draft-ietf-dime-diameter-qos-04.txt   draft-ietf-dime-diameter-qos-05.txt 
Network Working Group D. Sun, Ed. Diameter Maintenance and D. Sun, Ed.
Internet-Draft Alcatel-Lucent Extensions (DIME) Alcatel-Lucent
Intended status: Standards Track P. McCann Internet-Draft P. McCann
Expires: August 1, 2008 Motorola Labs Intended status: Standards Track Motorola Labs
H. Tschofenig Expires: August 25, 2008 H. Tschofenig
Nokia Siemens Networks Nokia Siemens Networks
T. Tsou T. Tsou
Huawei Huawei
A. Doria A. Doria
Lulea University of Technology Lulea University of Technology
G. Zorn G. Zorn, Ed.
Aruba Networks Aruba Networks
January 29, 2008 February 22, 2008
Diameter Quality of Service Application Diameter Quality of Service Application
draft-ietf-dime-diameter-qos-04.txt draft-ietf-dime-diameter-qos-05.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Abstract Abstract
This document describes framework, messages and procedures for the This document describes the framework, messages and procedures for
Diameter Quality of Service (QoS) application. The Diameter QoS the Diameter Quality of Service (QoS) application. The Diameter QoS
application allows network elements to interact with Diameter servers application allows network elements to interact with Diameter servers
when allocating QoS resources in the network. In particular, two when allocating QoS resources in the network. In particular, two
modes of operation - Pull and Push are defined. modes of operation -- Pull and Push -- are defined.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. Network element functional model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1. Network Element Functional Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2. Implications of Endpoint QoS Capabilities . . . . . . . . 10 3.2. Implications of Endpoint QoS Capabilities . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1. Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.1. Endpoint Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.2. Interaction modes between authorizing entity and 3.2.2. Interaction Modes Between the Authorizing Entity
network element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 and Network Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3. Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3. Authorization Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.3.1. Schemes for pull mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3.1. Pull Mode Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.3.2. Schemes for push mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3.2. Push Mode Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.4. QoS Application Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.4. QoS Application Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. QoS Application Session Establishment and Management . . . . . 21 4. QoS Application Session Establishment and Management . . . . . 20
4.1. Parties involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.1. Parties Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2. Session Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.2. Session Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2.1. Session establishment for pull mode . . . . . . . . . 21 4.2.1. Session Establishment for Pull Mode . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2.2. Session establishment for push mode . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2.2. Session Establishment for Push Mode . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2.3. Discovery and selection of peer Diameter QoS 4.2.3. Discovery and Selection of Peer Diameter QoS
application node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Application Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.3. Session re-authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3. Session Re-authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.3.1. Client-Side Initiated Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . 28 4.3.1. Client-Side Initiated Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . 27
4.3.2. Server-Side Initiated Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . 29 4.3.2. Server-Side Initiated Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . 28
4.4. Session Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.4. Session Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.4.1. Client-Side Initiated Session Termination . . . . . . 31 4.4.1. Client-Side Initiated Session Termination . . . . . . 30
4.4.2. Server-Side Initiated Session Termination . . . . . . 32 4.4.2. Server-Side Initiated Session Termination . . . . . . 30
5. QoS Application Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5. QoS Application Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.1. QoS-Authorization Request (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.1. QoS-Authorization Request (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.2. QoS-Authorization Answer (QAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.2. QoS-Authorization Answer (QAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.3. QoS-Install Request (QIR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.3. QoS-Install Request (QIR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.4. QoS-Install Answer (QIA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.4. QoS-Install Answer (QIA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.5. Re-Auth-Request (RAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.5. Re-Auth-Request (RAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.6. Re-Auth-Answer (RAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.6. Re-Auth-Answer (RAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6. QoS Application State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6. QoS Application State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1. Supplemented states for push mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.1. Supplemented States for Push Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7. QoS Application AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7. QoS Application AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.1. Reused Base Protocol AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.1. Reused Base Protocol AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.2. QoS Application Defined AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.2. QoS Application Defined AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8. Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8. Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 9. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.1. Example call flow for pull mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 9.1. Example Call Flow for Pull Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.2. Example call flow for push mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 9.2. Example Call Flow for Push Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10.1. AVP Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 10.1. AVP Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10.2. AVP specific values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 10.2. AVP Specific Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10.3. AVP flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 10.3. AVP Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10.4. Application IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 10.4. Application IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10.5. Command Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 10.5. Command Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 58 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 56
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes framework, messages and procedures for the This document describes the framework, messages and procedures for
Diameter Quality of Service (QoS) Application. The Diameter QoS the Diameter Quality of Service (QoS) Application. The Diameter QoS
Application allows network elements (NEs) to interact with Diameter Application allows Network Elements (NEs) to interact with Diameter
servers when allocating QoS resources in the network. servers when allocating QoS resources in the network.
In particular, two modes of operation are defined. In the first, Two modes of operation are defined. In the first, called "Pull"
called "Pull Mode", the network element pro-actively sends a command mode, the network element requests QoS authorization from the
to the Diameter server for QoS authorization based on some trigger Diameter server based on some trigger (such as a QoS signaling
(such as a QoS signaling protocol) that arrives along the data path. protocol) that arrives along the data path. In the second, called
In the second, called "Push Mode", the Diameter server pro-actively "Push" mode, the Diameter server pro-actively sends a command to the
sends a command to the network element(s) to install QoS network element(s) to install QoS authorization state. This could be
authorization state. This could be triggered, for instance, by off- triggered, for instance, by off-path signaling such as Session
path signaling such as SIP-based (Session Initiation Protocol) call Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] call control.
control.
A set of command codes pertinent to this QoS application are A set of command codes is specified that allows a single Diameter QoS
specified that allows a single Diameter application to support both application server to support both Pull and Push modes based on the
Pull and Push modes based on the requirements of network requirements of network technologies, deployment scenarios and end-
technologies, deployment scenarios and end-host's capabilities. In host capabilities. In conjunction with parameters defined in the
conjunction with parameters defined in [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes] documents "Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter"
and in [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters], this document depicts basic [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes] and "Quality of Service Parameters for
call flow procedures to establish, modify and terminate a Diameter Usage with the AAA Framework" [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters], this
QoS application session. note depicts the basic call flow procedures used to establish, modify
and terminate a Diameter QoS application session.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
The following terms are used in this document: The following terms are used in this document:
Diameter QoS Application Server AAA Cloud
An infrastructure of AAA entities (clients, agents, servers)
A Diameter QoS application server is a logical Diameter node that communicating via a AAA protocol over trusted, secure connections.
supports the protocol interaction for QoS authorization. The It offers authentication, authorization and accounting services to
Diameter QoS application server resides in the authorizing entity applications in flexible local and roaming scenarios. Diameter
(AE). In the Pull mode, it responds to a Diameter session [RFC3588] and RADIUS [RFC2865] are both widely deployed AAA
initiated by a Diameter QoS application client; in the Push mode, protocols.
it initiates a Diameter session to a Diameter QoS application
client triggered by application signaling or local events.
Diameter QoS Application Client
A Diameter QoS application client is a logical Diameter node that
supports the protocol interaction for QoS enforcement. The
Diameter QoS client resides in the network element. In the Pull
mode, it initiates a Diameter session to the Diameter QoS
application server triggered by a QoS signaling or other events;
in the Push mode, it responds to a Diameter session initiated by a
Diameter QoS server.
Resource Requesting Entity
A resource requesting entity is a logical entity that supports the
protocol interaction for QoS resources. The resource requesting
entity resides in the end-host and is able to communicate with
peer logical entities in Authorizing Entity or Network element to
trigger the QoS authorization process.
Application Server
An application server is a network entity that exchanges signaling
messages with an application endpoint. It may be a source of
authorization for QoS-enhanced application flows. For example, a
SIP server is one kind of application server.
Application Endpoint
An application endpoint is an entity in an end user device that
exchanges signaling messages with application servers or directly
with other application endpoints. Based on the result of this
signaling, the endpoint may make a request for QoS from the
network. For example, a SIP User Agent is one kind of application
endpoint.
Authorizing Entity
The authorizing entity acts as a Diameter server (and may Application Endpoint (AppE)
collocate with a subscriber database) responsible for authorizing An Application Endpoint is an entity in an end-user device that
QoS requests for a particular application flow or aggregate. It exchanges signaling messages with Application Servers (see below)
may be a standalone entity or integrated with an application or directly with other Application Endpoints. Based on the result
server. This entity corresponds to the Policy Decision Point of this signaling, the Endpoint may make a request for QoS from
(PDP) (see [RFC2753]). the network. For example, a SIP Agent is one kind of Application
Endpoint.
AAA Cloud Application Server (AppS)
An Application Server is an entity that exchanges signaling
messages with an Application Endpoint (see above). It may be a
source of authorization for QoS-enhanced application flows. For
example, a SIP server is one kind of Application Server.
An infrastructure of AAA entities (clients, agents, servers) based Authorizing Entity (AE)
on a AAA protocol, which provides trusted secure connections The Authorizing Entity is a Diameter server that supports the QoS
between them. It offers authentication, authorization and application. It is responsible for authorizing QoS requests for a
accounting services to applications in flexible local and roaming particular application flow or aggregate. The Authorizing Entity
scenarios. Diameter [RFC3588] and RADIUS [RFC2865] are both may be a standalone entity or may be integrated with an
widely deployed AAA protocols. Application Server and may be co-located with a subscriber
database. This entity corresponds to the Policy Decision Point
(PDP) [RFC2753].
Network Element (NE) Network Element (NE)
A QoS aware router that acts as a Diameter client for the QoS
QoS aware router that acts as Diameter client that implements the application. This entity triggers the protocol interaction for
Diameter QoS application in the context of this document. For the Pull mode, and it is the recipient of QoS information in the
almost all scenarios this entity triggers the protocol interaction Push mode. The Network Element corresponds to the Policy
described in this document. This entity corresponds to the Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) [RFC2753].
Enforcement Point (PEP) (see [RFC2753]).
Pull Mode Pull Mode
In this mode, the QoS authorization process is invoked by the QoS In this mode, the QoS authorization process is invoked by the QoS
reservation request received from the endpoint. The Network reservation request received from the Application Endpoint. The
Element then requests the QoS authorization decision from the Network Element then requests the QoS authorization decision from
Authorizing entity. the Authorizing Entity.
Push Mode Push Mode
In this mode, the QoS authorization process is invoked by the In this mode, the QoS authorization process is invoked by the
request from Application Server or local policies in the request from Application Server or local policies in the
Authorizing Entity. The Authorizing Entity then installs the QoS Authorizing Entity. The Authorizing Entity then installs the QoS
authorization decision to the Network Element directly. authorization decision to the Network Element directly.
Resource Requesting Entity (RRE)
A Resource Requesting Entity is a logical entity that supports the
protocol interaction for QoS resources. The RRE resides in the
end-host and is able to communicate with peer logical entities in
an Authorizing Entity or a Network Element to trigger the QoS
authorization process.
3. Framework 3. Framework
The Diameter QoS application runs between a network element (acting The Diameter QoS application runs between a NE (acting as a Diameter
as a Diameter client) and the resource authorizing entity (acting as client) and the resource AE (acting as a Diameter server). A high-
a Diameter server). A high-level picture of the resulting level picture of the resulting architecture is shown in Figure 1.
architecture is shown in Figure 1.
+-------+---------+ +-------+---------+
| Authorizing | | Authorizing |
| Entity | | Entity |
|(Diameter Server)| |(Diameter Server)|
+-------+---------+ +-------+---------+
| |
| |
/\-----+-----/\ /\-----+-----/\
//// \\\\ //// \\\\
skipping to change at page 7, line 33 skipping to change at page 7, line 32
|| || || ||
\\\\ //// \\\\ ////
\-------+-----/ \-------+-----/
| |
+---+--+ +-----+----+ +---+--+ +---+--+ +-----+----+ +---+--+
| | | NE | | | Media | | | NE | | | Media
+ NE +===+(Diameter +===+ NE +=============>> + NE +===+(Diameter +===+ NE +=============>>
| | | Client) | | | Flow | | | Client) | | | Flow
+------+ +----------+ +------+ +------+ +----------+ +------+
Figure 1: An Architecture supporting QoS-AAA Figure 1: An Architecture Supporting QoS-AAA
Figure 1 depicts network elements through which media flows need to Figure 1 depicts NEs through which media flows need to pass, a cloud
pass, a cloud of AAA servers, and an authorizing entity. Note that of AAA servers, and an AE. Note that there may be more than one
there may be more than one router that needs to interact with the AAA router that needs to interact with the AAA cloud along the path of a
cloud along the path of a given application flow, although the figure given application flow, although the figure only depicts one for
only depicts one for clarity. clarity.
In some deployment scenarios, QoS aware network elements may request In some deployment scenarios, NEs may request authorization through
authorization through the AAA cloud based on an incoming QoS the AAA cloud based on an incoming QoS reservation request. The NE
reservation request. The network element will route the request to a will route the request to a designated AE. The AE will return the
designated authorizing entity. The authorizing entity will return result of the authorization decision. In other deployment scenarios,
the result of the authorization decision. In other deployment the authorization will be initiated upon dynamic application state,
scenarios, the authorization will be initiated upon dynamic so that the request must be authenticated and authorized based on
application state, so that the request must be authenticated and information from one or more AppSs. After receiving the
authorized based on information from one or more application servers. authorization request from the AppS or the NE, the AE decides the
After receiving the authorization request from the application server appropriate mode (i.e. Push or Pull). The usage Push or Pull mode
or the network element, the authorizing entity decides the can be determined by the authorizing entity either statically or
appropriate mode (i.e. Push or Pull). The Push or Pull mode can be dynamically. Static determination might be based on a configurable
dynamically determined based on the information received from the defined policy in the authorizing entity, while dynamic determination
request of the application server and/or the information (e.g. might be based on information received from an application server.
policy) in the authorizing entity, or statically configured according For Push mode, the authorizing entity needs to identify the
to operator's demand, or the messages between AE and NE. The appropriate NE(s) to which QoS authorization information needs to be
Authorizing Entity may identify the access network through the use of pushed. It might determine this based on information received from
some out-of-band signaling, such as SIP, Diameter, which may be sent the AppS, such as the IP addresses of media flows.
from the application server to Authorizing Entity, and then select
appropriate resource admission and control policies.
If defined properly, the interface between the routers and AAA cloud In some deployment scenarios, there is a mapping between access
would be identical in both cases. Routers are therefore insulated network type and the service logic (e.g. selection of the Push or
from the details of particular applications and need not know that Pull mode, and other differentiated handling of the resource
application servers are involved at all. Also, the AAA cloud would admission and control). The access network type might be derived
naturally encompass business relationships such as those between from the authorization request from the AppS or the NE, and in this
network operators and third-party application providers, enabling case, the authorizing entity can identify the corresponding service
flexible intra- or inter-domain authorization, accounting, and logic based on the mapping.
settlement.
3.1. Network element functional model If defined properly, the interface between the NEs and AAA cloud
would be identical whether the AE communicates with an AppS or not.
Routers are therefore insulated from the details of particular
applications and need not know that Application Servers are involved
at all. Also, the AAA cloud would naturally encompass business
relationships such as those between network operators and third-party
application providers, enabling flexible intra- or inter-domain
authorization, accounting, and settlement.
3.1. Network Element Functional Model
Figure 2 depicts a logical operational model of resource management Figure 2 depicts a logical operational model of resource management
in a router. in a router.
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
| DIAMETER Client | | DIAMETER Client |
| Functionality | | Functionality |
| +---------------++-----------------++---------------+ | | +---------------++-----------------++---------------+ |
| | User || QoS Application || Accounting | | | | User || QoS Application || Accounting | |
| | Authentication|| Client || Client (e.g. | | | | Authentication|| Client || Client (e.g. | |
skipping to change at page 9, line 47 skipping to change at page 9, line 47
| Packet | | Interface | .+----------+ +---------+. | Packet | | Interface | .+----------+ +---------+.
===>|Processing|====| Selection |===.| Packet |====| Packet |.=> ===>|Processing|====| Selection |===.| Packet |====| Packet |.=>
| | |(Forwarding)| .|Classifier| Scheduler|. | | |(Forwarding)| .|Classifier| Scheduler|.
+----------+ +------------+ .+----------+ +---------+. +----------+ +------------+ .+----------+ +---------+.
............................. .............................
<.-.-> = signaling flow <.-.-> = signaling flow
=====> = data flow (sender --> receiver) =====> = data flow (sender --> receiver)
<<<>>> = control and configuration operations <<<>>> = control and configuration operations
****** = routing table manipulation ****** = routing table manipulation
Figure 2: Network element functional model Figure 2: Network Element Functional Model
Processing of incoming QoS reservation requests includes three Processing of incoming QoS reservation requests includes three
actions: admission control, authorization and resource reservation. actions: admission control, authorization and resource reservation.
The admission control function provides information for available The admission control function provides information about available
resources and determines whether there are enough resources to resources and determines whether there are enough resources to
fulfill the request. Authorization is performed by the Diameter fulfill the request. Authorization is performed by the Diameter
client function which involves contacting an authorization entity client, which involves contacting an authorization entity through the
through the AAA cloud shown in Section 3. If both checks are AAA cloud shown in Section 3. If both checks are successful, the
successful, the authorized QoS parameters are set in the packet authorized QoS parameters are set in the packet classifier and the
classifier and the packet scheduler. Note that the parameters passed packet scheduler. Note that the parameters passed to the Traffic
to the Traffic Control function may be different from requested QoS Control function may be different from requested QoS (depending on
(depending on the authorization decision). Once the requested the authorization decision). Once the requested resource is granted,
resource is granted, the Resource Management function provides the Resource Management function provides accounting information to
accounting information to the Authorizing entity using the Diameter the AE via the Diameter client.
client function.
3.2. Implications of Endpoint QoS Capabilities 3.2. Implications of Endpoint QoS Capabilities
3.2.1. Category 3.2.1. Endpoint Categories
The QoS capabilities of endpoints are varied, which can be The QoS capabilities of Application Endpoints are varied, and can be
categorized as follows: categorized as follows:
o Category 1 endpoint: Has no QoS capability at both application and
network levels. This type of endpoint may set up a connection Category 1
through application signaling, but it is unable to specify any A Category 1 Application Endpoint has QoS capability at neither
resource/QoS requirements either through application signaling or the application nor the network level. This type of AppE may set
does not support network signaling at all. up a connection through application signaling, but it is incapable
o Category 2 endpoint: Only has QoS capability at the application of specifying resource/QoS requirements through either application
level. This type of endpoint is able to set up a connection or network-level signaling.
through application signaling with certain resource/QoS
Category 2
A Category 2 Application Endpoint only has QoS capability at the
application level. This type of AppE is able to set up a
connection through application signaling with certain resource/QoS
requirements (e.g., application attributes), but it is unable to requirements (e.g., application attributes), but it is unable to
specify any network level resource/QoS requirements (e.g., network signal any resource/QoS requirements at the network level.
QoS class) through network signaling e.g., RSVP or NSIS (or does
not support network layer signaling at all).
o Category 3 endpoint: Has QoS capability at the network level.
This type of endpoint may set up a connection through application
signaling and translate service characteristics into network
resource/QoS requirements (e.g., network QoS class) locally, and
request the resources through network signaling, e.g., RSVP or
NSIS.
3.2.2. Interaction modes between authorizing entity and network element Category 3
A Category 3 Application Endpoint has QoS capability at the
network level. This type of AppE may set up a connection through
application signaling, translate service characteristics into
network resource/QoS requirements (e.g., network QoS class)
locally, and request the resources through network signaling,
e.g., Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) [RFC2205] or NSIS
[I-D.ietf-nsis-qos-nslp].
3.2.2. Interaction Modes Between the Authorizing Entity and Network
Element
Different QoS mechanisms are employed in packet networks. Those QoS Different QoS mechanisms are employed in packet networks. Those QoS
mechanisms can be categorized into two schemes: IntServ and DiffServ. mechanisms can be categorized into two schemes: IntServ [RFC2211],
In the IntServ scheme, network signaling (e.g., RSVP, NSIS, or link [RFC2212] and DiffServ [RFC2474]. In the IntServ scheme, network
specific signaling) is commonly used to initiate a request from signaling (e.g., RSVP, NSIS, or link specific signaling) is commonly
endpoint for desired QoS resource of media flow. In the DiffServ used to initiate a request from an AppE for the desired QoS resource.
scheme, the QoS resources are provisioned based on some predefined In the DiffServ scheme, QoS resources are provisioned based upon some
QoS service classes instead of endpoint initiated per flow based QoS predefined QoS service classes rather than AppE-initiated, flow-based
request. QoS requests.
It is obvious that the eligible QoS scheme is correlated to the It is obvious that the eligible QoS scheme is correlated to the
endpoint's capability in the context of QoS authorization. Since AppE's capability in the context of QoS authorization. Since
category 1 and 2 endpoints cannot initiate the QoS resource requests Category 1 and 2 AppEs cannot initiate the QoS resource requests by
through the network signaling, the IntServ model is not applicable to means of network signaling, the IntServ model is not applicable to
them in general. Depending on network technology and operator's them in general. Depending on network technology and operator
demand, a category 3 endpoint may either make use of the network requirements, a Category 3 AppE may either make use of network
signaling for requesting the resource or not perform the request. signaling for resource requests or not.
The diversity of QoS capabilities of endpoints and QoS schemes of The diversity of QoS capabilities of endpoints and QoS schemes of
network technology leads to the distinction on the interaction mode network technology leads to the distinction on the interaction mode
between QoS authorization system and underlying network elements. between QoS authorization system and underlying NEs. When the
When the IntServ scheme is employed by category 3 endpoint, the IntServ scheme is employed by a Category 3 endpoint, the
authorization process is typically initiated by network element when authorization process is typically initiated by a NE when a trigger
a trigger such as the network signaling is received from the such as network signaling is received from the endpoint. In the
endpoint. In the DiffServ scheme, since the network element is DiffServ scheme, since the NE is unable to request the resource
unable to request the resource authorization on its own initiative, authorization on its own initiative, the authorization process is
the authorization process is typically triggered upon either the typically triggered by either the request of AppSs or policies
request of application servers or policies defined by the operator. defined by the operator.
As a consequence, two interaction modes are needed in support of As a consequence, two interaction modes are needed in support of
different combinations of QoS schemes and endpoint's QoS different combinations of QoS schemes and endpoint's QoS
capabilities: Push mode and Pull mode. capabilities: Push mode and Pull mode.
o Push mode: The QoS authorization process is triggered by Push mode
application servers or local network conditions (e.g., time of day The QoS authorization process is triggered by AppSs or local
on resource usage and QoS classes), and the authorization network conditions (e.g., time of day on resource usage and QoS
decisions are installed by the authorizing entity to the network classes), and the authorization decisions are installed by the AE
element on its own initiative without explicit request. In order to the network element on its own initiative without explicit
to support the push mode, the authorizing entity (i.e., Diameter request. In order to support the push mode, the AE (i.e.,
server) should be able to initiate a Diameter authorization Diameter server) should be able to initiate a Diameter
session to communicate with the network element (i.e., Diameter authorization session to communicate with the NE (i.e., Diameter
client) without any pre-established connection from the network client) without any pre-established connection from the network
element. element.
o Pull mode: The QoS authorization process is triggered by the
network signaling received from end user equipments or by the
local event in the network element according to pre-configured
policies, and authorization decisions are produced upon the
request of the network element. In order to support the pull
mode, the network element (i.e., Diameter client) will initiate a
Diameter authorization session to communicate with authorizing
entity (i.e., Diameter server).
For category 1 and 2 endpoints, the Push mode is required, in Pull mode
particular, category 1 endpoint requires network initiated push mode The QoS authorization process is triggered by the network
and category 2 endpoint may use both them. For category 3 endpoint, signaling received from end-user equipment or by a local event in
either push mode or pull mode is doable. the NE according to pre-configured policies, and authorization
decisions are produced upon the request of the NE. In order to
support the pull mode, the NE (i.e., Diameter client) will
initiate a Diameter authorization session to communicate with the
authorizing entity (i.e., Diameter server).
The Push mode is applicable to certain networks, for example, Cable For Category 1 and 2 Application Endpoints, Push mode is required.
network, DSL, Ethernet, Diffserv enabled IP/MPLS as defined by other For a Category 3 AppE, either Push mode or Pull mode may be used.
SDOs, e.g., ETSI TISPAN and ITU-T. The Pull mode is more appropriate
to IntServ enabled IP networks or certain wireless networks such as
GPRS networks as defined by 3GPP/PP2. Some networks, e.g., WiMAX may
require both Push and Pull modes.
3.3. Schemes Push mode is applicable to certain networks, for example, Cable
network, DSL, Ethernet, and Diffserv-enabled IP/MPLS as defined by
other SDOs (e.g., ETSI TISPAN and ITU-T}. The Pull mode is more
appropriate to IntServ-enabled IP networks or certain wireless
networks such as the GPRS networks defined by 3GPP. Some networks
(for example, WiMAX) may require both Push and Pull modes.
3.3.1. Schemes for pull mode 3.3. Authorization Schemes
Three basic authorization schemes for pull mode exist: one two-party 3.3.1. Pull Mode Schemes
Three basic authorization schemes for Pull mode exist: one two-party
and two three-party schemes. The notation adopted here is in respect and two three-party schemes. The notation adopted here is in respect
to the entity that performs the QoS authorization. The to the entity that performs the QoS authorization. The
authentication of the QoS requesting entity might be done at the authentication of the QoS requesting entity might be done at the NE
network element as part of the QoS signaling protocol, or by an off- as part of the QoS signaling protocol, or by an off-path protocol run
path protocol run (on the application layer or for network access (on the application layer or for network access authentication) or
authentication) or the authorizing entity might be contacted with the AE might be contacted with request for authentication and
request for authentication and authorization of the QoS requesting authorization of the QoS requesting entity. From the Diameter QoS
entity. From the Diameter QoS application's point of view these application's point of view these schemes differ in type of
schemes differ in type of information that need to be carried. Here information that need to be carried. Here we focus on the 'Basic
we focus on the 'Three party scheme' (see Figure 3) and the 'Token- Three Party Scheme' (see Figure 3) and the 'Token-based Three Party
based three party scheme' (see Figure 4). With the 'two party Scheme' (see Figure 4). In the 'Two Party Scheme', the QoS RRE is
scheme' the QoS resource requesting entity is authenticated by the authenticated by the NE and the authorization decision is made either
Network Element and the authorization decision is made either locally locally at the NE itself or offloaded to a trusted entity (most
at the Network Element itself or offloaded to a trusted entity (most likely within the same administrative domain). In the two-party case
likely within the same administrative domain). In the former case no no Diameter QoS protocol interaction is required.
Diameter QoS protocol interaction is required.
+--------------+ +--------------+
| Entity | | Entity |
| authorizing | <......+ | authorizing | <......+
| resource | . | resource | .
| request | . | request | .
+------------+-+ . +------------+-+ .
--^----------|-- . . --^----------|-- . .
///// | | \\\\\ . ///// | | \\\\\ .
// | | \\ . // | | \\ .
skipping to change at page 13, line 29 skipping to change at page 13, line 29
QoS --|----------v-- . . QoS --|----------v-- . .
+-------------+ request +-+------------+ . +-------------+ request +-+------------+ .
| Entity |----------------->| NE | . | Entity |----------------->| NE | .
| requesting | | performing | . | requesting | | performing | .
| resource |granted / rejected| QoS | <.....+ | resource |granted / rejected| QoS | <.....+
| |<-----------------| reservation | financial | |<-----------------| reservation | financial
+-------------+ +--------------+ settlement +-------------+ +--------------+ settlement
Figure 3: Three Party Scheme Figure 3: Three Party Scheme
With the 'three party scheme' a QoS reservation request that arrives In the 'Basic Three Party Scheme' a QoS reservation request that
at the Network Element is forwarded to the Authorizing Entity (e.g., arrives at the NE is forwarded to the Authorizing Entity (e.g., in
in the user's home network), where the authorization decision is the user's home network), where the authorization decision is made.
made. A business relationship, such as a roaming agreement, between A business relationship, such as a roaming agreement, between the
the visited network and the home network ensures that the visited visited network and the home network ensures that the visited network
network is compensated for the resources consumed by the user via the is compensated for the resources consumed by the user via the home
home network. network.
financial settlement financial settlement
...........................+ ...........................+
Authorization V ------- . Authorization V ------- .
Token Request +--------------+ / QoS AAA \ . Token Request +--------------+ / QoS AAA \ .
+-------------->| | / protocol \ . +-------------->| | / protocol \ .
| | Authorizing +--------------+ \ . | | Authorizing +--------------+ \ .
| | Entity | | | | . | | Entity | | | | .
| +------+ |<--+----+ | | . | +------+ |<--+----+ | | .
| | +--------------+ |QoS | |QoS |. | | +--------------+ |QoS | |QoS |.
skipping to change at page 14, line 30 skipping to change at page 14, line 30
| | QoS request |-----V . . | | QoS request |-----V . .
+-------------+ + Authz. Token +--------+-----+ . +-------------+ + Authz. Token +--------+-----+ .
| Entity |----------------->| NE | . | Entity |----------------->| NE | .
| requesting | | performing | . | requesting | | performing | .
| resource |granted / rejected| QoS | <....+ | resource |granted / rejected| QoS | <....+
| |<-----------------| reservation | | |<-----------------| reservation |
+-------------+ +--------------+ +-------------+ +--------------+
Figure 4: Token-based Three Party Scheme Figure 4: Token-based Three Party Scheme
The 'Token-based Three Party scheme' is applicable to environments The 'Token-based Three Party Scheme' is applicable to environments
where a previous protocol interaction is used to request where a previous protocol interaction is used to request
authorization tokens to assist the authorization process at the authorization tokens to assist the authorization process at the NE or
Network Element or the Authorizing Entity. the AE [RFC3521].
The QoS resource requesting entity may be involved in an application The QoS RRE may be involved in an application layer protocol
layer protocol interaction, for example using SIP, with the interaction, for example using SIP [RFC3313], with the AE. As part
Authorizing Entity. As part of this interaction, authentication and of this interaction, authentication and authorization at the
authorization at the application layer might take place. As a result application layer might take place. As a result of a successful
of a successful authorization decision, which might involve the authorization decision, which might involve the user's home AAA
user's home AAA server, an authorization token is generated by the server, an authorization token is generated by the AE (e.g., the SIP
Authorizing Entity (e.g., the SIP proxy and an entity trusted by the proxy and an entity trusted by the SIP proxy) and returned to the end
SIP proxy) and returned to the end host for inclusion into the QoS host for inclusion into the QoS signaling protocol. The
signaling protocol. The authorization token will be used by a authorization token will be used by a NE that receives the QoS
Network Element that receives the QoS signaling message to authorize signaling message to authorize the QoS request. Alternatively, the
the QoS request. Alternatively, the Diameter QoS application will be Diameter QoS application will be used to forward the authorization
used to forward the authorization token to the user's home network. token to the user's home network. The authorization token allows the
The authorization token allows the authorization decision performed authorization decision performed at the application layer protocol
at the application layer protocol run to be associated with a run to be associated with a corresponding QoS signaling session.
corresponding QoS signaling session. Note that the authorization Note that the authorization token might either refer to established
token might either refer to established state concerning the state concerning the authorization decision or the token might itself
authorization decision or the token might itself carry the authorized carry the authorized parameters (protected by a digital signature or
parameters (protected by a digital signature or a keyed message a keyed message digest to prevent tampering). In the latter case the
digest to prevent tampering). In the latter case the authorization authorization token may contain several pieces of information
token may contain several pieces of information pertaining to the pertaining to the authorized application session, but at minimum it
authorized application session, but at minimum it should contain: should contain:
o An identifier of the Authorizing Entity (for example, of an o An identifier for the AE (for example, an AppS) that issued the
application server) that issued the authorization token, authorization token
o An identifier referring to a specific application protocol session o An identifier referring to a specific application protocol session
for which the token was issued and for which the token was issued and
o A keyed message digest or digital signature protecting the content o A keyed message digest or digital signature protecting the content
of the authorization token. of the authorization token
A possible structure for the authorization token and the policy A possible structure for the authorization token and the policy
element carrying it are proposed in context of RSVP [RFC3520]. element carrying it are proposed in context of RSVP [RFC3520].
In the scenario mentioned above, where the QoS resource requesting In the scenario mentioned above, where the QoS resource requesting
entity is involved in an application layer protocol interaction with entity is involved in an application layer protocol interaction with
the Authorizing entity, it may be worthwhile to consider a token less the AE, it may be worthwhile to consider a token-less binding
binding mechanism also. The application layer protocol interaction mechanism also. The application layer protocol interaction may have
may have indicated the transport port numbers at the QoS resource indicated the transport port numbers at the QoS RRE where it might
requesting entity where it might receive media streams, for example receive media streams (for example in SIP/SDP [RFC4566] signalling,
in SIP/SDP signalling these port numbers are advertised. The QoS these port numbers are advertised). The QoS RRE may also use these
resource requesting entity may also use these port numbers in some IP port numbers in some IP filter indications to the NE performing QoS
filter indications to the NE performing QoS reservation so that it reservation so that it may properly tunnel the inbound packets. The
may properly tunnel the inbound packets. The NE performing QoS NE performing QoS reservation will forward the QoS resource
reservation will forward the QoS resource requesting entity's IP requesting entity's IP address and the IP filter indications to the
address and the IP filter indications to the Authorizing entity in AE in the QoS authorization request. The AE will use the QoS RRE's
the QoS authz. request. The Authorizing entity will use the QoS IP address and the port numbers in the IP filter indication, which
resource requesting entity's IP address and the port numbers in the will match the port numbers advertised in the earlier application
IP filter indication, which will match the port numbers advertised in layer protocol interaction, to identify the right piece of policy
the earlier application layer protocol interaction, to identify the information to be sent to the NE performing the QoS reservation in
right piece of policy information to be sent to the NE performing the the QoS authz. response.
QoS reservation in the QoS authz. response.
3.3.2. Schemes for push mode 3.3.2. Push Mode Schemes
The push mode can be further divided into two types: endpoint The push mode can be further divided into two types: endpoint-
initiated and network initiated. In the former case, the initiated and network-initiated. In the former case, the
authorization process is triggered by application server upon authorization process is triggered by AppS in response to an explicit
explicit QoS request from endpoints through application signaling, QoS request from an endpoint through application signaling, e.g.
e.g. SIP; in the latter case, the authorization process is triggered SIP; in the latter case, the authorization process is triggered by
by application server without explicit QoS request from endpoint. the AppS without an explicit QoS request from an endpoint.
In the endpoint initiated scheme, the QoS resource requesting entity In the endpoint-initiated scheme, the QoS RRE (i.e., the AppE)
(i.e. endpoint) determines the required application level QoS and determines the required application level QoS and sends a QoS request
sends the QoS request through application signaling message, the through an application signaling message. The AppS will extract
Application Server will extract application level QoS information and application-level QoS information and trigger the authorization
trigger the authorization process to Authorizing entity. In the process to the AE. In the network-initiated scheme, the AE and/or
network initiated scheme, the Authorizing entity and/or Application AppS should derive and determine the QoS requirements according to
server should derive and determine the QoS requirement according to
application attribute, subscription and endpoint's capability when application attribute, subscription and endpoint's capability when
the endpoint does not explicitly indicate the QoS attributes. The the endpoint does not explicitly indicate the QoS attributes. The AE
authorizing entity makes authorization decision based on application makes an authorization decision based on application level QoS
level QoS information, network policies, end user subscription and information, network policies, end-user subscription, network
network resource availability etc., and installs the decision to resource availability, etc., and installs the decision to NE
network element directly. directly.
A Category 1 AppE requires network-initiated Push mode and a Category
2 AppE may use either mode
financial settlement financial settlement
...........................+ ...........................+
Application V ------- . Application V ------- .
signaling msg +--------------+ / QoS AAA \ . signaling msg +--------------+ / QoS AAA \ .
+-------------->| | / protocol \ . +-------------->| | / protocol \ .
| | Authorizing +--------------+ \ . | | Authorizing +--------------+ \ .
| | Entity | | | | . | | Entity | | | | .
| + |<--+----+ | | . | + |<--+----+ | | .
| +--------------+ |QoS | |QoS |. | +--------------+ |QoS | |QoS |.
skipping to change at page 16, line 40 skipping to change at page 16, line 41
| resource |QoS rsrc granted | QoS | <....+ | resource |QoS rsrc granted | QoS | <....+
| |<-----------------| reservation | | |<-----------------| reservation |
+-------------+ +--------------+ +-------------+ +--------------+
Figure 5: Scheme for Push Mode Figure 5: Scheme for Push Mode
3.4. QoS Application Requirements 3.4. QoS Application Requirements
A QoS application must meet a number of requirements applicable to a A QoS application must meet a number of requirements applicable to a
diverse set of networking environments and services. It should be diverse set of networking environments and services. It should be
compliant with different deployment scenarios with specific QoS compatible with different deployment scenarios having specific QoS
signaling models and security issues. Satisfying the requirements signaling models and security issues. Satisfying the requirements
listed below while interworking with QoS signaling protocols, a listed below while interworking with QoS signaling protocols, a
Diameter QoS application should accommodate the capabilities of the Diameter QoS application should accommodate the capabilities of the
QoS signaling protocols rather than introducing functional QoS signaling protocols rather than introducing functional
requirements on them. A list of requirements for a QoS authorization requirements on them. A list of requirements for a QoS authorization
application is provided here: application is provided here:
Inter-domain support Inter-domain support
In particular, users may roam outside their home network, leading In particular, users may roam outside their home network, leading
to a situation where the network element and authorizing entity to a situation where the NE and AE are in different administrative
are in different administrative domains. domains.
Identity-based Routing Identity-based Routing
The QoS AAA protocol MUST route AAA requests to the Authorizing The QoS AAA protocol MUST route AAA requests to the Authorizing
Entity, based on the provided identity of the QoS requesting Entity, based on the provided identity of the QoS requesting
entity or the identity of the Authorizing entity encoded in the entity or the identity of the AE encoded in the provided
provided authorization token. authorization token.
Flexible Authentication Support Flexible Authentication Support
The QoS AAA protocol MUST support a variety of different The QoS AAA protocol MUST support a variety of different
authentication protocols for verification of authentication authentication protocols for verification of authentication
information present in QoS signaling messages. The support for information present in QoS signaling messages. The support for
these protocols MAY be provided indirectly by tying the signaling these protocols MAY be provided indirectly by tying the signaling
communication for QoS to a previous authentication protocol communication for QoS to a previous authentication protocol
exchange (e.g., using network access authentication). exchange (e.g., using network access authentication).
Making an Authorization Decision Making an Authorization Decision
The QoS AAA protocol MUST exchange sufficient information between The QoS AAA protocol MUST exchange sufficient information between
the authorizing entity and the enforcing entity (and vice versa) the AE and the enforcing entity (and vice versa) to compute an
to compute an authorization decision and to execute this decision. authorization decision and to execute this decision.
Triggering an Authorization Process Triggering an Authorization Process
The QoS AAA protocol MUST allow periodic and event triggered The QoS AAA protocol MUST allow periodic and event triggered
execution of the authorization process, originated at the execution of the authorization process, originated at the
enforcing entity or even at the authorizing entity. enforcing entity or even at the AE.
Associating QoS Reservations and Application State Associating QoS Reservations and Application State
The QoS AAA protocol MUST carry information sufficient for an AppS
The QoS AAA protocol MUST carry information sufficient for an to identify the appropriate application session and associate it
application server to identify the appropriate application session with a particular QoS reservation.
and associate it with a particular QoS reservation.
Dynamic Authorization Dynamic Authorization
It MUST be possible for the QoS AAA protocol to push updates It MUST be possible for the QoS AAA protocol to push updates
towards the network element(s) from authorizing entities. towards the NE(s) from authorizing entities.
Bearer Gating Bearer Gating
The QoS AAA protocol MUST allow the AE to gate (i.e., enable/
The QoS AAA protocol MUST allow the authorizing entity to gate disable) authorized application flows based on, e.g., application
(i.e., enable/disable) authorized application flows based on, state transitions.
e.g., application state transitions.
Accounting Records Accounting Records
The QoS AAA protocol may define QoS accounting records containing The QoS AAA protocol may define QoS accounting records containing
duration, volume (byte count) usage information and description of duration, volume (byte count) usage information and description of
the QoS attributes (e.g., bandwidth, delay, loss rate) that were the QoS attributes (e.g., bandwidth, delay, loss rate) that were
supported for the flow. supported for the flow.
Sending Accounting Records Sending Accounting Records
The NE SHOULD be able to send accounting records for a particular
The network element SHOULD be able to send accounting records for QoS reservation state to an accounting entity.
a particular QoS reservation state to an accounting entity.
Failure Notification Failure Notification
The QoS AAA protocol MUST allow the NE to report failures, such as
The QoS AAA protocol MUST allow the network element to report loss of connectivity due to movement of a mobile node or other
failures, such as loss of connectivity due to movement of a mobile reasons for packet loss, to the authorizing entity.
node or other reasons for packet loss, to the authorizing entity.
Accounting Correlation Accounting Correlation
The QoS AAA protocol may support the exchange of sufficient The QoS AAA protocol may support the exchange of sufficient
information to allow for correlation between accounting records information to allow for correlation between accounting records
generated by the network elements and accounting records generated generated by the NEs and accounting records generated by an AppS.
by an application server.
Interaction with other AAA Applications Interaction with other AAA Applications
Interaction with other AAA applications such as Diameter Network Interaction with other AAA applications such as Diameter Network
Access (NASREQ) application [RFC4005] is required for exchange of Access (NASREQ) application [RFC4005] is required for exchange of
authorization, authentication and accounting information. authorization, authentication and accounting information.
In deployment scenarios, where authentication of the QoS reservation In deployment scenarios where authentication of the QoS reservation
requesting entity (e.g., the user) is done by means outside the requesting entity (e.g., the user) is done by means outside the
Diameter QoS application protocol interaction the Authorizing Entity Diameter QoS application protocol interaction, the AE is contacted
is contacted only with a request for QoS authorization. only with a request for QoS authorization. Authentication might have
Authentication might have taken place already via the interaction taken place already via the interaction with the Diameter NASREQ
with the Diameter NASREQ application or as part of the QoS signaling application or as part of the QoS signaling protocol (e.g., Transport
protocol (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS) handshake in the Layer Security (TLS) [RFC4346] in the General Internet Signaling
General Internet Signaling Transport (GIST) protocol, see Transport (GIST) protocol [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]).
[I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]).
Authentication of the QoS reservation requesting entity to the Authentication of the QoS reservation requesting entity to the AE is
Authorizing Entity is necessary if a particular Diameter QoS necessary if a particular Diameter QoS application protocol run
application protocol run cannot be related (or if there is no cannot be related (or if there is no intention to relate it) to a
intention to relate it) to a prior authentication. In this case the prior authentication. In this case the AE MUST authenticate the QoS
Authorizing Entity MUST authenticate the QoS reservation requesting reservation requesting entity in order to authorize the QoS request
entity in order to authorize the QoS request as part of the Diameter as part of the Diameter QoS protocol interaction.
QoS protocol interaction.
The document refers to three types of sessions that need to be The document refers to three types of sessions that need to be
properly correlated. properly correlated.
QoS signaling session QoS Signaling Session
The time period during which a QoS signaling protocol establishes, The time period during which a QoS signaling protocol establishes,
maintains and deletes a QoS reservation state at the QoS network maintains and deletes a QoS reservation state at the QoS network
element is referred as QoS signaling session. Different QoS element is referred to as QoS signaling session. Different QoS
signaling protocols use different ways to identify QoS signaling signaling protocols use different ways to identify QoS signaling
sessions. The same applies to different usage environments. sessions. The same applies to different usage environments.
Currently, this document supports three types of QoS session Currently, this document supports three types of QoS session
identifiers, namely a signaling session id (e.g., the Session identifiers, namely a signaling session id (e.g., the Session
Identifier used by the NSIS protocol suite), a flow id (e.g., Identifier used by the NSIS protocol suite), a flow id (e.g.,
identifier assigned by an application to a certain flow as used in identifier assigned by an application to a certain flow as used in
the 3GPP) and a flow description based on the IP parameters of the the 3GPP) and a flow description based on the IP parameters of the
flow's end points. flow's end points.
Diameter authorization session Diameter Authorization Session
The time period, for which a Diameter server authorizes a The time period, for which a Diameter server authorizes a
requested service (i.e., QoS resource reservation) is referred to requested service (i.e., QoS resource reservation) is referred to
as a Diameter authorization session. It is identified by a as a Diameter authorization session. It is identified by a
Session-Id included in all Diameter messages used for management Session-Id included in all Diameter messages used for management
of the authorized service (initial authorization, re- of the authorized service (initial authorization, re-
authorization, termination), see [RFC3588]. authorization, termination), see [RFC3588].
Application layer session Application-layer Session
The application layer session identifies the duration of an The application layer session identifies the duration of an
application layer service which requires provision of certain QoS. application layer service which requires provision of certain QoS.
An application layer session identifier is provided by the QoS An application layer session identifier is provided by the QoS
requesting entity in the QoS signaling messages, for example as requesting entity in the QoS signaling messages, for example as
part of the authorization token. In general, the application part of the authorization token. In general, the application
session identifier is opaque to the QoS aware network elements. session identifier is opaque to the QoS aware NEs. It is included
It is included in the authorization request message sent to the in the authorization request message sent to the AE and helps it
Authorizing entity and helps it to correlate the QoS authorization to correlate the QoS authorization request to the application
request to the application session state information. session state information.
Correlating these sessions is done at each of the three involved Correlating these sessions is done at each of the three involved
entities: The QoS requesting entity correlates the application with entities: The QoS requesting entity correlates the application with
the QoS signaling sessions. The QoS network element correlates the the QoS signaling sessions. The QoS NE correlates the QoS signaling
QoS signaling session with the Diameter authorization sessions. The session with the Diameter authorization sessions. The AE SHOULD bind
Authorizing entity SHOULD bind the information about the three the information about the three sessions together. Note that in
sessions together. Note that in certain scenarios not all of the certain scenarios not all of the sessions are present. For example,
sessions are present. For example, the application session might not the application session might not be visible to QoS signaling
be visible to QoS signaling protocol directly if there is no binding protocol directly if there is no binding between the application
between the application session and the QoS requesting entity using session and the QoS requesting entity using the QoS signaling
the QoS signaling protocol. protocol.
4. QoS Application Session Establishment and Management 4. QoS Application Session Establishment and Management
4.1. Parties involved 4.1. Parties Involved
Authorization models supported by this application include three Authorization models supported by this application include three
parties: parties:
o Resource requesting entity o Resource Requesting Entity
o Network Elements (Diameter QoS application (DQA) client) o Network Elements (Diameter QoS application (DQA) client)
o Authorizing Entity (Diameter QoS application (DQA) server) o Authorizing Entity (Diameter QoS application (DQA) server)
Note that the QoS resource requesting entity is only indirectly Note that the QoS RRE is only indirectly involved in the message
involved in the message exchange. This entity provides the trigger exchange. This entity provides the trigger to initiate the Diameter
to initiate the Diameter QoS protocol interaction by transmitting QoS QoS protocol interaction by transmitting QoS signaling messages. The
signaling messages. The Diameter QoS application is only executed Diameter QoS application is only executed between the Network Element
between the Network Element (i.e., DQA client) and the Authorizing (i.e., DQA client) and the Authorizing Entity (i.e., DQA server).
Entity (i.e., DQA server).
The QoS resource requesting entity may communicate with the The QoS RRE may communicate with the AE using application layer
Authorizing Entity using application layer signaling for negotiation signaling for negotiation of service parameters. As part of this
of service parameters. As part of this application layer protocol application layer protocol interaction, for example using SIP,
interaction, for example using SIP, authentication and authorization authentication and authorization might take place. This message
might take place. This message exchange is, however, outside the exchange is, however, outside the scope of this document. The
scope of this document. The protocol communication between the QoS protocol communication between the QoS resource requesting entity and
resource requesting entity and the QoS Network Element might be the QoS NE might be accomplished using the NSIS protocol suite, RSVP
accomplished using the NSIS protocol suite, RSVP or a link layer or a link layer signaling protocol. A description of these protocols
signaling protocol. A description of these protocols is also outside is also outside the scope of this document and a tight coupling with
the scope of this document and a tight coupling with these protocols these protocols is not desirable since this applications aims to be
is not desirable since this applications aims to be generic. generic.
4.2. Session Establishment 4.2. Session Establishment
The Pull and Push modes use a different set of command codes for The Pull and Push modes use a different set of command codes for
session establishment. For other operations, such as session session establishment. For other operations, such as session
modification and termination, they use the same set of command codes. modification and termination, they use the same set of command codes.
The Pull mode or Push mode operation is invoked based on the trigger The selection of Pull mode or Push mode operation is based on the
of QoS Authorization session. When a QAR with a new session ID is trigger of the QoS Authorization session. When a QoS-Authz-Request
received, the Authorizing Entity operates in the pull mode; when (QAR, see Section 5.1) message with a new session ID is received, the
other triggers are received, the Authorizing Entity operates in the AE operates in the Pull mode; when other triggers are received, the
push mode. Similarly, when a QIR with new session ID is received, AE operates in the Push mode. Similarly, when a QoS-Install-Request
the Network Element operates in the push mode; when other triggers (QIR, see Section 5.3} with a new session ID is received, the NE
are received, the Network Element operation in the pull mode. operates in the Push mode; when other triggers are received, the NE
operation in the Pull mode.
4.2.1. Session establishment for pull mode 4.2.1. Session Establishment for Pull Mode
A request for a QoS reservation or local events received by a Network A request for a QoS reservation or local events received by a NE can
Element can trigger the initiation of a Diameter QoS authorization trigger the initiation of a Diameter QoS authorization session. The
session. The Network Element generates a QoS-Authorization-Request NE generates a QAR message in which the required objects from the QoS
(QAR) message in which it maps required objects from the QoS signaling message to Diameter AVPs.
signaling message to Diameter payload objects.
Figure 7 shows the protocol interaction between a resource requesting Figure 6 shows the protocol interaction between a Resource Requesting
entity, a Network Element and the Authorizing Entity. Entity, a Network Element and the Authorizing Entity.
The Authorizing Entity's identity, information about the application The AE's identity, information about the application session and/or
session and/or identity and credentials of the QoS resource identity and credentials of the QoS RRE, requested QoS parameters,
requesting entity, requested QoS parameters, signaling session signaling session identifier and/or QoS enabled data flows
identifier and/or QoS enabled data flows identifiers MAY be identifiers MAY be encapsulated into respective Diameter AVPs and
encapsulated into respective Diameter AVPs and included into the included in the Diameter message sent to the AE. The QAR is sent to
Diameter message sent to the Authorizing Entity. The QAR is sent to
a Diameter server that can either be the home server of the QoS a Diameter server that can either be the home server of the QoS
requesting entity or an application server. requesting entity or an AppS.
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-------------------+
| QoS specific Input Data | Diameter QoS AVPs | | QoS-specific Input Data | Diameter AVPs |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-------------------+
| Authorizing entity ID (e.g., | Destination-Host | | Authorizing entity ID (e.g., Destination-Host | Destination-Host |
| taken from authorization token | Destination-Realm | | taken from authorization token, | Destination-Realm |
| or derived based on Network | | | Destination-Realm or derived from the NAI of | |
| Access ID (NAI) [RFC4282] | | | the QoS requesting entity) | |
| of the QoS requesting entity) | | | | |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | Authorization Token Credentials of the QoS | QoS-Authz-Data |
| Authorization Token | QoS-Authz-Data | | requesting entity | User-Name |
| Credentials of | User-Name | | | |
| the QoS requesting entity | |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
| QoS parameters | QoS-Resources | | QoS parameters | QoS-Resources |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-------------------+
Table 1: Mapping Input Data to QoS AVPs--Pull Mode
Authorization processing starts at the Diameter QoS server when it Authorization processing starts at the Diameter QoS server when it
receives the QAR. Based on the information in the QoS- receives the QAR. Based on the information in the QoS-
Authentication-Data, User-Name and QoS-Resources AVPs the server Authentication-Data, User-Name and QoS-Resources AVPs the server
determines the authorized QoS resources and flow state (enabled/ determines the authorized QoS resources and flow state (enabled/
disabled) from locally available information (e.g., policy disabled) from locally available information (e.g., policy
information that may be previously established as part of an information that may be previously established as part of an
application layer signaling exchange, or the user's subscription application layer signaling exchange, or the user's subscription
profile). The QoS-Resources AVP is defined in profile). The QoS-Resources AVP is defined in
[I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes]. The authorization decision is then [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes]. The authorization decision is then
skipping to change at page 23, line 48 skipping to change at page 22, line 48
| | | | | |
| | +--------+--------------+ | | +--------+--------------+
| | | Report for successful | | | | Report for successful |
| | | QoS reservation | | | | QoS reservation |
| | |Update of reserved QoS | | | |Update of reserved QoS |
| | | resources | | | | resources |
| | +--------+--------------+ | | +--------+--------------+
| |< - - - - QAA - - - - - -+ | |< - - - - QAA - - - - - -+
| | | | | |
Figure 7: Initial QoS Request Authorization for pull Figure 6: Initial QoS Request Authorization for Pull Mode
The Authorizing Entity keeps authorization session state and SHOULD The Authorizing Entity keeps authorization session state and SHOULD
save additional information for management of the session (e.g., save additional information for management of the session (e.g.,
Signaling-Session-Id, authentication data) as part of the session Signaling-Session-Id, authentication data) as part of the session
state information. state information.
The final result of the authorization request is provided in the The final result of the authorization request is provided in the
Result-Code AVP of the QAA message sent by the Authorizing Entity. Result-Code AVP of the QAA message sent by the Authorizing Entity.
In case of successful authorization (i.e., Result-Code = In case of successful authorization (i.e., Result-Code =
DIAMETER_LIMITED_SUCCESS, (see Section 7.1)), information about the DIAMETER_LIMITED_SUCCESS, (see Section 7.1)), information about the
authorized QoS resources and the status of the authorized flow authorized QoS resources and the status of the authorized flow
(enabled/disabled) is provided in the QoS-Resources AVP of the QAA (enabled/disabled) is provided in the QoS-Resources AVP of the QAA
message. The QoS information provided via the QAA is installed by message. The QoS information provided via the QAA is installed by
the QoS Traffic Control function of the Network Element. The value the QoS Traffic Control function of the NE. The value
DIAMETER_LIMITED_SUCCESS indicates that the Authorizing entity DIAMETER_LIMITED_SUCCESS indicates that the AE expects confirmation
expects confirmation via another QAR message for successful QoS via another QAR message for successful QoS resource reservation and
resource reservation and for final reserved QoS resources (see for final reserved QoS resources (see below).
below).
One important piece of information returned from the Authorizing One important piece of information returned from the Authorizing
Entity is the authorization lifetime (carried inside the QAA). The Entity is the authorization lifetime (carried inside the QAA). The
authorization lifetime allows the Network Element to determine how authorization lifetime allows the NE to determine how long the
long the authorization decision is valid for this particular QoS authorization decision is valid for this particular QoS reservation.
reservation. A number of factors may influence the authorized A number of factors may influence the authorized session duration,
session duration, such as the user's subscription plan or currently such as the user's subscription plan or currently available credits
available credits at the user's account (see Section 8). The at the user's account (see Section 8). The authorization duration is
authorization duration is time-based as specified in [RFC3588]. For time-based as specified in [RFC3588]. For an extension of the
an extension of the authorization period, a new QoS-Authorization- authorization period, a new QoS-Authorization-Request/Answer message
Request/Answer message exchange SHOULD be initiated. Further aspects exchange SHOULD be initiated. Further aspects of QoS authorization
of QoS authorization session maintenance is discussed in Section 4.3, session maintenance is discussed in Section 4.3, Section 4.4 and
Section 4.4 and Section 8. Section 8.
The indication of a successful QoS reservation and activation of the The indication of a successful QoS reservation and activation of the
data flow is provided by the transmission of an QAR message, which data flow is provided by the transmission of a QAR message, which
reports the parameters of the established QoS state: reserved reports the parameters of the established QoS state: reserved
resources, duration of the reservation, and identification of the QoS resources, duration of the reservation, and identification of the QoS
enabled flow/QoS signaling session. The Diameter QoS server enabled flow/QoS signaling session. The Diameter QoS server
acknowledges the reserved QoS resources with the QA Answer (QAA) acknowledges the reserved QoS resources with the QA Answer (QAA)
message where the Result-Code is set to 'DIAMETER_SUCCESS'. Note message where the Result-Code is set to 'DIAMETER_SUCCESS'. Note
that the reserved QoS resources reported in this QAR message MAY be that the reserved QoS resources reported in this QAR message MAY be
different than those authorized with the initial QAA message, due to different than those authorized with the initial QAA message, due to
the QoS signaling specific behavior (e.g., receiver-initiated the QoS signaling specific behavior (e.g., receiver-initiated
reservations with One-Path-With-Advertisements) or specific process reservations with One-Path-With-Advertisements) or specific process
of QoS negotiation along the data path. of QoS negotiation along the data path.
4.2.2. Session establishment for push mode 4.2.2. Session Establishment for Push Mode
The Diameter QoS server in the Authorizing Entity initiates a The Diameter QoS server in the AE initiates a Diameter QoS
Diameter QoS authorization session upon the request for QoS authorization session upon the request for QoS reservation triggered
reservation triggered by application layer signaling or by local by application layer signaling or by local events, and generates a
events, and generates a QoS-Install-Request (QIR) message to Diameter QoS-Install-Request (QIR) message to Diameter QoS client in the NE in
QoS client in the NE in which it maps required objects to Diameter which it maps required objects to Diameter payload objects.
payload objects.
Figure 9 shows the protocol interaction between the Authorizing Figure 7 shows the protocol interaction between the AE, a Network
Entity, a Network Element and a resource requesting entity. Element and a RRE.
The Network Element's identity, information about the application The NE's identity, information about the application session and/or
session and/or identity and credentials of the QoS resource identity and credentials of the QoS resource requesting entity,
requesting entity, requested QoS parameters, signaling session requested QoS parameters, signaling session identifier and/or QoS
identifier and/or QoS enabled data flows identifiers MAY be enabled data flows identifiers MAY be encapsulated into respective
encapsulated into respective Diameter AVPs and included into the Diameter AVPs and included into the Diameter message sent from a
Diameter message sent from a Diameter QoS server in the Authorizing Diameter QoS server in the Authorizing Entity to a Diameter QoS
Entity to a Diameter QoS client in the NE. This requires that the client in the NE. This requires that the AE has knowledge of
Authorizing Entity has knowledge of specific information for specific information for allocating and identifying the NE that
allocating and identifying the Network Element that should be should be contacted and the data flow for which the QoS reservation
contacted and the data flow for which the QoS reservation should be should be established. This information can be statically configured
established. This information can be statically configured or or dynamically discovered, see Section 4.2.3 for details.
dynamically discovered, see Section 3.2.3 for details.
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+
| QoS specific Input Data | Diameter QoS AVPs | | QoS-specific Input Data | Diameter AVPs |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+
| Network Element ID (e.g., from | Destination-Host | | Network Element ID | Destination-Host |
| static configuration | Destination-Realm | | | Destination-Realm |
| or dynamically discovered, see | | | | |
| Section 3.2.3 for details) | | | Authorization Token Credentials of the | QoS-Authz-Data |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | QoS requesting entity | User-Name |
| Authorization Token | QoS-Authz-Data | | | |
| Credentials of | User-Name |
| the QoS requesting entity | |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
| QoS parameters | QoS-Resources | | QoS parameters | QoS-Resources |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+
Table 2: Mapping Input Data to QoS AVPs--Push Mode
Authorization processing starts at the Diameter QoS server when it Authorization processing starts at the Diameter QoS server when it
receives the request from a resource requesting entity through receives a request from a RRE through an AppS (e.g., SIP Invite) or
application server (e.g., SIP Invite) or the trigger by local events is triggered by a local event (e.g., pre-configured timer). Based on
(e.g., pre-configured timer). Based on the received information the the received information the server determines the authorized QoS
server determines the authorized QoS resources and flow state resources and flow state (enabled/disabled) from locally available
(enabled/disabled) from locally available information (e.g., policy information (e.g., policy information that may be previously
information that may be previously established as part of an established as part of an application layer signaling exchange, or
application layer signaling exchange, or the user's subscription the user's subscription profile). The authorization decision is then
profile). The authorization decision is then reflected in the QoS- reflected in the QoS-Install-Request message (QIR) to the Diameter
Install-Request message (QIR) to the Diameter QoS client. QoS client.
Authorizing Authorizing
End-Host Network Element Entity End-Host Network Element Entity
requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter
QoS Client) QoS Server) QoS Client) QoS Server)
| | | | | |
| | |<-- Trigger -- | | |<-- Trigger --
| | +--------+--------------+ | | +--------+--------------+
| | | Authorize request | | | | Authorize request |
| | | Keep session data | | | | Keep session data |
skipping to change at page 26, line 46 skipping to change at page 25, line 46
| | QoS Responder | | QoS Responder
| | Node | | Node
| | | | | |
|=====================Data Flow==============....===>| |=====================Data Flow==============....===>|
| | | |
| (+- - - - - QAR - - - - - >|) | (+- - - - - QAR - - - - - >|)
| (|(START,QoS-Resources) |) | (|(START,QoS-Resources) |)
| (|< - - - - QAA - - - - - -+) | (|< - - - - QAA - - - - - -+)
| | | | | |
Figure 9: Initial QoS Request Authorization for push Figure 7: Initial QoS Request Authorization for Push Mode
The Authorizing Entity keeps authorization session state and SHOULD The AE keeps authorization session state and SHOULD save additional
save additional information for management of the session (e.g., information for management of the session (e.g.,
Signaling-Session-Id, authentication data) as part of the session Signaling-Session-Id, authentication data) as part of the session
state information. state information.
The final result of the authorization decision is provided in the The final result of the authorization decision is provided in the
QoS-Resources AVP of the QIR message sent by the Authorizing Entity. QoS-Resources AVP of the QIR message sent by the AE. The QoS
The QoS information provided via the QIR is installed by the QoS information provided via the QIR is installed by the QoS Traffic
Traffic Control function of the Network Element. Control function of the NE.
One important piece of information from the Authorizing Entity is the One important piece of information from the AE is the authorization
authorization lifetime (carried inside the QIR). The authorization lifetime (carried inside the QIR). The authorization lifetime allows
lifetime allows the Network Element to determine how long the the NE to determine how long the authorization decision is valid for
authorization decision is valid for this particular QoS reservation. this particular QoS reservation. A number of factors may influence
A number of factors may influence the authorized session duration, the authorized session duration, such as the user's subscription plan
such as the user's subscription plan or currently available credits or currently available credits at the user's account (see Section 8).
at the user's account (see Section 8). The authorization duration is The authorization duration is time-based as specified in [RFC3588].
time-based as specified in [RFC3588]. For an extension of the For an extension of the authorization period, a new QoS-Install-
authorization period, a new QoS-Install-Request/Answer message or Request/Answer message or QoS-Authorization-Request/Answer message
QoS-Authorization-Request/Answer message exchange SHOULD be exchange SHOULD be initiated. Further aspects of QoS authorization
initiated. Further aspects of QoS authorization session maintenance session maintenance is discussed in Section 4.3, Section 4.4 and
is discussed in Section 4.3, Section 4.4 and Section 8. Section 8.
The indication of QoS reservation and activation of the data flow, The indication of QoS reservation and activation of the data flow can
can be provided by the QoS-Install-Answer message immediately. In be provided by the QoS-Install-Answer message immediately. In the
the case of successful enforcement, the Result-Code (= case of successful enforcement, the Result-Code (= DIAMETER_SUCCESS,
DIAMETER_SUCCESS, (see Section 7.1)) information is provided in the (see Section 7.1)) information is provided in the QIA message. Note
QIA message. Note that the reserved QoS resources reported in the that the reserved QoS resources reported in the QIA message MAY be
QIA message MAY be different than those initially authorized with the different than those initially authorized with the QIR message, due
QIR message, due to the QoS signaling specific behavior (e.g., to the QoS signaling specific behavior (e.g., receiver-initiated
receiver-initiated reservations with One-Path-With-Advertisements) or reservations with One-Path-With-Advertisements) or specific process
specific process of QoS negotiation along the data path. When path of QoS negotiation along the data path. When path coupled signaling
coupled signaling is used for QoS reservation along the data path, is used for QoS reservation along the data path, QAR/QAA may be used
QAR/QAA may be used to update the results of QoS reservation and to update the results of QoS reservation and enforcement following
enforcement following the establishment of data flows. the establishment of data flows.
4.2.3. Discovery and selection of peer Diameter QoS application node 4.2.3. Discovery and Selection of Peer Diameter QoS Application Node
The Diameter QoS application node may obtain information of its peer The Diameter QoS application node may obtain information of its peer
nodes (e.g., FQDN, IP address) through static configuration or nodes (e.g., FQDN, IP address) through static configuration or
dynamic discovery as described in [RFC3588]. In particular, the dynamic discovery as described in [RFC3588]. In particular, the NE
Network Element shall perform the relevant operation for Pull mode; shall perform the relevant operation for Pull mode; the AE shall
the Authorizing Entity shall perform the relevant operations for Push perform the relevant operations for Push mode.
mode.
Upon receipt of a trigger to initiate a new Diameter QoS Upon receipt of a trigger to initiate a new Diameter QoS
authorization session, the Diameter QoS application node selects and authorization session, the Diameter QoS application node selects and
retrieves the location information of the peer node and based on some retrieves the location information of the peer node and based on some
index information provided by the resource requesting entity. For index information provided by the RRE. For instance, it can be the
instance, it can be the Authorization Entity's ID stored in the Authorization Entity's ID stored in the authorization token, the end-
authorization token, the end-host's identity (e.g., NAI [RFC2486]) or user's identity (e.g., NAI [RFC4282]) or globally routable IP
globally routable IP address. address.
4.3. Session re-authorization 4.3. Session Re-authorization
Client and server-side initiated re-authorizations are considered in Client and server-side initiated re-authorizations are considered in
the design of the Diameter QoS application. Whether the re- the design of the Diameter QoS application. Whether the re-
authorization events are transparent for the resource requesting authorization events are transparent for the resource requesting
entity or result in specific actions in the QoS signaling protocol is entity or result in specific actions in the QoS signaling protocol is
outside the scope of the Diameter QoS application. It is directly outside the scope of the Diameter QoS application. It is directly
dependent on the capabilities of the QoS signaling protocol. dependent on the capabilities of the QoS signaling protocol.
There are a number of options for policy rules according to which the There are a number of options for policy rules according to which the
NE (AAA client) contacts the Authorizing Entity for re-authorization. NE (AAA client) contacts the AE for re-authorization. These rules
These rules depend on the semantics and contents of the QAA message depend on the semantics and contents of the QAA message sent by the
sent by the Authorizing Entity: AE:
a. The QAA message contains the authorized parameters of the flow a. The QAA message contains the authorized parameters of the flow
and its QoS and sets their limits (presumably upper). With these and its QoS and sets their limits (presumably upper). With these
parameters the Authorizing Entity specifies the services that the parameters the AE specifies the services that the NE can provide
NE can provide and will be financially compensated for. and will be financially compensated for. Therefore, any change
Therefore, any change or request for change of the parameters of or request for change of the parameters of the flow and its QoS
the flow and its QoS that do not conform to the authorized limits that do not conform to the authorized limits requires contacting
requires contacting the Authorizing Entity for authorization. the AE for authorization.
b. The QAA message contains authorized parameters of the flow and b. The QAA message contains authorized parameters of the flow and
its QoS. The rules that determine whether parameters' changes its QoS. The rules that determine whether parameters' changes
require re-authorization are agreed out of band, based on a require re-authorization are agreed out of band, based on a
Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the domains of the NE and Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the domains of the NE and
the Authorizing Entity. the AE.
c. The QAA message contains the authorized parameters of the flow c. The QAA message contains the authorized parameters of the flow
and its QoS. Any change or request for change of these and its QoS. Any change or request for change of these
parameters requires contacting the Authorizing entity for re- parameters requires contacting the AE for re-authorization.
authorization.
d. In addition to the authorized parameters of the flow and its QoS, d. In addition to the authorized parameters of the flow and its QoS,
the QAA message contains policy rules that determine the NEs the QAA message contains policy rules that determine the NEs
actions in case of change or request for change in authorized actions in case of change or request for change in authorized
parameters. parameters.
Provided options are not exhaustive. Elaborating on any of the Provided options are not exhaustive. Elaborating on any of the
listed approaches is deployment /solution specific and is not listed approaches is deployment /solution specific and is not
considered in the current document. considered in the current document.
In addition, the Authorizing Entity may use RAR to perform re- In addition, the AE may use a RAR to perform re-authorization with
authorization with the authorized parameters directly when the re- the authorized parameters directly when the re-authorization is
authorization is triggered by service request or local events/policy triggered by service request or local events/policy rules.
rules.
4.3.1. Client-Side Initiated Re-Authorization 4.3.1. Client-Side Initiated Re-Authorization
The Authorizing Entity provides the duration of the authorization The AE provides the duration of the authorization session as part of
session as part of the QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA). At the QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA). At any time before
any time before expiration of this period, a new QoS-Authorization- expiration of this period, a new QoS-Authorization-Request message
Request message (QAR) MAY be sent to the Authorizing Entity. The (QAR) MAY be sent to the AE. The transmission of the QAR MAY be
transmission of the QAR MAY be triggered, such as, when the Network triggered when the NE receives a QoS signaling message that requires
Element receives a QoS signaling message that requires modification modification of the authorized parameters of an ongoing QoS session,
of the authorized parameters of an ongoing QoS session, or or authorization lifetime expires.
authorization lifetime expires.
Authorizing Authorizing
End-Host Network Element Entity End-Host Network Element Entity
requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter
QoS Client) QoS Server) QoS Client) QoS Server)
| | | | | |
|=====================Data Flow==========================> |=====================Data Flow==========================>
| | | | | |
| +-------+----------+ | | +-------+----------+ |
| |Authz-time/CC-Time| | | |Authz-time/CC-Time| |
skipping to change at page 29, line 44 skipping to change at page 28, line 41
| |Update QoS state | | | |Update QoS state | |
| | + | | | | + | |
| | Authz. session | | | | Authz. session | |
| | /Authz-time/ | | | | /Authz-time/ | |
| | | | | | | |
| +-------+---------+ | | +-------+---------+ |
| | | | | |
|=====================Data Flow==========================> |=====================Data Flow==========================>
| | | |
Figure 10: Client-side initiated QoS re-authorization Figure 8: Client-side Initiated QoS Re-Authorization
4.3.2. Server-Side Initiated Re-Authorization 4.3.2. Server-Side Initiated Re-Authorization
The Authorizing Entity MAY initiate a QoS re-authorization by issuing The AE MAY initiate a QoS re-authorization by issuing a Re-Auth-
a Re-Auth-Request message (RAR) as defined in the Diameter base Request message (RAR) as defined in the Diameter base protocol
protocol [RFC3588], which may include the parameters of the re- [RFC3588], which may include the parameters of the re-authorized QoS
authorized QoS state: reserved resources, duration of the state: reserved resources, duration of the reservation,
reservation, identification of the QoS enabled flow/QoS signaling identification of the QoS enabled flow/QoS signaling session for re-
session for re-installation of the resource state by the QoS Traffic installation of the resource state by the QoS Traffic Control
Control function of the Network Element. function of the NE.
A Network Element that receives such a RAR message with Session-Id A NE that receives such a RAR message with Session-Id matching a
matching a currently active QoS session acknowledges the request by currently active QoS session acknowledges the request by sending the
sending the Re-Auth-Answer (RAA) message towards the Authorizing Re-Auth-Answer (RAA) message towards the AE.
entity.
If RAR does not include any parameters of the re-authorized QoS If RAR does not include any parameters of the re-authorized QoS
state, the Network Element MUST initiate a QoS re-authorization by state, the NE MUST initiate a QoS re-authorization by sending a QoS-
sending a QoS-Authorization-Request (QAR) message towards the Authorization-Request (QAR) message towards the AE.
Authorizing entity.
Authorizing Authorizing
End-Host Network Element Entity End-Host Network Element Entity
requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter
QoS Client) QoS Server) QoS Client) QoS Server)
| | | | | |
| | |<-- Trigger -- | | |<-- Trigger --
| | +--------+--------------+ | | +--------+--------------+
| | | Authorize request | | | | Authorize request |
| | | Keep session data | | | | Keep session data |
skipping to change at page 31, line 38 skipping to change at page 29, line 47
| | (Result-Code, | | | (Result-Code, |
| | QoS-Resources) | | | QoS-Resources) |
| | +--------+--------------+ | | +--------+--------------+
| | | Report for successful | | | | Report for successful |
| | | QoS reservation | | | | QoS reservation |
| | |Update of reserved QoS | | | |Update of reserved QoS |
| | | resources | | | | resources |
| | +--------+--------------+ | | +--------+--------------+
| | | | | |
Figure 11: Server-side Initiated QoS re-authorization Figure 9: Server-side Initiated QoS Re-Authorization
4.4. Session Termination 4.4. Session Termination
4.4.1. Client-Side Initiated Session Termination 4.4.1. Client-Side Initiated Session Termination
The authorization session for an installed QoS reservation state MAY The authorization session for an installed QoS reservation state MAY
be terminated by the Diameter client by sending a Session- be terminated by the Diameter client by sending a Session-
Termination-Request message (STR) to the Diameter server. This is a Termination-Request message (STR) to the Diameter server. This is a
Diameter base protocol function and it is defined in [RFC3588]. Diameter base protocol function and it is defined in [RFC3588].
Session termination can be caused by a QoS signaling messaging Session termination can be caused by a QoS signaling messaging
skipping to change at page 32, line 29 skipping to change at page 30, line 42
+-------+--------+ | +-------+--------+ |
|Delete QoS state| |Delete QoS state|
+-------+--------+ QoS Responder +-------+--------+ QoS Responder
| Node | Node
+----------QoS-Reserve-----....--->| +----------QoS-Reserve-----....--->|
| (Delete QoS | | (Delete QoS |
| reservation) | | reservation) |
|<---------QoS-Response----....----+ |<---------QoS-Response----....----+
| | | |
Figure 12: Client-Side Initiated Session Termination Figure 10: Client-Side Initiated Session Termination
4.4.2. Server-Side Initiated Session Termination 4.4.2. Server-Side Initiated Session Termination
At anytime during a session the Authorizing Entity MAY send an Abort- At anytime during a session the AE MAY send an Abort-Session-Request
Session-Request message (ASR) to the Network Element. This is a message (ASR) to the NE. This is a Diameter base protocol function
Diameter base protocol function and it is defined in [RFC3588]. and it is defined in [RFC3588]. Possible reasons for initiating the
Possible reasons for initiating the ASR message to the Network ASR message to the NE are insufficient credits or session termination
Element are insufficient credits or session termination at the at the application layer. The ASR message results in termination of
application layer. The ASR message results in termination of the the authorized session, release of the reserved resources at the NE
authorized session, release of the reserved resources at the Network and transmission of an appropriate QoS signaling message indicating a
Element and transmission of an appropriate QoS signaling message notification to other Network Elements aware of the signaling
indicating a notification to other Network Elements aware of the session.
signaling session.
Authorizing Authorizing
End-Host Network Element Entity End-Host Network Element Entity
requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter requesting QoS ( Diameter ( Diameter
QoS Client) QoS Server) QoS Client) QoS Server)
| | | | | |
|=====================Data Flow==========================> |=====================Data Flow==========================>
| | | |
| |< - - - - ASR - - - - - -+ | |< - - - - ASR - - - - - -+
| | | | | |
skipping to change at page 33, line 32 skipping to change at page 31, line 35
+- - - - - ASA - - - - - >| +- - - - - ASA - - - - - >|
| +--------+--------------+ | +--------+--------------+
| | Remove authorization | | | Remove authorization |
| | session state | | | session state |
| +--------+--------------+ | +--------+--------------+
| QoS Responder | QoS Responder
| Node | Node
|<---------QoS-Response----....----+ |<---------QoS-Response----....----+
| | | |
Figure 13: Server-Side Initiated Session Termination Figure 11: Server-Side Initiated Session Termination
5. QoS Application Messages 5. QoS Application Messages
The Diameter QoS Application requires the definition of new mandatory The Diameter QoS Application requires the definition of new mandatory
AVPs and Command-codes (see Section 3 of [RFC3588]). Four new AVPs and Command-codes (see Section 3 of [RFC3588]). Four new
Diameter messages are defined along with Command-Codes whose values Diameter messages are defined along with Command-Codes whose values
MUST be supported by all Diameter implementations that conform to MUST be supported by all Diameter implementations that conform to
this specification. this specification.
Command-Name Abbrev. Code Reference +---------------------+---------+--------+-------------+
QoS-Authz-Request QAR [TBD] Section 5.1 | Command Name | Abbrev. | Code | Reference |
QoS-Authz-Answer QAA [TBD] Section 5.2 +---------------------+---------+--------+-------------+
QoS-Install-Request QIR [TBD] Section 5.3 | QoS-Authz-Request | QAR | [TBD1] | Section 5.1 |
QoS-Install-Answer QIA [TBD] Section 5.4 | | | | |
| QoS-Authz-Answer | QAA | [TBD2] | Section 5.2 |
| | | | |
| QoS-Install-Request | QIR | [TBD3] | Section 5.3 |
| | | | |
| QoS-Install-Answer | QIA | [TBD4] | Section 5.4 |
+---------------------+---------+--------+-------------+
Table 3: Diameter QoS Commands
In addition, the following Diameter Base protocol messages are used In addition, the following Diameter Base protocol messages are used
in the Diameter QoS application: in the Diameter QoS application:
Command-Name Abbrev. Code Reference +-----------------------+---------+------+-----------+
Re-Auth-Request RAR 258 RFC 3588 | Command-Name | Abbrev. | Code | Reference |
Re-Auth-Answer RAA 258 RFC 3588 +-----------------------+---------+------+-----------+
Abort-Session-Request ASR 274 RFC 3588 | Re-Auth-Request | RAR | 258 | [RFC3588] |
Abort-Session-Answer ASA 274 RFC 3588 | | | | |
Session-Term-Request STR 275 RFC 3588 | Re-Auth-Answer | RAA | 258 | [RFC3588] |
Session-Term-Answer STA 275 RFC 3588 | | | | |
| Abort-Session-Request | ASR | 274 | [RFC3588] |
| | | | |
| Abort-Session-Answer | ASA | 274 | [RFC3588] |
| | | | |
| Session-Term-Request | STR | 275 | [RFC3588] |
| | | | |
| Session-Term-Answer | STA | 275 | [RFC3588] |
+-----------------------+---------+------+-----------+
Table 4: Diameter Base Commands
Diameter nodes conforming to this specification MAY advertise support Diameter nodes conforming to this specification MAY advertise support
by including the value of TBD in the Auth-Application-Id or the Acct- by including the value of [TBD5] in the Auth-Application-Id or the
Application-Id AVP of the Capabilities-Exchange-Request and Acct-Application-Id AVP of the Capabilities-Exchange-Request and
Capabilities-Exchange-Answer commands, see [RFC3588]. Capabilities-Exchange-Answer commands, see [RFC3588].
The value of TBD MUST be used as the Application-Id in all QAR/QAA The value of {TBD5] MUST be used as the Application-Id in all QAR/QAA
and QIR/QIA commands. and QIR/QIA commands.
The value of zero (0) SHOULD be used as the Application-Id in all The value of zero (0) SHOULD be used as the Application-Id in all
STR/STA, ASR/ASA, and RAR/RAA commands, because these commands are STR/STA, ASR/ASA, and RAR/RAA commands, because these commands are
defined in the Diameter base protocol and no additional mandatory defined in the Diameter base protocol and no additional mandatory
AVPs for those commands are defined in this document. AVPs for those commands are defined in this document.
5.1. QoS-Authorization Request (QAR) 5.1. QoS-Authorization Request (QAR)
The QoS-Authorization-Request message (QAR) indicated by the Command- The QoS-Authorization-Request message (QAR) indicated by the Command-
Code field (see Section 3 of [RFC3588]) set to TBD and 'R' bit set in Code field (see Section 3 of [RFC3588]) set to [TBD1] and 'R' bit set
the Command Flags field is used by Network elements to request in the Command Flags field is used by NEs to request quality of
quality of service related resource authorization for a given flow. service related resource authorization for a given flow.
The QAR message MUST carry information for signaling session The QAR message MUST carry information for signaling session
identification, Authorizing Entity identification, information about identification, AE identification, information about the requested
the requested QoS, and the identity of the QoS requesting entity. In QoS, and the identity of the QoS requesting entity. In addition,
addition, depending on the deployment scenario, an authorization depending on the deployment scenario, an authorization token and
token and credentials of the QoS requesting entity SHOULD be credentials of the QoS requesting entity SHOULD be included.
included.
The message format, presented in ABNF form [RFC2234], is defined as The message format, presented in ABNF form [RFC4234], is defined as
follows: follows:
<QoS-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, REQ, PXY > <QoS-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: [TBD1], REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm } { Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
[ Destination-Host ] [ Destination-Host ]
[ User-Name ] [ User-Name ]
* [ QoS-Resources ] * [ QoS-Resources ]
[ QoS-Authz-Data ] [ QoS-Authz-Data ]
[ Bound-Auth-Session-Id ] [ Bound-Auth-Session-Id ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
5.2. QoS-Authorization Answer (QAA) 5.2. QoS-Authorization Answer (QAA)
The QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA), indicated by the Command- The QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA), indicated by the Command-
Code field set to TBD and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field Code field set to [TBD2] and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags
is sent in response to the QoS-Authorization-Request message (QAR). field is sent in response to the QoS-Authorization-Request message
If the QoS authorization request is successfully authorized, the (QAR). If the QoS authorization request is successfully authorized,
response will include the AVPs to allow authorization of the QoS the response will include the AVPs to allow authorization of the QoS
resources and transport plane gating information. resources and transport plane gating information.
The message format is defined as follows: The message format is defined as follows:
<QoS-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, PXY > <QoS-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: [TBD2], PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
{ Result-Code } { Result-Code }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
* [ QoS-Resources ] * [ QoS-Resources ]
[ Acc-Multisession-Id ] [ Acc-Multisession-Id ]
[ Session-Timeout ] [ Session-Timeout ]
[ Authz-Session-Lifetime ] [ Authz-Session-Lifetime ]
[ Authz-Grace-Period ] [ Authz-Grace-Period ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
5.3. QoS-Install Request (QIR) 5.3. QoS-Install Request (QIR)
The QoS-Install Request message (QIR), indicated by the Command-Code The QoS-Install Request message (QIR), indicated by the Command-Code
field set to TDB and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field is used field set to [TBD3] and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field is
by Authorizing entity to install or update the QoS parameters and the used by AE to install or update the QoS parameters and the flow state
flow state of an authorized flow at the transport plane element. of an authorized flow at the transport plane element.
The message MUST carry information for signaling session The message MUST carry information for signaling session
identification or identification of the flow to which the provided identification or identification of the flow to which the provided
QoS rules apply, identity of the transport plane element, description QoS rules apply, identity of the transport plane element, description
of provided QoS parameters, flow state and duration of the provided of provided QoS parameters, flow state and duration of the provided
authorization. authorization.
The message format is defined as follows: The message format is defined as follows:
<QoS-Install-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, REQ, PXY > <QoS-Install-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: [TBD3], REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm } { Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
[ Destination-Host ] [ Destination-Host ]
* [ QoS-Resources ] * [ QoS-Resources ]
[ Session-Timeout ] [ Session-Timeout ]
[ Authz-Session-Lifetime ] [ Authz-Session-Lifetime ]
[ Authz-Grace-Period ] [ Authz-Grace-Period ]
[ Authz-Session-Volume ] [ Authz-Session-Volume ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
5.4. QoS-Install Answer (QIA) 5.4. QoS-Install Answer (QIA)
The QoS-Install Answer message (QIA), indicated by the Command-Code The QoS-Install Answer message (QIA), indicated by the Command-Code
field set to TBD and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is field set to [TBD4] and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is
sent in response to the QoS-Install Request message (QIR) for sent in response to the QoS-Install Request message (QIR) for
confirmation of the result of the installation of the provided QoS confirmation of the result of the installation of the provided QoS
reservation instructions. reservation instructions.
The message format is defined as follows: The message format is defined as follows:
<QoS-Install-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, PXY > <QoS-Install-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: [TBD4], PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Result-Code } { Result-Code }
* [ QoS-Resources ] * [ QoS-Resources ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
5.5. Re-Auth-Request (RAR) 5.5. Re-Auth-Request (RAR)
The Re-Auth-Request message (RAR), indicated by the Command-Code The Re-Auth-Request message (RAR), indicated by the Command-Code
field set to 258 and the 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, is field set to 258 and the 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, is
sent by the Authorizing Entity to the Network Element in order to sent by the AE to the NE in order to initiate the QoS re-
initiate the QoS re-authorization from DQA server side. authorization from DQA server side.
If the RAR command is received by the Network Element without any If the RAR command is received by the NE without any parameters of
parameters of the re-authorized QoS state, the Network Element MUST the re-authorized QoS state, the NE MUST initiate a QoS re-
initiate a QoS re-authorization by sending a QoS-Authorization- authorization by sending a QoS-Authorization-Request (QAR) message
Request (QAR) message towards the Authorizing entity. towards the AE.
The message format is defined as follows: The message format is defined as follows:
<Re-Auth-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 258, REQ, PXY > <Re-Auth-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 258, REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm } { Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
skipping to change at page 37, line 47 skipping to change at page 36, line 10
[ Session-Timeout ] [ Session-Timeout ]
[ Authz-Session-Lifetime ] [ Authz-Session-Lifetime ]
[ Authz-Grace-Period ] [ Authz-Grace-Period ]
[ Authz-Session-Volume ] [ Authz-Session-Volume ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
5.6. Re-Auth-Answer (RAA) 5.6. Re-Auth-Answer (RAA)
The Re-Auth-Answer message (RAA), indicated by the Command-Code field The Re-Auth-Answer message (RAA), indicated by the Command-Code field
set to 258 and the 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field, is set to 258 and the 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field, is
sent by the Network Element to the Authorizing Entity in response to sent by the NE to the AE in response to the RAR command.
the RAR command.
The message format is defined as follows: The message format is defined as follows:
<Re-Auth-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 258, PXY > <Re-Auth-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 258, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Result-Code } { Result-Code }
* [ QoS-Resources ] * [ QoS-Resources ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
6. QoS Application State Machine 6. QoS Application State Machine
The QoS application reuses the authorization state machine defined in The QoS application reuses the authorization state machine defined in
Section 8.1 of the Base Protocol ([RFC3588]) with its own messages as Section 8.1 of the Base Protocol ([RFC3588]) with its own messages as
defined in Section 5 and QoS AVPs as defined in Section 7. defined in Section 5 and QoS AVPs as defined in Section 7.
6.1. Supplemented states for push mode 6.1. Supplemented States for Push Mode
In addition to the reused state machines, the following states are In addition to the reused state machines, the following states are
supplemented to first 2 state machines in which the session state is supplemented to first 2 state machines in which the session state is
maintained on the Server, and MUST be supported in any QoS maintained on the Server, and MUST be supported in any QoS
application implementations in support of server initiated push mode application implementations in support of server initiated push mode
(see (Section 4.2.2)). (see (Section 4.2.2)).
The following states are supplemented to the state machine on the The following states are supplemented to the state machine on the
server: server when it is maintaining state for the session as defined in
Section 8.1 of the Base Protocol [RFC3588]:
SERVER, STATEFUL SERVER, STATEFUL
State Event Action New State State Event Action New State
------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------
Idle An application or local Send Pending Idle An application or local Send Pending
event triggers an initial QIR initial event triggers an initial QIR initial
QoS request to the server request QoS request to the server request
Pending Received QIA with a failed Cleanup Idle Pending Received QIA with a failed Cleanup Idle
Result-Code Result-Code
Pending Received QIA with Result-Code Update Open Pending Received QIA with Result-Code Update Open
= SUCCESS session = SUCCESS session
Pending Error in processing received Send Discon Pending Error in processing received Send Discon
QIA with Result-Code = SUCCESS ASR QIA with Result-Code = SUCCESS ASR
The following states are supplemented to the state machine on the The following states are supplemented to the state machine on the
client: client when state is maintained on the server as defined in Section
8.1 of the Base Protocol [RFC3588]:
CLIENT, STATEFUL CLIENT, STATEFUL
State Event Action New State State Event Action New State
------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------
Idle QIR initial request Send Open Idle QIR initial request Send Open
received and successfully QIA initial received and successfully QIA initial
processed answer, processed answer,
reserve resources reserve resources
Idle QIR initial request Send Idle Idle QIR initial request Send Idle
skipping to change at page 42, line 11 skipping to change at page 40, line 11
The following table describes the Diameter AVPs newly defined in this The following table describes the Diameter AVPs newly defined in this
document for usage with the QoS Application, their AVP code values, document for usage with the QoS Application, their AVP code values,
types, possible flag values, and whether the AVP may be encrypted. types, possible flag values, and whether the AVP may be encrypted.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| AVP Flag rules | | AVP Flag rules |
+----------------------------------------------|----+---+----+-----+ +----------------------------------------------|----+---+----+-----+
| AVP Section | | |SHLD| MUST| | AVP Section | | |SHLD| MUST|
| Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type |MUST|MAY| NOT| NOT| | Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type |MUST|MAY| NOT| NOT|
+----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+ +----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+
|QoS-Authz-Data TBD 6.4 Grouped | M | P | | V | |QoS-Authz-Data TBD 7.2 Grouped | M | P | | V |
|Bound-Auth-Session-Id TBD 6.4 UTF8String | M | P | | V | |Bound-Auth-Session-Id TBD 7.2 UTF8String | M | P | | V |
+----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+ +----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+
|M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be | |M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be |
| supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the | | supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the |
| message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. | | message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. |
|P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. | |P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. |
|V - Vendor specific bit that indicates whether the AVP belongs to | |V - Vendor specific bit that indicates whether the AVP belongs to |
| a address space. | | a address space. |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------------------------+
QoS-Authz-Data QoS-Authz-Data
skipping to change at page 42, line 23 skipping to change at page 40, line 23
+----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+ +----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+
|M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be | |M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be |
| supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the | | supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the |
| message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. | | message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. |
|P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. | |P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. |
|V - Vendor specific bit that indicates whether the AVP belongs to | |V - Vendor specific bit that indicates whether the AVP belongs to |
| a address space. | | a address space. |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------------------------+
QoS-Authz-Data QoS-Authz-Data
The QoS-Authz-Data AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type OctetString. It The QoS-Authz-Data AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type OctetString. It
is a container that carries application session or user specific is a container that carries application session or user specific
data that has to be supplied to the Authorizing entity as input to data that has to be supplied to the AE as input to the computation
the computation of the authorization decision. of the authorization decision.
Bound-Authentication-Session-Id Bound-Authentication-Session-Id
The Bound-Authentication-Session AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type The Bound-Authentication-Session AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type
UTF8String. It carries the id of the Diameter authentication UTF8String. It carries the id of the Diameter authentication
session that is used for the network access authentication (NASREQ session that is used for the network access authentication (NASREQ
authentication session). It is used to tie the QoS authorization authentication session). It is used to tie the QoS authorization
request to a prior authentication of the end host done by a co- request to a prior authentication of the end host done by a co-
located application for network access authentication (Diameter located application for network access authentication (Diameter
NASREQ) at the QoS NE. NASREQ) at the QoS NE.
8. Accounting 8. Accounting
skipping to change at page 43, line 7 skipping to change at page 41, line 7
The Bound-Authentication-Session AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type The Bound-Authentication-Session AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type
UTF8String. It carries the id of the Diameter authentication UTF8String. It carries the id of the Diameter authentication
session that is used for the network access authentication (NASREQ session that is used for the network access authentication (NASREQ
authentication session). It is used to tie the QoS authorization authentication session). It is used to tie the QoS authorization
request to a prior authentication of the end host done by a co- request to a prior authentication of the end host done by a co-
located application for network access authentication (Diameter located application for network access authentication (Diameter
NASREQ) at the QoS NE. NASREQ) at the QoS NE.
8. Accounting 8. Accounting
A Network Element may start an accounting session by sending an A NE may start an accounting session by sending an Accounting-Request
Accounting-Request message (ACR) after successful QoS reservation and message (ACR) after successful QoS reservation and activation of the
activation of the data flow (see Figure 7 and Figure 9). After every data flow (see Figure 6 and Figure 7). After every successful re-
successful re-authorization procedure (see Figure 10 and Figure 11), authorization procedure (see Figure 8 and Figure 9), the NE may
the Network element may initiate an interim accounting message initiate an interim accounting message exchange. After successful
exchange. After successful session termination (see Figure 12 and session termination (see Figure 10 and Figure 11), the NE may
Figure 13), the Network element may initiate a final exchange of initiate a final exchange of accounting messages for terminating of
accounting messages for terminating of the accounting session and the accounting session and reporting final records for the usage of
reporting final records for the usage of the QoS resources reserved. the QoS resources reserved. It should be noted that the two sessions
It should be noted that the two sessions (authorization and (authorization and accounting) have independent management by the
accounting) have independent management by the Diameter base Diameter base protocol, which allows for finalizing the accounting
protocol, which allows for finalizing the accounting session after session after the end of the authorization session.
the end of the authorization session.
The detailed QoS accounting procedures are out of scope in this The detailed QoS accounting procedures are out of scope in this
document. document.
9. Examples 9. Examples
9.1. Example call flow for pull mode 9.1. Example Call Flow for Pull Mode
This section presents an example of the interaction between the end This section presents an example of the interaction between the end
host and Diameter QoS application entities using Pull mode. The host and Diameter QoS application entities using Pull mode. The
application layer signaling is, in this example, provided using SIP. application layer signaling is, in this example, provided using SIP.
Signaling for a QoS resource reservation is done using the QoS NSLP. Signaling for a QoS resource reservation is done using the QoS NSLP.
The authorization of the QoS reservation request is done by the The authorization of the QoS reservation request is done by the
Diameter QoS application (DQA). Diameter QoS application (DQA).
End-Host SIP Server Correspondent End-Host SIP Server Correspondent
requesting QoS (DQA Server) Node requesting QoS (DQA Server) Node
skipping to change at page 45, line 44 skipping to change at page 43, line 44
| | | | | |
/------------------+--Data Flow---------------------------\ /------------------+--Data Flow---------------------------\
\------------------+--------------------------------------/ \------------------+--------------------------------------/
| | | | | |
.-.-.-.-. SIP signaling .-.-.-.-. SIP signaling
--------- QoS NSLP signaling --------- QoS NSLP signaling
- - - - - Diameter QoS Application messages - - - - - Diameter QoS Application messages
========= Mapping of objects between QoS and AAA protocol ========= Mapping of objects between QoS and AAA protocol
Figure 26: QoS Authorization Example - Pull Mode Figure 22: QoS Authorization Example - Pull Mode
The communication starts with SIP signaling between the two end The communication starts with SIP signaling between the two end
points and the SIP server for negotiation and authorization of the points and the SIP server for negotiation and authorization of the
requested service and its parameters (see Figure 26). As a part of requested service and its parameters (see Figure 22). As a part of
the process, the SIP server verifies whether the user at Host A is the process, the SIP server verifies whether the user at Host A is
authorized to use the requested service (and potentially the ability authorized to use the requested service (and potentially the ability
to be charged for the service usage). Negotiated session parameters to be charged for the service usage). Negotiated session parameters
are provided to the end host. are provided to the end host.
Subsequently, Host A initiates a QoS signaling message towards Host Subsequently, Host A initiates a QoS signaling message towards Host
B. It sends a QoS NSLP Reserve message, in which it includes B. It sends a QoS NSLP Reserve message, in which it includes
description of the required QoS (QSPEC object) and authorization data description of the required QoS (QSPEC object) and authorization data
for negotiated service session (part of the POLICY_DATA object). for negotiated service session (part of the POLICY_DATA object).
Authorization data includes, as a minimum, the identity of the Authorization data includes, as a minimum, the identity of the AE
authorizing entity (e.g., the SIP server) and an identifier of the (e.g., the SIP server) and an identifier of the application service
application service session for which QoS resources are requested. session for which QoS resources are requested.
A QoS NSLP Reserve message is intercepted and processed by the first A QoS NSLP Reserve message is intercepted and processed by the first
QoS aware Network Element. The NE uses the Diameter QoS application QoS aware Network Element. The NE uses the Diameter QoS application
to request authorization for the received QoS reservation request. to request authorization for the received QoS reservation request.
The identity of the Authorizing Entity (in this case the SIP server The identity of the AE (in this case the SIP server that is co-
that is co-located with a Diameter server) is put into the located with a Diameter server) is put into the Destination-Host AVP,
Destination-Host AVP, any additional session authorization data is any additional session authorization data is encapsulated into the
encapsulated into the QoS-Authz-Data AVP and the description of the QoS-Authz-Data AVP and the description of the QoS resources is
QoS resources is included into QoS-Resources AVP. These AVPs are included into QoS-Resources AVP. These AVPs are included into a QoS
included into a QoS Authorization Request message, which is sent to Authorization Request message, which is sent to the AE.
the Authorizing entity.
A QAR message will be routed through the AAA network to the A QAR message will be routed through the AAA network to the AE. The
Authorizing Entity. The Authorizing Entity verifies the requested AE verifies the requested QoS against the QoS resources negotiated
QoS against the QoS resources negotiated for the service session and for the service session and replies with QoS-Authorization answer
replies with QoS-Authorization answer (QAA) message. It carries the (QAA) message. It carries the authorization result (Result-Code AVP)
authorization result (Result-Code AVP) and the description of the and the description of the authorized QoS parameters (QoS-Resources
authorized QoS parameters (QoS-Resources AVP), as well as duration of AVP), as well as duration of the authorization session
the authorization session (Authorization-Lifetime AVP). (Authorization-Lifetime AVP).
The NE interacts with the traffic control function and installs the The NE interacts with the traffic control function and installs the
authorized QoS resources and forwards the QoS NSLP Reserve message authorized QoS resources and forwards the QoS NSLP Reserve message
further along the data path. Moreover, the NE may serve as a further along the data path. Moreover, the NE may serve as a
signaling proxy and process the QoS signaling (e.g. initiation or signaling proxy and process the QoS signaling (e.g. initiation or
termination of QoS signaling) based on the QoS decision received from termination of QoS signaling) based on the QoS decision received from
the authorizing entity. the authorizing entity.
9.2. Example call flow for push mode 9.2. Example Call Flow for Push Mode
This section presents an example of the interaction between the end- This section presents an example of the interaction between the end-
host and Diameter QoS application entities using Push Mode. The host and Diameter QoS application entities using Push mode. The
application layer signaling is, in this example, provided using SIP. application layer signaling is, in this example, provided using SIP.
Signaling for a QoS resource reservation is done using the QoS NSLP. Signaling for a QoS resource reservation is done using the QoS NSLP.
The authorization of the QoS reservation request is done by the The authorization of the QoS reservation request is done by the
Diameter QoS application (DQA). Diameter QoS application (DQA).
End-Host NE SIP Server Correspondent End-Host NE SIP Server Correspondent
requesting QoS (DQA Client) (DQA Server) Node requesting QoS (DQA Client) (DQA Server) Node
| | | | | | | |
..|....Application layer SIP signaling..........|..............|.. ..|....Application layer SIP signaling..........|..............|..
. | Invite(SDP offer)| | | . . | Invite(SDP offer)| | | .
skipping to change at page 48, line 13 skipping to change at page 46, line 13
. <.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.+ | . . <.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.+ | .
| | | | | |
/------------------+-----Data Flow---------------------------\ /------------------+-----Data Flow---------------------------\
\------------------+-----------------------------------------/ \------------------+-----------------------------------------/
| | | | | |
.-.-.-.-. SIP signaling .-.-.-.-. SIP signaling
- - - - - Diameter QoS Application messages - - - - - Diameter QoS Application messages
Figure 27: QoS Authorization Example - Push Mode Figure 23: QoS Authorization Example - Push Mode
The communication starts with SIP signaling between the two end The communication starts with SIP signaling between the two end
points and the SIP server for negotiation and authorization of the points and the SIP server for negotiation and authorization of the
requested service and its parameters (see Figure 27). As a part of requested service and its parameters (see Figure 23). As a part of
the process, the SIP server verifies whether the user at Host A is the process, the SIP server verifies whether the user at Host A is
authorized to use the requested service (and potentially the ability authorized to use the requested service (and potentially the ability
to be charged for the service usage). The DQA server is triggered to to be charged for the service usage). The DQA server is triggered to
authorize the QoS request based on session parameters (i.e., SDP authorize the QoS request based on session parameters (i.e., SDP
offer), initiate a Diameter QoS authorization session and install offer), initiate a Diameter QoS authorization session and install
authorized QoS state to the Network Element via QIR message. authorized QoS state to the Network Element via QIR message.
The DQA server may obtain the info of peer DQA client from pre- The DQA server may obtain the info of peer DQA client from pre-
configured information or query the DNS based on Host A's identity or configured information or query the DNS based on Host A's identity or
IP address (In this case a DQA server is co-located with a SIP server IP address (In this case a DQA server is co-located with a SIP server
and a DQA client is co-located with a Network element). The identity and a DQA client is co-located with a NE). The identity of Network
of Network Element is put into the Destination-Host AVP, the Element is put into the Destination-Host AVP, the description of the
description of the QoS resources is included into QoS-Resources AVP, QoS resources is included into QoS-Resources AVP, as well as duration
as well as duration of the authorization session (Authorization- of the authorization session (Authorization-Lifetime AVP). The NE
Lifetime AVP). The NE interacts with the traffic control function interacts with the traffic control function and reserves the
and reserves the authorized QoS resources accordingly, for instance, authorized QoS resources accordingly, for instance, the NE may serve
the NE may serve as a signaling proxy and process the QoS signaling as a signaling proxy and process the QoS signaling (e.g. initiation
(e.g. initiation or termination of QoS signaling) based on the QoS or termination of QoS signaling) based on the QoS decision received
decision received from the authorizing entity. from the authorizing entity.
With successful QoS authorization, the SDP offer in SIP Invite is With successful QoS authorization, the SDP offer in SIP Invite is
forwarded to Host B. Host B sends back a 18x (ringing) message forwarded to Host B. Host B sends back a 18x (ringing) message
towards Host A and processes the SDP. Once Host B accepts the call, towards Host A and processes the SDP. Once Host B accepts the call,
it sends back a 200 OK, in which it includes description of the it sends back a 200 OK, in which it includes description of the
accepted session parameters (i.e. SDP answer). accepted session parameters (i.e. SDP answer).
The DQA server may verifies the accepted QoS against the pre- The DQA server may verify the accepted QoS against the pre-authorized
authorized QoS resources, and sends a Diameter RAR message to the DQA QoS resources, and sends a Diameter RAR message to the DQA client in
client in the network element for activating the installed policies the NE for activating the installed policies and commit the resource
and commit the resource allocation. With successful QoS enforcement, allocation. With successful QoS enforcement, the 200 OK is forwarded
the 200 OK is forwarded towards Host A. towards Host A.
Note that the examples above show a sender-initiated reservation from Note that the examples above show a sender-initiated reservation from
the end host towards the corresponding node and a receiver-initiated the end host towards the corresponding node and a receiver-initiated
reservation from the correspondent node towards the end host. reservation from the correspondent node towards the end host.
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
This section contains the namespaces that have either been created in This section contains the namespaces that have either been created in
this specification or had their values assigned to existing this specification or had their values assigned to existing
namespaces managed by IANA. namespaces managed by IANA.
10.1. AVP Codes 10.1. AVP Codes
IANA is requested to allocate two AVP codes to the following: IANA is requested to allocate two AVP codes to the following:
Registry: Registry:
AVP Code Attribute Name Reference AVP Code Attribute Name Reference
----------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------
to be assigned QoS-Authz-Data Section 6.4 to be assigned QoS-Authz-Data Section 7.2
to be assigned Bound-Auth-Session-Id Section 6.4 to be assigned Bound-Auth-Session-Id Section 7.2
10.2. AVP specific values 10.2. AVP Specific Values
IANA is requested to allocate the following sub-registry values. IANA is requested to allocate the following sub-registry values.
Sub-registry: Auth-Application-Id AVP Values (code 258) Sub-registry: Auth-Application-Id AVP Values (code 258)
Registry: Registry:
AVP Values Attribute Name Reference AVP Values Attribute Name Reference
------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------- -------------------------------------------
to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-NOSUPPORT Section 5 to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-NOSUPPORT Section 5
to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-SUPPORT Section 5 to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-SUPPORT Section 5
Sub-registry: Acct-Application-Id AVP Values (code 259) Sub-registry: Acct-Application-Id AVP Values (code 259)
Registry: Registry:
AVP Values Attribute Name Reference AVP Values Attribute Name Reference
------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------- -------------------------------------------
to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-NOSUPPORT Section 5 to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-NOSUPPORT Section 5
to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-SUPPORT Section 5 to be assigned DIAMETER-QOS-SUPPORT Section 5
10.3. AVP flags 10.3. AVP Flags
There are no new AVP flags defined for either the QoS-Authz-Data AVP There are no new AVP flags defined for either the QoS-Authz-Data AVP
or the Bound-Ath-Session-ID AVP. or the Bound-Ath-Session-ID AVP.
10.4. Application IDs 10.4. Application IDs
IANA is requested to allocate the following application ID using the IANA is requested to allocate the following application ID using the
next value from the 7-16777215 range. next value from the 7-16777215 range.
Registry: Registry:
ID values Name Reference ID values Name Reference
----------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------
to be asigned Diameter QoS application Section 5 to be assigned Diameter QoS application Section 5
10.5. Command Codes 10.5. Command Codes
IANA is requested to allocate command code values for the following IANA is requested to allocate command code values for the following
from the range 289-299. from the range 289-299.
Registry: Registry:
Code Value Name Reference Code Value Name Reference
----------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------
to be assigned QoS-Authz-Request (QAR) Section 5.1 to be assigned QoS-Authz-Request (QAR) Section 5.1
to be assigned QoS-Authz-Answer (QAA) Section 5.2 to be assigned QoS-Authz-Answer (QAA) Section 5.2
to be assigned QoS-Install-Request (QIR) Section 5.3 to be assigned QoS-Install-Request (QIR) Section 5.3
to be assigned QoS-Install-Answer (QIA) Section 5.4 to be assigned QoS-Install-Answer (QIA) Section 5.4
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
This document describes a mechanism for performing authorization of a This document describes a mechanism for performing authorization of a
QoS reservation at a third party entity. Therefore, it is necessary QoS reservation at a third party entity. Therefore, the QoS
that the QoS signaling application to carry sufficient information signaling application carry sufficient information that the backend
that should be forwarded to the backend AAA server. This AAA server can make a authorization decision. This functionality is
functionality is particularly useful in roaming environments where particularly useful in roaming environments where the authorization
the authorization decision is most likely provided at an entity where decision is most likely provided at an entity where the user can be
the user can be authorized, such as in the home realm. authenticated, such as in the home realm.
QoS signaling application MAY re-use the authenticated identities QoS signaling application MAY re-use the authenticated identities
used for the establishment of the secured transport channel for the used for the establishment of the secured transport channel for the
signaling messages, e.g., TLS or IPsec between the end host and the signaling messages, e.g., TLS or IPsec between the end host and the
policy aware QoS NE. In addition, a collocation of the QoS NE with, policy aware QoS NE. In addition, a collocation of the QoS NE with,
for example, the Diameter NASREQ application (see [RFC4005]) may for example, the Diameter NASREQ application (see [RFC4005]) may
allow the QoS authorization to be based on the authenticated identity allow the QoS authorization to be based on the authenticated identity
used during the network access authentication protocol run. If a co- used during the network access authentication protocol run. If a co-
located deployment is not desired then special security protection is located deployment is not desired then special security protection is
required to ensure that arbitrary nodes cannot reuse a previous required to ensure that arbitrary nodes cannot reuse a previous
authentication exchange to perform an authorization decision. authentication exchange to perform an authorization decision.
Additionally, QoS authorization might be based on the usage of Additionally, QoS authorization might be based on the usage of
authorization tokens that are generated by the Authorizing Entity and authorization tokens that are generated by the AE and provided to the
provided to the end host via application layer signaling. end host via application layer signaling.
The impact of the existence of different authorization models is The impact of the existence of different authorization models is
(with respect to this Diameter QoS application) the ability to carry (with respect to this Diameter QoS application) the ability to carry
different authentication and authorization information. different authentication and authorization information.
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank John Loughney and Allison Mankin for The authors would like to thank John Loughney and Allison Mankin for
their input to this document. In September 2005 Robert Hancock, their input to this document. In September 2005 Robert Hancock,
Jukka Manner, Cornelia Kappler, Xiaoming Fu, Georgios Karagiannis and Jukka Manner, Cornelia Kappler, Xiaoming Fu, Georgios Karagiannis and
Elwyn Davies provided a detailed review. Robert also provided us Elwyn Davies provided a detailed review. Robert also provided us
with good feedback earlier in 2005. Jerry Ash provided us review with good feedback earlier in 2005. Jerry Ash provided us review
comments late 2005/early 2006. Rajith R provided some inputs to the comments late 2005/early 2006. Rajith R provided some inputs to the
document early 2007 document early 2007
13. Contributors 13. Contributors
The authors would like to thank Tseno Tsenov (tseno.tsenov@gmail.com) The authors would like to thank Tseno Tsenov and Frank Alfano for
and Frank Alfano (falfano@lucent.com) for starting the Diameter starting the Diameter Quality of Service work within the IETF, for
Quality of Service work within the IETF, for your significant draft your significant draft contributions and for being the driving force
contributions and for being the driving force for the first few draft for the first few draft versions.
versions.
[Editor's Note: A bit of history needs to be included here.]
14. References 14. References
14.1. Normative References 14.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes] [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes]
Korhonen, J., Tschofenig, H., Arumaithurai, M., and M. Korhonen, J., Tschofenig, H., Arumaithurai, M., and M.
Jones, "Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter", Jones, "Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter",
draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-04 (work in progress), draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-04 (work in progress),
January 2008. January 2008.
[I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters] [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters]
Korhonen, J. and H. Tschofenig, "Quality of Service Korhonen, J. and H. Tschofenig, "Quality of Service
Parameters for Usage with the AAA Framework", Parameters for Usage with the AAA Framework",
draft-ietf-dime-qos-parameters-01 (work in progress), draft-ietf-dime-qos-parameters-01 (work in progress),
September 2007. September 2007.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.
[RFC3588] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J. [RFC3588] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003. Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.
[RFC4005] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton, [RFC4005] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton,
"Diameter Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005, "Diameter Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005,
August 2005. August 2005.
[RFC4006] Hakala, H., Mattila, L., Koskinen, J-P., Stura, M., and J. [RFC4234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Loughney, "Diameter Credit-Control Application", RFC 4006, Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.
August 2005.
14.2. Informative References 14.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp] [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]
Schulzrinne, H. and R. Hancock, "GIST: General Internet Schulzrinne, H. and R. Hancock, "GIST: General Internet
Signalling Transport", draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-14 (work in Signalling Transport", draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-15 (work in
progress), July 2007. progress), February 2008.
[I-D.ietf-nsis-qos-nslp] [I-D.ietf-nsis-qos-nslp]
Manner, J., "NSLP for Quality-of-Service Signaling", Manner, J., Karagiannis, G., and A. McDonald, "NSLP for
draft-ietf-nsis-qos-nslp-15 (work in progress), July 2007. Quality-of-Service Signaling", draft-ietf-nsis-qos-nslp-16
(work in progress), February 2008.
[RFC2210] Wroclawski, J., "The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated [RFC2205] Braden, B., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
Services", RFC 2210, September 1997. Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1
Functional Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997.
[RFC2486] Aboba, B. and M. Beadles, "The Network Access Identifier", [RFC2211] Wroclawski, J., "Specification of the Controlled-Load
RFC 2486, January 1999. Network Element Service", RFC 2211, September 1997.
[RFC2749] Herzog, S., Boyle, J., Cohen, R., Durham, D., Rajan, R., [RFC2212] Shenker, S., Partridge, C., and R. Guerin, "Specification
and A. Sastry, "COPS usage for RSVP", RFC 2749, of Guaranteed Quality of Service", RFC 2212,
January 2000. September 1997.
[RFC2474] Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
"Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
December 1998.
[RFC2753] Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D., and R. Guerin, "A Framework [RFC2753] Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D., and R. Guerin, "A Framework
for Policy-based Admission Control", RFC 2753, for Policy-based Admission Control", RFC 2753,
January 2000. January 2000.
[RFC2865] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson, [RFC2865] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
"Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
RFC 2865, June 2000. RFC 2865, June 2000.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
June 2002.
[RFC3313] Marshall, W., "Private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3313] Marshall, W., "Private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
Extensions for Media Authorization", RFC 3313, Extensions for Media Authorization", RFC 3313,
January 2003. January 2003.
[RFC3520] Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., Kosinski, B., and H. Shieh, [RFC3520] Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., Kosinski, B., and H. Shieh,
"Session Authorization Policy Element", RFC 3520, "Session Authorization Policy Element", RFC 3520,
April 2003. April 2003.
[RFC3521] Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., and H. Shieh, "Framework for [RFC3521] Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., and H. Shieh, "Framework for
Session Set-up with Media Authorization", RFC 3521, Session Set-up with Media Authorization", RFC 3521,
April 2003. April 2003.
[RFC4027] Josefsson, S., "Domain Name System Media Types", RFC 4027, [RFC4282] Aboba, B., Beadles, M., Arkko, J., and P. Eronen, "The
April 2005. Network Access Identifier", RFC 4282, December 2005.
[RFC4346] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.1", RFC 4346, April 2006.
[RFC4566] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session [RFC4566] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006. Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Dong Sun (editor) Dong Sun (editor)
Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent
600-700 Mountain Ave 600 Mountain Ave
Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Murray Hill, NJ 07974
USA USA
Phone: +1 908 582 2617 Phone: +1 908 582 2617
Email: dongsun@alcatel-lucent.com Email: dongsun@alcatel-lucent.com
Peter J. McCann Peter J. McCann
Motorola Labs Motorola Labs
1301 E. Algonquin Rd 1301 E. Algonquin Rd
Schaumburg, IL 60196 Schaumburg, IL 60196
skipping to change at page 57, line 12 skipping to change at page 55, line 12
Email: tena@huawei.com Email: tena@huawei.com
Avri Doria Avri Doria
Lulea University of Technology Lulea University of Technology
Arbetsvetenskap Arbetsvetenskap
Lulea, SE-97187 Lulea, SE-97187
Sweden Sweden
Email: avri@ltu.se Email: avri@ltu.se
Glen Zorn Glen Zorn (editor)
Aruba Networks Aruba Networks
1322 Crossman Avenue 1322 Crossman Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1113 Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1113
USA USA
Email: gwz@arubanetworks.com Email: gwz@arubanetworks.com
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
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