draft-ietf-core-interfaces-11.txt   draft-ietf-core-interfaces-12.txt 
CoRE Working Group Z. Shelby CoRE Working Group Z. Shelby
Internet-Draft ARM Internet-Draft ARM
Intended status: Informational M. Vial Intended status: Informational M. Koster
Expires: September 6, 2018 Schneider-Electric Expires: December 29, 2018 SmartThings
M. Koster
SmartThings
C. Groves C. Groves
J. Zhu J. Zhu
Huawei Huawei
B. Silverajan, Ed. B. Silverajan, Ed.
Tampere University of Technology Tampere University of Technology
March 05, 2018 June 27, 2018
Reusable Interface Definitions for Constrained RESTful Environments Reusable Interface Definitions for Constrained RESTful Environments
draft-ietf-core-interfaces-11 draft-ietf-core-interfaces-12
Abstract Abstract
This document defines a set of Constrained RESTful Environments This document defines a set of Constrained RESTful Environments
(CoRE) Link Format Interface Descriptions [RFC6690] applicable for (CoRE) Link Format Interface Descriptions [RFC6690] applicable for
use in constrained environments. These include the: Actuator, use in constrained environments. These include the: Actuator,
Parameter, Read-only parameter, Sensor, Batch, Linked Batch and Link Parameter, Read-only parameter, Sensor, Batch, Linked Batch and Link
List interfaces. List interfaces.
The Batch, Linked Batch and Link List interfaces make use of resource The Batch, Linked Batch and Link List interfaces make use of resource
collections. This document further describes how collections relate collections. This document further describes how collections relate
to interfaces. to interfaces.
Many applications require a set of interface descriptions in order Many applications require a set of interface descriptions in order
provide the required functionality. This document defines an provide the required functionality. This document defines an
Interface Description atribute value to describe resources conforming Interface Description attribute value to describe resources
to a particular interface. conforming to a particular interface.
Editor's notes: Editor's notes:
o The git repository for the draft is found at https://github.com/ o The git repository for the draft is found at https://github.com/
core-wg/interfaces core-wg/interfaces
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
skipping to change at page 2, line 12 skipping to change at page 2, line 10
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on December 29, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Introduction to Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Introduction to Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Use Cases for Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Use Cases for Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. Content-Formats for Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. Collection Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. Link Embedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. Content-Formats for Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.5. Links and Items in Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.5. Link Embedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.6. Queries on Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.6. Links and Items in Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.7. Observing Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.7. Queries on Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.8. Collection Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.8. Observing Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. Interface Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Interface Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1. Link List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1. Link List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2. Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Linked Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.3. Linked Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.4. Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.4. Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.5. Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.5. Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.6. Read-only Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.6. Read-only Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.7. Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.7. Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.1. Link List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1. Link List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.2. Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2. Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.3. Linked Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3. Linked Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.4. Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.4. Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.5. Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.5. Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.6. Read-only parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.6. Read-only parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.7. Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.7. Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 9. Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix A. Current Usage of Interfaces and Function Sets . . . 23 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Appendix A. Current Usage of Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.1. Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link Format A.1. Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link Format
(IETF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 (IETF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.2. CoRE Resource Directory (IETF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A.2. Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.3. Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
A.4. oneM2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
A.5. OMA LWM2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Appendix B. Resource Profile example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
IETF Standards for machine to machine communication in constrained IETF Standards for machine to machine communication in constrained
environments describe a REST protocol and a set of related environments describe a REST protocol and a set of related
information standards that may be used to represent machine data and information standards that may be used to represent machine data and
machine metadata in REST interfaces. CoRE Link-format is a standard machine metadata in REST interfaces. CoRE Link-format is a standard
for doing Web Linking [RFC8288] in constrained environments. SenML for doing Web Linking [RFC8288] in constrained environments. SenML
[I-D.ietf-core-senml] is a simple data model and representation [I-D.ietf-core-senml] is a simple data model and representation
format for composite and complex structured resources. CoRE Link- format for composite and complex structured resources. CoRE Link-
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This document uses the concept of "collection" and applies it to This document uses the concept of "collection" and applies it to
interface descriptions. A collection interface description consists interface descriptions. A collection interface description consists
of a set of links and a set of items pointed to by the links which of a set of links and a set of items pointed to by the links which
may be sub-resources of the collection resource. The collection may be sub-resources of the collection resource. The collection
interface descriptions described in this document are Link List, interface descriptions described in this document are Link List,
Batch and Linked Batch. Batch and Linked Batch.
The links in a collection are represented in CoRE Link-Format The links in a collection are represented in CoRE Link-Format
Content-Formats including JSON and CBOR variants, and the items in Content-Formats including JSON and CBOR variants, and the items in
the collection may be represented by senml, including JSON and CBOR the collection may be represented by SenML, including JSON and CBOR
variants. In general, a collection may support items of any variants. In general, a collection may support items of any
available Content-Format. available Content-Format.
A particular resource item may be a member of more than one A particular resource item may be a member of more than one
collection at a time by being linked to, but may only be a collection at a time by being linked to, but may only be a
subresource of one collection. subresource of one collection.
Some collections may have pre-configured items and links, and some Some collections may have pre-configured items and links, and some
collections may support dynamic creation and removal of items and collections may support dynamic creation and removal of items and
links. Likewise, modification of items in some collections may be links. Likewise, modification of items in some collections may be
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state update or actuation. For example, the brightness control state update or actuation. For example, the brightness control
resources of a number of luminaries may be grouped by linking to them resources of a number of luminaries may be grouped by linking to them
in a collection. The collection type may support receiving a single in a collection. The collection type may support receiving a single
update from a client and sending that update to each resource item in update from a client and sending that update to each resource item in
the collection. the collection.
Items may be sub-resources of the collection resource. This enables Items may be sub-resources of the collection resource. This enables
updates to multiple items in the collection to be processed together updates to multiple items in the collection to be processed together
within the context of the collection resource. within the context of the collection resource.
3.3. Content-Formats for Collections 3.3. Collection Types
The collection interfaces by default use CoRE Link-Format for the There are three collection types defined in this document:
link representations and SenML or text/plain for representations of
items. The examples given are for collections that expose resources +-----------------+---------+
and links in these formats. In addition, a new "collection" Content- | Collection Type | if= |
Format is defined based on the SenML framework which represents both +-----------------+---------+
links and items in the collection. | Link List | core.ll |
| | |
| Batch | core.b |
| | |
| Linked Batch | core.lb |
+-----------------+---------+
Table 1: Collection Type Summary
The interface description defined in this document offer a deeper
explanation of the methods that may be applied to the three
collections.
3.4. Content-Formats for Collections
The collection interfaces can use the CoRE Link-Format for the link
representations and SenML or text/plain for representations of items.
The examples given are for collections that expose resources and
links in these formats.
The choice of whether to return a representation of the links or of The choice of whether to return a representation of the links or of
the items or of the collection format is determined by the Accept the items or of the collection format is determined by the Accept
header option in the request. Likewise, the choice of updating link header option in the request. Likewise, the choice of updating link
metadata or item data or the collection resource itself is determined metadata or item data or the collection resource itself is determined
by the Content-Format option in the header of the update request by the Content-Format option in the header of the update request
operation. operation.
The default Content-Formats for collection types described in this The default Content-Formats for collection types described in this
document are: document are:
Links: application/link-format, application/link-format+json Links: application/link-format, application/link-format+json
Items: application/senml+json, text/plain Items: application/senml+json, text/plain
3.4. Link Embedding 3.5. Link Embedding
Collections may provide resource encapsulation by supporting link Collections may provide resource encapsulation by supporting link
embedding. Link embedding may be used to provide a single resource embedding. Link embedding may be used to provide a single resource
with which a client may interact to obtain a set of related resource with which a client may interact to obtain a set of related resource
values. This is analogous to an image tag (link) causing the image values. This is analogous to an image tag (link) causing the image
to display inline in a browser window. Link embedding enables the to display inline in a browser window. Link embedding enables the
bulk processing of items in the collection using a single operation bulk processing of items in the collection using a single operation
targeting the collection resource. Performing a GET on a collection targeting the collection resource. Performing a GET on a collection
resource may return a single representation containing all of the resource may return a single representation containing all of the
embedded linked resources. For example, a collection for embedded linked resources. For example, a collection for
manufacturer parameters may consist of manufacturer name, date of manufacturer parameters may consist of manufacturer name, date of
manufacture, location of manufacture, and serial number resources manufacture, location of manufacture, and serial number resources
which can be read as a single senml data object. which can be read as a single SenML data object.
A subset of resources in the collection may be selected for operation A subset of resources in the collection may be selected for operation
using Query Filtering. Bulk Read operations using GET return a SenML using Query Filtering. Bulk Read operations using GET return a SenML
representation of all selected resources. Bulk item Update representation of all selected resources. Bulk item Update
operations using PUT or POST apply the payload document to all operations using PUT or POST apply the payload document to all
selected resource items in the collection, using either a Batch or selected resource items in the collection. A Batch update is
Group update policy. A Batch update is performed by applying the performed by applying the resource values in the payload document to
resource values in the payload document to all resources in the all resources in the collection that match any resource name in the
collection that match any resource name in the payload document. payload document.
Group updates are performed by applying the payload document to each
item in the collection. Group updates are indicated by the link
relation type rel="grp" in the link.
3.5. Links and Items in Collections 3.6. Links and Items in Collections
Links use CoRE Link-Format representation by default and may point to Links use CoRE Link-Format representation by default and may point to
any resource reachable from the context of the collection. This any resource reachable from the context of the collection. This
includes links to resources with absolute paths as well as links that includes links to resources with absolute paths as well as links that
point to other network locations, if the context of the collection point to other network locations, if the context of the collection
allows. Links to sub-resources in the collection MUST have a path- allows. Links to sub-resources in the collection MUST have a path-
element starting with the resource name, as per [RFC3986]. Links to element starting with the resource name, as per [RFC3986]. Links to
resources in the global context MUST start with a root path resources in the global context MUST start with a root path
identifier [RFC8288]. Links to other collections are formed per identifier [RFC8288]. Links to other collections are formed per
[RFC3986]. [RFC3986].
Examples of links: Examples of links:
</sen/>;if="core.lb": Link to the /sen/ collection describing it as </sen/>;if="core.lb": Link to the /sen/ collection describing it as
a core.lb type collection (Linked Batch) a core.lb type collection (Linked Batch)
</sen/>;rel="grp": Link to the /sen/ collection indicating that
/sen/ is a member of a group in the collection in which the link
appears.
</sen/temp>;rt="temperature": A link to the temp resource with an </sen/temp>;rt="temperature": A link to the temp resource with an
absolute path. absolute path.
<temp>;rt="temperature": Link to the temp subresource of the <temp>;rt="temperature": Link to the temp subresource of the
collection in which this link appears. collection in which this link appears.
<temp>;anchor="/sen/": A link to the temp subresource of the <temp>;anchor="/sen/": A link to the temp subresource of the
collection /sen/ which is assumed not to be a subresource of the collection /sen/ which is assumed not to be a subresource of the
collection in which the link appears, but is expected to be collection in which the link appears, but is expected to be
identified in the collection by resource name. identified in the collection by resource name.
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filtering to select links for updating. The PATCH method on links filtering to select links for updating. The PATCH method on links
MUST use the JSON Merge-Patch Content-Format (application/merge- MUST use the JSON Merge-Patch Content-Format (application/merge-
patch+json) specified in [RFC7396]. patch+json) specified in [RFC7396].
Items in the collection SHOULD be represented using the SenML Items in the collection SHOULD be represented using the SenML
(application/senml+json) or plain text (text/plain) Content-Formats, (application/senml+json) or plain text (text/plain) Content-Formats,
depending on whether the representation is of a single data point or depending on whether the representation is of a single data point or
multiple data points. Items MAY be represented using any supported multiple data points. Items MAY be represented using any supported
Content-Format. Content-Format.
3.6. Queries on Collections 3.7. Queries on Collections
Collections MAY support query filtering as defined in CoRE Link- Collections MAY support query filtering as defined in CoRE Link-
Format [RFC6690]. Operations targeting either the links or the items Format [RFC6690]. Operations targeting either the links or the items
MAY select a subset of links and items in the collection by using MAY select a subset of links and items in the collection by using
query filtering. The Content-Format specified in the request header query filtering. The Content-Format specified in the request header
selects whether links or items are targeted by the operation. selects whether links or items are targeted by the operation.
3.7. Observing Collections 3.8. Observing Collections
Resource Observation via [I-D.ietf-core-dynlink] using CoAP [RFC7252] Resource Observation via [I-D.ietf-core-dynlink] using CoAP [RFC7252]
MAY be supported on items in a collection. A subset of the MAY be supported on items in a collection. A subset of the
conditional observe parameters MAY be specified to apply. In most conditional observe parameters MAY be specified to apply. In most
cases pmin and pmax are useful. Resource observation on a cases pmin and pmax are useful. Resource observation on a
collection's resource returns the collection representation. collection's resource returns the collection representation.
Observation Responses, or notifications, SHOULD provide the Observation Responses, or notifications, SHOULD provide the
collection representations in SenML Content-Format. Notifications collection representations in SenML Content-Format. Notifications
MAY include multiple observations of the collection resource, with MAY include multiple observations of the collection resource, with
SenML time stamps indicating the observation times. SenML time stamps indicating the observation times.
3.8. Collection Types
There are three collection types defined in this document:
+-----------------+---------+--------------------+
| Collection Type | if= | Content-Format |
+-----------------+---------+--------------------+
| Link List | core.ll | link-format |
| | | |
| Batch | core.b | link-format, senml |
| | | |
| Linked Batch | core.lb | link-format, senml |
+-----------------+---------+--------------------+
Table 1: Collection Type Summary
The interface description defined in this document offer a deeper
explanation of the methods and functions that may be applied to the
three collections.
4. Interface Descriptions 4. Interface Descriptions
This section defines REST interfaces for Sensor, Parameter, Read-Only This section defines REST interfaces for Sensor, Parameter, Read-Only
Paramter and Actuator resource types, in addition to the Link List, Paramter and Actuator resource types, in addition to the Link List,
Batch and Linked Batch collection types. Each type is described Batch and Linked Batch collection types. Each type is described
along with its Interface Description attribute value, valid methods along with its Interface Description attribute value, valid methods
and content formats. These are shown for each interface in the table and content formats. These are shown for each interface in the table
below. below.
The if= column defines the Interface Description (if=) attribute The if= column defines the Interface Description (if=) attribute
skipping to change at page 10, line 10 skipping to change at page 10, line 10
definition. definition.
The Methods column defines the methods supported by that interface, The Methods column defines the methods supported by that interface,
which are described in more detail below. which are described in more detail below.
+--------------+---------+-----------------+--------------------+ +--------------+---------+-----------------+--------------------+
| Interface | if= | Methods | Content-Formats | | Interface | if= | Methods | Content-Formats |
+--------------+---------+-----------------+--------------------+ +--------------+---------+-----------------+--------------------+
| Link List | core.ll | GET | link-format | | Link List | core.ll | GET | link-format |
| | | | | | | | | |
| Batch | core.b | GET, PUT, POST | link-format, senml | | Batch | core.b | GET, PUT, POST | senml |
| | | | | | | | | |
| Linked Batch | core.lb | GET, PUT, POST, | link-format, senml | | Linked Batch | core.lb | GET, PUT, POST, | link-format, senml |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | DELETE | | | | | DELETE | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| Sensor | core.s | GET | link-format, | | Sensor | core.s | GET | senml, |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | text/plain | | | | | text/plain |
| | | | | | | | | |
| Parameter | core.p | GET, PUT | link-format, | | Parameter | core.p | GET, PUT | senml, |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | text/plain | | | | | text/plain |
| | | | | | | | | |
| Read-only | core.rp | GET | link-format, | | Read-only | core.rp | GET | senml, |
| | | | | | | | | |
| Parameter | | | text/plain | | Parameter | | | text/plain |
| | | | | | | | | |
| Actuator | core.a | GET, PUT, POST | link-format, | | Actuator | core.a | GET, PUT, POST | senml, |
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | text/plain | | | | | text/plain |
+--------------+---------+-----------------+--------------------+ +--------------+---------+-----------------+--------------------+
Table 2: Interface Description Summary Table 2: Interface Description Summary
The following is an example of links in the CoRE Link Format using The following is an example of links in the CoRE Link Format using
these interface descriptions. The resource hierarchy is based on a these interface descriptions.
simple resource profile defined in Appendix B. These links are used
in the subsequent examples below.
Req: GET /.well-known/core Req: GET /.well-known/core
Res: 2.05 Content (application/link-format) Res: 2.05 Content (application/link-format)
</s/>;rt="simple.sen";if="core.b", </s/>;rt="simple.sen";if="core.b",
</s/light>;rt="simple.sen.lt";if="core.s", </s/light>;rt="simple.sen.lt";if="core.s",
</s/temp>;rt="simple.sen.tmp";if="core.s";obs, </s/temp>;rt="simple.sen.tmp";if="core.s";obs,
</s/humidity>;rt="simple.sen.hum";if="core.s", </s/humidity>;rt="simple.sen.hum";if="core.s",
</a/>;rt="simple.act";if="core.b", </a/>;rt="simple.act";if="core.b",
</a/1/led>;rt="simple.act.led";if="core.a", </a/1/led>;rt="simple.act.led";if="core.a",
</a/2/led>;rt="simple.act.led";if="core.a", </a/2/led>;rt="simple.act.led";if="core.a",
</d/>;rt="simple.dev";if="core.ll", </d/>;rt="simple.dev";if="core.ll",
</l/>;if="core.lb", </l/>;if="core.lb"
Figure 1: Binding Interface Example Figure 1: Binding Interface Example
4.1. Link List 4.1. Link List
The Link List interface is used to retrieve (GET) a list of resources Link List is the base interface to provide gradual reveal of
on an origin server. The GET request SHOULD contain an Accept option resources on a CoRE origin server. It is used to retrieve (GET) a
with the application/link-format content format. However if the list of resources on an origin server. The GET request SHOULD
resource does not support any other form of content-format the Accept contain an Accept option with the application/link-format content
option MAY be elided. format. However if the resource does not support any other form of
content-format the Accept option MAY be elided.
Note: The use of an Accept option with application/link-format is Note: The use of an Accept option with application/link-format is
recommended even though it is not strictly needed for the link list recommended even though it is not strictly needed for the Link List
interface because this interface is extended by the batch and linked interface because this interface is extended by the batch and linked
batch interfaces where different content-formats are possible. batch interfaces where different content-formats are possible.
The request returns a list of URI references with absolute paths to The request returns a list of URI references with absolute paths to
the resources as defined in CoRE Link Format. This interface is the resources as defined in CoRE Link Format. This interface is
typically used with a parent resource to enumerate sub-resources but typically used with a parent resource to enumerate sub-resources but
may be used to reference any resource on an origin server. may be used to reference any resource on an origin server.
Link List is the base interface to provide gradual reveal of
resources on a CoRE origin server. Hence the root resource of a
Function Set SHOULD implement this interface or an extension of this
interface.
The following example interacts with a Link List /d containing The following example interacts with a Link List /d containing
Parameter sub-resources /d/name, /d/model. Parameter sub-resources /d/name, /d/model.
Req: GET /d/ (Accept:application/link-format) Req: GET /d/ (Accept:application/link-format)
Res: 2.05 Content (application/link-format) Res: 2.05 Content (application/link-format)
</d/name>;rt="simple.dev.n";if="core.p", </d/name>;rt="simple.dev.n";if="core.p",
</d/model>;rt="simple.dev.mdl";if="core.rp" </d/model>;rt="simple.dev.mdl";if="core.rp"
4.2. Batch 4.2. Batch
skipping to change at page 11, line 49 skipping to change at page 11, line 45
resources at the same time. The Batch interface description supports resources at the same time. The Batch interface description supports
the same methods as its sub-resources, and can be used to read (GET), the same methods as its sub-resources, and can be used to read (GET),
update (PUT) or apply (POST) the values of those sub-resource with a update (PUT) or apply (POST) the values of those sub-resource with a
single resource representation. The sub-resources of a Batch MAY be single resource representation. The sub-resources of a Batch MAY be
heterogeneous. Hence, a method used on the Batch only applies to heterogeneous. Hence, a method used on the Batch only applies to
sub-resources that support it. For example Sensor interfaces do not sub-resources that support it. For example Sensor interfaces do not
support PUT, and thus a PUT request to a Sensor member of that Batch support PUT, and thus a PUT request to a Sensor member of that Batch
would be ignored. A batch requires the use of SenML Media types in would be ignored. A batch requires the use of SenML Media types in
order to support multiple sub-resources. order to support multiple sub-resources.
In addition, the Batch interface is an extension of the Link List
interface and in consequence MUST support the same methods. For
example, a GET with an Accept:application/link-format on a resource
utilizing the batch interface will return the sub-resource links.
The following example interacts with a Batch /s/ with Sensor sub- The following example interacts with a Batch /s/ with Sensor sub-
resources /s/light, /s/temp and /s/humidity. resources /s/light, /s/temp and /s/humidity.
Req: GET /s/ Req: GET /s/
Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json) Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json)
{"e":[ [
{ "n": "light", "v": 123, "u": "lx" }, { "n": "light", "v": 123, "u": "lx" },
{ "n": "temp", "v": 27.2, "u": "degC" }, { "n": "temp", "v": 27.2, "u": "Cel" },
{ "n": "humidity", "v": 80, "u": "%RH" }], { "n": "humidity", "v": 80, "u": "%RH" }
} ]
4.3. Linked Batch 4.3. Linked Batch
The Linked Batch interface is an extension of the Batch interface. The Linked Batch interface is an extension of the Batch interface.
Contrary to the basic Batch which is a collection statically defined Contrary to the basic Batch which is a collection statically defined
by the origin server, a Linked Batch is dynamically controlled by a by the origin server, a Linked Batch is dynamically controlled by a
client. A Linked Batch resource has no sub-resources. Instead the client. A Linked Batch resource has no sub-resources. Instead the
resources forming the batch are referenced using Web Linking resources forming the batch are referenced using Web Linking
[RFC8288] and the CoRE Link Format [RFC6690]. A request with a POST [RFC8288] and the CoRE Link Format [RFC6690]. A request with a POST
method and a content format of application/link-format simply appends method and a content format of application/link-format simply appends
skipping to change at page 13, line 11 skipping to change at page 13, line 11
The following example interacts with a Linked Batch /l/ and creates a The following example interacts with a Linked Batch /l/ and creates a
collection containing /s/light, /s/temp and /s/humidity in 2 steps. collection containing /s/light, /s/temp and /s/humidity in 2 steps.
Req: POST /l/ (Content-Format: application/link-format) Req: POST /l/ (Content-Format: application/link-format)
</s/light>,</s/temp> </s/light>,</s/temp>
Res: 2.04 Changed Res: 2.04 Changed
Req: GET /l/ Req: GET /l/
Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json) Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json)
{"e":[ [
{ "n": "/s/light", "v": 123, "u": "lx" }, { "n": "/s/light", "v": 123, "u": "lx" },
{ "n": "/s/temp", "v": 27.2, "u": "degC" }, { "n": "/s/temp", "v": 27.2, "u": "Cel" }
} ]
Req: POST /l/ (Content-Format: application/link-format) Req: POST /l/ (Content-Format: application/link-format)
</s/humidity> </s/humidity>
Res: 2.04 Changed Res: 2.04 Changed
Req: GET /l/ (Accept: application/link-format) Req: GET /l/ (Accept: application/link-format)
Res: 2.05 Content (application/link-format) Res: 2.05 Content (application/link-format)
</s/light>,</s/temp>,</s/humidity> </s/light>,</s/temp>,</s/humidity>
Req: GET /l/ Req: GET /l/
Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json) Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json)
{"e":[ [
{ "n": "/s/light", "v": 123, "u": "lx" }, { "n": "/s/light", "v": 123, "u": "lx" },
{ "n": "/s/temp", "v": 27.2, "u": "degC" }, { "n": "/s/temp", "v": 27.2, "u": "Cel" },
{ "n": "/s/humidity", "v": 80, "u": "%RH" }], { "n": "/s/humidity", "v": 80, "u": "%RH" }
} ]
Req: DELETE /l/ Req: DELETE /l/
Res: 2.02 Deleted Res: 2.02 Deleted
4.4. Sensor 4.4. Sensor
The Sensor interface allows the value of a sensor resource to be read The Sensor interface allows the value of a sensor resource to be read
(GET). The Media type of the resource can be either plain text or (GET). The Media type of the resource can be either plain text or
SenML. Plain text MAY be used for a single measurement that does not SenML. Plain text MAY be used for a single measurement that does not
require meta-data. For a measurement with meta-data such as a unit require meta-data. For a measurement with meta-data such as a unit
skipping to change at page 14, line 11 skipping to change at page 14, line 11
The following are examples of Sensor interface requests in both text/ The following are examples of Sensor interface requests in both text/
plain and application/senml+json. plain and application/senml+json.
Req: GET /s/humidity (Accept: text/plain) Req: GET /s/humidity (Accept: text/plain)
Res: 2.05 Content (text/plain) Res: 2.05 Content (text/plain)
80 80
Req: GET /s/humidity (Accept: application/senml+json) Req: GET /s/humidity (Accept: application/senml+json)
Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json) Res: 2.05 Content (application/senml+json)
{"e":[ [
{ "n": "humidity", "v": 80, "u": "%RH" }], { "n": "humidity", "v": 80, "u": "%RH" }
} ]
4.5. Parameter 4.5. Parameter
The Parameter interface allows configurable parameters and other The Parameter interface allows configurable parameters and other
information to be modeled as a resource. The value of the parameter information to be modeled as a resource. The value of the parameter
can be read (GET) or update (PUT). Plain text or SenML Media types can be read (GET) or update (PUT). Plain text or SenML Media types
MAY be returned from this type of interface. MAY be returned from this type of interface.
The following example shows request for reading and updating a The following example shows request for reading and updating a
parameter. parameter.
skipping to change at page 17, line 31 skipping to change at page 17, line 31
appropriate RFC reference. appropriate RFC reference.
Notes: None Notes: None
6.7. Actuator 6.7. Actuator
Attribute Value: core.a Attribute Value: core.a
Description: The Actuator interface is used by resources that model Description: The Actuator interface is used by resources that model
different kinds of actuators (changing its value has an effect on different kinds of actuators (changing its value has an effect on
its environment). Examples of actuators include for example LEDs, its environment). Examples of actuators include LEDs, relays,
relays, motor controllers and light dimmers. The current value of motor controllers and light dimmers. The current value of the
the actuator can be read or the actuator value can be updated. In actuator can be read or the actuator value can be updated. In
addition, this interface allows the use of POST to change the addition, this interface allows the use of POST to change the
state of an actuator, for example to toggle between its possible state of an actuator, for example to toggle between its possible
values. values.
Reference: This document. Note to RFC Editor - please insert the Reference: This document. Note to RFC Editor - please insert the
appropriate RFC reference. appropriate RFC reference.
Notes: None Notes: None
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
Acknowledgement is given to colleagues from the SENSEI project who Acknowledgement is given to colleagues from the SENSEI project who
were critical in the initial development of the well-known REST were critical in the initial development of the well-known REST
interface concept, to members of the IPSO Alliance where further interface concept, to members of the IPSO Alliance where further
requirements for interface descriptions have been discussed, and to requirements for interface descriptions have been discussed, and to
Szymon Sasin, Cedric Chauvenet, Daniel Gavelle and Carsten Bormann Szymon Sasin, Cedric Chauvenet, Daniel Gavelle and Carsten Bormann
who have provided useful discussion and input to the concepts in this who have provided useful discussion and input to the concepts in this
document. document. Ari Keraenen provided updated SenML examples.
8. Changelog 8. Contributors
Changes from -10 to 11: Matthieu Vial
Schneider-Electric
Grenoble
France
o New Section 3.4 on Link Embedding Phone: +33 (0)47657 6522
EMail: matthieu.vial@schneider-electric.com
o Removed disused "Service discovery" terminology 9. Changelog
o Removed wording referring to discontinued function set concept Changes from -11 to -12:
o Removed all text referring to function sets/profiles
o Clarified list collections
o Content-formats for collections and items rectified
o Simplified Appendix A and removed Appendix B
Changes from -10 to -11:
o Added a new Section 3.4 for Link Embedding
o Updated examples in Section 3.5
o Removed "Service Discovery" from Terminologies
o Removed discussion of function sets
Changes from -09 to -10: Changes from -09 to -10:
o Section 1: Amendments to remove discussing properties. o Section 1: Amendments to remove discussing properties. *
o New author and editor added. o New author and editor added.
Changes from -08 to -09: Changes from -08 to -09:
o Section 3.6: Modified to indicate that the entire collection o Section 3.6: Modified to indicate that the entire collection
resource is returned. resource is returned.
o General: Added editor's note with open issues. o General: Added editor's note with open issues.
skipping to change at page 21, line 14 skipping to change at page 21, line 34
o Defined a Function Set and its guidelines. o Defined a Function Set and its guidelines.
o Added the Link List interface. o Added the Link List interface.
o Added the Linked Batch interface. o Added the Linked Batch interface.
o Improved the WADL interface definition. o Improved the WADL interface definition.
o Added a simple profile example. o Added a simple profile example.
9. References 10. References
9.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC6690] Shelby, Z., "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link [RFC6690] Shelby, Z., "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link
Format", RFC 6690, DOI 10.17487/RFC6690, August 2012, Format", RFC 6690, DOI 10.17487/RFC6690, August 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6690>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6690>.
[RFC8288] Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 8288, [RFC8288] Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 8288,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8288, October 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8288, October 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8288>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8288>.
9.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-core-dynlink] [I-D.ietf-core-dynlink]
Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Groves, C., Zhu, J., and B. Shelby, Z., Vial, M., Koster, M., Groves, C., Zhu, J., and
Silverajan, "Dynamic Resource Linking for Constrained B. Silverajan, "Dynamic Resource Linking for Constrained
RESTful Environments", draft-ietf-core-dynlink-04 (work in RESTful Environments", draft-ietf-core-dynlink-05 (work in
progress), September 2017. progress), March 2018.
[I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory]
Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., Stok, P., and C. Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., Stok, P., and C.
Amsuess, "CoRE Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core- Amsuess, "CoRE Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core-
resource-directory-13 (work in progress), March 2018. resource-directory-13 (work in progress), March 2018.
[I-D.ietf-core-senml] [I-D.ietf-core-senml]
Jennings, C., Shelby, Z., Arkko, J., Keranen, A., and C. Jennings, C., Shelby, Z., Arkko, J., Keranen, A., and C.
Bormann, "Media Types for Sensor Measurement Lists Bormann, "Sensor Measurement Lists (SenML)", draft-ietf-
(SenML)", draft-ietf-core-senml-13 (work in progress), core-senml-16 (work in progress), May 2018.
March 2018.
[OIC-Core] [OIC-Core]
"OIC Resource Type Specification v1.1.0", 2016, "OIC Resource Type Specification v1.1.0", 2016,
<https://openconnectivity.org/resources/specifications>. <https://openconnectivity.org/resources/specifications>.
[OIC-SmartHome] [OIC-SmartHome]
"OIC Smart Home Device Specification v1.1.0", 2016, "OIC Smart Home Device Specification v1.1.0", 2016,
<https://openconnectivity.org/resources/specifications>. <https://openconnectivity.org/resources/specifications>.
[OMA-TS-LWM2M] [OMA-TS-LWM2M]
skipping to change at page 23, line 5 skipping to change at page 23, line 23
[RFC7252] Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained [RFC7252] Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252, Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.
[RFC7396] Hoffman, P. and J. Snell, "JSON Merge Patch", RFC 7396, [RFC7396] Hoffman, P. and J. Snell, "JSON Merge Patch", RFC 7396,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7396, October 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7396, October 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7396>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7396>.
Appendix A. Current Usage of Interfaces and Function Sets Appendix A. Current Usage of Interfaces
Editor's note: This appendix will be removed. It is only included Editor's note: This appendix will be removed. It is only included
for information. for information.
This appendix analyses the current landscape with regards the This appendix analyses the current landscape with regards the
definition and use of collections, interfaces and function sets/ definition and use of collections and interfaces. This should be
profiles. This should be considered when considering the scope of considered when considering the scope of this document.
this document.
In summary it can be seen that there is a lack of consistency of the
definition and usage of interface description and function sets.
A.1. Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link Format (IETF) A.1. Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link Format (IETF)
[RFC6690] assumes that different deployments or application domains [RFC6690] assumes that different deployments or application domains
will define the appropriate REST Interface Descriptions along with will define the appropriate REST Interface Descriptions along with
Resource Types to make discovery meaningful. It highlights that Resource Types to make discovery meaningful. It highlights that
collections are often used for these interfaces. collections are often used for these interfaces.
Whilst 3.2/[RFC6690] defines a new Interface Description 'if' Whilst 3.2/[RFC6690] defines a new Interface Description 'if'
attribute the procedures around it are about the naming of the attribute the procedures around it are about the naming of the
interface not what information should be included in the interface not what information should be included in the
documentation about the interface. documentation about the interface.
Function sets are not discussed. A.2. Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF)
A.2. CoRE Resource Directory (IETF)
[I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] uses the concepts of collections,
interfaces and function sets.
If defines a number of interfaces: discovery, registration,
registration update, registration removal, read endpoint links,
update endpoint links, registration request interface, removal
request interface and lookup interface. However it does not assign
an interface description identifier (if=) to these interfaces.
It does define a resource directory function set which specifies
relevant content formats and interfaces to be used between a resource
directory and endpoints. However it does not follow the format
proposed by this document.
A.3. Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF)
The OIC Core Specification [OIC-Core] most closely aligns with the The OIC Core Specification [OIC-Core] most closely aligns with the
work in this specification. It makes use of interface descriptions work in this specification. It makes use of interface descriptions
as per [RFC6690] and has registered several interface identifiers as per [RFC6690] and has registered several interface identifiers
(https://www.iana.org/assignments/core-parameters/core- (https://www.iana.org/assignments/core-parameters/core-
parameters.xhtml#if-link-target-att-value). These interface parameters.xhtml#if-link-target-att-value). These interface
descriptors are similar to those defined in this specification. From descriptors are similar to those defined in this specification. From
a high level perspective: a high level perspective:
links list: OCF (oic.if.ll) -> IETF (core.ll) links list: OCF (oic.if.ll) -> IETF (core.ll)
skipping to change at page 24, line 28 skipping to change at page 24, line 24
Some of the OCF interfaces make use of collections. Some of the OCF interfaces make use of collections.
The OIC Core specification does not use the concept of function sets. The OIC Core specification does not use the concept of function sets.
It does however discuss the concept of profiles. The OCF defines two It does however discuss the concept of profiles. The OCF defines two
sets of documents. The core specification documents such as sets of documents. The core specification documents such as
[OIC-Core] and vertical profile specification documents which provide [OIC-Core] and vertical profile specification documents which provide
specific information for specific applications. The OIC Smart Home specific information for specific applications. The OIC Smart Home
Device Specification [OIC-SmartHome] is one such specification. It Device Specification [OIC-SmartHome] is one such specification. It
provides information on the resource model, discovery and data types. provides information on the resource model, discovery and data types.
A.4. oneM2M
OneM2M describes a technology independent functional architecture
[oneM2MTS0023]. In this archictecture the reference points between
functional entities are called "interfaces". This usage does not
match the [RFC6690] concept of interfaces. A more direct comparison
is that of 10.2/[oneM2MTS0023] that defines basic procedures and
resource type-specific procedures utilising REST type create,
retrieve, update, delete, notify actions.
[oneM2MTS0023] does not refer to resource collections however does
define "Group Management Procedures" in 10.2.7/[oneM2MTS0023]. It
does allow bulk management of member resources.
[oneM2MTS0023] does not use the term "function set". [oneM2MTS0008]
describes the binding with the CoAP protocol. In some respects this
document provides a profile of the CoAP protocol in terms of the
protocol elements that need to be supported. However it does not
define any interface descriptions nor collections.
A.5. OMA LWM2M
[OMA-TS-LWM2M] utilises the concept of interfaces. It defines the
following interfaces: Bootstrap, Client Registration, Device
Management and Service Enablement and Information Reporting. It
defines that these have a particular direction (Uplink/Downlink) and
indicates the operations that may be applied to the interface (i.e.
Request Bootstrap, Write, Delete, Register, Update, De-Register,
Create, Read, Write, Delete, Execute, Write Attributes, Discover,
Observe, Cancel Observation, Notify). It then further defines which
objects may occur over the interface. In 6/[OMA-TS-LWM2M] resource
model, identifier and data formats are described.
Whilst it does not formally describe the use of "collections" the use
of a multiple resource TLV allows a hierarchy of resource/sub-
resource.
It does not identify the interfaces through an Interface Description
(if=) attribute.
It does not use the term function set. Informally the specification
could be considered as a function set.
Note: It refers to draft-ietf-core-interfaces-00. It also makes use
of the binding/observation attributes from draft-ietf-dynlink-00 but
does not refer to that document.
Appendix B. Resource Profile example
The following is a short definition of simple device resource
profile. This simplistic profile is for use in the examples of this
document.
+--------------------+-----------+------------+---------+
| Functions | Root Path | RT | IF |
+--------------------+-----------+------------+---------+
| Device Description | /d | simple.dev | core.ll |
| | | | |
| Sensors | /s | simple.sen | core.b |
| | | | |
| Actuators | /a | simple.act | core.b |
+--------------------+-----------+------------+---------+
Table 3: Functional list of resources
+-------+----------+----------------+---------+------------+
| Type | Path | RT | IF | Data Type |
+-------+----------+----------------+---------+------------+
| Name | /d/name | simple.dev.n | core.p | xsd:string |
| | | | | |
| Model | /d/model | simple.dev.mdl | core.rp | xsd:string |
+-------+----------+----------------+---------+------------+
Table 4: Device Description Resources
+-------------+-------------+----------------+--------+-------------+
| Type | Path | RT | IF | Data Type |
+-------------+-------------+----------------+--------+-------------+
| Light | /s/light | simple.sen.lt | core.s | xsd:decimal |
| | | | | |
| | | | | (lux) |
| | | | | |
| Humidity | /s/humidity | simple.sen.hum | core.s | xsd:decimal |
| | | | | |
| | | | | (%RH) |
| | | | | |
| Temperature | /s/temp | simple.sen.tmp | core.s | xsd:decimal |
| | | | | |
| | | | | (degC) |
+-------------+-------------+----------------+--------+-------------+
Table 5: Sensor Resources
+------+------------+----------------+--------+-------------+
| Type | Path | RT | IF | Data Type |
+------+------------+----------------+--------+-------------+
| LED | /a/{#}/led | simple.act.led | core.a | xsd:boolean |
+------+------------+----------------+--------+-------------+
Table 6: Actuator Resources
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Zach Shelby Zach Shelby
ARM ARM
150 Rose Orchard Kidekuja 2
San Jose 95134 Vuokatti 88600
FINLAND FINLAND
Phone: +1-408-203-9434 Phone: +358407796297
Email: zach.shelby@arm.com Email: zach.shelby@arm.com
Matthieu Vial
Schneider-Electric
Grenoble
FRANCE
Phone: +33 (0)47657 6522
Email: matthieu.vial@schneider-electric.com
Michael Koster Michael Koster
SmartThings SmartThings
665 Clyde Avenue 665 Clyde Avenue
Mountain View 94043 Mountain View 94043
USA USA
Email: michael.koster@smartthings.com Email: michael.koster@smartthings.com
Christian Groves Christian Groves
Australia Australia
Email: cngroves.std@gmail.com Email: cngroves.std@gmail.com
Jintao Zhu
Julian Zhu
Huawei Huawei
No.127 Jinye Road, Huawei Base, High-Tech Development District No.127 Jinye Road, Huawei Base, High-Tech Development District
Xi'an, Shaanxi Province Xi'an, Shaanxi Province
China China
Email: jintao.zhu@huawei.com Email: jintao.zhu@huawei.com
Bilhanan Silverajan (editor) Bilhanan Silverajan (editor)
Tampere University of Technology Tampere University of Technology
Korkeakoulunkatu 10 Korkeakoulunkatu 10
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