Considerations

   TBD

7.  Security Considerations

7.1.  Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity Protection

   The use of TLS for transport of the CDNI Logging feed mechanism
   (Section 4.1) and CDNI Logging File pull mechanism (Section 4.2)
   allows:

   o  the dCDN and uCDN to authenticate each other (to ensure they are
      transmitting/receiving CDNI Logging File from an authenticated
      CDN)

   o  the CDNI Logging information to be transmitted with
      confidentiality

   o  the integrity of the CDNI Logging information to ease be protected
      during the log
   processing with available log analysis tools.

A.1.  W3C Common Log File (CLF) Format exchange.

   The Common Log Integrity-Hash directive inside the CDNI Logging File (CLF) format defined by provides
   additional integrity protection, this time targeting potential
   corruption of the World Wide Web
   Consortium (W3C) working group is compatible with many log analysis
   tools and is supported by CDNI logging information during the main web servers (e.g., Apache) Access
   Logs.

   According CDNI Logging
   File generation.  This mechanism does not allow restoration of the
   corrupted CDNI Logging information, but it allows detection of such
   corruption and therefore triggering of appropraite correcting actions
   (e.g.  discard of corrupted information, attempt to [CLF], re-obtain the common log-file format is as follows:
   remotehost rfc931 authuser [date] "request" status bytes.

   Example (from [apache]): 127.0.0.1 - frank [10/Oct/2000:13:55:36
   -0700] "GET /apache_pb.gif HTTP/1.0" 200 2326

   The fields are defined as follows [CLF]:

   +------------+------------------------------------------------------+
   | Element    | Definition                                           |
   +------------+------------------------------------------------------+
   | remotehost | Remote hostname (or IP number if DNS hostname is not |
   |            | available, or if DNSLookup is Off.                   |
   | rfc931     |
   CDNI Logging information).

7.2.  Non Repudiation

   The remote logname Non-Repudiation-Hash directive in the CDNI Logging File allows
   support of non-repudiation of the user.                      |
   | authuser   | CDNI Logging File by the dCDN.  The username that
   optional Non-Repudiation-Hash can be used on the user employed CDNI Logging
   interface where needed.

7.3.  Privacy

   CDNs have the opportunity to authenticate  |
   |            | himself.                                             |
   | [date]     | Date and time of collect detailed information about the request.                        |
   | "request"  | An exact copy
   downloads performed by End-Users.  The provision of the request line that came this information
   to another CDN introduces End-Users privacy protection concerns.
   [Editor's Note: see list of open questions]

8.  Acknowledgments

   This document borrows from the |
   |            | client.                                              |
   | status     | W3C Extended Log Format [ELF].

   The status code authors would like to thank Sebastien Cubaud, Pawel Grochocki,
   Christian Jacquenet, Yannick Le Louedec, Anne Marrec and Emile
   Stephan for their contributions on early versions of the HTTP reply returned this document.

   The authors would like also to thank Rob Murray, Fabio Costa, Sara
   Oueslati, Yvan Massot, Renaud Edel, and Joel Favier for their input
   and comments.

   Finally, they thank the    |
   |            | client.                                              |
   | bytes      | The content-length contributors of the document transferred.      |
   +------------+------------------------------------------------------+

                Table 4: Information elements EU FP7 OCEAN project for
   valuable inputs.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-cdni-metadata]
              Niven-Jenkins, B., Murray, R., Watson, G., Caulfield, M.,
              Leung, K., and K. Ma, "CDN Interconnect Metadata", draft-
              ietf-cdni-metadata-01 (work in CLF format

A.2.  W3C Extended Log File (ELF) Format

   The Extended progress), February 2013.

   [RFC1321]  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
              3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July
              2005.

   [RFC5424]  Gerhards, R., "The Syslog Protocol", RFC 5424, March 2009.

9.2.  Informative References

   [CHAR_SET]
              , "IANA Character Sets registry", , <http://www.iana.org/
              assignments/character-sets/character-sets.xml>.

   [ELF]      Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, and Brian Behlendorf, "Extended
              Log File (ELF) format defined by Format, W3C extends the CLF
   with new fields.  This format is supported by Microsoft IIS 4.0 (work in progress), WD-
              logfile-960323", , <http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-logfile.html>.

   [I-D.brandenburg-cdni-has]
              Brandenburg, R., Deventer, O., Faucheur, F., and
   5.0.

   The supported fields are listed below [ELF].

    +------------+---------------------------------------------------+
    | Element    | Definition                                        |
    +------------+---------------------------------------------------+
    | date       | Date at which transaction completed               |
    | time       | Time at which transaction completed               |
    | time-taken | Time taken K. Leung,
              "Models for transaction to complete adaptive-streaming-aware CDN Interconnection",
              draft-brandenburg-cdni-has-05 (work in seconds |
    | bytes      | bytes transferred                                 |
    | cached     | Records whether a cache hit occurred              |
    | ip         | IP address progress), April
              2013.

   [I-D.ietf-cdni-framework]
              Peterson, L. and B. Davie, "Framework for CDN
              Interconnection", draft-ietf-cdni-framework-03 (work in
              progress), February 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements]
              Leung, K. and Y. Lee, "Content Distribution Network
              Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements", draft-ietf-cdni-
              requirements-06 (work in progress), April 2013.

   [RFC6707]  Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
              Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem
              Statement", RFC 6707, September 2012.

   [RFC6770]  Bertrand, G., Stephan, E., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Ma,
              K., and port                               |
    | dns        | DNS name                                          |
    | status     | Status code                                       |
    | comment    | Comment returned G. Watson, "Use Cases for Content Delivery Network
              Interconnection", RFC 6770, November 2012.

Appendix A.  Requirements

A.1.  Compliance with status code                 |
    | method     | Method                                            |
    | uri        | URI                                               |
    | uri-stem   | Stem portion alone of URI (omitting query)        |
    | uri-query  | Query portion alone of URI                        |
    +------------+---------------------------------------------------+

                Table 5: Information elements cdni-requirements

   This section checks that all the identified requirements in ELF format

   Some fields start with a prefix (e.g., "c-", "s-"), which explains
   which host (client/server/proxy) the field refers to.

   o  Prefix Description

   o  c- Client

   o  s- Server

   o  r- Remote

   o  cs- Client to Server.

   o  sc- Server to Client.

   o  sr- Server to Remote Server (used
   Section 7 of [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements] are fulfilled by proxies)

   o  rs- Remote Server this
   document.

   [Editor's node: to Server (used by proxies)

   Example: date time s-ip cs-method cs-uri-stem cs-uri-query s-port cs-
   username c-ip cs(User-Agent) sc-status sc-substatus sc-win32-status
   time-taken

   2011-11-23 15:22:01 x.x.x.x GET /file 80 y.y.y.y Mozilla/
   5.0+(Windows;+U;+Windows+NT+6.1;+en-US;+rv:1.9.1.6)+Gecko/
   20091201+Firefox/3.5.6+GTB6 200 0 0 2137

A.3.  National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) Common Log
      Format be written later]

A.2.  Additional Requirements

   This format for Access Logs offers the following fields:

   o  host rfc931 date:time "request" statuscode bytes

   o  x.x.x.x userfoo [10/Jan/2010:21:15:05 +0500] "GET /index.html
      HTTP/1.0" 200 1043

A.4.  NCSA Combined Log Format

   The NCSA Combined log format is an extension of the NCSA Common log
   format with three (optional) section identies additional fields: the referral field,
   the user_agent field, and the cookie field.

   o  host rfc931 username date:time request statuscode bytes referrer
      user_agent cookie

   o  Example: x.x.x.x - userfoo [21/Jan/2012:12:13:56 +0500] "GET
      /index.html HTTP/1.0" 200 1043 "http://www.example.com/" "Mozilla/
      4.05 [en] (WinNT; I)" "USERID=CustomerA;IMPID=01234"

A.5.  NCSA Separate Log Format

   The NCSA Separate log format refers to a log format in which the
   information gathered is separated requirements that must also be met.

   [Editor's node: How do we incorporate this info into three separate files.  This
   way, every entry in the Access Log (in the NCSA Common log format) is
   complemented with an entry I-D: in a Referral log and another one
   appendix?  in an
   Agent log.  These three records can be correlated easily thanks to
   the date:time value.  The format of the Referral log main body?  does it remain after publication or is
   temporary?]

A.2.1.  Timeliness

   Some applications consuming CDNI Logging information, such as follows:

   o  date:time referrer

   o  Example: [21/Jan/2012:12:13:56 +0500]
      "http://www.example.com/index.html"

   The format
   accounting or trend analytics, only require logging information to be
   available with a timeliness of the Agent log is as follows:

   o  date:time agent

   o  [21/Jan/2012:12:13:56 +0500] "Microsoft Internet Explorer - 5.0"

A.6.  Squid 2.0 Native Log Format for Access Logs

   Squid [squid] is a popular piece order of open-source software for
   transforming a Linux host into a caching proxy.  Variations of Squid
   log format are supported by some CDNs.

   Squid common access log format is day or the hour.  This
   document focuses on addressing this requirement.

   Some applications consuming CDNI Logging information, such as follow: real-
   time elapsed remotehost
   code/status bytes method URL rfc931 peerstatus/peerhost type.

   Squid also supports a more detailed native access log format:
   Timestamp Elapsed Client Action/Code Size Method URI Ident Hierarchy/
   From Content

   According analytics, require logging information to Squid 2.0 documentation [squid], these fields are
   defined as follows:

   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | Element   | Definition                                            |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | time      | Unix timestamp as UTC seconds with a millisecond      |
   |           | resolution.                                           |
   | duration  | The elapsed time be available in milliseconds the transaction      |
   |           | busied the cache.                                     |
   | client    | The client IP address.                                |
   | address   |                                                       |
   | bytes     | The size is real-
   time (i.e.  of the amount order of data delivered to a second after the       |
   |           | client, including headers.                            |
   | request   | The request method to obtain an object.               |
   | method    |                                                       |
   | URL       | corresponding event).
   This document leaves this requirement out of scope.

A.2.2.  Reliability

   CDNI logging information must be transmitted reliably.  The requested URL.                                    |
   | rfc931    | may transport
   protocol should contain the ident lookups for the requesting      |
   |           | client (turned off by default)                        |
   | hierarchy | The hierarchy information provides an anti-replay mechanism.

A.2.3.  Security

   CDNI logging information on how |
   | code      | the request was handled (forwarding it to another     |
   |           | cache, or requesting the content to the Origin        |
   |           | Server).                                              |
   | type      | The content type of exchange must allow authentication,
   integrity protection, and confidentiality protection.  Also, a non-
   repudiation mechanism is mandatory, the object as seen transport protocol should
   support it.

A.2.4.  Scalability

   CDNI logging information exchange must support large scale
   information exchange, particularly so in the presence of HTTP    |
   |           | reply header.                                         |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+

               Table 6: Information elements in Squid format

   Squid also uses
   Adaptive Streaming.

   For example, if we consider a "store log", which covers client pulling HTTP Progressive
   Download content with an average duration of 10 minutes, this
   represents 1/600 CDNI delivery Logging Records per second.  If we
   assume the objects currently
   kept dCDN is simultaneously serving 100,000 such clients on disk or removed ones, for debugging purposes typically.

Appendix B.  Requirements

B.1.  Additional Requirements

   Section 7 of [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements], already specifies a set
   behalf of
   requirements for the uCDN, the dCDN will be generating 167 Logging (LOG-1 Records
   per second to LOG-16).  Some security
   requirements also affect Logging (e.g., SEC-4).

   This section is a placeholder for requirements identified in the work
   on logging, before they are proposed be communicated to the requirements draft
   authors. uCDN over the CDNI Logging data is sensitive as it provides
   interface.  Or equivalently, if we assume an average delivery rate of
   2Mb/s, the raw material dCDN generates 0.83 CDNI Logging Records per second for
   producing bills etc.  Therefore, the protocol delivering
   every Gb/s of streaming on behalf of the uCDN.

   For example, if we consider a client pulling HAS content and
   receiving a video chunk every 2 seconds, a separate audio chunck
   every 2 seconds and a refreshed manifest every 10 seconds, this
   represents 1.1 delivery Logging
   data must be reliable to avoid information loss.  In addition, the
   protocol must scale to support Record per second.  If we assume the transport of large amounts
   dCDN is simultaneously serving 100,000 such clients on behalf of the
   uCDN, the dCDN will be generating 110,000 Logging data.

   CDNs need Records per second
   to trust Logging information, thus, they want be communicated to know:

   o  who issued the uCDN over the CDNI Logging (authentication), and

   o interface.  Or
   equivalently, if we assume an average delivery rate of 2Mb/s, the
   dCDN generates 550 CDNI Logging has been modified by a third party (integrity).

   Logging also contains confidential data, and therefore, it should be
   protected from eavesdropping.

   All these needs translate into security requirements Records per second for every Gb/s of
   streaming on both behalf of the uCDN.

A.2.5.  Consistency between CDNI Logging data format and on the CDN Logging protocol.

   Finally, this protocol must comply with the requirements identified

   There are benefits in [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements].

   [Ed. note: cf. requirements draft: "SEC-4 [MED] The CDNI solution
   should be able to ensure that the Downstream CDN cannot spoof using a
   transaction log attempting to appear CDNI logging format as if it corresponds close as
   possible to intra-CDN logging format commonly used in CDNs today in
   order to minimize systematic translation at CDN/CDNI boundary.

A.2.6.  Dispatching/Filtering
   When a
   request redirected by a given Upstream CDN when that request has not
   been redirected by this Upstream CDN.  This ensures non-repudiation
   by the Upstream CDN of transaction logs generated by the Downstream CDN is acting as a dCDN for deliveries performed by multiple uCDNs, the Downstream CDN on behalf of dCDN needs to
   dispatch each CDNI Logging Record to the
   Upstream CDN."]

B.2.  Compliancy with Requirements draft

   This section checks uCDN that all the identified requirements in redirected the
   Requirements draft are fulfilled by this document.

   [Ed. node:
   corresponding request.  The CDNI Logging format need to be written later] allow, and
   possibly facilitate, such a dispatching.

Appendix C. B.  Analysis of candidate protocols for Logging Transport

   This section will be expanded later with an analysis of alternative
   candidate protocols for transport of CDNI Logging in non-real-time as
   well as real-time.

C.1.

B.1.  Syslog

   [Ed.  node: to be written later]

C.2.

B.2.  XMPP

   [Ed.  node: to be written later]

C.3.

B.3.  SNMP

Authors' Addresses

   Gilles Bertrand (editor)
   France Telecom - Orange
   38-40 rue du General Leclerc
   Issy les Moulineaux, Moulineaux  92130
   FR

   Phone: +33 1 45 29 89 46
   Email: gilles.bertrand@orange.com

   Iuniana Oprescu (editor)
   France Telecom - Orange
   38-40 rue du General Leclerc
   Issy les Moulineaux, Moulineaux  92130
   FR

   Phone: +33 6 89 06 92 72
   Email: iuniana.oprescu@orange.com

   Stephan Emile
   France Telecom
   Francois Le Faucheur (editor)
   Cisco Systems
   E.Space Park - Orange
   2 avenue Pierre Marzin
   Lannion  F-22307
   France Batiment D
   6254 Allee des Ormes - BP 1200
   Mougins cedex  06254
   FR

   Phone: +33 4 97 23 26 19
   Email: emile.stephan@orange.com flefauch@cisco.com

   Roy Peterkofsky
   Skytide, Inc.
   One Kaiser Plaza, Suite 785
   Oakland  CA 94612
   USA

   Phone: +01 510 250 4284
   Email: roy@skytide.com

   Francois Le Faucheur (editor)
   Cisco Systems
   Greenside, 400 Avenue de Roumanille
   Sophia Antipolis  06410
   FR

   Phone: +33 4 97 23 26 19
   Email: flefauch@cisco.com

   Pawel Grochocki
   Orange Polska
   ul. Obrzezna 7
   Warsaw  02-691
   Poland

   Email: pawel.grochocki@orange.com