Network Working Group                                         Barr                                    R. Hibbs
     INTERNET-DRAFT                                          (no affiliation)                           Richard Barr Hibbs, P.E.
     Category:  Informational                                     Rob                               R. Stevens
     Expires:  December 17, 2006                      (no affiliation)
                                                                 October 2003
                                                         June 15, 2006

     Implementation Issues with RFC 2131, "Dynamic Host Configuration
                                      Protocol"

                       <draft-ietf-dhc-implementation-01.txt>
          Saved Friday, October 24, 2003, 8:08:15 AM8:05:56 AM PT8:08:15 AM

     Status of
                           Protocol (DHCPv4)"

                   <draft-ietf-dhc-implementation-02.txt>
                  Saved:  Tuesday, June 15, 2006, 13:27:17

     Intellectual Property Rights

        By submitting this Memo

        This document Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
        applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is an Internet-Draft aware
        have been or will be disclosed, and is any of which he or she becomes
        aware will be disclosed, in full conformance accordance with
        all provisions of Section 10 6 of BCP 79.

     Status of RFC2026. this Memo

        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
        Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
        other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
        Drafts.

        Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
        months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
        at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
        reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

        The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
        http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html.

        The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
        http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

        Comments are solicited and should be addressed to the working
        group's mailing list at dhcwg@ietf.org and/or the author(s).

     Copyright Notice

        Copyright (C) 2003, The Internet Society.  All Rights Reserved. Society (2006).

     Abstract

        This memo identifies implementation issues with RFC 2131, "Dynamic
        Host Configuration Protocol," reported by a number of implementers,
        assesses the severity of the problem, then proposes changes to RFC
        2131 intended to overcome the issues.  This is intended for use as
        the basis for discussion of RFC 2131 before it is proposed for
        Internet Standard status.

     Table of Contents

        1. Introduction...................................................3
        2.

     1 Introduction...............................................4
     2 Terminology................................................4
     3 Applicability..............................................4
     4 Issues with RFC 2131...........................................3
          2.1. 2131.......................................5
       4.1 Outdated RFC Boilerplate...................................3
          2.2. Boilerplate...............................5
       4.2 Organization and Typography................................4
            2.2.1. Typography............................5
            4.2.1 Outdated References...................................4
            2.2.2. References.............................5
            4.2.2 Typographical Errors..................................4
            2.2.3. Omissions.............................................5
            2.2.4. Tables................................................5
            2.2.5. Inconsistencies.......................................5
          2.3. Errors............................5
            4.2.3 Omissions.......................................6
            4.2.4 Tables..........................................6
            4.2.5 Inconsistencies.................................7
       4.3 Policy issues..............................................6
          2.4. Issues..........................................7
       4.4 The Client Hardware Address, "chaddr"......................7
          2.5. "chaddr"..................8
       4.5 The DHCP Client Identifier.................................7
            2.5.1. Uniqueness............................................7
            2.5.2. Identifier.............................8
            4.5.1 Uniqueness......................................8
            4.5.2 Prohibition in DHCPOFFER and DHCPACK..................8
          2.6. Address-in-Use Detection...................................9
            2.6.1. DHCPACK............9
       4.6 Duplicate Address Detection............................9
            4.6.1 Client-side ARP.......................................9
            2.6.2. ARP................................10
            4.6.2 Server side PING......................................9
            2.6.3. PING...............................10
            4.6.3 Other Mechanisms.....................................10
          2.7. Mechanisms...............................10
       4.7 DHCP Relay Agents.........................................10
            2.7.1. Agents.....................................11
            4.7.1 Relay Agent Source Addresses.........................10
            2.7.2. Addresses...................11
            4.7.2 Relay Agent Port Usage...............................10
          2.8. Usage.........................11
       4.8 Host Name, Domain Name, and FQDNs.........................11
          2.9. FQDNs.....................11
       4.9 Overloading of DHCPREQUEST................................11
          2.10. DHCPINFORM...............................................11
          2.11. DHCPREQUEST............................11
       4.10 DHCPINFORM...........................................12
       4.11 Unicast of DHCPDISCOVER..................................12
          2.12. DHCPRELEASE..............................................13
          2.13. DHCPDISCOVER..............................12
       4.12 DHCPRELEASE..........................................13
       4.13 Client state diagram.....................................13
          2.14. Options..................................................13
            2.14.1. State Diagram.................................13
       4.14 Options..............................................14
            4.14.1 Which Options to Return?............................14
            2.14.2. Return?......................14
            4.14.2 Multiple Instances of Options.......................16
            2.14.3. Options.................16
            4.14.3 Option Ordering.....................................16
            2.14.4. Ordering...............................16
            4.14.4 Options 66 and 67...................................16
          2.15. 67.............................16
       4.15 Vendor Classes...........................................17
            2.15.1. Classes.......................................16
            4.15.1 Character set.......................................17
            2.15.2. Set.................................17
            4.15.2 Form of the name space..............................17
            2.15.3. Name Space........................17
            4.15.3 Relationship to vendor options......................17
            2.15.4. Multiplicity........................................18
          2.16. Vendor Options................17
            4.15.4 Multiplicity..................................17
       4.16 Client/Server Retransmission.............................19
          2.17. Retransmission.........................18
       4.17 Transmission of DHCPNAKs.................................19
          2.18. DHCPNAKs.............................18
       4.18 Use of ciaddr............................................20
          2.19. ciaddr........................................19
       4.19 Size of a BOOTP/DHCP frame...............................20
            2.19.1. Frame...........................19
            4.19.1 Minimum size........................................20
            2.19.2. Packet Size...........................19
            4.19.2 Maximum Size, MTU, and Message Size option..........20
          2.20. Option....19
       4.20 Use of giaddr............................................22
          2.21. giaddr........................................20
       4.21 Address Selection........................................22
          2.22. Selection....................................20
       4.22 Use of "secs" field......................................22
          2.23. Field..................................21
       4.23 Use of "htype" and "hlen" fields.........................23
          2.24. Fields.....................21
       4.24 Use of xid field.........................................23
          2.25. "xid" Field...................................22
       4.25 Options in DHCPOFFER and DHCPACK.........................24
          2.26. DHCPACK.....................22
       4.26 Lease times..............................................24
          2.27. Miscellaneous............................................25
        3. Intellectual Property.........................................26
        4. Notes.........................................................26
          4.1. Issues....................................................26
          4.2. Changes Times..........................................23
       4.27 Miscellaneous........................................23
     5 Proposed Replacements for RFC 2131 Figures and Tables.....25
       5.1 Figures...............................................25
          5.1.1 Figure 1:  Format of a DHCP message..............25
          5.1.2 Figure 2:  Format of the 'flags' Field...........25
          5.1.3 Figure 3:  Timeline Diagram--Allocating a New
                           Address...............................26
          5.1.4 Figure 4:  Timeline Diagram--Reusing an Address..27
          5.1.4 Figure 5:  State-Transition Diagram for DHCP
                           Clients...............................28
       5.2 Tables................................................29
          5.2.1 Table 1:  Description of fields in a DHCP
                          Message................................29
          5.2.2 Table 2:  DHCP Messages..........................30
          5.2.3 Table 3:  Fields Used by DHCP Servers............31
          5.2.4 Table 4:  Options Used by DHCP servers...........32
          5.2.5 Table 5:  Client Messages from Prior Drafts.................................27
        5. Acknowledgements..............................................28
        6. Different States..32
          5.2.6 Table 6:  Fields Used by DHCP Clients............33
          5.2.7 Table 7:  Options Used by DHCP Clients...........34
          5.2.8 Table 8:  Host Configuration Parameters--IP
                          Layer..................................35
          5.2.9 Table 9:  Host Configuration Parameters--Link
                          Layer..................................36
          5.2.10 Table 10:  Host Configuration Parameters--TCP...36
     6 Contributors..............................................37
     7 IANA Considerations...........................................28
        7. Considerations.......................................37
     8 Security Considerations.......................................28
        8. References....................................................28
        9. Editors' Addresses............................................29
        10. Full Copyright Statement.....................................29

     1. Considerations...................................37
     9 References................................................37
       9.1 Normative References..................................37
       9.2 Informative References................................37
     1 Introduction

        This memo was produced by the DHC Working Group and attempts to
        identify all known implementation issues with RFC 2131 as a basis
        for discussion of RFC 2131 before it is published as an Internet
        Standard.

        This memo grew from a discussion item during the DHC Working Group
        meeting at IETF-55 in Atlanta during November 2002.

        The editors have solicited input through a general call for
        participation and by direct request to all implementers that they
        could identify

        The key words "MUST," "MUST NOT," "REQUIRED," "SHALL," "SHALL NOT,"
        "SHOULD," "SHOULD NOT," "RECOMMENDED," "MAY," and "OPTIONAL" in this
        document identify.

        There are to be interpreted four possible outcomes of this work:

        1. The RFC Editor could publish the agreed clarifications as described a note
           ("Errata") linked to RFC 2131 in the RFC Editor's document [RFC2119].
           database.  This almost insures that only the most conscientious
           reviewer would ever read and apply the changes.

        2. Issues with RFC The proposed changes could be reworded and reformatted into a
           new standards-track document, "RFC 2131 Errata."  This list may has the
           advantage of not include every implementation issue for disturbing RFC 2131 as it is based on reported problems and those known advances to Internet
           Standard, but leaves the editors.

     2.1. Outdated RFC Boilerplate

        1.  "Status of This Memo" should be replaced reader with standardized
            language multiple documents to read
           for a full understanding of DHCP.

        3. Proposed changes could be applied to RFC 2131 without assigning
           a new document number, in effect becoming "RFC 2131-bis."  This
           course may not be open as the changes would still require IESG
           approval, and it is unlikely that any changes other than
           editorial or clarification would be permitted.

        4. A new standards-track document would be created, obsoleting RFC
           2131 (and possibly other documents as well.)  This would
           probably not require any more effort than outcome (2), but
           conceivably take years to advance the document to full Standard.

        The editors have not specifically addressed RFC 2132, although we
        believe that it ought to be updated in conjunction with any updates
        to RFC 2131.  We propose that an update of the DHCP Options Document
        should be separately considered in a second memo.

     2 Terminology

        The key words "MUST," "MUST NOT," "REQUIRED," "SHALL," "SHALL NOT,"
        "SHOULD," "SHOULD NOT," "RECOMMENDED," "MAY," and "OPTIONAL" in this
        document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

     3 Applicability

        The intent of the work item that resulted in this memo was to
        identify and clarify issues with RFC 2131 that made implementation
        difficult, behavior ambiguous, or conflicted with other RFCs.  The
        authors imagined that RFC 2132 could also be updated as a result,
        without expecting that additional RFCs might be affected.

        As our investigation proceeded, it became evident that
        clarifications might very well extend to other RFCs.  The exact
        scope of this effort will require additional discussion by the DHC
        Working Group.

     4 Issues with RFC 2131

        This list may not include every implementation issue for RFC 2131 as
        it is based on reported problems and those known to the editors.

     4.1 Outdated RFC Boilerplate

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        1. "Status of This Memo" should be replaced with standardized
           language for RFCs as described in "Guidelines to Authors of
           Internet-Drafts," dated September 5, 2002. March 25, 2005.

        2. Section 1.4, "Requirements," should be replaced with
           standardized language referring to RFC 2119 regarding the
           definition and interpretation of specific key words.

        3. References should be separated into normative and non-normative
           sections.

     2.2.

     4.2 Organization and Typography

     2.2.1.

     4.2.1 Outdated References

        1.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        O  References to the "Assigned Numbers" RFC [STD 2, RFC 1700]
           should be changed to the "Assigned Numbers" database maintained
           by IANA.  References are found in Tables 3 and 5, and in the
           "References" section.

        2.

        O  References to the "Interaction between DHCP and BOOTP" RFC 1534
           should be integrated with the text of the memo, and RFC 1534
           deprecated.

     2.2.2.

     4.2.2 Typographical Errors

        1.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        O  Page 23, third paragraph of section 4.1 -- "recieved" "received" should be
           "received."

        2.

        O  Page 23, sixth paragraph of section 4.1 -- refers to RFC 1533,
           not RFC 2132.

        3.

        O  Page 15, Figure 3.  Table is misformatted.

        4.

        O  Page 18, Figure 4.  Table is misformatted.

        5.

        O  Page 25, ninth paragraph of section 4.1 -- "uicast" should be
           "unicast."

        6.
        O  Page 38, first paragraph after Table 5.  Orphaned sentence:
           "The DHCPREQUEST message contains the same 'xid' as the
           DHCPOFFER message."  No  No, it doesn't. does not.  Not only that, but this
           sentence makes no sense in its current location.  It should be
           removed.

        7.

        O  Page 39, Last paragraph of 4.4.3 should be moved up as the last
           paragraph of 4.4.2.  When the text for DHCPINFORM was added, the
           text describing what a client should do if no DHCPACK is
           received was mistakenly pushed below it.

        8.

        O  Apostrophes (') are used as single quotation marks, but outside
           of an enclosing quotation (") throughout the document.

        9.

        O  Page 30, section 4.3.1, second from last bullet: "...client’s
           vendor class identifier and client's classes identified in the
           server".  This text makes no sense and should be deleted.

        10.

        O  Inconsistent style regarding placement of periods (.), commas
           (,) and semi-colons (;) with respect to quotation marks
           throughout the document.

        11.

        O  Quotation marks (single and double) are overused through the
           document.

     2.2.3.

     4.2.3 Omissions

        In several places there is missing or incomplete information,
        including:

        1.

        O  Table 3, pages 27 and 28. .  The "options" entry for "DHCPNAK" in
           the "fields" portion of the table is missing.  All entries in
           this line should refer to the subsequent "options" table.

        2.
           Suggested replacements for Table 3 are shown in sections 5.2.3
           and 5.2.4.

        O  Page 33, Table 4, and Page 35, Figure 5, do not include the
           "DHCPINFORM" message.

        3.  Suggested replacement for Table 4 is
           shown in section 5.2.5.

        O  Table 5, pages 37 and 38.  The "options" entry for "DHCPDECLINE,
           DHCPRELEASE" is missing.  All entries  Suggested replacement for Table 5 is
           shown in this
            line should refer to the subsequent table.

     2.2.4. sections 5.2.6 and 5.2.7.

     4.2.4 Tables

        1.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        O  Table 3 (pages 28 and 29) and Table 5 (pages 37 and 38) should
           be separated into two tables each for readability.

        2.  Suggested
           replacements for Table 3 are shown in sections 5.2.3 and 5.2.4,
           and for Table 5 are show in sections 5.2.6 and 5.2.7.

        O  Table 4 should be reorganized to show all messages (except
           DHCPRELEASE) that are sent from each client state.

        3.  Suggested
           replacement for Table 4 is shown in section 5.2.5.

        O  The "Host Configuration Parameters" table now in an appendix
           should be omitted and described in a revised "DHCP Options"
           document (RFC 2132).

     2.2.5.  Suggested replacement for that table is
           shown in sections 5.2.8-5.2.10.

     4.2.5 Inconsistencies

        1.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        O  Page 1, Abstract, "TCPIP" should be "TCP/IP" – as it is in the
           rest of the document.

        2.

        O  Page 10, Table 3, description of 'htype' and 'hlen' fields does
           not capitalize "Ethernet."
        3.

        O  Lack of consistency when describing "IP broadcast."  Sometimes
           it is "0xffffffff IP broadcast," elsewhere "limited broadcast,"
           or "broadcast."  Suggest using the "255.255.255.255 IP broadcast
           address" form, as that is the most specific.  Specific references  References
           include:

           a. Page 19, third paragraph of section 3.2, List item #2 #2.

           b. Page 23, fifth paragraph of section 4.1 (twice) (twice).

           c. Page 25, thirteenth paragraph of section 4.1 (twice) (twice).

           d. Page 32, section 4.3.2, third bullet item item.

           e. Page 32, section 4.3.2, fifth bullet item item.

           f. Page 36, second paragraph of section 4.4.1 4.4.1.

           g. Page 39, last paragraph of section 4.4.1 4.4.1.

           h. Page 39, second paragraph of section 4.4.3 4.4.3.

        4. Lack of consistency when referring to the BROADCAST (B) flag:
           it is also referred to as the "broadcast bit."

        5. Table 3, "Fields and options used by DHCP servers," is
           problematic.  It indicates that we MUST fill in both the "Server
           Identifier" (and siaddr) in our DHCPACK (and DHCPNAK) response.
            That's
           That is a change from the same table in RFC 1541 that (which specifies
            this is a "MAY" (and and
           which is consistent with RFC 2132 section 9.7 and identical to
           RFC 1533 section 9.5 wording).

     2.3.

     4.3 Policy issues Issues

        There has in general been a certain amount of overlap in DHCP
        between protocol and policy.  The matters include lease times,
        whether servers are willing to extend leases, timeouts, and re-transmission. re-
        transmission.

        We SHOULD clarify what is dictated by the protocol and what is a
        policy decision at a given site.

        The DHC Working Group philosophy ought to be to constrain client
        behavior more closely than server behavior.  DHCP interactions are
        initiated (and continued) by clients:  clients outnumber servers by
        many tens of thousands to one; client implementers cannot be quite
        certain of all the environments in which their client may ultimately
        appear, whereas server implementations may be designed for very
        specific environments.  Policy is likely to be a matter of
        centralized control, whereas clients are not likely to enjoy a
        sufficient status to impose policy on servers.

        The previous paragraph implies that the WORKING GROUP should tighten
        the protocol with respect to such issues as retries and backoffs,
        whereas servers should not be constrained on issues such as how to
        uniquely identify clients, whether to offer or extend leases etc.

     2.4.

     4.4 The Client Hardware Address, "chaddr"

        The value of "chaddr" MUST NOT change from DHCPDISCOVER to
        DHCPREQUEST, although the wording in table Table 3 makes this point
        unclear.

        Further, the length of "chaddr" SHOULD be exactly specified by
        "hlen," which SHOULD match the address length for "htype."

     2.5.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        O  Update Table 3.

     4.5 The DHCP Client Identifier

     2.5.1.

     4.5.1 Uniqueness

        DHCP servers must uniquely identify DHCP clients requesting services
        in order to correctly configure the client. client correctly.  DHCP does not require
        global uniqueness for client identifiers, only uniqueness within the
        scope of [sub-] networks reachable by DHCP packets in any
        installation.  This is sometimes called "subnet uniqueness."

        RFC 2131 provides two specific methods for identifying a client:
        (1) the client identifier (DHCP Option 61) [RFC2132], and (2) the
        "chaddr" field of the BOOTPREQUEST packet.

        Confusion arises from the language of RFC 2131 Section 4.2.  A DHCP
        client "...MAY choose to explicitly provide the identifier through
        the 'client identifier' option.  If the client supplies a 'client
        identifier,' the client MUST use that same identifier in all
        subsequent messages, and the server MUST use that identifier to
        identify the client.  If the client does not provide a 'client
        identifier' option, the server MUST use the contents of the 'chaddr'
        field to identify the client."

        The text of the quoted section Section 4.2 goes on to state that subnet uniqueness is a
        requirement for an identifier, but points out that "chaddr" may not
        satisfy that requirement.  Two alternatives for a unique identifier
        were given: an unspecified manufacturer's serial number or a DNS
        name.

        RFC 2132 adds to the confusion by stating that the client identifier
        "...is expected to be unique for all clients in an administrative
        domain" without specifying what an "administrative domain" is.

        RFC 2132 continues by suggesting use of "...type-value pairs similar
        to the 'htype'/'chaddr' fields defined in" [RFC951], and that a
        "...hardware type of 0 (zero) should be used when the value field
        contains an identifier other than a hardware address (e.g., a fully
        qualified domain name)."

        This suggestion of using type-value pairs has been widely adopted by
        DHCP client implementers, but the suggestion fails to heed the
        warning about uniqueness issues with "chaddr."

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        1. RFC 2131 SHOULD have made required the "client identifier"
           either to be globally unique or, to be unique within an
           "administrative domain," and, in the latter case, defined
           "administrative domain."

        o

        2. RFC 2131 SHOULD NOT have suggested the use of DNS names for the
           "client identifier" without also suggesting some mechanism for
           maintaining a consistent name-to-address mapping.

        o

        3. RFC 2132 SHOULD NOT have suggested using the "htype" and
           "chaddr" fields as a type-value pair because of the warning in
           RFC 2131 Section 4.2 about potential problems using "chaddr" for
           the purpose.

        o

        4. RFC 2132 SHOULD NOT have used the word "SHOULD" when suggesting
           the use of type-value pairs for "client identifier" with a type
           of 0 (zero) when the value is anything other than a hardware
           address.

     2.5.2.

     4.5.2 Prohibition in DHCPOFFER and DHCPACK

        Table 3, in the "options" section, specifies that the server MUST
        NOT send the "client identifier" in the DHCPOFFER or DHCPACK
        messages, but MAY send it in a DHCPNAK message.  There is no very good
        reason why DHCPNAK should be treated differently, and there is
        considerable utility in returning the client identifier, as it
        allows clients further corroboration, beyond that implied by
        matching "xid’s" (see 2.23), that they are the intended recipient.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        RECOMMENDATION:

        Change the text in Table 3, for all three message types, message-types, to read: read,
        "MAY -- if included, MUST BE the client identifier sent by the
        client".

     2.6. Address-in-Use
        client."  Suggested replacement for Table 3 are shown in sections
        5.2.3 and 5.2.4.

     4.6 Duplicate Address Detection

        RFC 2131 Page 7, section 1.6, second set of bullet items, first
        bullet says that DHCP must: "Guarantee that any specific network
        address will not be in use by more than one client at a time," but
        the protocol as later described does not fulfill this requirement.

        Two mechanisms are presented:  an ARP request generated by the client;
        client, and an ICMP echo ECHO request generated by the server:

        o

        O  Page 12, second paragraph of section 2.2, last sentence

        o sentence.

        O  Page 13, 15, list item 2, section 3.1

        o 3.1.

        O  Page 38, first paragraph after Table 5, section 4.4.1

     2.6.1. 4.4.1.

     4.6.1 Client-side ARP

        To meet the requirement of RFC 2131 page 7, a DHCP client MUST send
        an ARP request for the IP address contained in a DHCPACK before
        using it.  This is presently a SHOULD:

        o

           Page 12, second paragraph of section 2.2:  "...  and the
           client SHOULD probe the newly received address, e.g., with ARP"
           ARP."

        There has been confusion on this topic because many clients are
        sending an ARP reply (after the DHCPACK).  This often has nothing to
        do with DHCP, and is triggered in many systems whenever an interface
        IP address changes.  (Without access to kernel code code, there is
        nothing
        one can do to be done about it.)

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        The Working Group should consider whether to make client ARP a MUST.

     2.6.2.

     4.6.2 Server side PING. PING

        ICMP is inherently unreliable.  Furthermore since success is "no
        response" it is an imprecise matter to decide how long to wait
        before one is certain that no response will ever occur.  A possible
        suggestion is a back off and retry for ping.

        In cable modem environments, PING is not helpful because it is the
        cable modem termination system (CMTS) that replies from its cache:
        a cache which may not be perfectly reliable and which in many cases
        has been constructed by listening to the DHCP traffic in the first
        place!

        It is known that some network administrators try to block
        propagation of ICMP ECHO messages through internal routers, which
        removes one of the two address conflict detection mechanisms.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        Use of ICMP on the server should be a “MAY”, "MAY", not a “SHOULD”.

     2.6.3. "SHOULD".

     4.6.3 Other Mechanisms

        Both the ICMP ECHO (Ping) and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
        mechanisms are very lightweight by design, depending on clients with
        conflicting addresses to "defend" their address by responding to
        queries to show that an address is in use.  Is there a better
        alternative to ICMP ECHO and ARP that is backward-compatible backward compatible with
        these two protocols?

     2.7.
     4.7 DHCP Relay Agents

     2.7.1.

     4.7.1 Relay Agent Source Addresses

        There should be some text that specifies what the relay agent should
        use for the IP source address of relayed packets.  Because relay
        agents change the payload ("giaddr" and relay agent option 82) 82),
        their operation does not amount to IP forwarding.  The IP source
        address they use should be their own.  [Aside:  for security
        purposes it might have been better than they retain the source IP
        address of the original packet, but it is too late to change all
        that.]

     2.7.2.

        RECOMMENDATION:

     4.7.2 Relay Agent Port Usage

        Relay agents should use port 67 as the source port number.  Relay
        agents always listen on port 67, but port 68 has sometimes been used
        as the source port number probably because it was copied from the
        source port of the incoming packet.

        Cable modem vendors would like to install filters blocking outgoing
        packets with source port 67.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        O  Relay agents MUST use 67 as their source port number.

        o

        O  Relay agents MUST NOT forward packets with non-zero giaddr
           unless the source port number on the packet is 67.

     2.8.

     4.8 Host Name, Domain Name, and FQDNs

        A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) consists of two conceptual
        parts:  the host name portion and the domain name portion.  Host
        names consist of one or more non-null parts separated by the ISO
        period (.) character ("separator") while domain names consist of two
        or more non-null parts delimited by the separator, one of which must
        be a valid top-level domain (TLD) name.  DHCP options exist for
        hostname (option 12) and domain name (option 15), and are proposed
        for FQDN (draft-ietf-dhc-fqdn-option-05.txt) but the FQDN option is
        not required to be a concatenation of hostname and domain name.

        Should RFC 2131 explicitly state that the client FQDN MUST be the
        host name (option 12) concatenated with the domain name (option 15)?

     2.9.

     4.9 Overloading of DHCPREQUEST

        The client sends a DHCPREQUEST message from several different
        states:  INIT, INIT-REBOOT, REBINDING, and RENEWING.
        Differentiation among the states is done according to the context of
        other message fields and option values.  At this point point, there
        probably can be no change in this usage, but the content of other
        message fields and option values should be carefully reviewed to
        ensure consistency

     2.10. consistency.

     4.10 DHCPINFORM

        The intent of DHCPINFORM messages is to allow clients to query
        servers for configuration information WHETHER OR NOT their IP
        address has been assigned by DHCP.

        Section 3.4 Para 2 Page 21 states: "The server SHOULD check the
        network address in a DHCPINFORM message for consistency."  What the
        server should be checking is a mystery.  Possibly the intent was
        that servers should verify that the source IP address in the packet
        is identical to the "ciaddr."  Since the server should reply to
        "ciaddr," this affords some measure of security, preventing third
        parties from discovering configuration information pertaining to
        other clients.  Whether that is desirable, or whether instead
        DHCPINFORM should be available to third parties, such as proxies,
        has never been resolved.

        Section 4.4.4 Para 1, "Use of broadcast and unicast," hints that
        clients may be able to broadcast DHCPINFORM messages to servers:
        "The DHCP client broadcasts DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPREQUEST and DHCPINFORM
        messages, unless the client knows the address of a DHCP server."

        This text suggests that a DHCP client may choose to broadcast a
        DHCPINFORM request for whatever reason, and points out the need for
        clarification of all text concerning multiple server responses and
        consistency of returned options.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        O  DHCPINFORM messages should be included in Table 4 to summarize
           the fields and options usage with this message type.

        o  Suggested
           replacement for Table 4 is shown in section 5.2.5.

        O  The Working Group should consider the ramifications of
           permitting third party DHCPINFORMs, that is, DHCPINFORM messages
           NOT sent by the DHCP client, but by other processes having
           access to the ports.

        o

        O  Section 4.3.1, "DHCPDISCOVER Message," and section 4.3.2,
           "DHCPREQUEST Message" briefly mention consistency and uniform
           responses from multiple servers:  this text SHOULD be clarified
           to state what consistency is expected or required of the server,
           and what a client should do if a server supplies inconsistent
           data.

     2.11.

     4.11 Unicast of DHCPDISCOVER

        Section 4.4.4 Para Paragraph 1, "Use of broadcast and unicast," hints
        that clients may be able to unicast DHCPDISCOVER messages to
        servers: "The DHCP client broadcasts DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPREQUEST and
        DHCPINFORM messages, unless the client knows the address of a DHCP
        server."

        This would be pointless unless "ciaddr" were non-zero, because the
        server would not know how to respond.  Neither does table 4 admit
        the possibility.

        We believe it is common practice for BOOTP Relay Agents to only fill-
        in
        fill-in "giaddr" for broadcast packets.  This requires
        investigation:  such behavior would restrict the use of unicast
        DHCPDISCOVER messages to the same subnet on which the server resides
        -- a very restricted condition.

        One circumstance in which this might make sense is for proxies
        gathering IP addresses on behalf of other clients.  In that case case,
        the proxy could put its own IP address in "ciaddr" and perhaps use
        multiple different client identifiers in multiple transmissions.
        Table 5, however, asserts that ciaddr must be zero.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        O  The Working Group should consider whether to allow this kind of
           proxy usage, and what changes that might imply to RFC 2131.

        o

        O  Tables 4 and 5 SHOULD be updated to reflect the possibility of
           unicast DHCPDISCOVER messages.

        o  Suggested replacements for
           Tables 4 and 5 are shown in sections 5.2.5-5.2.7.

        O  Figure 5 SHOULD be updated to reflect the uses of unicast and
           broadcast packets

     2.12. packets.  Suggested replacements for Figure 5 are
           shown in sections 5.2.6 and 5.2.7.

     4.12 DHCPRELEASE

        There are several MUST NOT entries in the "options" portion of RFC
        2131 table 5 specifying the inclusion of options in the DHCPRELEASE.
        Some customers complained that a particular vendor included the
        "hostname" option and that this seemed innocuous.  The vendor said
        that their reading of the RFC allows such an option to be included.

        In the "fields" portion of table 5 there is the word "unused" for
        the "sname" and "file" fields of a DHCPRELEASE message, while
        "options" for the DHCPRELEASE was left blank.

        A DHCPRELEASE message SHOULD be subject to some verification
        criteria to reduce the chance of a bogus release.  Two possible
        changes to these tables are:

        1.

        O  In the "fields" portion of table 5, change the "xid" from
           "selected by client" to "xid from server DHCPACK message."

        2.

        O  In the "options" portion of table 5, change the entry for
           "client identifier" from "MAY" to "client identifier used in the
           DHCPDISCOVER message."

     2.13.

     4.13 Client state diagram State Diagram

        Section 4.3.1 and Figure 5 do not accurately describe DHCP client
        behavior:  DHCP clients send messages to servers from the INIT, INIT-
        REBOOT,
        INIT-REBOOT, SELECTING, REQUESTING, and BOUND states, not from
        RENEWING or REBINDING.

        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        Change the text of section 4.3.1 and it's its schematic representation in
        Figure 5 to correctly represent the states, transitions, triggering
        events, and messages sent.

     2.14.  Suggested replacements for Figure 5 are
        shown in sections 5.2.6 and 5.2.7.

     4.14 Options

        The language in RFC 2131 concerning whether and which options to
        return to the client is convoluted and apparently contradictory.

     2.14.1.

     4.14.1 Which Options to Return?

        There are two opposing philosophies regarding which options servers
        should return to clients:  to return every option with values within
        the client’s scope, or to return only those options specifically
        requested by a client and within scope.  The following arguments
        have been cited:

        O  Supporting the return of every option:

        o

           a. Consistency.  A network administrator wants all of the
              configured options to show up on each client on the network,
              regardless of client vendor.

        o

           b. A DHCP client is likely only to request the options it
              supports.  However, many application layer options are not
              used by the DHCP client but are useful to applications.

        o

           c. A DHCP client would either need to be configured or updated
              to request new options.  The whole idea of DHCP is to keep
              configuration on the server, not on the client, which is
              pointed out in:  Page 7, second and third bullets of section
              1.6.

        5. Supporting the return only of requested options:

        o

           a.                 Some DHCP clients may reject packets containing options
              that they did not request especially if they are ignorant of
              their semantics; therefore a DHCP server should only return
              the options requested.

        o

           b. The DHCP packet size is limited.  Options are often
              configured on a per-network rather than a per-client basis,
              and to return unwanted options risks exhausting the space
              available while options remain which the client needs.

        RFC 2131 does little to resolve the matter.  Two different sections
        are relevant: section 3.5 describes mechanisms to limit the number
        of options sent, while section 4.3.1 subsequently presents an
        apparently conflicting description of how to select values for
        options requested by the client.

        6. RFC 2131, Section 3.5:

           "First, most parameters have defaults defined in the Host
           Requirements RFCs; if the client receives no parameters from
           the server that override the defaults, a client uses those
           default values."

        The list of parameters with a cross-reference to the defining RFC is
        given in Appendix A of RFC 2131.

        Several sources contend that virtually none of the parameters in the
        list have a meaningful default value, which raises the issue of
        viability of the technique described in this section for reducing
        total server response message size.

        Even if the option has a default value defined in [RFC1122], RFC
        2131 is silent on the question of whether or not the server MUST,
        SHOULD, or MAY choose not to send that option when its value is the
        same as the default.

        7. RFC 2131, Section 4.3.: 4.3:

           "IF the server has been explicitly configured with a default
           value for the parameter, the server MUST include that value
           in an appropriate option in the 'option' field, ELSE

           "IF IF the
           server recognizes the parameter as a parameter defined in
           the Host Requirements Document, the server MUST include the
           default value for that parameter as given in the Host
           Requirements Document in an appropriate option in the
           'option' field, ELSE

           "The the server MUST NOT return a value for
           that parameter."

        The word "default" in the first statement seems misplaced.  The
        second statement seems contrary to the intent of minimizing the
        amount of data sent by the server:  if the scope of the Host
        Requirements RFCs applies to all Internet-connected hosts, then a
        DHCP server SHOULD NOT have to supply these values -- they should
        already be assumed by the client as the default for the requested
        option.

        There is no mention of a minimum set of parameters to be sent to a
        requesting client, nor any mention of which parameters to send if
        the client does not request any not any guidance for what to do when
        there is more data than will fit in a response packet.  Can the
        options be somehow prioritized?  Could additional options be
        obtained using the DHCPINFORM mechanism?  Should an additional bit
        in the "flags" field be defined as a "packet overflow" bit?

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        O  Clients MUST include the same parameter request list on all
           messages.

        o

        O  Clients MUST be prepared to receive responses containing options
           they did not request and/or whose semantics are unknown.  They
           MAY choose silently to ignore such options.

        o

        O  Language implying that parameters in "Requirements for Internet
           Hosts" have defaults should be removed.

     2.14.2.

     4.14.2 Multiple Instances of Options

        Page 24, seventh paragraph, section 4.1:  "Options may appear only
        once, unless otherwise specified in the options document.  The
        client concatenates the values of multiple instances of the same
        option into a single parameter list for configuration."

        RECOMMENDATION:

        The first sentence
        should start out SHOULD begin "Options MUST appear only once,
        unless...."  The second sentence belongs in the options memo
        [RFC2132] for options where there can be multiple instances.
        Together, these two sentences are confusing.

     2.14.3.

     4.14.3 Option Ordering

        A number of clients require that the DHCP message type be the first
        option (after the magic cookie).

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        With the exception of option 82, which must be last (save option 255
        which acts as a terminator), the client clients MUST NOT make any
        assumption about the ordering of options.

     2.14.4.

     4.14.4 Options 66 and 67

        Options 66 (TFTP server name) and 67 (bootfile name) were introduced
        as an alternative to the fixed fields "sname" and "file" in BOOTP.
        As discussed elsewhere, space is at a premium in DHCP, and reserving
        64 octets ("sname") and 128 octets ("file") to contain values are
        that potentially, and commonly, much shorter is wasteful.
        Furthermore, the existence of these options allows the client to
        either request those values from the server or not, according to
        need.

        At present, servers are at liberty to return values for these
        options in either the fixed fields, or encapsulated like any other
        DHCP option.  Clients have sometimes assumed only the former.  RFC
        2131 should address this issue.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        1. Using "sname" and "file" for these options SHOULD be deprecated.

        o

        2. Clients MUST be prepared, at least for the time being, for
           either method of delivery.

     2.15.

     4.15 Vendor Classes

        Page 3, section 1.1, first paragraph - includes the following
        sentence:  "The classing mechanism for identifying DHCP clients to
        DHCP servers has been extended to include "vendor" classes as
        defined in sections 4.2 and 4.3."  Vendor classing has been there
        since RFC 1541, thus there is nothing new about it.  Should this
        section be referring to User classing?

     2.15.1.
     4.15.1 Character set Set

        Some new clients have spaces in their identifier, which broke some
        implementations with configuration file records delimited by
        whitespace.

     2.15.2.

     4.15.2 Form of the name space Name Space

        An early suggestion (RFC 1541 time-frame), expressed symbolically,
        was the form "Stock symbol/Organization...." e.g., "SUNW.class-
        1.class-2" or "CMU.edu.class-1.class-2".  This would have had the
        advantage of preventing collisions between vendors.  This was not
        adopted, and it is probably too late to resurrect it.

     2.15.3.

     4.15.3 Relationship to vendor options Vendor Options

        Text is needed describing how each unique vendor class identifier
        implies a 254 unique encapsulated option name space.  There are 254,
        because even within the vendor space options 0 and 255 retain their
        meaning as the pad value and terminator, respectively.  An
        occasional misconception is that there is only a single unique
        encapsulated 254 option name space shared by all vendors, with the
        effect that the same values being returned to *any* client
        regardless of vendor class identifier.  Obviously, we should include
        text to clarify the relationship between Vendor Class identifier and
        the encapsulated Vendor option.

     2.15.4. Multiplicity.

     4.15.4 Multiplicity

        How many vendor class identifiers can a client have?  One only,  Only one class
        identifier, because the client is unique to a specific vendor.  If
        the client were to send more than one vendor class option it would
        be impossible for the server to decide which set of encapsulated
        vendor options to select.

        Here is some more text regarding vendor options from a note from by Mike
        Carney regarding the use of vendor class / encapsulated options:

           Vendor class support requires the ability to configure a
           DHCP server to support a new vendor class by associating
           that vendor class identifier with 254 options whose types
           can then be defined by following the DHCP client's
           documentation.  Each group of 254 options has the "scope" of
           that vendor.  For example, suppose we have the following two
           clients:

           Vendor Class "SunBeam.Toaster.2slots"
           Options for this class:
           Code  Len  Data
             1    2   Darkness setting  ( a 2 byte octet integer)

           Vendor Class "Voxpopulis.Answering.Machine"
           Options for this class:
           Code  Len  Data   (X bytes ASCCI string, of the answer message)
             1    X    4   Outgoing message index (pointer to messages)

        Both clients are on the same network ("Kitchen"), and are clients of
        the same DHCP server.  Note that both use encapsulated option code
        1.  Looks like a conflict, but it isn't.

        In is not:  in the syntax of the DHCP
        server's configuration table, one configures two new options, each
        which has the "scope" of the vendor class.

        What this means is that when the toaster boots, the DHCP server only
        returns vendor class options associated with the
        "SunBeam.Toaster.2slots" class.  When the answering machine boots,
        it only sees vendor class options associated with the
        "GE.Answering.Machine" class.  Clients of vendor classes not
        currently configured on the server don't do not see any encapsulated
        vendor options.

     2.16.

     4.16 Client/Server Retransmission

        Because DHCP servers are the passive participants and DHCP clients
        are the active participants, the DHCP protocol is susceptible to
        poorly behaved clients (retransmitting too fast, for example).
        However, there is no text describing this susceptibility.
        Furthermore, the use of the power-of-2 retransmission algorithm is a
        SHOULD/MAY.  This probably should be a MUST.  If we need different
        retransmission algorithms for different media, then we should
        develop/document them in table form.  The specification as it stands
        is too loose and does cause inter-operability problems:

        1.

        O  Page 16, section 3.1, last sentence of list item 3.1.

        2.

        O  Page 17, third paragraph of list item 5, section 3.1

        3.

        O  Page 24, eighth paragraph of section 4.1

        4.

        O  Page 36, first paragraph of section 4.4.1

     2.17.

     4.17 Transmission of DHCPNAKs

        DHCPNAKs MUST be broadcast or unicast to at the link level because
        the client has no valid IP address.  The same comment applies to
        DHCPOFFERs but with one significant difference: a DHCPOFFER has a
        valid "yiaddr" which a relay agent can use as the destination IP
        address.  It is not clear that whatever mechanism relay agents are
        using to transmit offers will work when "yiaddr" is 0.0.0.0.
        Therefore, for safety’s sake, the servers MUST set the broadcast bit
        in DHCPNAK packets.  The text describing a server's behavior when
        the client is accessible through a BOOTP relay agent does not do
        this:

        1.

        O  Page 19, last paragraph of list item 2, section 3.2

        2. 3.2.

        O  Page 23, fifth paragraph of section 4.1

        3. 4.1.

        O  Page 32, Last paragraph of "DHCPREQUEST generated during INIT-
           REBOOT state," bullet, section 4.3.2.

        This last describes the behavior that's that is required -- a server MUST
        set the broadcast bit in order for the relay agent to properly
        broadcast the DHCPNAK.

        RECOMMENDATION
        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        Items (1) and (2) above should either duplicate the text of (3), or
        should reference section 4.3.2.

     2.18.

     4.18 Use of ciaddr

        According to RFC 951 and RFC 1542, clients use "ciaddr" when they've they
        have received an IP address from a source outside of BOOTP/DHCP, and
        can respond to ARPs.

        The text in RFC 2131 is mostly supportive of this point with the
        following exception:

           Page 32, "DHCPREQUEST generated during REBINDING state:"
           section 4.3.2:  "The DHCP server SHOULD check 'ciaddr' for
           correctness before replying to the DHCPREQUEST."

        RECOMMENDATION:

        This line should be struck from the document.  Servers trust
        "ciaddr," period.

     2.19.

     4.19 Size of a BOOTP/DHCP frame Frame

        The description in RFC 2131 relating to the size constraints of DHCP
        packets (Page 10, first paragraph after Table 1, section 2) is
        inadequate.

     2.19.1.

     4.19.1 Minimum size. Packet Size

        RFC 951 states that a minimum BOOTP frame is 300 octets in length.
        Some BOOTP relay agents have been known to drop frames of less than
        300 octets.  RFC 951 is explicit on this point, but RFC 2131 just
        refers to RFC 951.  Since DHCP is intended to be backward compatible
        with BOOTP, the protocol should continue to observe this lower
        bound.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        Text should be added stating explicitly that the minimum size of a
        DHCP frame is 300 octets.

     2.19.2.

     4.19.2 Maximum Size, MTU, and Message Size option Option

        It has been thought necessary to avoid fragmentation of the IP
        packets in DHCP/BOOTP due to concerns that some clients would be
        unable to reassemble fragments before the IP stack is properly
        configured.  RFC 951 states states, "For simplicity it is assumed that the
        BOOTP packet is never fragmented". fragmented."  Regardless of theoretical
        limitations in IP stack implementations, it is certain that there
        are several DHCP/BOOTP implementations, at both ends of the
        protocol, which will not reassemble.

        Various comments in the WORKING GROUP imply that fragmentation could
        be avoided were the client consistently to include the MTU of the
        link layer interface. But  However, clients cannot be expected to be
        omniscient about other media over which packets travel en route to
        servers.  Servers that must be endowed with this knowledge, which they
        MUST use to avoid packet fragmentation.

        Once the IP stack is configured, and the IP stack is fully
        configured, the aforementioned limitation ceases to exist, and later
        stages of the protocol could allow larger packets (up to the UDP
        limit).  DHCPINFORMs, especially, could benefit from this
        relaxation.  There probably should be explicit text to allow larger
        packets (presumably up to the maximum PDU size) for later stages of
        the protocol.

        A number of clients send small packets with the assumption that
        servers will not return a packet that is any larger than the one
        received from the client.  The client  Clients MUST NOT make this assumption. assume this.  If the
        client cannot process a response larger than a certain size, the
        client MUST use the message size option to inform servers of this
        size.  Note that this is NOT the same option as the MTU.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        O  Servers and relay agents MUST ensure that IP datagram
           fragmentation does not occur at any stage in the protocol before
           the client IP stack is fully configured.

        o

        O  Clients SHOULD communicate their link-layer frame size to the
           DHCP server via the DHCP MTU option.

        o

        O  Clients MUST NOT assume that servers will return a packet no
           larger than the one they send.  If the client has a limit on the
           size of the packet that it can process it MUST convey that limit
           to the server in the "maximum message size" option (57)

        o (57).

        O  Page 21, second paragraph, section 3.5, the first sentence
           SHOULD be changed to "The client SHOULD include the 'maximum
           DHCP message size' option to let the server know how large the
           server may make its DHCP messages, and the value of this option
           SHOULD be the MTU of the [client] network interface being
           configured."

        o

        O  The WORKING GROUP SHOULD consider whether to allow fragmentation
           of packets after the client is fully configured, and how servers
           can divine this fact (e.g. a non-zero
           "ciaddr").

     2.20. "ciaddr.")

     4.20 Use of giaddr

        Page 23, fifth paragraph, section 4.1:  "If the 'giaddr’ field is
        zero and the 'ciaddr' field is nonzero, then the server unicasts
        DHCPOFFER and DHCPACK messages to the address in 'ciaddr.'"  True
        for DHCPACK, false for DHCPOFFER (a DHCPDISCOVER will never have
        anything but 0 as "ciaddr.")

     2.21.

     4.21 Address Selection

        Page 27, third paragraph, section 4.3.1:  "Note that, in some
        network architectures (e.g., internets with more than on IP subnet
        assigned to a physical network segment), it may be the case that the
        DHCP client should be assigned an address from a different subnet
        than the address recording in 'giaddr.'"
        There are two differing view of this sentence:

           There is considerable detail in the rest of RFC 2131 trying
           to get the use of "giaddr" clear as it relates to BOOTP
           relay agents (RFC 951 and RFC 1542), then this sentence basically
           "undoes" this work.  Serving multiple IP networks on the
           same wire should be either described in detail in its own
           section (with caveats) or as a separate informational RFC.
           Otherwise, the use of "giaddr" is unclear.

        Alternatively:

           Additional supporting text should be added to RFC 2131 to
           the effect that servers having knowledge of network topology
           MAY choose to offer an address inconsistent with "giaddr"
           but consistent with that topology.  Furthermore, the address
           offered may differ depending upon the contents of the vendor
           class, user class, and even the client identifier.  All of
           these things are policy matters for the server.

     2.22.

     4.22 Use of "secs" field Field

        The "secs" field has not been discussed much:  many clients simply
        leave its value as zero, and few if any servers have used its value
        to modify their behavior.  These practices seem acceptable.  The
        value of "secs" SHOULD be the elapsed time (in seconds) since the
        client began trying to acquire or extend a lease on an IP address.
        A sixteen bit field, its maximum value is 65536.  It is conceivable
        that due to server or network failure that a client may have been
        waiting longer than this.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        A client MAY choose to leave to ignore the secs field.  If so so, its
        value MUST be set to zero.  If the client chooses to insert a value,
        the value SHOULD be time elapsed since the client began negotiating
        for an IP address.  If the client has been waiting longer than 65536
        seconds its value SHOULD be 65536.  The value SHOULD NOT wrap around
        to zero.

     2.23.

     4.23 Use of "htype" and "hlen" fields Fields

        At least one vendor has used chaddr as a place holder for a value
        that was not in fact a link-layer (hardware) address, while at the
        same type using an htype of 1 (meant to be Ethernet) but an hlen of
        16 (instead of 6).  Many servers will reject a packet with this kind
        of inconsistency between the htype and hlen fields.

        Values of htype not equal to zero MUST correspond to the link-level
        medium to which the DHCP client is attached according to IANA’s
        Assigned Numbers database.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        1. The value of hlen MUST be consistent with the length of a link-
           level address implied by htype.

        o

        2. An htype of zero SHOULD be used to mean that chaddr is an
           identifier unrelated to a specific link-level medium.

     2.24.

     4.24 Use of xid field "xid" Field

        This field exists to allow clients to match replies to requests.  In
        two places RFC 2131 erroneously states that the client should use
        the "xid" in the server’s DHCPOFFER as the value in its follow up request

        o
        request.

        1. Table 5 5, DHCPREQUEST column

        o column.

        2. Section 4.4.1 Para 5 4.4.1, Paragraph 5.

        In principle principle, the 32 bits of "xid" should be sufficient to make the
        chance of collisions almost nil, provided that it is randomly generated
        as 2131 suggests in section 4.4.1 paragraph 3.  However, some
        vendors have admitted to generating "xid" which may not be
        sufficiently uniformly distributed.

        The randomness requirement on "xid" is not as stringent as would be
        required, say, in selecting a cryptographic key.  It is quite
        permissible that the initial key be predictable given sufficient
        knowledge of the client, but clients MUST ensure that these
        identifiers are generated in such a way that the chance of collision
        with other clients in the DHCP administrative domain is what one
        should expect from a truly random number.

        Permitting the use of the same "xid" on a re-transmission might
        marginally improve the efficiency of the protocol.  Server responses
        to the first transmission, which arrived after the timeout and
        retransmission would be accepted, and might avoid yet another client
        timeout.

     2.25.

     4.25 Options in DHCPOFFER and DHCPACK

        RFC 2131 says that the options delivered in these two cases should
        not be in conflict.  It does not say what "conflict" means in that
        case.  This SHOULD be clarified.

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        1. Servers MAY deliver a full configuration in a DHCPOFFER, but are
           NOT required to do so.  The DHCPOFFER MUST contain an IP address
           and a lease time, and MAY contain other information.  As a
           client will presumably choose among multiple offers based on
           some criteria, perhaps completeness of response, the server
           SHOULD be permitted to return the 'parameter request list'
           including the option code for each option it is prepared to
           deliver in a DHCPACK message.

        o

        2. In a DHCPACK message, the lease time offered MUST be at least as
           long as that in the DHCPOFFER.  The IP address MUST be the same.

        o

        3. The options delivered in a DHCPACK message MAY differ from those
           in a DHCPOFFER.  Some DHCP servers attempt to balance the load
           for other services by permuting lists.  For instance, a server
           configured with 3 three DNS server addresses may rotate that list
           each time a client is serviced.  It is a problem for some
           servers to deliver an identical OFFER and ACK (it implies
           keeping state.)

        o

        4. If a particularly long option list must be delivered to the
           client, it might not be possible to fit all options in the DHCP
           payload of a UDP packet.  RFC 2131 appears to permit a long list
           of options to be sent partly in the DHCPOFFER message and partly
           in the DHCPACK message.

     2.26.

     4.26 Lease times. Times

        RFC 2131 has some language (section 4.3.1) that might be interpreted
        as constraining the duration of a lease that can be offered based on
        past
        history or what the client wants.  This SHOULD be rewritten to make
        clear that in a DHCPOFFER a server can offer whatever lease time
        that local policy finds acceptable, without regard to what the
        client requests, or what was offered last time around.  If a server
        offers a longer lease than the client requested, the client can
        simply enter the RENEWING or REBINDING states, or send a DHCPRELEASE
        message according to its desired [earlier] times.

        For RENEWALS, the text should be made clear that servers are not
        obligated to extend leases merely because the client wishes an
        extension [see also general comment below about policy.]

        There has sometimes been an issue with T1 and T2 times as follows.
        Let's
        Let us say that a new lease is offered with a certain T0 (T0 is
        lease duration) and T1 = T0/2.  Then, when T1 expired, the client
        attempts a renewal.  The server in question, for whatever reason,
        does not want to extend the lease, but is willing to confirm the
        residual time (T0/2).  If it also returns T1 in the options, it
        should ensure that T1 is adjusted from the original value else the
        new ACK will have T0 and T1 identical.

     2.27.

     4.27 Miscellaneous

        There are many SHOULDs and SHOULD NOTs that should perhaps be
        converted into MUSTs or MUST NOTs.  Here is a summary:

        1. Page 16, item 4, section 3.1 "The server SHOULD NOT check the
           offered network address at this point."  (MUST NOT)

        2. Page 16, item 5, section 3.1 "The client SHOULD perform a final
           check on the parameters..."  (MUST)

        3. Page 17, item 5, section 3.1 "The client SHOULD wait a minimum
           of ten seconds..."  (MUST)

        4. Page 18, item 2, section 3.2 "Servers SHOULD NOT check that the
           client's network address is already in use..."  (MUST NOT)

        5. Page 19, item 2, second paragraph, section 3.2 "...servers
           SHOULD respond with a DHCPNAK message to the client"  (MUST).
           The following sentences are rather dubious in this paragraph as
           well.

        6. Page 21, first paragraph, section 3.4 "The servers SHOULD
           unicast the DHCPACK replay to the address given in the 'ciaddr'
           field of the DHCPINFORM message"  (MUST)

        7. Page 22, last paragraph, section 3.5 "If a server receives a
           DHCP request message with an invalid 'requested IP address', the
           server SHOULD respond to the client with a DHCPNAK
            message..." message...."
           (MUST)

        RECOMMENDATIONS:

        o

        RECOMMENDATION:

        The WORKING GROUP should review the MAY/SHOULD/MUST (NOT)s use of emphasis words (e.g.,
        MAY) in RFC 2131.  Those SHOULDs that remain should list the valid
        exceptions (some do; most don't).

     3. Intellectual Property

        The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
        intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
        pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
        this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
        might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
        has made any effort to identify any such rights.  Information on the
        IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
        standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11.

        Copies of claims of rights made available

     5 Proposed Replacements for publication RFC 2131 Figures and any
        assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result Tables

     5.1 Figures

     5.1.1 Figure 1:  Format of an
        attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use DHCP message

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     op (1)    |   htype (1)   |   hlen (1)    |   hops (1)    |
       +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
       |                            xid (4)                            |
       +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
       |           secs (2)            |           flags (2)           |
       +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
       |                          ciaddr  (4)                          |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+
       |                          yiaddr  (4)                          |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+
       |                          siaddr  (4)                          |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+
       |                          giaddr  (4)                          |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+
       |                                                               |
       |                          chaddr  (16)                         |
       |                                                               |
       |                                                               |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+
       |                                                               |
       |                          sname   (64)                         |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+
       |                                                               |
       |                          file    (128)                        |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+
       |                                                               |
       |                       options (variable)                      |
       +---------------------------------------------------------------+

                     Figure 1:  Format of
        such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
        specification can be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.

        The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
        copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
        rights that may cover technology that may be required to practice
        this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF Executive
        Director.

     4. Notes

        This section will be removed when this memo goes to Working Group
        Last Call.

     4.1. Issues

        Open, unresolved issues about RFC 2131 include:

        1.  What is the correct use of client identifier in DHCPOFFER and
            DHCPACK messages?

        2.  Are there any effective alternatives to ICMP ECHO and ARP for
            address-in-use detection?
        3.  What is the definition of a Fully Qualified Domain Name?

        4.  Should DHCPINFORM messages be allowed from client proxies?

        5.  Should client proxies, in general, be allowed, and how does a
            client proxy know the IP address of a DHCP server?

        6.  Should a DHCP server send only options requested by a client,
            or should a server send all options for which it is configured
            with a value?

        7.  Should required usage of "xid" and "client identifier" be
            changed to support server verification Message

     5.1.2 Figure 2:  Format of DHCPRELEASE
            messages?

        8.  What is the correct statement about selecting an IP address to
            offer a client when 'flags' Field

                      . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1
                      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     |B|             MBZ             |
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

               -----------------------------------------------
              | Key:                                         |
              | B:  BROADCAST flag                           |
              | MBZ:  MUST BE ZERO (reserved for future use) |
               -----------------------------------------------

                   Figure 2:  Format of the offered address is on 'flags' Field
     5.1.3 Figure 3:  Timeline Diagram--Allocating a different
            subnet than the client's "giaddr?"

        9.  Should a new flags bit to signify "more options data
            available" be added?

        10. Do we need a new "Maximum Relay MTU Size" option to ensure
            that all reply packets sent by a server will pass without
            fragmenting or dropping packets?

        11. Would it help to set a sort of "more to come" option,
            indicating that more options will follow in a consecutive
            DHCPACK, where the subsequent DHCPACKs would have a
            "additional information" option indicating that the message
            contains only new options data similar to a DHCPACK in
            response to a DHCPINFORM message?

        12. Are unicast New Address

                   Server                           Server
                 (not selected)      Client         (selected)
                     v                v                v
                     |                |                |
                     |      Begins initialization      |
                     |                |                |
                     | ______________/|\______________ |
                     |/ DHCPDISCOVER messages permitted?  What are the
            requirements for specific message fields and options in this
            case?

        13. What level  |  DHCPDISCOVER \|
                     |                |                |
                  Determines           |           Determines
                configuration          |          configuration
                     |                |               /|
                     |\               |  ____________/ |
                     | \___________   | /  DHCPOFFER   |
                     |   DHCPOFFER \  |/               |
                     |              \ |                |
                     |               \|                |
                     |         Collects replies        |
                     |       Selects configuration     |
                     |                |                |
                     | ______________/|\______________ |
                     |/ DHCPREQUEST   |   DHCPREQUEST \|
                     |                |                |
                     |                |         Commits|
                     |                |   configuration|
                     |                |                |
                     |                | ______________/|
                     |                |/   DHCPACK     |
                     |                |                |
                     |     Initialization complete     |
                     |                |                |
                     .                .                .
                     .                .                .
                     |                |                |
                     |        Graceful shutdown        |
                     |                |                |
                     |                |\______________ |
                     |                |  DHCPRELEASE  \|
                     |                |                |
                     |                |        Discards|
                     |                |           lease|
                     |                |                |
                     v                v                v

       Figure 3:  Timeline Diagram of consistency is required among responses from
            multiple servers?

     4.2. Changes from Prior Drafts

        The "-01" revision contains substantial changes following Messages Exchanged between DHCP Client
               and Servers When Allocating a detailed
        review of DHC Working Group mailing list discussions on RFC 2131
        clarification issues, consideration of several directed questions,
        and comments received by the authors.  Changes include:

        o  Reorganization of the document to group all typographical
           errors together, separate from protocol or policy issues.

        o  Elimination of "Interaction with DNS" and "Client and Server
           Administration" sections because the authors saw no clear
           resolution to the topics.

        o  Creation of New Network Address
     5.1.4 Figure 4:  Timeline Diagram--Reusing an issues list in section 4.1.

        The "-00" revision was the initial version of this memo, submitted to
        the Internet-Drafts editor on 23 February 2003.

     5. Acknowledgements

        This document is the result Address

                    Server          Client          Server
                     v                v               v
                     |                |               |
                     |              Begins            |
                     |          initialization        |
                     |                |               |
                     |               /|\              |
                     |  ____________/ | \___________  |
                     | /DHCPREQUEST   |  DHCPREQUEST\ |
                     |/               |              \|
                     |                |               |
                   Locates             |            Locates
                configuration          |         configuration
                     |                |               |
                     |\               |              /|
                     | \              |  ___________/ |
                     |  \             | /  DHCPACK    |
                     |   \ _______    |/              |
                     |     DHCPACK\   |               |
                     |          Initialization        |
                     |             complete           |
                     |               \|               |
                     |                |               |
                     |           (Subsequent          |
                     |             DHCPACKS           |
                     |             ignored)           |
                     |                |               |
                     |                |               |
                     v                v               v

          Figure 4:  Timeline Diagram of work undertaken the by Messages Exchanged between DHCP working
        group.  The editors would like to include a number of contributors to
        this effort including Mike Carney of Sun Microsystems, Steve Tulloh
        of Shadow Support, Bernie Volz, Ted Lemon of Nominum, Simon Vogl,
        Edward Mascarenhas of SGI, Andre Kostur of Incognito, Bud Millwood of
        Weird Solutions, Patrick Guélat of ImproWare Network Services,
          Client and
        Swamy Narasimha of Nokia.

     6. IANA Considerations

        This memo contains no values requiring IANA attention.

     7. Security Considerations

        (To be defined when suggested text changes Servers When Reusing a Previously Allocated Address
     5.1.4 Figure 5:  State-Transition Diagram for RFC 2131 are
        completed.)

        A separate Internet-Draft is being created to provide a complete
        threat analysis of RFCs 2131 and 3118.

     8. References

     [RFC951] Croft, W., and Gilmore, J., "Bootstrap Protocol," RFC 951,
        September 1985.

     [RFC1123] R. Braden, "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application
        and Support," October 1989.

     [RFC1542] W. Wimer, "Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap
        Protocol" RFC 1542, October 1993

     [RFC2131] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol," March 1997.

     [RFC2132] Alexander, S. and Droms, R., "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
        Extensions," March 1997.

     [RFC3203] T'Joens, Y., Hublet, C., and De Schrijver, P., "The DHCP
        Reconfigure Extension," July 2001.

     <draft-ietf-dhc-leasequery-05.txt> Woundy, R., and Kinnear, K., "DHCP Clients

                           +-------+
            Have Unexpired |       | Do Not Have
         +---- Lease Query," March 2003.

     <draft-ietf-dhc-fqdn-option-05.txt>, Stapp, M., and Rekhter, Y., "The
        DHCP Client FQDN Option," November 2002.

     <draft-swamy-dhc-client-id-00.txt>, Narasimha, S., "Client Identifier
        option in server replies," July 2003.

     9. Editors' Addresses

        Richard Barr Hibbs
        952 Sanchez Street
        San Francisco, California 94114-3362
        USA

        Phone:  +1-(415)-648-3920
        Email:  rbhibbs@pacbell.net

        Rob Stevens
        308 Arthur Ave
        Aptos California 95003-5202
        USA

        Phone:+1-(831)-688-9722
        E-mail:  robs@cruzio.com

     10. Full Copyright Statement

        Copyright (C) The Internet Society, 2003.  All Rights Reserved.

        This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
        others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
        or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
        and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
        kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
        included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
        document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
        the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
        Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
        developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
        copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
        followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
        English.

        The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
        revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

        This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
        "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
        TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
        BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
        HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
        MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

     APPENDIX A:  List of Vendors

     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     |Vendor            |Product          |E-mail Address ------| START |--- Lease ----+
         V                 |
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     |2Wire             |HomePortal       |support@2Wire.com       |
     |3Com              |Home Gateway              V
     +--------+            +-------+          +-------+
     |        |
     |3e Technologies   +-------------------------->|       |<-------------------+
     | INIT-  |   |       +------------------>| INIT  | International    |Magnum           |info@3eti.com                    |
     |3K Group          |Turbo Cell       |info@3kgroup.com
     |
     |Accelerated REBOOT | DHCPNAK/  |         +-------->|       |<---------------+   |
     | Technology       |Nucleus          |support@acceleratedtechnology.com|
     |ActionTec        | Restart   |         |         +---+---+                | Electronics   |
     +----+---+   |       |
     |ADTRAN            |Netvanta 2100         |             |
     |Agere Systems     |Orinoco RG-1000                    |   |
     |Apple Computer
          |                 |cheshire@apple.com       |
     |Appliansys        |DNSBox 300    DHCPNAK/     |         Broadcast                |
     |Argus   |
      Broadcast   |  Discard offer  |        DHCPDISCOVER              | Technologies     |EtherAccess 2000 |info@arguscorp.com   |
     |Ateonix Networks  |NASAS-2040       |tech@ateonix.com
     DHCPREQUEST  |
     |Avaya             |WAP       |      DHCPACK          |
     |Barbed Wire                    |   |
          |       | Technologies       |  (not accepted)/      v                    |   |
     |Broadband
          V       |       |       Send      +-----------+              |   | Gateways         |Evolo
        +---------+-+     |    DHCPDECLINE  |
     |Caldera/SCO       |Open Linux           |<-----+       |   |
        |           |   Eserver       |info@sco.com     |
     |Cayman Systems         |       | SELECTING |
     |CheckPoint      |       |   |
        |   Software REBOOTING |     |    +----+       |
     |Cisco Systems     |Network           |  DHCPOFFER/  |   |                  |Registrar        |kkinnear@cisco.com
        |
     |Cisco Systems     |AIR-AP3000           |     |
     |Clavister    |            +-+-------+-+   Collect    |   |
     |CLinux
        +-+---------+     |    |              |
     |Compaq            |Connection Point       |     replies    |
     |vCoNet   |
          |               |    |   Communications |XpressIP 8550       Select offer/  |        |
     |Cygsoft       |                 |support@cygsoft.com   |
     |D-Link            |DI-700
        DHCPACK/          |    |
     |Efficient            send      +--------+       |   |
     Record lease, set    |    |   Networks        DHCPREQUEST                    |   |
       timers T1, T2    +-+----+-----+        |
     |Esoft             |Redphish                   DHCPNAK, |
          |
     |Filanet           |Interjak             |            |<-------+             Lease expires/ |
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     |Vendor            |Product          |E-mail Address
          |
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     |FTP Software   +-------->| REQUESTING |                        Halt network |
          |
     |Helios            |PCShare   |         |
     |Incognito            |                                 |   |
          |   Software       |Address Commander|support@incognito.com DHCPOFFER/  +-+--------+-+                 +-----------+   |
     |InfoBlox          |DNS One          |support@infoblox.com   |
     |Internet Software
          | Discard       |        |                   |   Consortium     |DHCPD            |Ted.Lemon@nominum.com           |
     |AttachNet         |Internet Pro SOHO|support@attachnet.com   |
     |InterNiche        |Portable DHCP   |
          |   |   Techologies    |Server           |support@iniche.com           |
     |JH Software       |Simple DNSPlus   |support@jhsoft.com  DHCPACK (accepted)/  +----+ REBINDING +---+   |
     |Leviton           |Internet Gateway
          |   +-----------+  Record lease, set    |
     |Lightning         |MultiCOM    |           |
     |LinkSys           |WAP-11       |
          |
     |Lucent                    timers T1, T2      |    +-----------+       |
          |                        |   Technologies   |VitalQIP          DHCPACK/         ^           |
          |
     |Matrox Electronic                        |     Record lease, set     |           |
          |   Systems        |iSwitch          |networks.techsupport@matrox.com                        |
     |UMax Technologies |UGate-3300       |support@umaxcare.com       timers T1, T2       |
     |MDL Corporation   |FileZerver NAS   |help@mdlcorp.com           |
     |Microsoft
          |                        |              |       T2 expires/      |   Corporation    |Windows Server
          |                        v              |
     |MobiWave          |Spyroz           |support@mobiwave.com        Broadcast       |
     |Multi-Tech
          |                  +-----+-+            |       DHCPREQUEST      |
          +----------------->|       +<-----------+            |   Systems        |RouteFinder VPN  |support@multitech.com           |
     |N3K               |VitalQIP         |info@n3k.co.uk
         +-------------------+ BOUND +-------------------------+           |
     |Net Integration
         |    DHCPOFFER,+--->|       |<-------------+                      |
         |   DHCPACK, or|    +-+---+-+              |   Technologies   |Net Integrator   |support@net-itech.com                      |
     |Netgear           |RP334
         |     DHCPNAK/ |
     |NetWinder      |   |             DHCPACK/                  |
     |Network
         |     Discard  +------+   |         Record lease, set             |
         |   TeleSystems                   T1 expires/       timers T1, T2               |                 |suppport@shadowsupport.com
         |
     |Nokia             |IP30             |internetapac@nokia.com                Send DHCPREQUEST          |
     |Nominum, Inc.     |DCS              |Eric.Luce@nominum.com                      |
     |Nortel            |Net ID           |gww@nortelnetworks.com
         |
     |Novell                to leasing server   +-----+----+                 |
         |                         |
     |On Technology     |IP Track         |support@on.com          |
     |Panasonic         |KX-HGW200          |                 |
     |Paul Smith
     Lease expires/                |          | RENEWING +--DHCPNAK/ ----->|
      halt network                 +--------->|          |  halt network   |   Computer Svcs  |vDHCP            |support@pscs.co.uk
         |
     |PGP               |PGP-5                                    +----------+                 |
         +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

             Figure 5:  State-transition diagram for DHCP clients
     5.2 Tables

     5.2.1 Table 1:  Description of fields in a DHCP Message

     ---------------------------------------------------------------------
     |FIELD    |OCTETS|DESCRIPTION                                         |
     |Phoenix
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     |'op'     |   1  |Message op code / message type.                     |
     |         |   Technologies   |ViewPoint      |1 = BOOTREQUEST, 2 = BOOTREPLY                      |
     |'htype'  |   1  |Hardware address type, see ARP section in "Assigned |
     |         |      |Numbers" RFC; e.g., '1' = 10mb Ethernet.            |
     |'hlen'   |   1  |Hardware address length (e.g., '6' for 10mb         |
     |
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     |Vendor            |Product          |E-mail Address         |
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     |Powerwallz        |ProShield      |Ethernet).                                          |
     |'hops'   |
     |PresiNET Systems   1  |Client sets to zero, optionally used by relay agents|
     |         |      |when booting via a relay agent.                     |
     |'xid'    |   4  |Transaction ID, a random number chosen by the       |
     |Proxim            |Skyline
     |         |
     |Rapidstream       |Rapidstream 500      |client, used by the client and server to associate  |
     |
     |Siemens         |      |messages and responses between a client and a       |
     |
     |SnapGear         |                 |support@snapgear.com      |server.                                             |
     |Sonic Wall        |SOHO
     |'secs'   |   2  |Filled in by client, seconds elapsed since client   |
     |Sun Microsystems
     |         |      |began address acquisition or renewal process.       |
     |Symantec          |VPN-100
     |'flags'  |   2  |Flags (see Figure 2).                               |
     |Teneo             |NetScreen
     |'ciaddr' |   4  |Client IP address; only filled in if client is in   |
     |Threshold
     |         |      |BOUND, RENEW or REBINDING state and can respond     |
     |   Networks       |Edge         |      |to ARP requests.                                    |
     |Trellis Network
     |'yiaddr' |   4  |"your" (client) IP address.                         |
     |'siaddr' |   4  |IP address of next server to use in bootstrap;      |   Services       |DNS ONE
     |         |
     |Weird Solutions   |DHCP Turbo      |returned in DHCPOFFER, DHCPACK by server.           |
     |'giaddr' |
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------   4  |Relay agent IP address, used in booting via a       |
     |         |      |relay agent.                                        |
     |'chaddr' |  16  |Client hardware address.                            |
     |'sname'  |  64  |Optional server host name, null terminated string.  |
     |'file'   | 128  |Boot file name, null terminated string; "generic"   |
     |         |      |name or null in DHCPDISCOVER, fully qualified       |
     |         |      |directory-path name in DHCPOFFER.                   |
     |'options'|vari- |Optional parameters field.  See the options         |
     |         |  able|documents for a list of defined options.            |
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------

              Table 1:  Description of Fields in a DHCP message
     5.2.2 Table 2:  DHCP Messages

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Message     |Usage                                                 |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |DHCPDISCOVER|Client broadcast to locate available servers.         |
       |            |                                                      |
       |DHCPOFFER   |Server to client in response to DHCPDISCOVER with     |
       |            |offer of configuration parameters.                    |
       |            |                                                      |
       |DHCPREQUEST |Client message to servers either (a) requesting       |
       |            |offered parameters from one server and implicitly     |
       |            |declining offers from all others, (b) confirming      |
       |            |correctness of previously allocated address after,    |
       |            |e.g., system reboot, or (c) extending the lease on a  |
       |            |particular network address.                           |
       |            |                                                      |
       |DHCPACK     |Server to client with configuration parameters,       |
       |            |including committed network address.                  |
       |            |                                                      |
       |DHCPNAK     |Server to client indicating client's notion of network|
       |            |address is incorrect (e.g., client has moved to new   |
       |            |subnet) or client's lease as expired                  |
       |            |                                                      |
       |DHCPDECLINE |Client to server indicating network address is already|
       |            |in use.                                               |
       |            |                                                      |
       |DHCPRELEASE |Client to server relinquishing network address and    |
       |            |canceling remaining lease.                            |
       |            |                                                      |
       |DHCPINFORM  |Client to server, asking only for local configuration |
       |            |parameters; client already has externally configured  |
       |            |network address.                                      |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Table 2:  DHCP Messages
     5.2.3 Table 3:  Fields Used by DHCP Servers

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Field    |DHCPOFFER          |DHCPACK           |DHCPNAK           |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |'op'     |2                  |2                 |2                 |
       |'htype'  |         (From "Assigned Numbers" Database)              |
       |'hlen'   |         (Hardware address length in octets)             |
       |'hops'   |0                  |0                 |0                 |
       |'xid'    |'xid' from client  |'xid' from client |'xid' from client |
       |         |DHCPDISCOVER       |DHCPREQUEST       |DHCPREQUEST       |
       |         |message            |message           |message           |
       |'secs'   |0                  |0                 |0                 |
       |'ciaddr' |0                  |'ciaddr' from     |0                 |
       |         |                   |DHCPREQUEST or 0  |                  |
       |'yiaddr' |IP address offered |IP address        |0                 |
       |         |to client          |assigned to client|                  |
       |'siaddr' |IP address of next |IP address of next|0                 |
       |         |bootstrap server   |bootstrap server  |                  |
       |'flags'  |'flags' from       |'flags' from      |'flags' from      |
       |         |client DHCPDISCOVER|client DHCPREQUEST|client DHCPREQUEST|
       |         |message            |message           |message           |
       |'giaddr' |'giaddr' from      |'giaddr' from     |'giaddr' from     |
       |         |client DHCPDISCOVER|client DHCPREQUEST|client DHCPREQUEST|
       |         |message            |message           |message           |
       |'chaddr' |'chaddr' from      |'chaddr' from     |'chaddr' from     |
       |         |client DHCPDISCOVER|client DHCPREQUEST|client DHCPREQUEST|
       |         |message            |message           |message           |
       |'sname'  |Server host name   |Server host name  |(unused)          |
       |         |or options         |or options        |                  |
       |'file'   |Client boot file   |Client boot file  |(unused)          |
       |         |name or options    |name or options   |                  |
       |'options'|(see Table 4)      |(see Table 4)     |(see Table 4)     |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

                   Table 3:  Fields Used by DHCP Servers
     5.2.4 Table 4:  Options Used by DHCP servers

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Option                    |DHCPOFFER|DHCPACK              |DHCPNAK |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Requested IP address      |MUST NOT |MUST NOT             |MUST NOT|
       |IP address lease time     |MUST     |MUST (DHCPREQUEST)   |MUST NOT|
       |                          |         |MUST NOT (DHCPINFORM)|        |
       |Use 'file'/'sname' fields |MAY      |MAY                  |MUST NOT|
       |DHCP message type         |DHCPOFFER|DHCPACK              |DHCPNAK |
       |Parameter request list    |MUST NOT |MUST NOT             |MUST NOT|
       |Message                   |SHOULD   |SHOULD               |SHOULD  |
       |Client identifier         |MUST NOT |MUST NOT             |MAY     |
       |Vendor class identifier   |MAY      |MAY                  |MAY     |
       |Server identifier         |MUST     |MUST                 |MUST    |
       |Maximum message size      |MUST NOT |MUST NOT             |MUST NOT|
       |All others                |MAY      |MAY                  |MUST NOT|
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

                   Table 4:  Options Used by DHCP servers

     5.2.5 Table 5:  Client Messages from Different States

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |              |INIT-REBOOT  |SELECTING    |RENEWING     |REBINDING |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |broad/uni-cast|broadcast    |broadcast    |unicast      |broadcast |
       |server-ip     |MUST NOT     |MUST         |MUST NOT     |MUST NOT  |
       |requested-ip  |MUST         |MUST         |MUST NOT     |MUST NOT  |
       |ciaddr        |zero         |zero         |IP address   |IP address|
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

               Table 5:  Client Messages from Different States
     5.2.6 Table 6:  Fields Used by DHCP Clients

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Field    |DHCPDISCOVER,     |DHCPREQUEST         |DHCPDECLINE,     |
       |         |DHCPINFORM        |                    |DHCPRELEASE      |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |'op'     |1                 |1                   |1                |
       |'htype'  |          (From "Assigned Numbers" Database)             |
       |'hlen'   |          (Hardware address length in octets)            |
       |'hops'   |0                 |0                   |0                |
       |'xid'    |selected by client|'xid' from server   |selected by      |
       |         |                  |DHCPOFFER message   |client           |
       |'secs'   |seconds since     |seconds since       |0                |
       |         |DHCP process      |DHCP process        |                 |
       |         |started           |started             |                 |
       |'flags'  |Set 'BROADCAST'   |Set 'BROADCAST'     |0                |
       |         |flag if client    |flag if client      |                 |
       |         |requires broadcast|requires broadcast  |                 |
       |         |reply             |reply               |                 |
       |'ciaddr' |0 (DHCPDISCOVER)  |0 or client's       |0 (DHCPDECLINE)  |
       |         |client's          |network address     |client's network |
       |         |network address   |(BOUND/RENEW/REBIND)|address          |
       |         |(DHCPINFORM)      |                    |(DHCPRELEASE)    |
       |'yiaddr' |0                 |0                   |0                |
       |'siaddr' |0                 |0                   |0                |
       |'giaddr' |0                 |0                   |0                |
       |'chaddr' |client's hardware |client's hardware   |client's hardware|
       |         |address           |address             |address          |
       |'sname'  |options, if       |options, if         |(unused)         |
       |         |indicated in      |indicated in        |                 |
       |         |'sname/file'      |'sname/file'        |                 |
       |         |option; otherwise |option; otherwise   |                 |
       |         |unused            |unused              |                 |
       |'file'   |options, if       |options, if         |(unused)         |
       |         |indicated in      |indicated in        |                 |
       |         |'sname/file'      |'sname/file'        |                 |
       |         |option; otherwise |option; otherwise   |                 |
       |         |unused            |unused              |                 |
       |'options'|(see Table 7)     |(see Table 7)       |(see Table 7)    |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

                   Table 6:  Fields Used by DHCP Clients
     5.2.7 Table 7:  Options Used by DHCP Clients

     ---------------------------------------------------------------------
     |Option                 |DHCPDISCOVER,|DHCPREQUEST    |DHCPDECLINE, |
     |                       |DHCPINFORM   |               |DHCPRELEASE  |
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------
     |Requested IP address   |MAY          |MUST (in       |MUST         |
     |                       |(DISCOVER)   |SELECTING or   |(DHCPDECLINE)|
     |                       |MUST NOT     |INIT-REBOOT)   |MUST NOT     |
     |                       |(INFORM)     |MUST NOT (in   |(DHCPRELEASE)|
     |                       |             |BOUND or       |             |
     |                       |             |RENEWING)      |             |
     |IP address lease time  |MAY          |MAY            |MUST NOT     |
     |                       |(DISCOVER)   |               |             |
     |                       |MUST NOT     |               |             |
     |                       |(INFORM)     |               |             |
     |Use 'file'/'sname'     |MAY          |MAY            |MAY          |
     |fields                 |             |               |             |
     |DHCP message type      |DHCPDISCOVER/|DHCPREQUEST    |DHCPDECLINE/ |
     |                       |DHCPINFORM   |               |DHCPRELEASE  |
     |Client identifier      |MAY          |MAY            |MAY          |
     |Vendor class identifier|MAY          |MAY            |MUST NOT     |
     |Server identifier      |MUST NOT     |MUST (after    |MUST         |
     |                       |             |SELECTING)     |             |
     |                       |             |MUST NOT (after|             |
     |                       |             |INIT-REBOOT,   |             |
     |                       |             |BOUND, RENEWING|             |
     |                       |             |or REBINDING)  |             |
     |Parameter request list |MAY          |MAY            |MUST NOT     |
     |Maximum message size   |MAY          |MAY            |MUST NOT     |
     |Message                |SHOULD NOT   |SHOULD NOT     |SHOULD       |
     |Site-specific          |MAY          |MAY            |MUST NOT     |
     |All others             |MAY          |MAY            |MUST NOT     |
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------

                   Table 7:  Options Used by DHCP Clients
     5.2.8 Table 8:  Host Configuration Parameters--IP Layer

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |  IP-layer parameters, per host:                                   |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Parameter                      | Permissible Values  | Reference   |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Be a router                    | on/off              | HR 3.1      |
       |Non-local source routing       | on/off              | HR 3.3.5    |
       |Policy filters for             |                     |             |
       |non-local source routing       | (list)              | HR 3.3.5    |
       |Maximum reassembly size        | integer             | HR 3.3.2    |
       |Default TTL                    | integer             | HR 3.2.1.7  |
       |PMTU aging timeout             | integer             | MTU 6.6     |
       |MTU plateau table              | (list)              | MTU 7       |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |  IP-layer parameters, per interface:                              |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Parameter                      | Permissible Values  | Reference   |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |IP address                     | (address)           | HR 3.3.1.6  |
       |Subnet mask                    | (address mask)      | HR 3.3.1.6  |
       |MTU                            | integer             | HR 3.3.3    |
       |All-subnets-MTU                | on/off              | HR 3.3.3    |
       |Broadcast address flavor       | 0.0.0.0 or          | HR 3.3.6    |
       |                               | 255.255.255.255     |             |
       |Perform mask discovery         | on/off              | HR 3.2.2.9  |
       |Be a mask supplier             | on/off              | HR 3.2.2.9  |
       |Perform router discovery       | on/off              | RD 5.1      |
       |Router solicitation address    | (address)           | RD 5.1      |
       |Default routers, list of:      |                     |             |
       |        router address         | (address)           | HR 3.3.1.6  |
       |        preference level       | integer             | HR 3.3.1.6  |
       |Static routes, list of:        |                     |             |
       |        destination            | (host/subnet/net)   | HR 3.3.1.2  |
       |        destination mask       | (address mask)      | HR 3.3.1.2  |
       |        type-of-service        | integer             | HR 3.3.1.2  |
       |        first-hop router       | (address)           | HR 3.3.1.2  |
       |        ignore redirects       | on/off              | HR 3.3.1.2  |
       |        PMTU                   | integer             | MTU 6.6     |
       |        perform PMTU discovery | on/off              | MTU 6.6     |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |  Key:                                                             |
       |     HR  -- Host Requirements Communications Layers (RFC 1122,     |
       |            Internet Standard)                                     |
       |     MTU -- Path MTU Discovery (RFC 1191, Proposed Standard)       |
       |     RD  -- Router Discovery (RFC 1256, Proposed Standard)         |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

               Table 8:  Host Configuration Parameters--IP Layer
     5.2.9 Table 9:  Host Configuration Parameters--Link Layer

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |  Link-layer parameters, per interface:                            |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Parameter                      | Permissible Values  | Reference   |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Trailers                       | on/off              | HR 2.3.1    |
       |ARP cache timeout              | integer             | HR 2.3.2.1  |
       |Ethernet encapsulation         | (RFC 894/RFC 1042)  | HR 2.3.3    |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |  Key:                                                             |
       |     HR  -- Host Requirements Communications Layers (RFC 1122,     |
       |            Internet Standard)                                     |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

              Table 9:  Host Configuration Parameters--Link Layer

     5.2.10 Table 10:  Host Configuration Parameters--TCP

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |  TCP parameters, per host:                                        |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |Parameter                      | Permissible Values  | Reference   |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |TTL                            | integer             | HR 4.2.2.19 |
       |Keep-alive interval            | integer             | HR 4.2.3.6  |
       |Keep-alive data size           | 0/1                 | HR 4.2.3.6  |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       |  Key:                                                             |
       |     HR  -- Host Requirements Communications Layers (RFC 1122,     |
       |            Internet Standard)                                     |
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

                 Table 10:  Host Configuration Parameters--TCP
     6 Contributors

        This document is the result of work undertaken the by DHCP working
        group.  The editors would like to include a number of contributors
        to this effort including Mike Carney of Sun Microsystems, Steve
        Tulloh of Shadow Support, Bernie Volz, Ted Lemon of Nominum, Simon
        Vogl, Edward Mascarenhas of SGI, Andre Kostur of Incognito, Bud
        Millwood of Weird Solutions, Patrick Guélat of ImproWare Network
        Services, and Swamy Narasimha of Nokia.

     7 IANA Considerations

        This memo contains no values requiring IANA attention.

     8 Security Considerations

        (To be defined when suggested text changes for RFC 2131 are
        completed.)

        A separate Internet-Draft is being created to provide a threat
        analysis of RFCs 2131 and 3118.

     9 References

     9.1 Normative References

        [RFC951] Croft, W., and Gilmore, J., "Bootstrap Protocol," RFC 951,
           September 1985.

        [RFC1123] R. Braden, "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application
           and Support," October 1989.

        [RFC1542] W. Wimer, "Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap
           Protocol" RFC 1542, October 1993

        [RFC2131] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol," March
           1997.

        [RFC2132] Alexander, S. and Droms, R., "DHCP Options and BOOTP
           Vendor Extensions," March 1997.

     9.2 Informative References

        [RFC3203] T'Joens, Y., Hublet, C., and De Schrijver, P., "The DHCP
           Reconfigure Extension," July 2001.

        [RFC4388] Woundy, R., and Kinnear, K., "Dynamic Host Configuration
           Protocol (DHCP) Leasequery," February 2006.

        <draft-ietf-dhc-fqdn-option-13.txt>, Stapp, M., and Rekhter, Y.,
           "The DHCP Client FQDN Option," March 2006.

     Authors' Addresses

        Barr Hibbs
        Richard Barr Hibbs, P.E.
        952 Sanchez Street
        San Francisco, California 94114-3362
        USA

        Phone:  +1-(415)-648-3920
        E-mail:  rbhibbs@pacbell.net

        Rob Stevens
        308 Arthur Avenue
        Aptos, California 95003-5202
        USA

        Phone:  +1-(831)-688-9722
        E-mail:  robs@cruzio.com

     Full Copyright Statement

        Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).  All rights reserved.

        This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
        contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
        retain all their rights.

        This document and the information contained herein are provided on
        an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
        REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE
        INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
        IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
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        WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

     Intellectual Property

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        Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed
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        Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
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        at http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

        The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
        copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
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        this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
        ipr@ietf.org.

     Acknowledgement

        Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
        Administrative Support Activity (IASA).

     APPENDIX:  NOTES

        This appendix will be removed when this memo goes to Working Group
        Last Call.

     Issues List

        Open, unresolved issues about RFC 2131 include:

        1. What is the correct use of client identifier in DHCPOFFER and
           DHCPACK messages?

        2. Are there any effective alternatives to ICMP ECHO and ARP for
           address-in-use detection?

        3. What is the definition of a Fully Qualified Domain Name?

        4. Should DHCPINFORM messages be allowed from client proxies?

        5. Should client proxies, in general, be allowed, and how does a
           client proxy know the IP address of a DHCP server?

        6. Should a DHCP server send only options requested by a client, or
           should a server send all options for which it is configured with
           a value?

        7. Should required usage of "xid" and "client identifier" be
           changed to support server verification of DHCPRELEASE messages?

        8. What is the correct statement about selecting an IP address to
           offer a client when the offered address is on a different subnet
           than the client's "giaddr?"

        9. Should a new flags bit to signify "more options data available"
           be added?

        10. Do we need a new "Maximum Relay MTU Size" option to ensure that
           all reply packets sent by a server will pass without fragmenting
           or dropping packets?

        11. Would it help to set a sort of "more to come" option, indicating
           that more options will follow in a consecutive DHCPACK, where
           the subsequent DHCPACKs would have a "additional information"
           option indicating that the message contains only new options
           data similar to a DHCPACK in response to a DHCPINFORM message?

        12. Are unicast DHCPDISCOVER messages permitted?  What are the
           requirements for specific message fields and options in this
           case?

        13. What level of consistency is required among responses from
           multiple servers?

        14. Can the REBINDING state be entered from the BOUND state on
           expiration of T2, or only if there is a timeout in RENEWING
           state?
        15. Should the text of RFC 4361, Node-Specific Client Identifiers,
           be folded into a revised RFC 2131 and RFC 2132?

        16. Should the text of RFC 4388, DHCP Leasequery, be folded into a
           revised RFC 2131 and RFC 2132?

     Changes from Prior Drafts

     "-00" Draft

        The "-00" revision was the initial version of this memo, submitted
        to the Internet-Drafts editor on 23 February 2003.

     "-01" Draft

        The "-01" revision contains substantial changes following a detailed
        review of DHC Working Group mailing list discussions on RFC 2131
        clarification issues, consideration of several directed questions,
        and comments received by the authors.  Changes include:

        O  Reorganization of the document to group all typographical errors
           together, separate from protocol or policy issues.

        O  Elimination of "Interaction with DNS" and "Client and Server
           Administration" sections because the authors saw no clear
           resolution to the topics.

        O  Creation of an issues list in section 4.1.

     "-02" Draft

        The "-02" revision consists of numerous minor typographical,
        spelling, and grammatical updates, plus:

        O  Replaced all Internet-Draft Boilerplate with current versions.

        O  Removed all of Section 5, "Notes" to this appendix.

        O  Replaced Section 5 with the proposed figures and tables for use
           with revised text of RFC 2131-bis.

        O  Removed Appendix A.

        O  Separation of Section 9, "References," into Normative and
           Informative subsections.

        O  Updated Authors' Addresses.

        O  Added text to Section 4.5.1 covering RFC 4361, "Node-Specific
           Client Identifiers for DHCPv4."

        O  Recent mailing list discussion about the correct use of the
           "secs" field was incorporated into Section 4.22.