draft-ietf-diffserv-ba-def-00.txt   draft-ietf-diffserv-ba-def-01.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force K. Nichols Internet Engineering Task Force K. Nichols
Differentiated Services Working Group Cisco Systems Differentiated Services Working Group Cisco Systems
Internet Draft Brian Carpenter Internet Draft Brian Carpenter
Expires in August, 2000 IBM Expires in August, 2000 IBM
Definition of Differentiated Services Behavior Aggregates and Definition of Differentiated Services Behavior Aggregates and
Rules for their Specification Rules for their Specification
<draft-ietf-diffserv-ba-def-00.txt> <draft-ietf-diffserv-ba-def-01.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are
working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups
may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other doc- months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other doc-
uments at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as uments at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
reference material or to cite them other than as "work in reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
progress." progress."
This document is a product of the Diffserv working group. Com- This document is a product of the Diffserv working group. Com-
ments on this draft should be directed to the Diffserv mailing list ments on this draft should be directed to the Diffserv mailing list
<diffserv@ietf.org>. <diffserv@ietf.org>. The list of current Internet-Drafts can be
accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. The list of
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://
accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed
at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.
Abstract Abstract
The diffserv WG has defined the general architecture for differen- The diffserv WG has defined the general architecture for differen-
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PHBs) required in routers (RFCs 2474, 2597, and 2598). The dif- PHBs) required in routers (RFCs 2474, 2597, and 2598). The dif-
ferentiated services framework creates services within a network ferentiated services framework creates services within a network
by applying rules at the edges in the creation of traffic aggregates by applying rules at the edges in the creation of traffic aggregates
(known as Behavior Aggregates) coupled with the forwarding (known as Behavior Aggregates) coupled with the forwarding
path behavior. The WG has also discussed the behavior required path behavior. The WG has also discussed the behavior required
at diffserv network edges or boundaries for conditioning the at diffserv network edges or boundaries for conditioning the
aggregates, elements such as policers and shapers [MODEL, aggregates, elements such as policers and shapers [MODEL,
MIB]. A major feature of diffserv is that only the components MIB]. A major feature of diffserv is that only the components
applying the rules at the edge need to be changed in response to applying the rules at the edge need to be changed in response to
short-term changes in QoS goals in the network, rather than short-term changes in QoS goals in the network, rather than
reconfiguring the interior behaviors.
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The next step for the WG is to lay out how the forwarding path The next step for the WG is to lay out how the forwarding path
components (PHBs, classifiers, and traffic conditioners) can be components (PHBs, classifiers, and traffic conditioners) can be
used within the architectural framework to compose specific used within the architectural framework to compose specific
Behavior Aggregates. These BAs should have properties such that Behavior Aggregates. These BAs should have properties such that
the transit of individual packets of a BA through a differentiated the transit of individual packets of a BA through a differentiated
services network can be characterized by specific metrics. How- services network can be characterized by specific metrics. How-
ever, no microflow information should be required as packets ever, no microflow information should be required as packets
transit a differentiated services network. transit a differentiated services network.
This document defines and discusses Behavior Aggregates in This document defines and discusses Behavior Aggregates in
detail and lays out the format and required content for contribu- detail and lays out the format and required content for contribu-
tions to the Diffserv WG on BAs and the rules that will be applied tions to the Diffserv WG on BAs and the rules that will be applied
for individual BA specifications to advance as WG products. This for individual BA specifications to advance as WG products. This
format is specified to expedite working group review of BA sub- format is specified to expedite working group review of BA sub-
missions. missions.
A pdf version of this document is available at: A pdf version of this document is available at: ftp://ftp-
ftp://ftp-eng.cisco.com/ftp/kmn-group/docs/ba_def.pdf. eng.cisco.com/ftp/kmn-group/docs/BA_def.pdf.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................................ 2 1. Introduction................................................ 2
2. Some Definitions from RFC 2474.............................. 3 2. Some Definitions from RFC 2474.............................. 3
3. The Value of Defining Edge-to-Edge BAs...................... 3 3. The Value of Defining Edge-to-Edge BAs...................... 3
4. Understanding Diffserv Behavior Aggregates.................. 4 4. Understanding Diffserv Behavior Aggregates.................. 4
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1.0 Introduction 1.0 Introduction
Differentiated Services allows an approach to IP QoS that is mod- Differentiated Services allows an approach to IP QoS that is mod-
ular, high performance, incrementally deployable, and scalable ular, high performance, incrementally deployable, and scalable
[RFC2475]. Although an ultimate goal is interdomain quality of [RFC2475]. Although an ultimate goal is interdomain quality of
service, there remain many untaken steps on the road to achieving service, there remain many untaken steps on the road to achieving
this goal. One essential step, the evolution of the business models this goal. One essential step, the evolution of the business models
for interdomain QoS, will necessarily develop outside of the for interdomain QoS, will necessarily develop outside of the
IETF. A goal of the diffserv WG is to provide the firm technical IETF. A goal of the diffserv WG is to provide the firm technical
foundation that allows these business models to develop.
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The Diffserv WG has finished the first phase of standardizing the The Diffserv WG has finished the first phase of standardizing the
behaviors required in the forwarding path of all network nodes, behaviors required in the forwarding path of all network nodes,
the per-hop forwarding behaviors or PHBs. The PHBs defined in the per-hop forwarding behaviors or PHBs. The PHBs defined in
RFCs 2474, 2597 and 2598 give a rich toolbox for differential RFCs 2474, 2597 and 2598 give a rich toolbox for differential
packet handling. Although business models will have to evolve packet handling. Although business models will have to evolve
over time, there are technical issues in moving "beyond the box" over time, there are technical issues in moving "beyond the box"
that lead to QoS models within a single network, i.e., not crossing that lead to QoS models within a single network, i.e., not crossing
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Aggregate in a DS domain and a service that might be specified in Aggregate in a DS domain and a service that might be specified in
a Service Level Agreement. The BA definition is a technical a Service Level Agreement. The BA definition is a technical
building block that couples rules, specific PHBs, and configura- building block that couples rules, specific PHBs, and configura-
tions with specific observable characteristics. These definitions tions with specific observable characteristics. These definitions
are intended to be useful tools in configuring DS domains, but the are intended to be useful tools in configuring DS domains, but the
BA (or BAs) used by a provider are not expected to be visible to BA (or BAs) used by a provider are not expected to be visible to
customers any more than the specific PHBs employed in the pro- customers any more than the specific PHBs employed in the pro-
vider's network would be. QoS providers are expected to select vider's network would be. QoS providers are expected to select
their own measures to make customer-visible in contracts and their own measures to make customer-visible in contracts and
these may be stated quite differently from the characteristics in a these may be stated quite differently from the characteristics in a
BA definition. Similarly, specific BAs are intended as tools for
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ISPs to construct differentiated services offerings; each may ISPs to construct differentiated services offerings; each may
choose different sets of tools, or even develop their own, in order choose different sets of tools, or even develop their own, in order
to achieve particular externally observable metrics. to achieve particular externally observable metrics.
This document defines Differentiated Services Behavior Aggre- This document defines Differentiated Services Behavior Aggre-
gates more precisely than past documents and specifies the format gates more precisely than past documents and specifies the format
that must be used for submissions of particular Behavior Aggre- that must be used for submissions of particular Behavior Aggre-
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naling arrangements will take some time. Early deployments will naling arrangements will take some time. Early deployments will
be within a single administrative domain. The specification of the be within a single administrative domain. The specification of the
transit expectations of behavior aggregates across DS domains transit expectations of behavior aggregates across DS domains
both assists in the deployment of that single-domain QoS and will both assists in the deployment of that single-domain QoS and will
help enable the composition of end-to-end, cross domain services help enable the composition of end-to-end, cross domain services
to proceed. Putting aside the business issues, the same technical to proceed. Putting aside the business issues, the same technical
issues that arise in interconnecting DS domains with homoge- issues that arise in interconnecting DS domains with homoge-
neous administration will arise in interconnecting the autono- neous administration will arise in interconnecting the autono-
mous systems (ASs) of the Internet. mous systems (ASs) of the Internet.
Today's Internet is composed of multiple independently adminis-
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tered domains or Autonomous Systems (ASs), represented by the tered domains or Autonomous Systems (ASs), represented by the
circles in figure 1. To deploy ubiquitous end-to-end quality of ser- circles in figure 1. To deploy ubiquitous end-to-end quality of ser-
vice in the Internet, a business models must evolve that include vice in the Internet, a business models must evolve that include
issues of charging and reporting that are not in scope for the issues of charging and reporting that are not in scope for the
IETF. In the meantime, there are many possible uses of quality of IETF. In the meantime, there are many possible uses of quality of
service within an AS and the IETF can address the technical service within an AS and the IETF can address the technical
issues in creating an intradomain QoS within a Differentiated issues in creating an intradomain QoS within a Differentiated
Services framework. In fact, this approach is quite amenable to Services framework. In fact, this approach is quite amenable to
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with the same DS codepoint crossing a link in a particular direc- with the same DS codepoint crossing a link in a particular direc-
tion" and further state that packets with the same DSCP get the tion" and further state that packets with the same DSCP get the
same per-hop forwarding treatment (or PHB) everywhere inside a same per-hop forwarding treatment (or PHB) everywhere inside a
single DS domain. Note that even if multiple DSCPs map to the single DS domain. Note that even if multiple DSCPs map to the
same PHB, this must hold for each DSCP individually. same PHB, this must hold for each DSCP individually.
Within a DS domain, BAs are formed by the application of rules Within a DS domain, BAs are formed by the application of rules
to packets arriving at the DS boundary, through classification and to packets arriving at the DS boundary, through classification and
traffic conditioning. Packets that conform to the rules are marked traffic conditioning. Packets that conform to the rules are marked
with the same DSCP (or a known set of DSCPs) within a domain. with the same DSCP (or a known set of DSCPs) within a domain.
In the interior of a DS domain, where DSCPs should not be
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remarked, as there are no rules being applied. Though a DS remarked, as there are no rules being applied. Though a DS
domain may be as small as a single node, more complex topolo- domain may be as small as a single node, more complex topolo-
gies are expected to be the norm, thus the BA's definition must gies are expected to be the norm, thus the BA's definition must
hold as it is split and merged on the interior links of a DS domain. hold as it is split and merged on the interior links of a DS domain.
Packet flow in a network is not part of the BA definition; the Packet flow in a network is not part of the BA definition; the
application of rules as packets enter the DS domain and the con- application of rules as packets enter the DS domain and the con-
sistent PHB through the DS domain must suffice. (Though limits sistent PHB through the DS domain must suffice. (Though limits
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and hence, loss. and hence, loss.
PHBs give explicit expressions of what treatment a BA can PHBs give explicit expressions of what treatment a BA can
expect from each hop. This behavior must continue to apply expect from each hop. This behavior must continue to apply
under aggregation of merging BA flows. Explicit expressions of under aggregation of merging BA flows. Explicit expressions of
what happens to this behavior under aggregation, possibly param- what happens to this behavior under aggregation, possibly param-
eterized by node in-degrees or network diameters are required. eterized by node in-degrees or network diameters are required.
This allows us to determine what to do at internal aggregation This allows us to determine what to do at internal aggregation
points. For example, do we reapply edge rules? points. For example, do we reapply edge rules?
Characterizing a BA requires exploring what happens to a PHB
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under aggregation. Rules must be recursively applied to result in a under aggregation. Rules must be recursively applied to result in a
known behavior. As an example, since maximum burst sizes grow known behavior. As an example, since maximum burst sizes grow
with the number of microflows or BA flows merged, a BA speci- with the number of microflows or BA flows merged, a BA speci-
fication must address this. A clear advantage of constructing fication must address this. A clear advantage of constructing
behaviors that aggregate is the ease of building up BAs that span behaviors that aggregate is the ease of building up BAs that span
interior DS domains and eventually farther. For example, a BA interior DS domains and eventually farther. For example, a BA
with known properties that crosses an interior DS domain of AS with known properties that crosses an interior DS domain of AS
B in figure 1, can be merged with the same type of BA at the inte- B in figure 1, can be merged with the same type of BA at the inte-
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critical to how a BA performs, but the act(s) of configuring the critical to how a BA performs, but the act(s) of configuring the
edge is a control plane action which can be separated from the edge is a control plane action which can be separated from the
specification of the BA. specification of the BA.
The following sections must be present in any specification of a The following sections must be present in any specification of a
Differentiated Services Behavior Aggregate. Of necessity, their Differentiated Services Behavior Aggregate. Of necessity, their
length and content will vary greatly. length and content will vary greatly.
5.1 Applicability Statement 5.1 Applicability Statement
All BAs must have an applicability statement that outlines the
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intended use of this BA and the limits to its use. intended use of this BA and the limits to its use.
5.2 Rules 5.2 Rules
This section describes the rules to be followed in the creation of This section describes the rules to be followed in the creation of
this BA. Rules should be distinguished with MAY, MUST, and this BA. Rules should be distinguished with MAY, MUST, and
SHOULD. The rules specify the edge behavior and configuration SHOULD. The rules specify the edge behavior and configuration
and the PHB (or PHBs) to be used and any additional require- and the PHB (or PHBs) to be used and any additional require-
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to do with the "short" time behavior, usually expressed as the to do with the "short" time behavior, usually expressed as the
allowable burstiness in an aggregate. The short time behavior is allowable burstiness in an aggregate. The short time behavior is
important is understanding the buffering (and associated loss important is understanding the buffering (and associated loss
characteristics) and in quantifying how the BA aggregates, either characteristics) and in quantifying how the BA aggregates, either
within a DS domain or at the boundaries. For short-time behavior, within a DS domain or at the boundaries. For short-time behavior,
we are interested primarily in two things: 1) how many back-to- we are interested primarily in two things: 1) how many back-to-
back packets of this BA will we see at any point (this would be back packets of this BA will we see at any point (this would be
metered as a burst) and 2) how large a burst of packets of this BA metered as a burst) and 2) how large a burst of packets of this BA
can appear in a queue at once (gives queue overflow and loss). can appear in a queue at once (gives queue overflow and loss).
Put simply, a BA specification should provide the answer to the
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question: Under what conditions can we join the output of this question: Under what conditions can we join the output of this
domain to another under the same rules and expectations? domain to another under the same rules and expectations?
6.1 Considerations in specifying long-term or average BA 6.1 Considerations in specifying long-term or average BA
characteristics characteristics
To make this more concrete, consider the DS domain of figure 2. To make this more concrete, consider the DS domain of figure 2.
First consider the average or long-term behavior that must be First consider the average or long-term behavior that must be
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example, if domain D allows each of the uplinks to burst of p example, if domain D allows each of the uplinks to burst of p
packets into BAx, they could accumulate as they transit the ring. packets into BAx, they could accumulate as they transit the ring.
For packets headed for link L, back-to-back BAx packets can For packets headed for link L, back-to-back BAx packets can
come from both directions and arrive at the same time. If the come from both directions and arrive at the same time. If the
bandwidth of link L is the same as the links of the ring, this prob- bandwidth of link L is the same as the links of the ring, this prob-
ably does not present a buffering problem. If there are two input ably does not present a buffering problem. If there are two input
links that can send packets to queue for L, at worst, two packets links that can send packets to queue for L, at worst, two packets
can arrive simultaneously for L. If the bandwidth of link L equals can arrive simultaneously for L. If the bandwidth of link L equals
or exceeds twice B, the packets won't accumulate. Further, if p is or exceeds twice B, the packets won't accumulate. Further, if p is
limited to one, and the bandwidth of L exceeds the rate of arrival limited to one, and the bandwidth of L exceeds the rate of arrival
(over the longer term) of BAx packets (required for bounding the
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loss) then the queue of BAx packets for link L will empty before loss) then the queue of BAx packets for link L will empty before
new packets arrive. If the bandwidth of L is equal to B, one packet new packets arrive. If the bandwidth of L is equal to B, one packet
of BAx must queue while the other is transmitted. This would of BAx must queue while the other is transmitted. This would
result in N x p back-to-back packets of BAx arriving over L dur- result in N x p back-to-back packets of BAx arriving over L dur-
ing the same time scale as the bursts of p were permitted on the ing the same time scale as the bursts of p were permitted on the
uplinks. Link L should be configured to handle the sum of the uplinks. Link L should be configured to handle the sum of the
rates that ingress to BAx, but that doesn't guarantee that it can rates that ingress to BAx, but that doesn't guarantee that it can
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queue for link L in time it took to transmit p packets on the ring, queue for link L in time it took to transmit p packets on the ring,
p/B. Although the link scheduler for link L might allow the burst p/B. Although the link scheduler for link L might allow the burst
of packets to be transmitted at the line rate L, after the burst allot- of packets to be transmitted at the line rate L, after the burst allot-
ment has been exceeded, the queue should be expected to clear at ment has been exceeded, the queue should be expected to clear at
only rate axL. Then consider the packets that can accumulate. It only rate axL. Then consider the packets that can accumulate. It
takes 2xp/(axL) to clear the queue of BAx packets. In that time, takes 2xp/(axL) to clear the queue of BAx packets. In that time,
bursts of p packets from the other uplinks can arrive from the bursts of p packets from the other uplinks can arrive from the
ring, so the packets do not even have to be back-to-back. Even if ring, so the packets do not even have to be back-to-back. Even if
the packets do not arrive back-to-back, but are spaced by less time the packets do not arrive back-to-back, but are spaced by less time
than it takes to clear the queue of BAx packets, either the required than it takes to clear the queue of BAx packets, either the required
buffer size can become large or the burst size of BAx entering E
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across L becomes large and is a function of N, the number of across L becomes large and is a function of N, the number of
uplinks of domain D. uplinks of domain D.
Let L = 1.5 Mbps, B = 45 Mbps, a = 1/3, N=10, p = 3. Suppose Let L = 1.5 Mbps, B = 45 Mbps, a = 1/3, N=10, p = 3. Suppose
that the bursts from two streams of BAx arrive at the queue for that the bursts from two streams of BAx arrive at the queue for
link L very close together. Even if 3 of the packets are cleared at link L very close together. Even if 3 of the packets are cleared at
the line rate of 1.5 Mbps, there will be 3 packets remaining to be the line rate of 1.5 Mbps, there will be 3 packets remaining to be
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expectation for packets in a diffserv network that do not require expectation for packets in a diffserv network that do not require
any special differentiation. any special differentiation.
7.1.2 Rules 7.1.2 Rules
There are no rules governing rate and bursts of packets beyond There are no rules governing rate and bursts of packets beyond
the limits imposed by the ingress link. At each network node in the limits imposed by the ingress link. At each network node in
the interior of the network, packets marked for this BA are given the interior of the network, packets marked for this BA are given
the Default PHB (as defined in [RFC2474]). the Default PHB (as defined in [RFC2474]).
7.1.3 Characteristics of this BA
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"As much as possible as soon as possible". "As much as possible as soon as possible".
Packets of this BA will not be completely starved and when Packets of this BA will not be completely starved and when
resources are available, this BA should be configured to consume resources are available, this BA should be configured to consume
them. them.
Although some network operators may bound the delay and loss Although some network operators may bound the delay and loss
rate for this aggregate given knowledge about their network, such rate for this aggregate given knowledge about their network, such
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7.2.3 Characteristics of this BA 7.2.3 Characteristics of this BA
Packets are forwarded when there are idle resources. Packets are forwarded when there are idle resources.
7.2.4 Parameters 7.2.4 Parameters
None. None.
7.2.5 Assumptions 7.2.5 Assumptions
A properly functioning network.
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7.2.6 Example uses 7.2.6 Example uses
1. For Netnews and other "bulk mail" of the Internet. 1. For Netnews and other "bulk mail" of the Internet.
2. For "downgraded" traffic from some other BA. 2. For "downgraded" traffic from some other BA.
8.0 Sketchy Examples of Creating and Using BAs 8.0 Sketchy Examples of Creating and Using BAs
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ating under ideal conditions. ating under ideal conditions.
8.2 Preferred 8.2 Preferred
A Preferred BA is for provisioning traffic so as to give low-load A Preferred BA is for provisioning traffic so as to give low-load
performance across a DS domain. The rules governing it are that performance across a DS domain. The rules governing it are that
the packets of this BA arriving over any ingress to the domain are the packets of this BA arriving over any ingress to the domain are
average rate-limited to Ra with a maximum burst size of Bmax. average rate-limited to Ra with a maximum burst size of Bmax.
The BA uses CS4, selected by DSCP04 and configured so that its The BA uses CS4, selected by DSCP04 and configured so that its
minimum share of all internal links is Smin (in bps) and the sum minimum share of all internal links is Smin (in bps) and the sum
of all Ra < Smin. Characteristics of this BA:
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Probabilistic bounds based on the sum of all allocated rates and Probabilistic bounds based on the sum of all allocated rates and
the burst size. the burst size.
Throughput measured over 5 minute intervals will be at least Ra. Throughput measured over 5 minute intervals will be at least Ra.
Assumptions on these characteristics are that the network is oper- Assumptions on these characteristics are that the network is oper-
ating under ideal conditions. ating under ideal conditions.
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draft and/or a report to the WG from the panel that either draft and/or a report to the WG from the panel that either
endorses or disputes the claimed characteristics. endorses or disputes the claimed characteristics.
4. If/when endorsed by the panel, that draft goes to WG last call. 4. If/when endorsed by the panel, that draft goes to WG last call.
If not endorsed, the author(s) can give a itemized response to the If not endorsed, the author(s) can give a itemized response to the
panel's report and ask for a WG Last Call. panel's report and ask for a WG Last Call.
5. If/when passes Last Call, goes to ADs for publication as a WG 5. If/when passes Last Call, goes to ADs for publication as a WG
Informational RFC in our "BA series". Informational RFC in our "BA series".
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^L
10.0 Acknowledgements 10.0 Acknowledgements
The ideas in this document have been heavily influenced by the The ideas in this document have been heavily influenced by the
Diffserv WG and, in particular, by discussions with Van Jacob- Diffserv WG and, in particular, by discussions with Van Jacob-
son, Dave Clark, Lixia Zhang, Geoff Huston, Scott Bradner, son, Dave Clark, Lixia Zhang, Geoff Huston, Scott Bradner,
Randy Bush, Frank Kastenholz, Aaron Falk, and a host of other Randy Bush, Frank Kastenholz, Aaron Falk, and a host of other
people who should be acknowledged for their useful input but not people who should be acknowledged for their useful input but not
be held accountable for our mangling of it. be held accountable for our mangling of it.
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