Network Working Group R. Droms, Editor INTERNET DRAFT Bucknell University Obsoletes:
draft-ietf-dhc-authentication-11.txtdraft-ietf-dhc-authentication-12.txt W. Arbaugh, Editor University of Pennsylvania October 1999 ExpiresMaryland June 19992000 Expires December 2000 Authentication for DHCP Messages <draft-ietf-dhc-authentication-12.txt><draft-ietf-dhc-authentication-13.txt> Status of this memo This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed athttp://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt, and the list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. Abstract The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP network. In some situations, network administrators may wish to constrain the allocation of addresses to authorized hosts. Additionally, some network administrators may wish to provide for authentication of the source and contents of DHCP messages. This document defines a new DHCP option through which authorization tickets can be easily generated and newly attached hosts with proper authorization can be automatically configured from an authenticated DHCP server. 1. Introduction DHCP  transports protocol stack configuration parameters from centrally administered servers to TCP/IP hosts. Among those parameters are an IP address. DHCP servers can be configured to dynamically allocate addresses from a pool of addresses, eliminating DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999March 2000 a manual step in configuration of TCP/IP hosts. Some network administrators may wish to provide authentication of the source and contents of DHCP messages. For example, clients may be subject to denial of service attacks through the use of bogus DHCP servers, or may simply be misconfigured due to unintentionally instantiated DHCP servers. Network administrators may wish to constrain the allocation of addresses to authorized hosts to avoid denial of service attacks in "hostile" environments where the network medium is not physically secured, such as wireless networks or college residence halls. This document defines a technique that can provide both entity authentication and message authentication. DISCUSSION: This draft combines the original Schiller-Huitema-Droms authentication mechanism (<draft-ietf-dhc-authentication-06.txt>)defined in a previous Internet Draft with the "delayed authentication" proposal developed by Bill Arbaugh. This draft has been published as a revision to <draft- ietf-dhc-authentication-06.txt>.1.1 DHCP threat model The threat to DHCP is inherently an insider threat (assuming a properly configured network where BOOTP ports are blocked on the enterprise's perimeter gateways.) Regardless of the gateway configuration, however, the potential attacks by insiders and outsiders are the same. The attack specific to a DHCP client is the possibility of the establishment of a "rogue" server with the intent of providing incorrect configuration information to the client. The motivation for doing so may be to establish a "man in the middle" attack or it may be for a "denial of service" attack. There is another threat to DHCP clients from mistakenly or accidentally configured DHCP servers that answer DHCP client requests with unintentionally incorrect configuration parameters. The threat specific to a DHCP server is an invalid client masquerading as a valid client. The motivation for this may be for "theft of service", or to circumvent auditing for any number of nefarious purposes. The threat common to both the client and the server is the resource "denial of service" (DoS) attack. These attacks typically involve the DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999exhaustion of valid addresses, or the exhaustion of CPU or network bandwidth, and are present anytime there is a shared resource. In DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 current practice, redundancy mitigates DoS attacks the best. 1.2 Design goals These are the goals that were used in the development of the authentication protocol, listed in order of importance: 1. Address the threats presented in Section 1.1. 2. Avoid changing the current protocol. 3. Limit state required by the server. 4. Limit complexity (complexity breadsbreeds design and implementation errors). 1.3 Requirements Terminology The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 . 1.4 DHCP Terminology This document uses the following terms: o "DHCP client" A DHCP client or "client" is an Internet host using DHCP to obtain configuration parameters such as a network address. o "DHCP server" A DHCP server of "server"isor "server" is an Internet host that returns configuration parameters to DHCP clients. 2. Format of the authentication option The following diagram defines the format of the DHCP authentication option: DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 19990 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Code | Length | Protocol (2) |RDM|| Algorithm | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Algorithm | +Replay Detection (64 bits) + || +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Replay cont. | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 | | | Authentication Information ...| | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ The code for the authentication option is TBD, and the length field contains the length of the protocol, RDM, algorithm, Replay Detection fields and authentication information fields in octets. The protocol field defines the particular technique for authentication used in the option. New protocols are defined as decribeddescribed in Section 6. The algorithm field defines the specific algorithm within the technique identified by the protocol field. The Replay Detection field is per the RDM, and the authentication information field is per the protocol in use. The Replay Detection Method (RDM) bitfield determines the type of replay detection used in the Replay Detection Field. The following definesfield. If the possible values forRDM field contains 0x00, the RDM: 00 Thereplay detection field MUST be set to the value of a monotonically increasing counter. Using a counter value such as the current time of day (e.g., an NTP-format timestamp ) can reduce the danger of replay attacks. This method MUST be supported by all protocols. 01 Reserved to be defined as described in Section 6. 10 Reserved to be defined as described in Section 6. 11 Reserved to be defined as described in Section 6. The algorithm field defines the specific algorithm within the technique identified by the protocol field. The Replay Detection field is per the RDM, andOther values of the authentication informationRDM field is perare reserved for future definition according to the protocolprocedures described in use.section 6. This document defines two protocols in sections 4 and 5, encoded with protocol field values 0 and 1. Protocol field values 2-254 are DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999reserved for future use. Other protocols may be defined according to the procedure described in section 6. 3. Interaction with Relay Agents Because a DHCP relay agent may alter the values of the 'giaddr' and 'hops' fields in the DHCP message, the contents of those two fields MUST be set to zero for the computation of any hash function over the message header. Additionally, a relay agent may append the DHCP relay agent information option 82  as the last option in a message to servers. If a server finds option 82 included in a received message, the server MUST compute any hash function as if the option were NOT included in the message without changing the order of options. IfDRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 Whenever the server understandssends back option 82 and will echo the option backto thea relay agent, the server MUST not include the option in the computation of any hash function over the message. 4. Protocol 0 If the protocol field is 0, the authentication information field holds a simple authentication token: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Code | Length |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0|00 0 0 0 0 0 0| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | +|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Replay Detection (64 bits) + || +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Replay cont. | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | | +Authentication token (n octets) ... +Information | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ The authentication token is an opaque, unencoded value known to both the sender and receiver. The sender inserts the authentication token in the DHCP message and the receiver matches the token from the message to the shared token. If the authentication option is present and the token from the message does not match the shared token, the receiver MUST discard the message. Protocol 0 may be used to pass a plain-text password and provides only weak entity authentication and no message authentication. This DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999protocol is only useful for rudimentary protection against inadvertently instantiated DHCP servers. DISCUSSION: The intent here is to pass a constant, non-computed token such as a plain-text password. Other types of entity authentication using computed tokens such as Kerberos tickets or one-time passwords will be defined as separate protocols. 5. Protocol 1 DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 If the protocol field is 1, the message is using the "delayed authentication" mechanism. In delayed authentication, the client requests authentication in its DHCPDISCOVER message and the server replies with a DHCPOFFER message that includes authentication information information. This authentication information contains a nonce value generated by the source as a message authentication code (MAC) to provide message authentication and entity authentication. This document defines the use of a particular technique based on the HMAC protocol  using the MD5 hash . 5.1 Management Issues ThisThe "delayed authentication" protocol does not attempt to address situations where a client may roam from one administrative domain to another, i.e. interdomain roaming. This protocol is focused on solving the intradomain problem where the out-of-band exchange of a shared secret is feasible. 5.2 Format The format of the authentication request in a DHCPDISCOVER message for protocol 1 is: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Code | Length |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|RDM|1| Algorithm | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | RDM | +Replay Detection (64 bits) + || +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999| Replay cont. | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ The format of the authentication information for protocol 1 is: DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Code | Length |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|RDM|1| Algorithm | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | RDM | +Replay Detection (64 bits) + || +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | secretReplay cont. | Secret ID (32 bits) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | secret id cont| HMAC-MD5 ...(128 bits) .... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ This document defines one technique for use with protocol 1, which is identified by setting the algorithm field to 1. Other techniques that use different algorithms may be defined by future specifications, see section 6. The following definitions will be used in the description of the authentication information for protocol 1, algorithm 1: Replay Detection - as defined by the RDM field K - a secret value shared between the source and destination of the message; each secret has a unique identifier (not shown in figures) secret ID - the unique identifier for the secret value used to generate the MAC for this message HMAC-MD5 - the MAC generating function [3, 2]. The sender computes the MAC using the HMAC generation algorithm  and the MD5 hash function . The entire DHCP message (except as noted below), including the DHCP message header and the options field, is used as input to the HMAC-MD5 computation function. The 'secret ID' field MUST be set to the identifier of the secret used to generate the MAC. DISCUSSION: Algorithm 1 specifies the use of HMAC-MD5. Use of a different technique, such as HMAC-SHA, will be specified as a separate protocol. Protocol 1 requires a shared secret key for each client on each DHCP server with which that client may wish to use the DHCP DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999protocol. Each secret key has a unique identifier that can be used by a receiver to determine which secret was used to generate the MAC in the DHCP message. Therefore, protocol 1 may not scale well in an architecture in which a DHCP client may connectconnects to multiple administrative domains. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 Note that the meaning of an authentication option can be changed by removing the secret ID, and MAC, transforming an authentication option with authentication information into a request for authentication. Therefore, the authentication request form of this option can only appear in a DHCPDISCOVER message. 5.3 Message validation To validate an incoming message, the receiver first checks that the 'counter' field and computes the MAC as describedvalue in . Ifthe 'counter'replay detection field does not contain a value larger thanis acceptable according to the last value of 'counter' usedreplay detection method specified by the sender,RDM field. Next, the receiver MUST discardreceive computes the incoming message.MAC as described in . The receiver MUST set the 'MAC' field of the authentication option to all 0s for computation of the MAC, and because a DHCP relay agent may alter the values of the 'giaddr' and 'hops' fields in the DHCP message, the contents of those two fields MUST also be set to zero for the computation of the MAC. If the MAC computed by the receiver does not match the MAC contained in the authentication option, the receiver MUST discard the DHCP message. Section 3 provides additional information on handling messages that include option 82 (Relay Agents). 5.4 Key utilization Each DHCP client has a key, K. The client uses its key to encode any messages it sends to the server and to authenticate and verify any messages it receives from the server. The client's key SHOULD be initially distributed to the client through some out-of-band mechanism, and SHOULD be stored locally on the client for use in all authenticated DHCP messages. Once the client has been given its key, it SHOULD use that key for all transactions even if the client's configuration changes; e.g., if the client is assigned a new network address. Each DHCP server MUST know, or be able to obtain in a secure manner, the keys for all authorized clients. If all clients use the same key, clients can perform both entity and message authentication for all messages received from servers. However, the sharing of keys is strongly discouraged as it allows for unauthorized clients to masquerade as authorized clients by obtaining a copy of the shared key. To authenticate the identity of individual clients, each client MUST be configured with a unique key. Appendix A describes a technique for key management. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 19995.5 Client considerations This section describes the behavior of a DHCP client using DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 authentication protocol 1. 5.5.1 INIT state When in INIT state, the client uses protocol 1 as follows: 1. The client MUST include the authentication request option in its DHCPDISCOVER message along with option 61  to identify itself uniquely to the server. 2. The client MUST validate any DHCPOFFER messages that include authentication information using the mechanism specified in section 220.127.116.11. The client MUST discard any messages which fail to pass validation and MAY log the validation failure. The client selects one DHCPOFFER message as its selected configuration. If none of the DHCPOFFER messages received by the client include authentication information, the client MAY choose an unauthenticated message as its selected configuration. The client SHOULD be configurable to accept or reject unauthenticated DHCPOFFER messages. 3. The client replies with a DHCPREQUEST message that MUST include authentication information encoded with the same secret used by the server in the selected DHCPOFFER message. 4. The client MUST validate the DHCPACK message from the server. The client MUST discard the DHCPACK if the message fails to pass validation and MAY log the validation failure. If the DHCPACK fails to pass validation, the client MUST revert to INIT state and returns to step 1. The client MAY choose to remember which server replied with a DHCPACK message that failed to pass validation and discard subsequent messages from that server. 5.5.2 INIT-REBOOT state When in INIT-REBOOT state, the client MUST use the secret it used in its DHCPREQUEST message to obtain its current configuration to generate authentication information for the DHCPREQUEST message. The client MAY choose to accept unauthenticated DHCPACK/DHCPNAK messages if no authenticated messages were received. The client MUST treat the receipt (or lack thereof) of any DHCPACK/DHCPNAK messages as specified in RFC 2131,section 18.104.22.168 of . 5.5.3 RENEWING state When in RENEWING state, the client uses the secret it used in its DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999initial DHCPREQUEST message to obtain its current configuration to generate authentication information for the DHCPREQUEST message. If client receives no DHCPACK messages or none of the DHCPACK DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 messages pass validation, the client behaves as if it had not received a DHCPACK message in section 4.4.5 of the DHCP specification . 5.5.4 REBINDING state When in REBINDING state, the client uses the secret it used in its initial DHCPREQUEST message to obtain its current configuration to generate authentication information for the DHCPREQUEST message. If client receives no DHCPACK messages or none of the DHCPACK messages pass validation, the client behaves as if it had not received a DHCPACK message in section 4.4.5 of the DHCP specification . 5.5.5 DHCPINFORM message Since the client already has some configuration information, the client may also have established a shared secret value, K, with a server. Therefore, the client SHOULD use the authentication request as in a DHCPDISCOVER message when a shared secret value exists. The client MUST treat any received DHCPACK messages as it does DHCPOFFER messages, see section 5.5.1. 5.5.6 DHCPRELEASE message Since the client is already in the BOUND state, the client will have a security association already established with the server. Therefore, the client MUST include authentication information with the DHCPRELEASE message. 5.6 Server considerations This section describes the behavior of a server in response to client messages using authentication protocol 1. 5.6.1 General considerations Each server maintains a list of secrets and identifiers for those secrets that it shares with clients and potential clients. This information must be maintained in such a way that the server can: * Identify an appropriate secret and the identifier for that secret for use with a client that the server may not have previously communicated with * Retrieve the secret and identifier used by a client to which the DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999server has provided previous configuration information Each server MUST save the counter from the previous authenticated DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 message. A server MUST discard any incoming message whose counter is not strictly greater thanwhich fails the counter fromreplay detection check as defined by the previous message toRDM avoid replay attacks. DISCUSSION: The authenticated DHCPREQUEST message from a client in INIT- REBOOT state can only be validated by servers that used the same secret in their DHCPOFFER messages. Other servers will discard the DHCPREQUEST messages. Thus, only servers that used the secret selected by the client will be able to determine that their offered configuration information was not selected and the offered network address can be returned to the server's pool of available addresses. The servers that cannot validate the DHCPREQUEST message will eventually return their offered network addresses to their pool of available addresses as described in section 3.1 of the DHCP specification . 5.6.2 After receiving a DHCPDISCOVER message The server selects a secret for the client and includes authentication information generated by that secretin the DHCPOFFER message as specified in section 4.1.5, above. The server MUST record the identifier of the secret selected for the client and use that same secret for validating subsequent messages with the client. 5.6.3 After receiving a DHCPREQUEST message The server uses the secret identified in the message and validates the message as specified in section 22.214.171.124. If the message fails to pass validation or the server does not know the secret identified by the 'secret ID' field, the server MUST discard the message and MAY choose to log the validation failure. If the message passes the validation procedure, the server responds as described in the DHCP specification. The server MUST include authentication information generated as specified in section 126.96.36.199. 5.6.4 After receiving a DHCPINFORM message The server MAY choose to accept unauthenticated DHCPINFORM messages, or only accept authenticated DHCPINFORM messages based on a site policy. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999When a client includes the authentication request in a DHCPINFORM message, the server MUST respond with an authenticated DHCPACK message. If the server does not have a shared secret value DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 established with the sender of the DHCPINFORM message, then the server can eitherMAY respond with an unauthenticated DHCPACK message, or a DHCPNACKDHCPNAK if the server does not accept unauthenticated clients.clients based on the site policy. 6. IANA Considerations The author of a new DHCP optionauthentication protocol, algorithm or replay detection method will follow these steps to obtain acceptance of the protocolnew procedure as a part of the DHCP Internet Standard: 1. The author devises the new authentication protocol and/or algorithm.protocol, algorithm or replay detection method. 2. The author documents the new technique as an Internet Draft. If this is a newThe protocol, the protocolalgorithm or RDM code for any new procedure is left as "To Be Determined" (TBD); otherwise, the protocol code is the code from the existing protocol. The algorithm code is left as "TBD".(TBD). 3. The author submits the Internet Draft for review through the IETF standards process as defined in "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1). 4. The new protocol progresses through the IETF standards process; the specification of the new protocol will be reviewed by the Dynamic Host Configuration Working Group (if that group still exists), or as an Internet Draft not submitted by an IETF working group. If the optionsoption is accepted as a Standard, the specification for the option is published as a separate RFC. 5. At the time of acceptance as ana Proposed Internet Standard and publication as an RFC, IANA assigns a DHCP authentication protocol number to the new protocol. This procedure for defining new authentication protocols will ensure that: * allocation of new protocol numbers is coordinated from a single authority, * new protocols are reviewed for technical correctness and appropriateness, and * documentation for new protocols is complete and published. DISCUSSION: This procedure is patterned after the procedure for acceptance of new DHCP options. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999 6.7. References  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131, Bucknell University, March 1997. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC-1321, April 1992.  Krawczyk H., M. Bellare and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication," RFC-2104, February 1997.  Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3)", RFC-1305, March 1992.  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels," RFC-2219, March 1997.  Henry, M., "DHCP Option 61 UUID Type Definition," <draft-henry-DHCP-opt61-UUID-type-00.txt> (work in progress, November 1998.  Patrick, M., "DHCP Relay Agent Information Option," <draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt> (work in progress), November 1998.  Gupta, V., "Flexible Authentication for DHCP Messages," <draft-gupta-dhcp-auth-00.txt> (work in progress, June 1998. 7.8. Acknowledgments Jeff Schiller and Christian Huitema developed this scheme during a terminal room BOF at the Dallas IETF meeting, December 1995. The editor transcribed the notes from that discussion, which form the basis for this document. The editor appreciates Jeff's and Christian's patience in reviewing this document and its earlier drafts. The "delayed authentication" mechanism used in section 45 is due to WilliamBill Arbaugh. The threat model and requirements in sections 1.1 and 1.2 come from Bill's negotiation protocol proposal. The attendees of an interim meeting of the DHC WG held in June, 1998, including Peter Ford, Kim Kinnear, Glenn Waters, Rob Stevens, Bill Arbaugh, Baiju Patel, Carl Smith, Thomas Narten, Stewart Kwan, Munil Shah, Olafur Gudmundsson, Robert Watson, Ralph Droms, Mike Dooley, Greg Rabil and Arun Kapur, developed the threat model and reviewed several alternative proposals. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999The replay detection method field is due to Vipul Gupta . Other input from Bill Sommerfield is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks also to John Wilkins, Ran Atkinson, Shawn Mamros and Thomas DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages March 2000 Narten for reviewing earlier drafts of this document. 8.9. Security considerations This document describes authentication and verification mechanisms for DHCP. 9.10. Editors' addresses Ralph Droms Computer Science Department 323 Dana Engineering Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 Phone: (717) 524-1145 EMail: firstname.lastname@example.org WilliamBill Arbaugh Department of Computer Science University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA EMail: email@example.comMaryland A.V. Williams Building College Park, MD 20742 Phone: (301) 455-2774 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 10. Expiration This document will expire on June 30,December 31, 2000. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999March 2000 Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).(2000). All Rights Reserved. This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English. The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. DRAFT Authentication for DHCP Messages October 1999March 2000 Appendix A - Key Management Technique To avoid centralized management of a list of random keys, suppose K for each client is generated from the pair (client identifier,identifier , subnet address),address, e.g. 192.168.1.0), which must be unique to that client. That is, K = MAC(MK, unique-id), where MK is a secret master key and MAC is a keyed one- wayone-way function such as HMAC-MD5. Without knowledge of the master key MK, an unauthorized client cannot generate its own key K. The server can quickly validate an incoming message from a new client by regenerating K from the client-id. For known clients, the server can choose to recover the client's K dynamically from the client-id in the DHCP message, or can choose to precompute and cache all of the Ks a priori.